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APL 102

Plastic Deformation & Creep in Materials

Concepts: Frank-Read source, high temperature deformation, dislocation relaxation

Lecture 30
IIT Delhi Dislocation motion Effect of temperature on
Wide (Metals) dislocation movement

Narrow (Ceramics,
Covalent Materials)

Lattice resistance: Peierls stress

Minimum shear stress required to move the dislocation is
Peierls-Nabarro stress (P-N stress)

 2w  Larger a, lower p

  Higher temperature makes the
 PN  G e  b 
Smaller b, lower p dislocation motion easier
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Stress-Strain Behaviour vs. Temperature
• Results for polycrystalline iron: -200°C

Stress (MPa)
400 -100°C
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
• YS and TS decrease with increasing test temperature Strain
• %EL increases with increasing test temperature
• Why? 3. disl. glides past obstacle
• Vacancies help dislocations past 2. vacancies
obstacles atoms on the
• Cross Slip disl. half
1. disl. trapped
• Dislocation density goes down by obstacle
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Given that the dislocation has a tendency to leave the crystal:

During plastic deformation dislocation density of a crystal should go down

Experimental Result
Dislocation Density of a crystal actually goes up
Dislocations in deformed crystals
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The dislocation density – expressed as total

dislocation length per unit volume – cm/cm3

Dislocation density (d):

- Annealed crystal: d ~ 106 /cm2
- Lightly deformed crystal: d ~ 108 /cm2
- Heavily deformed crystal: d ~ 1012 /cm2

Why or How?
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Dislocation Sources

F.C. Frank and W.T. Read

Symposium on
Plastic Deformation of Crystalline Solids
Pittsburgh, 1950
IIT Delhi Frank Read source

We know that real dislocations inside

the crystals are mixed in nature, they P
are curvilinear lines not a straight line


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(a) A dislocation is pinned at two

ends by lattice defects

(b) As the dislocation continues to

move, it bends
(c) Dislocation loops back on itself

(d) A new dislocation is created

Stress required to operate a Frank-Read source

  b / L
Where L is the length of Frank-Read source (here segment AB)
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IIT Delhi Animation: F-R Source

Dislocation multiplication
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A Frank-Read source can generate dislocations

Si Single Crystal

Deformation d
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Recipe for strength

Remove the dislocation:

Possible but Impractical

Make the dislocation motion DIFFICULT
Key ways of improving the strength of material
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Strengthening Mechanisms
 Work hardening or strain hardening or dislocation hardening

 Grain size strengthening or grain refinement

 Alloying or solid solution hardening

 Precipitation hardening or age hardening

We will look in detail soon….

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Question for thought

Effect of temperature on dislocation motion during

deformation has been identified, but what material property get
Q1: How do glaciers move?
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Q2: Why do bulbs fuse?
Q3: What level of temperatures (or loading) the
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blades are subjected to?

Life of Jet engine depends on turbine blade

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What is common to all the three images?


1. Glaciers move due to creep of snow.

2. Bulb fuse due to creep of W filament.
3. Life of jet engine depends on creep of the turbine blades.
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Creep is a time dependent plastic deformation at
constant load or stress

Difference between normal plastic deformation and creep ?

It is a “high temperature” deformation

T  0.4 Tm Tm is the melting point in K.

Homologous temperature:
 Th = (Toperation+ 273)/(Tm + 273)
 Th > 0.4  Creep is a concern
Creep testing and Creep Curve
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Damage nucleation

Example: Pb creeps at room temperature under its own weight

(Next Week’s Lab)

Creep Curve
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 Region I: More work hardening than recovery
 Region II: Rate of work hardening and softening are equal
 Region III: Non-uniform deformation, necking and failure

of dislocation
Relaxation of
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We know that plastic deformation takes place by dislocation motion, there are
dislocation sources in materials, interaction of dislocations give rise to work hardening

Now creep is thermally activated process, What will be its role??

It will encourage relaxation inside the crystal

Once the hardening is overcome by relaxation process then deformation will continue
with the motion of dislocation

Strain hardening and relaxation working against each other

Relaxation mechanisms
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Question for thought

What are the two factors or variables that can affect the creep
rate of a material?

Temperature & stress (or load)

Effect of stress and temperature on Creep Strain
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Combining stress and temperature dependence

Where n is creep exponent

Creep rate vs. stress
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Where n is creep exponent

Power law creep

Variation of creep rate with stress

Creep rate vs. temperature
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R gas constant
Q activation energy for creep

Variation of creep rate with temperature

Creep Mechanisms of crystalline materials
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Dislocation climb

Diffusional creep
 Nabarro-Herring Creep
 Coble creep
Grain boundary sliding
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 Quiz and Rechecked Minor 1 copies are placed in UG Materials lab.

Please collect them.

 Quiz 2: Tentative dates: Nov. 1, 2 or 3 ?

 Two Classes reschedule: evening timings 5:30 to 6:20 pm??

 Attendance uploaded: Check it and contact for any discrepancies,

medical reason leave will be considered when need arises