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Module 7 assignment Maryam Mehmood Roll no Dk1591

Q: 1 Explain different groups of Montessori math exercises and how the directress should efficiently present exercises through sequential and parallel work in various groups.

SENSORIAL MATERIAL IS MATHMATICAL MATERIAL

The Sensorial Material is mathematical material. It is exact. It is presented with exactness and will be used by the child with exactness. The activities call for precision so that the child can come into contact with the isolated concepts and through repetition, draw from the essence of each and have a clear abstraction. These concepts help the child to order his mind. He is able to classify experience. Clear perception and the ability to classify leads to precise conclusions. The Sensorial work is a preparation for the study of sequence and progression. It helps the child build up spatial representations of quantities and to form images of their magnitudes such as the Pink Tower.

The Exercises in arithmetic are grouped. There is some sequential work and some parallel work.

GROUP 1 (NUMBERS THROUGH TEN)

The experiences in this group are sequential. When the child has a full understanding of numbers through ten (numbers rods/sand paper numbers/spindle box/cards and counter/golden and colored beds bar). In this group, the child builds the basic concept of numbers, but also recognizes the relationships between quantity and numerals.

GROUP 2(DECIMAL SYSTEM)

The decimal system can be introduced when the child has a full understanding of numbers through 10. The focus here is on the hierarchy of the decimal system and how the system functions. It also starts the child on the exercises of simple computations, which are the operations of arithmetic. It has four operations of arithmetic .i.e. Addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. They are introduced at this level.

GROUP 3(COUNTING BEYOND TEN)

The third group will be started when the decimal system is well underway. From then on, these exercises will be given parallel to the continuing of the Decimal system. This third group, Counting beyond Ten, includes the teens, the tens, and linear and skip counting.

GROUP 4(MEMORIZATION OF ARITHMETIC TABLES)

The fourth group is the memorization of the arithmetic tables. This work can begin while the later work of the decimal system and the counting beyond ten exercises are continued.

GROUP 5(PASSAGE TO ABSTRACTION)

The fifth group is the passage to abstraction. The Exercises in this group require the child to understand the process of each form of arithmetic and to know the tables of each operation. There is again an overlap. The child who knows the process and tables for addition can begin to do the addition for this group. He may still be working on learning the tables for the other operations and these will not be taken up until he has the readiness. The exercises in the group for passing to abstraction, allows the child to drop the use of the material as he is ready. He can then begin to work more and more with the symbols on paper, without using the material to find the answers.

GROUP 6(FRACTIONS) The sixth group of materials, fractions, can work parallel to the group of making abstractions and the early work with the fractions can begin with sensorial work.

Q: 2 explain the exercises which enable the child to count till 1000?

Liner exercises helps the child learn to count till 1000 ,along with getting familiar with the decimal system relationships, including the concepts of squares and cubes of numbers. Linear counting is presented in two stages. In the first stage, the child learns to count till 100, and in the second stage he masters counting till 1000.

Purpose to consolidate the child’s knowledge of counting. Up until now, he worked with tens and hundreds in the decimal system. With these exercises, he becomes familiar with the sequence of numbers from 1 through 1,000. Counting is a restful activity and tends to become mechanical. Through repetition, the child establishes the mechanism

of counting.

striking and sensorial way the difference between the square and the cube of ten. In

this way, the decimal system relationships are further established by the child.

Presentation 1:

The hundred chain consisting of 10 bars of 10. The hundred square Containers having arrow labels: - Green labels marked 1 9 - Blue labels marked 10 90 - A red label marked 100 - A large sized mat or runner. The 100 Chain Bring the child to the chain cabinet. Show the child the bars on the shelves and discuss with the child if he has seen bars like these before. Begin counting with the child starting from the unit to the 10 bar. Have the child unroll the runner just a little ways. Show the child how to hold the 100 chain by both ends and have him lay it vertically at the bottom of the mat. Have him place the tray below the 100 chain. Slowly fold the chain together to create the hundred square. Notice that it looks like the hundreds square. Place the hundreds square on top of the folded ten chain to show that they are the same. Remove the hundred square and have the child gently re-straighten the ten chain. Take out the unit tickets (green) and tell the child what they are called. Line them in a vertical line to the left of the ten chain. Show the child the ten tickets (blue) and place in a vertical line above the unit tickets. Label the first ten by using the unit tickets and placing them on the left of the chain. Count with the child 11-20. At the 20 mark, place the ticket that has 20 on it to the right, counting by units; continue placing the ten tickets until you reach 100. Have the child place the red 100 ticket next to the 100. Tell the child: “You have just counted to 100.” Ask, “How many beads are in this chain?” (100) Point to the hundred square, “And how many are in this?” (100) Count with the child all of the tickets: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100. Then count backwards: 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Have the child replace the tickets into their correct envelop and then replace the rest of the material of the 20 bead.

When the two chains are placed parallel to each other, they show in a

Presentation 2:

Material

A thousand chain consisting of 100 bars of 10 ten squares of hundred the thousand cube containers having arrow labels: Green labels marked 1 9

Blue labels arrowed 10 990 Red labels from 100 900 A large green label marked 1,000 A large sized mat or runner

Method

Tell the child that today we are going to look at an even longer chain than the

100 chain.

Have the child unroll the runner all the way.

Show the child how to hold the 1000 chain.

The directress carries the chain to the runner, with all of the strands laid out straight.

Have the child bring over the cube and the large box on a tray over to the runner. Also bring over the hundred squares.

Tell the child that you are going to try to fold the chain just like you did with the

100 chain.

Make a hundreds and ask the child what you made.

Place a hundred square next to the one you just made.

Repeat until the whole chain has been folded in hundred squares. (The child can begin to make them after a while) Place each of the hundred squares next to the hundred square you have made with the child.

Then place the hundred squares on top of the hundred squares you and the child have made.

Count with the child to see how many hundred squares there are.

Have the child place each hundred square on top of each other.

Notice that it looks just like the cube.

When we have 10 hundred squares, we know that we have 1000 beads.

Place the cube next to the ten hundred squares (placed on top of one another) to show this to the child.

Have the child gently pull the 1,000 chain straight. (Have him keep the chain near the left side of the runner).

Have the child lay out all of the tickets.

Count each bead and place the correct ticket when needed as in Presentation 1.

When you get to 100, place the ticket as well as a hundred square next to the 100th bead.

Repeat this for every hundred. (Even at the 1,000th bead) At the 1,000th bead, also place the cube.

Stand at the beginning of the runner and walk all the way to the end.

Stand at the end and look at the work of the child.

Go back to the beginning and count: 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and

900.

Ask the child how many he had at the end: 1000.

Go back to the beginning and count the tens. 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 … 100, 110, 120 … 400, 410, 420 … 980, 990, 1000.

Then have the child count by tens backwards.

As the labels have to be placed at the end of each bar, the child easily perceives he has made a mistake in counting.

Then child can then put the material away.

Q: 3 Print *Dot Game paper (from the link given below) and send three solved problems, each carrying four addends.

Q: 4 explain the presentations of Multiplication board and Division board in your own words. Also make illustrations.

The multiplication bead board is used for practice with the multiplication tables 1x1 though 10x10. The box consists of a perforated multiplication working with 100 holes in rows of ten arranged in a square, a box with small plastic cards numbering 1-10 which represent the multiplicand, a red disc which marks the multiplier and a box of 100 red beads. At the left side of the board is a window with a slot for the insertion of the cards.

Purpose

To give practice in multiplication leading to the memorization of the essential multiplication tables. Age 5 1/2 - 6 years

Materials

Multiplication board.

A red disc.

A set of cards from 1 to 10 to insert in the board

Printed multiplication table sheets.

Multiplication chart 1 (summary of multiplication tables) for control of error.

Purpose:

To provide concrete practice in multiplication.

Memorization of multiplication tables.

Control of Error:

The numbers on top of the board and the card placed on the side control the table being worked out.

The summary of multiplication table act as a control for the child to check his multiplication sum cards.

Age:

5-6 years.

Presentation:

Show the child the material and have him bring it to the table.

Show the child the numbers along the top of the board. Tell the child, “These numbers tell us how many times to take a number.”

Show the child how to slide the card (4) into the slot on the side of the board.

Tell the child, “This tells us we will be doing the table of 4.”

Place the little red disc above the 1 at the top of the board.

Say, “This tells us we need to take 4 one times.

Using the red beads, place 4 one times in a vertical line.

Have the child count how many beads there are on the board.

Tell the child, “4 x 1 is 4” Have the child write the answer on the paper next to the equation.

Move the disc over above the 2.

Tell the child, “We now need 4 two times. But we already have 4 one times.”

Have the child place the red beads in a vertical line next to the first four.

Have the child count the total number of beads on the board.

Say, “4 x 2 is 8”.

Repeat in this manner. When the child reaches 4 x 4, have him say the equation with you.

If the child is making the table with ease, when he reaches 4 x 8 show him that 4 x 7 was 28. Count from 28 up four more. Repeat in this way until he has finished the board.

Have the child read all of the equations and answers written on the piece of paper.

The child can check his work on Multiplication Chart 1.

Unit Division Board:

Purpose:

To have the child experience division using a divisor up to 9.

To help the child internalize division tables.

To further the concept of remainder.

Material:

Division board

Green skittles (9)

Squared paper

Division tables

Summary of division tables up to 81

Printed slips with division problems

A glass bowl.

Presentation:

Show the child the material and have him bring it to the table.

Look at the board with the child. Show him all the places for the beads.

Show him the numbers at the top of the boards and tell him that they are the divisors.

Tell him the numbers on the left side will be the answer (quotient).

Write 27 ¸ 9 = on squared paper.

Begin by telling the child the two rules: the answer cannot be larger than 9 and the remainder cannot be equal to or larger than the divisor.

Select a division table (e.g. table of 27)

Place 27 green beads into the glass bowl.

Ask the child how many times we will give 27 out. (9)

Place 9 green skittles along the top of the board.

Give each skittle a bead until there are no beads left.

Say, “27 ¸ 9 is 3”. Point to the 3 along the vertical side of the board.

Have the child write in the answer to the equation.

Have him replace the beads into the bowl.

Ask the child how many beads we have in the bowl. (27)

Tell him as you write the next part of the equation on the second line of paper, “27 ¸ 8 =”

Have him do this equation as he had just done the last.

Have him write the answer with the remainder.

Read the whole equation with the child.

Tell the child that there is something special about the remainder: “We can have a remainder as long as it is smaller than the dividend.”

Repeat as above for 27 ¸ 6 =

After the child has written the answer and the remainder check to see if the remainder is smaller than the dividend.

Repeat in this way for the entire sheet of paper.

When you reach 27 ¸ 2, your remainder will be bigger than the dividend. Point this out to the child and then cross out the entire equation because: “We can never have a remainder that is the same or bigger than the dividend.”

Age:

5.5 onwards

Q: 5 how is the stamp game introduced to the child? Also explain how subtraction problems can be solved with the stamp game.

Stamp Game

Materials

The stamp game set.

Each stamp of 1 is green marked with ‘1’.

Each stamp of 10 is blue marked with ‘10’.

Each stamp of 100 is red marked with ‘100’.

Each stamp of 1000 is green marked with ‘1000’.

Grid paper.

A pencil and ruler.

A minus sign card.

Introduction

Invite the child to come and work with you.

Show the child the material and have him first bring over the paper needed.

Then show the child the material and have him bring over the box of wooden tiles as well as the tray from Introduction to Quantity.

Show the child the 1 green tile and show the 1 unit to the child.

Tell the child that it is the same as the unit bead.

Show the child the blue tile and have him read the ‘10’ written on it.

Tell the child that this is just like the ten-bar.

Repeat for the tiles of 100 and 1000. Do a Three Period Lesson with the 1, 10, 100, and 1000 tiles.

Show the child that when we take out the 1 tiles, we place them directly in front of the compartment where the other 1’s are.

Tell the child that you are going to take out 5.

Take out 5 of the 1 tiles and place them all in front of the 1 compartment.

Put them back and give the child a few numbers to take out.

Such as make 3 tens, or 5 hundreds, or 2 thousands.

Then give the child a larger number. Say, “Now we are going to make a larger number.

This number will have 3 units, 5 tens, 2 hundreds, 1 thousand.

As you give the child each number, have him take out the appropriate tiles. Count to check the final product and then have the child put the tiles back into their compartments.

STATIC SUBTRACTION

Presentation 1:

Subtraction Invite the child to come and work with you.

Write a first number and a second number on grid paper, saying the number clearly as you write. For instance, if the number is 8654, say the question is 8 thousand, 6 hundred and fifty four”. Then write the second number 4523 saying, We are going to subtract, 4 thousand, 5 hundred and twenty three.

Introduce the new subtraction sign

Have the child construct the first number with tiles starting from thousans.

Tell the child that we are going to take 4units.

Tell the child to count 4 units from the existing tiles on the table.

Point to the 0 tens in the second number in the question and tell him that we don’t need to take away any tens.

Count how many units you have left and write the answer.

Have the child take 2 tens away from the 5 and move them off to the side of the table.

Count and then write how many tens are left.

Repeat for the hundreds and thousands.

Dynamic Subtraction

Write a first large number and a second number under it.

Make sure that this will lead to dynamic subtraction

Have the child create the first number.

Ask the child how many units we are going to take away: 3 units.

But as the child becomes stuck, say that we are going to have to change one of the tens for units.

Take out ten units and replace it with one of the ten tiles.

Then have the child take 3 units away from the now 12 units.

Place the unneeded tiles off to the side of the table.

Have the child write how many units he has left.

Repeat for the tens, hundreds, and thousands.

Change when needed.

Read the final problem with the answer with the child

Repeat until the child feels comfortable to work alone.

Exercise

The child works alone, creating his own problems.