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C o n v e n tio n a l& O b je c tiv e T yp e

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IM P O R T A N T IN F O R M A T IO N
U PSC and
o t h e r o r g a n is a tio n s h
a v e n o w s t a r te d c o n d u c tin g o b je c tiv e ty p e p a p e rs In o b je c tiv e ty p e o f q u e s tio n s ,
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q o w r it e d e ta iı e d a n s w e r s T h e q u e s tio n s a r e d e s ig n e d to m e a s u re n o t o n ı y k n o w le d g e
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c a p a c it y to m a ke ju d g e m e n t s F
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p e a n s w e r s a re g iv e n a n d c a n d id a te h a s to c h o o s e o n e
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b o o k le t c o n ta in s s e v e ra l q u e s tio n s a b t
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she e t o n ly a n d n o w he re e ls e n th e
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S y lla b u s fo r G A T E Ex am s

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iq t

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o f flu id h a s s a m e a n g u la r v e lo c it y In lr e e u o r te x m o t io n , e a c h T h e flo w w ho s e s tr e a m lin es m a y be re p r e s e n te d b y


i a c ir c u la r p a t h it h d y in g lle d d im s io l /to
p a r tic le m o v e s n is ut
w a s p e e v a r s tr a ig h t lin es ,
ca o n e en n a

in v e r s e ly a s th e d is t a n c e fr o m th e cen tr e F or fr e e v or te x
T h e f lo w o f liq u id w h o se s tr e a m lin e s m a y be
r co n s ta n t is lle d t ıu o d im e n s io n a lPo u)
u x te d b y
-
se n a cu rv e ca
re pre ,

In fo r c e d v o r t e x m o t io n t h e v e r tic a l d e p th v a r ie s a s f liq u id w h o s e s t r e a m lin e s m a y b e


Th e n o w o ,

th e s q u a r e o f t h e r a d iu s fr o m c e n t r e a n d a c c o r d in g ly th e l t h r e e m u t u a lly p e r p e n d ic u la r
r e p r e s e n t e d in s p a c e a o n g
s u r fa c e s o f e q u a l p r e s s u r e a r e p a r a b o lo id s o f r e v o lu tio n
The
a x e s is c a lle d th r e e d im e n s o n a P
i l o u)
s h a p e o f p a r a b o lo id d e p e n d s o n ly u p o n t h e a n g u la r v e lo c it y
,

l n in a r t o
A c c o r d in g to R e y n o ld t h e t r a n s itio n f o m a ı
2 2
ü) R l
tu r b u le n t flo w in a p ip e d e p e n d s o n v e o c y
it (V ) p p e d ia m e t e r
i ,
D e p r e s s io n (o r r is e ) o f liq u id in fo r c e d v o r te x -
fl i d
2g
(D ) a n d k in e m a tic v is c o s it y (7 ) o f th e u
Th e v o lu m e o fw a te r w h ic h flo w s th ro u gh a se c t io n o f D V
a ch a n n e l o r p ip e p e r se co n d is k n ow n a s d is c h a r ge R eyn o ld s n u m ber -

liq u id fl
A

ow s con
cco r

t in u o u
ww
d in g t o ħın d a ıııe n t a l e q u a t io n o f liq u id flo w ,
o r e q u a t o n o f c o n t in u ity o f liq u id n o w
i
s l y t h r o u g h a
if a n in e o m p r e s s ib le
p ip e o r c h a n n e l th e
ch a n
A t
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cr it ic a l R
la m in
e

a r
yn o

to
ld s
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n u m ber o f 2 0 0 0 flo w

fu
,
s

t io
ta r ts

w
,
v a r ie s a s a
R a t e o f e n e r g y lo s s in p ip e /lo w
n c n o
h
d is c a r g e r e m a in s t h e s a m e i r r e s p e c t iv e o f th e a r e a s o f c r o s s
hn f th e p ip e
n o ld s n u m b e r a n d th e r o u g
e ss o
Th R

.Ea
s e c t io n e e y
lle d A d in g t o t in it y e q u a t io n
T h e p a t h fo llo w e d by a flu id p a r tic le in m o tio n ,
is ca cco r c o n u

F lo w Q A V A V A V
p a til liııe
= = -
1 1 2 z

syE A cco r d in g t o B e m o u Jıi' s e q u a t io n

ngi 2g pg 2g pg
A cco r d in g t o D a r c y W - e is b a c h fo m ıu la

1 n t
w
nee h e r e }i en er g y lo s s th r o u g h fr ic tio n in p ip e lin e

rin
,
ï
f = fr ic t io n fa c t o r
F ig 1 2 V e lo c ity p ro file
L d D le n g th a n d d ia m e te r

g.n
a n =

Th im a g in a r y lin e ta n g e n t to w h ic h a t a n y p o in t lo c it y
e ,
,
a n d V = v e

in d ic a te s t h e d ir e c t io n o fm o tio n a t th a t p o in t , is ca lle d s tr e a m
T h e su m o f th e p o t e n t ia l h e a d , k in e tic h e a d a n d
litl e
T h e in s t a

Th e lin e
n ta

jo in
n e ou s p o s it io n s o

in g t h e p o in t s o f e q u
f a ll flu id p a r tic le s

a l p o t e n t ia l
w h ic h

o n
pre ssu re hea d

H
o

-
f a liq u

Z +
e
id p a r tic le , is

+

m e tr e s o
ca lle d it s

f h q u id
to t a l h

t
e a d ie

te n tia l A d in g t o B e r n o u lli s t h e o r e fo p e r fe c t
'
1e d p o te n tia l lin e
is c a ı or e q u ip o c co r m r a
a d ja ce n t flo w lin e s ,
,

in co m pre ss ib le liq u id û o w in g in a c o n tin u ou s flo w th e to t a l


lin e
,

in t e r s e c t io n f tr e en er gy of a p a r tic le r e m a in s th e sa m e ; w h ile t h e p a r t ic le
T h e p a tt e r n o b t a in e d b y th e o s a m

M ov e s fr o m o n e p o in t t o th M th e m a tic a lly ,
lin es a n d p o t e n t ia l lin e s , is ca lle d Po u) n e t a n o e r a

T h e flo w in w h ic h t h e v e lo c it ie s o f liq u id p a r t ic le s a t
l, is c a lle d ıniforııı Z + + . con s ta n t
a ll s e c t io n f th e p ip e o r c h a n n
s o ela r e e q u a 2g zu

flo T h is g e n e r a lly r e fe r s to flo w s in ch a n n e ls


w D is c h a r g e in p ip e s m a y b e d e t e r m in e d e it h e r b y
h ic h v e lo c itie s o f liq u id p a r tic le s a t a ll
T h e flo w in w in s e r tin g a v en t u r im e te r o r a n o r iĥ c e m e te r

or c ha n n e la re n o t e q u a l is c a lle d a n o n
,
D is c h a r g e th r o u g h v en tu r im e te r
u n ifo n ıı flo w

T h e flo w in wh ic h th e q u a n t ity o f liq u id flo w in g p e r Q = C a U - C


d 2 2 d
se co n d is co n s ta n t is c a lle d s t e a d y flo w

T h e flo w in h ic h th e q u a n tity o f liq u id flo w in g p e r


w a
l
a n d a
2
are a re a s b e fo r e a n d a t th r o a t
se co n d is n o t con s t a n t is c a lle d u n s t e a d y flo w C is th e ffic ie n t o f d is c h a r g e o f th e v e n tu r im e te r
co e
d
T h e flo w in h ic h p a th s o f in d iv id u a l p a r tic le s o f liq u id
w p ito t tu b e is u s e d to m e a s u r e v e lo c ity o f flu id in a p ip e
do n o t c r o s s e a c h o th e r is c a lle d s tr e a m lin e flo u ) o r la m in a r
o r ch a n n e l V - C
flo w P o r la m in a r flo w R e y n o lď s n u m b e r is le s s th a n 2 o o o
,
,
.

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ww
w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
e t

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D M ECH AN ı

C S
FL U ı

F ig 1 6
(a )
F or p ip e s in s e r ie s ,
th e p re ssu re lo s e i8 t h e su m o f th e
in d iv id u a l lo s s e s
P re ssu re lo s s p f -
p 11 + p p +

ww 2


w L1

F lg 1 7 .Ea L2 一 i
(b )

The m a ss flo w
ń ı ・ ń ı,
ra te is t h

・ 6 ı2
e

°
sa m

e tc syE e in a ll p ip e s , i e

w h e r e , 6 ı1
F o r
-

p ip
pA
es
1
o

in p
1,
e tc

a ra
Kgs
lle l, th
1

e p re ssu re lo s s is th e sa m e in
ngi
nee
a ll p ip e s

P re ssu r e lo ss pt -
p f1 -
p /2 - e tc

T h e to t a l flo w is th e su m o f th e fı
o w in e a ch p ip e

T o ta l n o w ń ı= 6 z 1 + 2 +
rin (c )
w here P
n ,
- 4f
, ' ţ , P /2 - 4 f, , ğ ,
e tc

g.n
"
. 国
e (d )
t
H d lo d t o p ip la t F ig 1 8
e a s s u e e e n r g e m e n

Z
V ř Vz m ・ h y dr a u lic m ea n r a d iu s = A /P
- K
. 2g i s lo pe o f ch a n n e l
w here v a lu e o fK 0 3 9 fo r ce - 1 0 °,
(m n
=
,
, C - c o n s ta n t - 8 7 1t1 +
1 0 6 , fo r a = 40° a n d 1 0 fo r 3 0 (F ig
°
1 3)
V a lu e o f K is 0 1 6 t o 0 2 8 fo b r ic k d to n e su r fa ce
In h l f lo w hyd r a u lic r a d iu s
r a n s
o p e n c a n n e ,
a n d 1 3 D fo r n a tu ra le a r th
W a te r cro ss sec tio n a la re a
A Ĥ ow a re a
W e 忱 e đ p e r im e te r
P - w e tt e d p e r im te
W e ir e , V e e n o t c h a n d c h a n n e ls Rr o r u n s u p p r e s s e d e r

w e ir [F ig 1 8 (a )], F lo w Q = 2 9 5 C (b 0 2 H )H ı6 B e s t hy dra u lic se c tio n is on e w ith tb e le a s t w e tt e d


, d
3 3 3 bH 1 6 e r im te
For su ppre ese d w e ir ,
[F ig 1 8 (b )] F lo w Q ,
= p e r

@ t h e best hy dr a u lic t r a p e z o id a l s e c t io n is a h a lf

4
o r V n o t c h ĮF ı
g 1 ď \c )1 , ıLO W Ų - Z d o L ta n ıı
d
2 he x a go n

w here C d is c h a r g e ffic ie n t [y d lic ch a n n e l is bru pt


,
d
- co e r a u ju ın p in a n o pe n a n a

F h ls , [F ig 1 8 (d )], M lo c ity du tio in fı by of d d e n in f


o r o p e n c a n n e e a n v e re c rn ow v e lo c ity m e a n s a su cr e a s e o

V C m w a te r d E !p th in t h e do w n s tr e a m d ir e c tio n
.
a n d flo w ra te Q = VA

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M EC H A N ı
C A L E N G IN E » A

E ıb

r a p id ly n o w in g (iii) F ra u de /ıu ııln e r


H y d r a u lic ju m p o c c u r s w h e n a
ch a n n e l s u dde n y c a
l h n g e s Ĺo n 2
D yn a m ic fo r c e
o f liq u id in a n o p e n
u
s tr e a m
w it h I s s s e c t io n a l a r e a ı\ n d
s lo w ly n o w in B s tr e a m
a n g
r e r c r o
H/ tpA w e ig h t
l v a tio n o f li id s u r f a c e o c c u r s T h is is
a s u d d e n r is e in e e q u

I i v e r y c fte c tiv e
F lu ud e /ıtłııt b e ı d u c id o s w h u t h u r th e fr e e liq u id B u r fa
if n L a
th e e x a m p le o f s t e tıd y n o n u n
o ľ ın o w s

l i i d i o n ly u s e d n l
nu w is rn p il] o r L r ın q u il d o p e n d in g o n w h e th e r p r o u d
d e v ic e fo r Heating ir r e v e r s i b i t c s a n s c u m m e

ca lc u la t io n s 【ır h y d r a u lic ju m p in d e s ig n n f h y d r a u li
in n
,
f k in e tic e n e r gy ow c
o
s tr u c tu re s a n d in s h ip d e s ig n
f s tr e a m now h ic h w a te r ,
A n y o b s tr u c tio n o a ov er w

ir (iu ) W e be r /ıu m ber


flo w s ca n b e c a lle d a w e

If th e d o w n s t r e a m w a te r le v e l r is e s ov e r th e w e ir c r e s t In e r tia ıfo r c e
th e w e ir is s a id t o b e s u b m er ge d S u r fa c t e n s i o n fo rc e

A s p illw a y is a n essen t ia l p a r t o f la r g e d a n i a n d
a
It is im p ĺ ) r lu n l n l g n s ı
iq u id u r liq u id liq u id in te rfa c e s
p r o v id e s a n e ffic ie n t , s a fe m ea n s o f r e le a s in g n o w w a te r th a t
a n d a ls o w h c r c L h c s c in t e r fa c e s a re in c o n t a c t w ith a
e x ce e d s th e d e s ig n ca p a c ity o f th e rese rv o ir

ww
bo u n d a ry
C u lv e r ts a re b u ilt a t t h e p o in t o f lo w e s t v a lle y to p ır s s
w a te r a cro ss th e em b a 】k m e n ts o f h ig h w a y s o r m ilr o n d s (u ) M a c /t n ti n z b Ľ r - u /

w
S ta n d p ip
u s e d p r in c ip a lly fu r £
e is ılle v in Ĺin g L h u l l i m n c a s u r c n r th c ra t in n f in u r t ia ] fo r c e e to e la s tic
tr a n s ie n in In r g c p ip e lin e s y s lĽ m s IL a l ls a s a
t p re s s u re fb ľ c e s a n d iH v u ry im lx ) r L n n l w h u n v u lo c itic s a re n e a r or a bo v e
p r e s s u r e r e lie f v a lv e fo r th e u p s tr e a m p ip e d u r in g t h e t u r b in e
s h u t o ff W a t e r h a m m e r e ffe c t s a r e iıls o d im in is h e d

n o tic e a b ly .Ea lo c a l s o
M
n ic
o d
v c

e l
lu c

R
il ic s (K - b u lı
t u d ic s
ç m

e r T hese
a rc b ip a
o d u lu
id Lo 山 u d e s ig n
s o f e la s tic ity )

syE pc rm il v iH u n l u bs c k e p o 8 e ib le th e
rv n l io n o r n o w u n d ı
n a
D im e n sio n a l a n a ı y s is T h e a n a ly s is o f Lh c b a s ic o b ta in in g n f c e r t a in n u m e r ic a l d a t a a n d p ic t u r e o f b e h a v io u r
r e la t io n sh ip of th e v a r io u s p h y s ic a l q u a n t it ie s in v o lv e d in n f a c t u a l b iK s il s m o d e ls b y c o n d u c t in g te H し o n m o d e ls in
,

th e s ta tic a d d y n a m ic b e h a v io u r s o f w a te r flo w in hyd ra lic

ngi
n a u In b u r a L u r iu H ı ] :\ n n H i\ c c u r l lu q u ll n l iliıt iv e J u la fr o m
/o r o l l i i

s tr u c tu re is k n ow n a s d itn e t ıs io n a ta N a ly s is l
m u t u l s l u t ly L h u r c ın u s l b u d y n a m ic s im ilit u tlc b u lw e e n
S im ila r ity b e tw e e n h y d r a u ı ic m o d e ls a n d p r o to ty p e ın o d e l n n [ l p r o to ty p e V u r t h is p u r p o s e t h e r e m u N t b u u x o c t
m a ) be a c h ie v e d in th r e e b a s ic fĺ J r m s :

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nee (i) g c
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o m c

n fd y
l r iĽ
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d in g p o in ŁĦ m
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ro u

Ln lw
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p e r im e n t a l r e s u lts c a r r ie d in la b o r a to r ie s Lo b o n p p liĽ d Lu
p a ıa m e te ıs e r m it lim it o d
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p r o p e r Łic s T h c

t
f iv e m o s L im p o r t n n L p a r a m e l u r s u s e d in c o r n n n u li
r e la t in g
e x p e r im e n t a l d a ta a r e 128 p L q

he ffic ie n t Q now r a te ,

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罡竺 兰 T in t e lu r rł ic/ı arAĽ fr o m ific e o f a r e a a in a


' '

a n o r

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c y lin d r ic n ıv e s s e l o f c r o s s s e c t io n a l a r e a A to fa ll fr o m h e ig h t
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, ,

w p ıp e L , d ia ¢=a
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d i.. .E n e A n ıe e. Fr ic t io n fu c lo r f
m o tu r D tr n d v c ]o c ily u by u

s im ila r tim e in c a se o f tw o v e s s e la o fa rc a A a n dA ,
,

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N o tc h i8 ll tlu v ic u u « c d lb r m e a s u r in g th c r iıte o f flo
w


l V is c o u s fo rcu u f n liq u id t h r o u g h u s m a ll c h a n n e l A w e ir iß a c o n c r e te o f
A c r itic a l R o y n o ld a n u m b e r i8 t h h ic b
u de m a rca t io m a eo n u n c e d in t h u o p e n c h a n n e l o v e r w
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. ' " ECHMIICS

Ħo w g u ta / tu e ir f le n g th L a i ıd "

Ĺ)
o v e r r e c ta n r o r n o tc h o

d e p tlı H is , -

Q =
: C
. l2 g L H a /2
w h e re D ,
- D ia m e te r o fm a in p ip e ,

Ħow L le n g th o f th e p ip e a n d
ov er tr ia w la e ir o r n o
r u ı tc ı
ıo f s e n ıi a n g le e a i ıd
-
,

w a t e r d e p tlı H is f = D a rc y s co e ffic ie n t o f fiction


A g a in fo r m a Jcim iım pow er tr a n sm is s io n b y a n o z z le ,
,

Q = C . l2 g ta n e H w 2

The error in d is c h a rge du e to e rror in m e a su re

Q 2 H
ł -

T h e p ip e s o f d if te re n t d ia m e te r s c o n n e c te d w it h o n e
5 dH d p in
a iıd o th e r t o fo a p ip e lin e is ca lle d a co m p o u n e or
p e c t iv ly
res e a n rm ,

2 H ip e s in s e r ie s
p
F lo w ov er bro a d c r e s te d w e ir o f le n g th L a n d w a te r

]
2

q ĺj>
d e p tlı o v er w

H yd
Q
e ir

ww =
b e fo r e th
1 T C
lic g r a d ie n t
d
L
e w

H
e

a /2
ir H

h ydr a
is

lic s lo
T

ı
o ta l h e a d lo s s

1 A re
=

th e

le n g th s o f in d iv id u
. . ・

a l p o r tio n s

w
ra u or u p e .

a n d d d d cl A re th e d ia m e te r s o f t h e r e s p e c t iv e
l
, 2 ,
a
ı
, ' ,
İ İ e a d lo s t d u t o fn c tio n
.

.Ea
e
p o r tio 5
T o t a l le n g th o f p ip e d ia m e t e r w h ic h m a y r e p ia c i .
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M E C H A N IC A\L
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In s p h e r ic a l c o o r d in a te a,

P L E C H O I : E Q U E S T IO N S
M U LT ı

1 F lu id is a su b s ta n ce th a t (a ) v o lu t r ic t r a in (b ) v o lu
m e e m e t r ic in d e x
(a ) c a n n o t be su b je c t e d t o s hea r fo r ce s (c ) c o m p r e H a ib iï ity {d ) a d h e e io n
(b ) a lw a ys e x p a n ds u n til it fills a n y co n t a in e r (e ) c o h e e ia n
(c ) h a s th e sa m e sh e a r s tr e s s a t a p o in t re g a r d le e e 9 L iq u id e

ww o f its

(d ) c a n
fo r c e
n o
m

t
o tio

re m
n

a in a t re s t u n de r a c tio n o fa n y s he a r
(a ) c a n n o t be co
(b ) o c c u p y d e fin ite v o lu m
(c ) a r e n o t a ffe c te d b y
m p r e e ße d
e

ha

w
c n ge in p reaa u re a n d
(e ) O o w s
te m pe ra tu re

.Ea
2 F lu id is a su b s ta n ce w h ic h o ffe rs n o r e s is ta n ce to
(d ) a re n o t v is c o u s
ch a n ge o f
fe ) n o n e o f th e a bo v e
(a ) p r e s s u re (b ) flo w

syE 10 D en s ity o fw a te r ie m ax im u m a t
(c ) s h a p e (d ) v o lu m e
(a ) 0 °C (b ) 0 ° K
(e ) t e m p e r a t u re

P
(c ) 4 ° C {d ) 1 0 0 ° C
a P r a c t ic a l flu id s
(a ) a r e
(b ) p o s s e s B
v is c o u s

s u r fa c e te n s io n ngi 11
le ) 2 0 C

M a ss
°

d e n e ity o f liq u id (p ) is g iv en by

(c ) a r e
(d ) p o s s e s s
(e ) p o
co m p
a
re ss

ll t h e
ib le
a

f th e
bo v e p r o p e r tie s
a b o v e p r o p e r tie s
nee (a ) P =

V
M
o lu
a ss

2
e
(b ) P -
M e

m
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2

rin
ssess n on e o kg ee c
w ıP \a l a ıl 0 1 ın e a o o v e
4 In a s ta tic H u id m
4

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g.n
ce s s s s sm a o n e o f th e a e

(b ) Ðu id p r e s s u r e is z e r o 12 T he v a ı
u e o fm a sa de n s ity in k g ae d /m 4 fo r w a te r a t
(e ) lin e a r d e fo r m a tio n is sm a ll 0 C is
°

5
(d ) o n ly
(e ) v is c o s ity is
A H u id is
(a ) in com
n o rm

p
sa

re s s
a l s tr e s s e s

id to b e id e
n

ib le
il

a
ca n

l, if it is
(b ) in
e x is

v
t

is c o u s 13 U
(a ) 1
(c ) 1 0 0
(e ) 9 8 1

n it8 o fm a ss
e den s ity is
(b ) 1 0 0 0
(d ) 10 1 9
t
(c ) v is c o u s a n d in co m p re ss ib le (a ) k g /k m (b ) k g /m a

(d ) in v is c o u s a n d com p re ss ib le
(e ) in v is c o u s a n d in co m p re ss ib le
6 A n id e a l n o w o fa ny H u id m u s t fu lfıll th e fo llo w in g
(a ) N ew to n
'
B la w o f m o tio n

(b ) N ew to n
'
s la w o f v is c o s ity
h ic h its m o le c u le s a r e
(c ) P a sca ľ la w 14 P ro p e r ty o f a n u id b y w o w n

(d ) C on tin u ity e q u a tio n a t tr a c t e d i8 c a lle d

(e ) B o u n d a r y la y e r th e o r y (a ) a d h e s io n (b ) c o h e e io n
7 If n o r e s is ta n c e iß e n te d b y d is p la t, s u ch
(e ) v is c o 8 it y (d ) c o m p r e g a ib ility
cou n re ce m e n

a su b ßt a n ce ie k n ow n a s (e ) s u r fa ce te n s io n

(a ) O id M do t t g la T h is ia d u e to p r o p e r ty
u (b ) w a te r 16 e r c u ry es n o w e ae

(c ) g a s (d ) p e r fe c t so lid of liq u id k n o w n a s

(e ) id e a l fı
u id