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Summer Internship Report on

Wireline Logging and Perforation

Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the Summer


Training at
Halliburton Logging Services, Asia
Gandhinagar Base(GNDR)

Supervised by ::
Mr. Vaibhav Kansal
Field Service Quality Coordinator
HLS Asia Ltd.
Gandhinagar

Submitted by::
Mukul Goyal
Enrollment no.: - R870215073
SAP ID: - 500045101
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies
Dehradun

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A Sincere Vote of Thanks to
Mr. Somnath Banerjee
Department of Petroleum & Earth Sciences
University of Petroleum & Energy Studies, Dehradun
For providing us with constant support throughout the training.

I acknowledge with thanks a very encouraging support from our guide Mr.
Vaibhav Kansal, Field Service Quality Coordinator, HLS Asia Ltd. for his
cordial exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement
throughout out the training program. The help and guidance given by him shall
carry us a long way in the journey of life on which we are about to embark.
I wish to express deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Pravesh Gupta, In charge,
Technical and Training and Mr. Vishwanath Nirala, Maintenance Manager
for providing their valuable time and sharing their experience, which proved
to be of immense help to us in the understanding of our project. I would also
like to extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Munish Thakur, Mr. Krishan, Mr.
Deepak Sharma, Mr. Prakash, Mr. Shubham, Mr. Vikas, Mr. Karamchand, Mr.
Ashutosh, Mr. Satyajit and HLS Asia Ltd. Gandhinagar for their kind guidance
and support during the Internship.
I take immense pleasure in thanking all the Engineers, Operators and
Maintenance Team of the HLS crew at Gandhinagar for their constant
guidance and sharing their views on all aspects of the work.
Lastly, I would like to express my gratitude to all those who have
contributed directly or indirectly in completion of this project and thank HLS
Asia Ltd. for providing me the opportunity to complete my summer
Internship.

This has beacon for me to know and update my study about HLS Asia.

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Content PageNo.
I. Acknowledgement………………………………………….... 3

 Introduction to Logging………………………... 5

o Objectives…………………………………….... 5

o Procedure for logging job……………………… 6

o Rig up…………………………………………... 7

o About wireline………………………………….. 10

o Open hole logging……………………………… 13

o Cased hole logging……………………………… 37

o Production logging………………………………. 44

 Plug setting services…………………………….. 50

 Perforation………………………………………. 53

 Logging unit study(KWT001OH)………………. 56

 Base Work………………………………………. 63

 Safety precautions……………………………….. 106

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Introduction to Logging-
In oil and gas exploration sector, a potential reservoir must be discovered first
before it can be evaluated. The initial discovery of reservoir may be done using
seismic records, gravity and magnetics. There are many parameters that re need
to be evaluated to determine the economic and production viability of formation.
These parameters can be obtained from different source like seismic records,
coring, mud logging and wireline logging. Log is defined as measurement versus
depth or time of one or more physical quantities in or around the well. Log can
be based on either visual inspection of samples brought on surface (geological
logs) or on physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole
(geophysical logs). Logs can measure a no. of properties like –
 Electron density of rock
 Acoustic travel time of rock
 Resistivity, at various distance from the borehole
 Neutron absorption rate
 Self-potential of the rock fluid interface
 Size of the borehole
 Flow rate and density of fluids in the wellbore

None of the logs actually measure the physical properties that are of most interest
to us, such as how much oil or gas is in the ground, or how much is being
produced. Such important knowledge can only be derived, from the measured
properties listed above (and others), using a number of assumptions which, if true,
will give reasonable estimates of hydrocarbon or mineral resources.

Wireline logging is performed by lowering a 'logging tool' -string of one or


more instruments - on the end of a wireline into an oil well (or borehole) and
recording petrophysical properties using a variety of sensors. Logging tools
developed over the years measure the natural gamma ray, electrical, acoustic,
stimulated radioactive responses, electromagnetic, nuclear magnetic resonance,
pressure and other properties of the rocks and their contained fluids. Well
logging operations can either be performed during the drilling process to
provide real time information about the formation being penetrated currently by
the borehole, or once the well has reached total depth and the whole depth of the
borehole can be logged.

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Logging unit rigged up on well

As reservoir properties are measured by lowering a tool attached to a wireline or


cable into a borehole. The borehole may be filled with water-based drilling mud,
oil-bases mud, or air. During drilling, the drilling mud can invade the rock
surrounding the borehole, which affects logging measurements due to formation
of mud cake. All these factors must be taken into account while logging and
during log analysis.
Procedure for logging job-
Logging jobs carried out at wellsite is carried out by logging unit. The unit are
parked near catwalk of the rig, if rig is present. If rig is not present, then units are
parked where there is no obstruction to the movement of wireline and there should
be enough space for tool stack to be placed.
 For lowering the tools into well two sheaves are used. Bottom sheave is
placed in sheave stand and sheave stand is tied with the derrick floor. Top
sheave is tied to the travelling block for picking up the tool from catwalk
and lowering it in well. Upper sheave should be able to swing freely.
 Tools string is assembled according to the job and kept on trolleys.

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 Tool is attached to wireline through cable head. While attaching tool stack
to the cable head, tool is rotated because if we rotate cable head then cable
will get torqued.
 Then a tagline is attached to the tool string and the tool is pulled up and
after it reaches near well, it is lowered into the well.
Then tool is lowered upto desired depth and measurements are made when tool
is pulled up. After completing the data acquisition, tool is pulled out and rig down
process starts.
Rig up-
Rig up is defined as the procedure of putting two sheaves on the rig such that
wireline operations can be performed safely.
Rig up procedure and safety-
 Spool out all necessary cables to run specific services beforehand.
 Restrict all unnecessary from area
 Barricade the area properly specially if radioactive material is used.
 Get rig up equipment ready on catwalk
 Raise up the rig up equipment to rig floor by using tag line
 Hung T-bar and top sheave on the elevator hook
 Secure bottom sheave to derrick floor using tie down chain
 Pull up the tool stack to the rig floor
 With the cable head connected to tool string and tool resting on C plate.
Tool is powered up and surface tension calibration and depth calibration
are performed. In depth calibration, the depth is made to zero as the bottom
of the tool reaches derrick floor. In surface tension calibration, surface
tension is made zero as tool reaches derrick floor.
Rig up equipments-
1. Sheave wheels-
It comes in various diameters, generally, diameter of sheave must be 30
times the diameter of the wireline which is used on sheave.
2. Vertical make up stand-
This stand is used when the tool string used is very long and it is not
possible to lift the entire stack from catwalk and run them inside well.
Some of the tools has weak bodies that cannot withstand bending.
3. C- plate-

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All open hole tools have groove cut in their body where C-plate is
inserted. The tool stack with C- plate is lowered into vertical make up
stand and rested.
4. Tie down chain- It is used to tie bottom sheave to the derrick floor.
5. T- bar-
It secures the upper sheave inside elevators.
6. Load cell-
It is used to measure tension. It measures weight of wireline in the well+
weight of toolstring+ drag effect
7. Sheave stand-
It is used for bottom sheave.
Others include-
 Gooseneck
 Trolleys
 Nylon sling ring
 Barricades
 Cable hanger

14” sheave wheel 30” sheave wheel

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Vertical make up stand C-plate

Tie down chain T-bar

Load cell
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Hole cover Sheave stand

About wireline: -
In logging and perforation wireline is back bone for all of our operations. It
allows us to lower tool into the well, provides a path for electrical power and
communication between the tools and surface system, and provides a way to
accurately measure the depth at any given point in the well. Cable consist of 3
components-
1. Conductor wire
2. Inner armor
3. Outer armor
Inner and outer armors are constructed with high tensile steel. Armors are
placed inside the other and are wrapped in opposite directions so that if weight
is applied to the line and outer armor begin to compress, inner armor will begin
to decompress and vice-versa.
Wireline cable is separated into two categories-
1. Monocable-
It contains only one conductor at cable core. We can supply power to
tools at only one value of voltage.
2. Heptacable-
It contains seven conductors at cable core. The cable lines are separated
into three pairs of conductors and one serving a ground. We can supply
power to different tools at different voltages.

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Hepta cable diagram
Properties of cable:
Wireline must possess certain electro- mechanical properties that make it
suitable for use. These key features separate it from conventional braided
cables. –
1. Mechanical strength-
Wireline cable must be flexible, yet capable of supporting heavy tool
strings without breaking. Conventional braided cable is consisted of a
single helix coil. As the weight is applied to the coil, cable will lengthen
and radial forces will compress the core and tools and devices attached to
cable will rotate in order to relieve the stress on the cable. If single helix
coil is used for wireline logging applications then as weight is applied and
radial force is exerted on core, wireline conductor would get crushed and
hinder the transmission of electric signals. To overcome the problem,
cable used is constructed with two helix coils wrapped in opposite
directions to each other with single or multiple conductor surrounded in
insulating material core.

Single helix coil


2. Electrical continuity-
In wireline operations, it is necessary to have a medium through which
power and tool signals can be transmitted efficiently without loss of
signal. Wireline cable conductors are generally made up of copper due to
its low resistivity properties and also capable of handling hotter
temperatures.( 2600C in case of camesa 7H47RTZ)
For transmission of any signal, transmission path and a return path must
be provided to complete the electrical circuit necessary for electron flow.
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In case of monocable, the transmission path is single conductor and return
path is the cable armor. While in case of heptacable, signals and tool
power can be transmitted and returned along the pairs with the one
conductor serving as ground.
3. Temperature rating-
As our tools required to operate in temperatures ranging from 100-4000F.
Temperature affects the wireline electrically and mechanically. As the
armors are composed of metal, heat can cause metal to lose its rigidity.
Therefore metal used to construct the cable armors must be able to
withstand higher temperatures. Also, heat will degrade performance of
conductor, as the temperature of copper conductor increases, its electrical
impedance increases. Thus, insulating material should be of high
temperature rating. Various materials are used to construct the insulating
material like Propylene, Camtane, Teflon, Tefzel to insure its resistance
to heat and ability to electrically isolate the conductor. camesa cable-
7H47RTZ comes in two varieties one in Teflon and another Tefzel.
4. Anti- Corrosion properties-
To prevent corrosion due to exposure to wide variety of fluids and gases
inside the wellbore, cable armors are constructed of metal alloys or
special metals such as nickel. Prevention of corrosion will help cable
maintain its mechanical strength.
5. No joints-
Due to continuous strands of armor weight is equally distributed
throughout the cable as the load on it increases. Due to use of pressure
control equipment, a joint would make it impossible for wireline to pass
through the hydraulic grease tool(grease head) owing to it has limited
tolerances built into it for line to pass through it.
To obtain all these properties wireline is constructed of five major
components-
1. Outer Armor
2. Inner Armor
3. Conductor
4. Insulation
5. Jacket

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Types of logging operations-
1. Open hole logging
2. Cased hole logging
3. Production logging
Open hole logging: -
Immediately after a well is drilled, the formation is exposed to well bore. This is
perfect time to determine the properties of rock using openhole logging tools. In
some cases, particularly in wells with complex trajectories, companies include
logging tools as part of the drilling tool assembly.

There are various types of open hole logging tool used-


1. Spectral Density Logging Tool(SDLT)
2. Compensated Spectral Natural Gamma Tool(CSNG)
3. Dual Spaced Neutron Tool(DSNT)
4. Dual Latero Log(DLL)
5. Micro Spherically Focused Log(MSFL)
6. Sidewall coring tool
7. X-tended Range Micro Imaging tool

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1. Spectral Density Logging Tool(SDLT)-

SDLT is used for measure the electron density and gamma ray absorption
properties of borehole which are used in turn to accurately determine formation
porosity and lithology. Gamma rays are continuously emitted from a chemical
radioactive source in the tool and they lose energy as they collide with the
electrons of atoms present in formation. The measurement of gamma rays
returning to the tool is used to compute the bulk density(ρb) and photoelectric
factor(Pe) of the formation. It is a dual detector formation density tool with
hydraulically activated caliper to provide efficient borehole contact. Cesium-
137(1.5 curie) source is used to emit a continuous stream of gamma rays. Cesium
decays to barium through the emission of beta particle(electron).

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The barium then stabilizes itself by emitting a single gamma ray.

The ability of a formation to absorb gamma rays is related to atomic number of


atoms present in that formation, which in turn depends upon rock’s composition.
Knowledge of lithology is important when predicting about reservoir properties.
SDLT can also identify gas bearing formations when used with dual spaced
neutron tool(DSNT).

SDLT tool
The radioactive source
Scintillation Detection- in installed here

SDLT have two scintillation detectors to measure the amount and energy level of
scattered gamma rays. These detectors are at different distances from gamma ray
source(Cs-137). A gamma ray reaching these detectors interact with sodium
iodide crystal which creates the gamma rays into photons. Sodium iodide crystal
is attached to a photo multiplier tube(PMT).
Photo multiplier tube(PMT)-
PMT consist of a photo-sensitive cathode, a series of dynodes at a successively
higher potentials and a collection anode. Photo sensitive cathode of the PMT
emits electron each time it is struck by a photon coming from scintillation crystal.
These electrons pass through the high voltage field to the first dynode(anode)
where they have high energy to produce several more secondary electrons. These

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electrons produced are accelerated to next dynode in series (generally next
dynode is at positive 100 voltages that the previous one). Then ever increasing
number of secondary electrons is ultimately collected at the anode of the PMT
which then generates electrical pulse for each gamma ray. Height of pulse is
proportional to the energy level of detected gamma ray.

Photo Multiplier Tube

Gamma ray can interact with matter in different ways-


1. Pair production- Only occurs if energy of gamma ray is greater than 1.02
MeV because sum of rest mass energy of two electrons is 1.02 MeV
2. Compton scattering- At energy levels greater than 100KeV, gamma rays
interact with outer shell electrons and if energy of gamma ray is greater
than binding energy of electron then electron is ejected with some energy.
It is considered most important interaction in regard to bulk measurement
density. This mechanism is considered lithology independent (not related
to atomic no.).

3. Photoelectric effect- At energy levels lower than 100KeV, gamma rays


interact with inner shell electrons. If energy of gamma ray is comparable
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to the binding energy of electron, then electron is ejected and gamma ray
is absorbed. This phenomenon is lithology dependent (related to atomic
no.).

For density measurements, we measure only Compton scattered gamma ray. This
can be achieved by two methods-
1. By shielding- setting a voltage bias level for detectors
2. Sorting the gamma rays spectrally by their energy levels and process only
those gamma rays which are in Compton range.
Using only Compton scattered gamma rays insures that our results will be a
function of the electron density. But the result will become lithology
independent. To improve that, we include a sufficient low energy gamma rays
in our processing so there our calculations are slightly lithology dependent.
Distribution of energy level for each gamma ray detected could be plotted, then
it would appear as the gamma ray energy spectrum.

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Due to the effect of mud cake, borehole irregularity we use compensated two
detector system. Hence, there are 2 detectors installed, one with deep depth of
investigation and another one with shallow depth of investigation.
The count rates of gamma rays within energy ranges are used to determine bulk
density of formation. This type of measurement requires that detector be in direct
contact with the formation at all times. In open hole, detector in not in direct
contact with the formation due to different situations like presence of a washout,
rugged borehole, irregular borehole conditions and mudcake. These all contribute
to physical separation between a detector and the formation. This condition is
known as standoff. Due to stand off there comes a slight difference between the
bulk density of the formation and its true density. A correction factor (density
correction) is applied real time to computed bulk density value in order to
eliminate effects of stand-off. To minimize the effects of standoff, there are two
scintillation detector. Long spaced detector having greater depth of investigation
is sensitive to gamma ray scattering and absorption occurring within the
formation.

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Whereas, short spaced detector with its shallower depth of investigation is
sensitive to scattering and absorption properties of material creating standoff.

Dual detectors in direct contact with formation.

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2.Compensated Spectral Natural Gamma tool(CSNG)-
CSNG measures the entire gamma spectrum from 0 KeV to 3000 KeV. In simple
language, it provides percentage wise concentration of potassium(K),
thorium(Th) and Uranium(U). CSNG allows to detect producible zones by
accurately distinguishing reservoir rocks having clays in composition. Generally,
sandstones have low concentration of potassium (K) and thorium (Th) compared
to shale. We can also increase reservoir understanding as fractured or highly
permeable reservoirs can be discovered when high uranium (U) concentrations
appear with low Th and K concentrations. High U and Th counts with low K
counts indicate a clean reservoir that contains accessory minerals. It is also used
to determine clay types, volumes, and cation exchange capacity using CSNG-I
elemental concentration data.

Reservoir characterization in carbonates

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Mineral identification using CSNG

CSNG tool consists of following components-


 High pressure titanium housing
 Power supply and data acquisition electronics
 Scintillation detector assembly

Working-
Generally, gamma ray originates from decay of radioactive elements. In
most formations, these are isotopes of Potassium, Uranium and Thorium.
Due to Radioactive decay of K40, U238, and Th232, gamma rays are energy
emitted as a radioactive isotope attempts to achieve its stable state
(lowest energy state). Generally, these three materials are present in all
formations in variable quantities. CSNG measures number of gamma rays
emitted and their energy levels.
Gamma ray can interact with matter in different ways-
Pair production- Only occurs if energy of gamma ray is greater than 1.02
MeV because sum of rest mass energy of two electrons is 1.02 MeV
Compton scattering- At energy levels greater than 100KeV, gamma rays
interact with outer shell electrons and if energy of gamma ray is greater

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than binding energy of electron then electron is ejected with some
energy.
It is considered most important interaction in regard to bulk
measurement density. This mechanism is considered lithology
independent (not related to atomic no.).

Photoelectric effect- At energy levels lower than 100KeV, gamma rays


interact with inner shell electrons. If energy of gamma ray is comparable
to the binding energy of electron, then electron is ejected and gamma ray
is absorbed. This phenomenon is lithology dependent (related to atomic
no.).

Since the amplitude of the output from the gamma ray sensor is proportional to
the energy of the incident gamma ray. We can use this information to measure

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the proportion of the total gamma radiation coming from each of potassium-40,
the uranium-radium series, and the thorium series for a particular formation.
When the radiation has travelled through the rock and drilling fluid to the
sensor, the energy distributions are added together because the rock contains
different amounts of each of radio-isotopes. The energy distributions are also
spread out in energy space as the result of Compton scattering. However, the
energy peaks from each of the major contributors to the gamma radiation are
still recognizable.

The output from the sensor is fed into a multi-channel analyser that calculates
the amount of radiation coming from the energies associated with each of the
major peaks. This is done by measuring the gamma ray count rate for 3 energy
windows centred around the energies 1.46 MeV for potassium-40, 1.76 MeV for
the uranium-radium series, and 2.62 MeV for the thorium series. The energy of
individual gamma rays is measured and recorded and then a spectrum of gamma
energies is formed that indicates the number of gamma rays recorded at each
energy level. Finally, the overall spectrum is divided into overlapping low and
high spectra. These readings represent the gamma ray radioactivity from each
of these sources. Their sum should be the same as the total gamma ray value
measured by the total gamma ray tool, and is coded SGR if measured with a
spectral gamma ray tool. Any combination of the three components can be
summed and analysed. However, the most important is the sum of the
potassium-40 and thorium radiation, which is called the computed gamma ray
response (CGR).

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Scintillation detector-
In scintillation detector of CSNG, there are sodium iodide crystals with thallium
activators. Gamma rays interact with scintillation crystal (by Compton
scattering, photoelectric effect or pair production) producing electrons. These
electrons excite thallium atoms which in turn decay by emission of light. These
generated photons interact with the photocathode of photomultiplier tube
(explained in detail in SDLT) producing electrons. Then these ejected electrons
are focussed into photomultiplier string. The generated pulse is send to
discriminator to eliminate electronic noise. After elimination of electronic noise,
these pulses are counted in counter.

Scintillation detection

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Example of CSNG spectrum

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3. Dual Spaced Neutron Tool(DSNT)-
Neutron is a fundamental particle found in nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen.
The neutron has approximately same mass as proton but carry no electrical
charge. Smallness of size and electrical neutrality makes it an ideal particle for
penetrating matter.
Neutron sources used in industry-
1. Chemical sources- They are composed of two elements, which are in
intimate contact with each other and react together to emit neutrons
continuously. Chemical source generally used in logging industry is
americium-beryllium.
2. Pulsed sources- They use an ion accelerator and a target that can be
activated by electronic means.
Types of neutron-
1. Fast neutrons- Neutrons found near chemical sources will all of their
initial energy (in range of MeV)
2. Epithermal neutrons- Neutrons after losing energy by collision with
other atoms and their energy level drops to a few eV.
3. Thermal neutrons- After more interactions, neutron will be slowed
down to a point where it has the same energy as the surrounding
material, this energy level is the directly proportional to the absolute
temperature. At this stage neutron is ready to get captured.
Capturing nucleus will usually emit one or more gamma rays. These gamma
rays are called capture gamma rays.
Chemical source used in DSNT tool is Am-Be.

Americium produce alpha particle that combines with beryllium to produce a


neutron
Dual Spaced Neutron Tool(DSNT) is a thermal neutron tool designed to
measure formation porosity from neutron-nuclei interactions. Neutron
porosity logs provides fluid formation for use with resistivity logs and pulsed
neutron logs to determine formation water saturation. They can be combined
with density logs to provide indication of formation gas, with sonic logs to
provide indication of formation lithology. Neutron tool sees gas as low
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porosity as replacement of liquid by gas in the pore space of rock lowers the
hydrogen density of the pore fluid as neutron tool is calibrated for liquid filled
porosity, it indicates abnormally low porosity for gas.
Instrument section of DSNT consist of electronics, two He3 detectors and a
source sub containing americium-beryllium source which generates neutron
penetrating the formation at an initial energy of 5.71 MeV. Count rate for
thermal neutrons is higher than that of epithermal neutrons. Thermal neutron
detectors are more sensitive to lithology and are affected by borehole and
formation salinity.
Count rate in a single detector neutron tool is affected significantly by
hydrogen in the borehole region and rugosity of borehole, mudcake and tool
standoff. That’s why there is a second detector employed which is placed at a
different distance from the source. The ratio of count rate from two detectors
retains porosity sensitivity.

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4. Dual Latero Log(DLL)-
Archie’s Equation (water saturation equation)-

Where c =1.0 for carbonates and 0.9 for sands.


This is the basic equation of log interpretation. The equation shows that
hydrocarbons in place can be evaluated if there are sufficient logs
to give interstitial water resistivity ( Rw ), formation resistivity ( Rt ), and
Porosity (ϕ). In practice Rw is obtained either from applying the equation in a
nearby water sand (Sw = 1) or from the SP log or from catalogues or water
sample measurements; and ϕ is obtained from porosity logs (Density, Neutron,
or Sonic). Rt is obtained from deep resistivity readings (Induction or
Laterolog).
The manner in which the presence of hydrocarbons in pore space is sensed is
through the electrical resistance of the formation. The formation consists of
rock matrix and pore space occupied by fluid. The resistivity of this
combination of matrix and fluid is termed “true resistivity," Rt . For normal
logging situations, the rock matrix is considered a perfect insulator, therefore,
the formation’s conductivity is only a function of the fluid in the pores.

At depths below 2,000 feet, the water found in formation pores is generally
saline, which makes it quite conductive. The conductive (resistive) property
of water is a function of the salinity (number of ions' present) and temperature.
The higher these two variables, the more conductive the water and the lower
the resistivity of the formation that contains the water. At constant
temperature, the greater the salinity, the lower the resistivity. Also, at constant
salinity, the greater the temperature the lower the resistivity. Remember that
resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity. The resistivity of the formation
water is termed Rw.
Hydrocarbons (oil or gas) are also insulators. Our resistivity measurement
cannot distinguish one insulator from another. Since these hydrocarbon fluids
do not conduct electricity, their presence means there is less pore fluid
available for conduction. We can say that the resistivity of a sedimentary
formation with hydrocarbons depends primarily on the resistivity of the water
in the pores and the quantity of water present.
Let us assume in the borehole you have the drilling mud of resistivity ( R m ).
The effect of this drilling mud on permeable formations causes mudcake of

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resistivity (Rmc) to build on the borehole wall and invasion of these formations
by mud filtrate. There are two components of the invaded zone, one fully
“flushed” by mud filtrate and the other a “transition” between fully flushed
and uninvaded. The transition zone is neglected, and the diameter of invasion
(di) is measured to the edge of the flushed zone. The resistivity of the zone,
whose pore space contains only mud filtrate of resistivity ( R mf ) and resistivity
of the residual hydrocarbons if present in the formation, is denoted as ( R xo ).
The associated water saturation is Sxo. Beyond that zone is the undisturbed
formation with resistivity(Rt),interstitial water resistivity ( Rw), and water
saturation (Sw).

Invasion profile

The existence of invasion has forced the development of resistivity logging


tools that make deep measurements in an effort to read Rt uninfluenced by
mud filtrate. Therefore, three resistivity curves are run simultaneously with
three different depths of investigation:
· Deep resistivity curve.
· Medium resistivity curve.
· Shallow resistivity curve.
The reading of the deep investigation curve can be corrected for invasion
effects to provide the Rt value. The flushed zone resistivity and the diameter
of invasion can also be estimated, using the three measurements in a set of
simultaneous equations.

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The dual lateral log has been one of primary resistivity measurement
device. DLL is a focused electrode device designed to minimize influence
from borehole fluids and adjacent formations. The DLL consists of an
electronics section and a mandrel section. The mandrel supports the
electrodes which are connected to the electronic circuitry. The
measurement current emitted from centre electrode is forced to flow
laterally into the formation by the focusing action of electrodes surrounding
the centre electrode. It provides two measurements of the subsurface
resistivity simultaneously. The two measurements have differing depth of
investigation are called deep resistivity (Rd) and shallow resistivity (Rs).
Working-
DLL consist of a current emitting centre electrode positioned between guard
electrodes. A known current is passed through the current electrode with a
return electrode at the surface. Simultaneously a potential is applied to the
focused electrode to keep zero potential difference between guard and centre
electrode thereby the current is focused in to the formation.
Since like charges repel and unlike charges attract, the current flowing out of
the upper and lower guard electrodes tends to repel the current flowing out of
the centre electrode (AO). The centre current pattern (i.e. the survey current)
is therefore kept from flowing upward or down. The survey current Io is forced
to flow in a horizontal layer at right angles to the borehole before it begins to
flow toward the return electrode.

Thus the potential difference produced is equivalent to the formation


resistivity. The lateral log current path is basically a series circuit consisting

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of the drilling fluid, Mud cake, flushed zone, invaded zone and the virgin zone,
with the largest voltage drop occurring over the highest resistance zone.

5.Micro spherical focusing log(MSFL)-


MSFL tool is used to obtain more information about resistivity at shallower
depths of investigations. MSFL is a padded tool and it has a smaller depth
of investigation (0.75 inch) and smaller resolution (1.15 inch). MSFL is
mainly used to get the resistivity of the flushed zone (R xo). The MSFL
works in the same principle as the DLL tool. The MSFL tool contains a
measuring pad which contains 9 electrodes out of which measuring
electrode is the central one surrounded by eight guard or focusing
electrode. The MSFL also contains a calliper arm. The current to the
measure electrode is measured with respect to earth potential. A bridle is
also connected and the bridle electrode for the MSFL is considered to be
at earth potential and is used as the reference volt

MSFL pad

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6.Sidewall coring tool
Side wall coring tool allows us to take a sample of formation. Cores are cut
where specific lithology and rock parameter data is required.

Tool diagram
These sidewall core samples help in improve log analysis, helps in identify rock
type and origin. Sidewall cores an even discover productive reservoir not
evident on logs. The tool consists of hollow, semispherical and core barrels
housed in the body of gun and a propelling explosive material. Tool is lowered
to a predetermined depth and fired, by a rate of one shot per time. The barrels
containing the core samples are then retrieved back through the means of a
cable attached to the barrels of gun. It is then brought to the surface, and the
core is removed and laid out in stratigraphic sequence.

31
7.X-tended Range Micro Imaging Tool-
It is a borehole imaging tool. Borehole image is map of rock properties exposed
at the borehole wall and micro geometry of the borehole wall surface. Higher
resolution Borehole image represents cores. Borehole images provides finer
details about formation and also shows formations at subsurface reservoir
conditions. Using XRMI, we can-
 Identify formations dips and strike
 Study sequence stratigraphy in high resolution
 Characterize sedimentary textures and structures
 Detect permeability pathways and flow barriers
 Fault mapping
 High resolution resistivity for improved net pay estimation
 Secondary porosity identification

32
XRMI Design-
XRMI has six independent arms called pads. There are 25 buttons on each pad.
So, it has a total of 150 button which provide a resolution of 0.2in and 60%
coverage in an 8in borehole. Borehole image is generated by qualitative micro
resistivity measurements, provided by button currents. Data is recorded at rate
of 120 samples per foot.

XRMI CIRCUMFERENTIAL WELLBORE


COVERAGE %
WELLBORE COVERAGE

1
0.8

0.6
Coverage
0.4

0.2

0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
BOREHOLE DIAMETER (INCHES)

Curve providing relation between wellbore coverage and borehole diameter


XRMI can provide high quality images even in high resistive formations and
highly conductive boreholes and it also provides fast sampling as two buttons
are sampled simultaneously. Provides better tool motion due to vertical pad
swivel and independent arm articulation. A potentiometer is linked to each of
the pads to measure radii of each caliper arm.

Pads of XRMI

33
.
XRMI tool calipers
Navigation system-
It is composed of servo force balanced sensors. Servo is basically an
electromagnetic device that converts electricity into precise controlled motion.
These sensors consist of a position detector, an amplifier, and an electro
mechanical system.
Button number designation of pads-
 For Odd pads (Pad-1,3 and 5), the top rows are even numbered and the
bottom rows are odd numbered
 For Even pads (Pad-2,4 and 6), the top rows are odd numbered and the
bottom rows are even numbered
Tool stack of XRMI- (top to bottom)
 Load Cell Cable Head(LCCH)- It is used in open hole logging to
accurately measure weight, it gives the combined weight of the tool and
the logging cable. It is put in between the between the top sheave wheel
and whatever device is used to suspend it.
 Casing Collar locator- It is used for depth correlation.
 Multi conductor swivel assembly
 Green isolator- It is used to electric isolation to upper part of tool from
lower part of tool.
 D4TG (DITS 4 Telemetry Gamma)- It is used with DITS tools to receive
the command given by surface system, transmits this command to
logging tools after decoding and also amplify the data from logging

34
systems and upload it to the surface system. It also measures natural
gamma ray with help of scintillation detectors. In XRMI, to keep the tool
centralized overbody is attached to the D4TG.
 XRMI electronic- electronic of XRMI tool. Standoff is attached below
pad.
 Sonde- It contains the measurement sensors,
 Bull Nose- It is used so that telemetry pulse does not exceed its target. It
is a type of terminator for telemetry pulse.

35
Cased Hole Logging: -
Drillers typically stabilize formation by cementing metal casing in the well. The
metal of the casing interferes with many logging measurements but due to
technology advancements in the field in past 30 years the ability to measure
formation properties and even locate bypassed oil behind casing has been
significantly improved. It is also used to examine the integrity of metal casing
and its cement.

Various types of cased hole logging tools available-


1. Circumferential Acoustic Scanning Tool(CAST)-
2. Radial Bond tool

1. Circumferential acoustic scanning tool-


Current cement bond logging tools use a transmitter and receiver spaced
three feet and five feet apart and operates at or below 22KHz frequency.
Acoustic energy emitted by the transmitter travels in all directions through
the casing and is detected at receiver to produce the log. There are two major
problems with this type of tool-
1. Due to physics of the measurement, any gaps such as micro annulus
(Micro-annulus is the presence of a gap of a few thousands of an inch
between the casing and the cement) around the pipe appears as bad bond
even when the annulus is hydraulically secure i.e. does not permit fluids
to flow across the cemented area.
2. It is difficult to distinguish between high strength cement with a channel
(hydraulic communication) from an even distribution of low strength
cement (no hydraulic communication) since amplitude of wave may be
same in both cases.
The original objectives of ultrasonic tools was to overcome the shortcoming of
the conventional CBL by:
1. Achieving sufficient circumferential resolution to permit the detection of mud
channels.
2. Providing hydraulic-bond evaluation in the presence of a micro annulus.

36
Present day tools permit the detection of mud channels. However, the second
objective has never been completely accomplished. The CAST-V does respond
to micro annulus; however, it is less responsive than the CBL. As the size of the
micro annulus increases, so does its effect on the CAST-V measurement. The
CAST-V transducers operate at resonance frequencies of 250 kHz, 350kHz, and
450 kHz and measure reflected waves whereas other sonic logging tools operate
at lower frequency of 22KHz and 15KHz. Also, other tools measure travel time,
∆t, and amplitudes whereas the primary measurement made by the CAST-V in
the cased hole is the acoustic impedance of the material behind the pipe. It is
from this measurement that the quality of the bond between pipe and cement is
evaluated.

CAST uses a rotating transducer to emit high frequency acoustic pulses which
are reflected back. The transducer outputs pressure waves that travel through the
borehole fluid and impinge normally on the casing wall In the cased hole mode,
the CAST-V process 20 shots (transducer firing) per revolution and 5 revolution

37
per depth interval. This provides 100 shots per vertical sample interval (scan).
The transducer (transmitter) is chosen according to the pipe thickness. The
CAST-V transducer head is actually chosen according to pipe thickness, pipe
ID, and mud weight. Three different transducer are used: operating at 250 kHz,
350 kHz; 450 kHz respectively. The objective is to make the pipe resonate in its
first harmonic (resonance) mode.

At the casing wall, part of the pressure wave is reflected and part of the energy
enters the casing and is reflected back and forth within the wall. Following the
first peak, the amplitude of the successive peaks follows an exponential decay.
In the case of the poor bond, the decay is slow. With well-bonded cement the
decay is fast, since the acoustic coupling between steel and the outside medium
is better. The amplitude and rate of decay of the resonance waves are directly
related to the acoustic impedance of the material behind the pipe. If the casing is
surrounded by strong cement, the resonance signal will exhibit lower
amplitudes and a rapid decay. In contrast, if the casing is free to vibrate (weaker
cement bond), the resonance signal will have higher amplitudes and decay out
slower.

38
The CAST-V is able to calculate the thickness of the casing from the return
signal. When properly chosen, the CAST-V transducer will make the casing
resonate in its thickness mode. From standing wave theory, we know that in a
manner similar to a vibrating string fixed at both ends, when the casing is
resonating at its first harmonic f0 mode there is one-half wavelength (½ λ)
between the front and back of the pipe. The casing thickness can be easily
calculated from wave velocity equation.
𝜈
𝑡=
2𝑓𝑜

t =pipe thickness
ν =transverse speed of sound in pipe
fo =the first harmonic frequency

39
2.Radial Bond Tool-
Radial cement bond tool is used to assure that hydraulic isolation is present
between producing and non-producing zones. Integrity of well is obtained by
effective placement of cement column between casing and the formation. Poor
cement can result in unwanted water or gas production, inadequate support to
the casing.

Design-
There is a transmitter crystal which generates acoustic energy in response to an
electric signal sent from the tool electronics. The pulsed sonic tools can be of
18Khz or 22Khz depending on tool length. This acoustic energy travels at
different speeds as a wavefront through mud, casing cement and formation.
During this time signal is also attenuated (reduction in amplitude).
At 3ft from the transmitter there is segmented piezoelectric (Ability of certain
materials to generate an AC voltage when subjected to mechanical stressor
vibration or vice-versa) receiver, this receiver has less depth of investigation. It
is used for analyzing casing cement bond.

40
At 5ft from the transmitter there is a piezoelectric receiver, this receiver has
great depth of investigation and used to record the waveform from which
Variable Density Log(VDL) is produced. VDL is used to investigate bond
between cement formation bond.
Additional Gamma ray and CCL tools, run in string for depth correlation. RBT
in run between strong centralizers(centrolers), because if tool is not properly
centralized, there could be some errors in the measurements.

Reciever for RBT Transmitter for RBT


Working-
Piezoelectric crystal sonic energy from pulsed electrical energy. Receiver
piezoelectric crystals are used to convert the arriving acoustic energy for
transmission into electrical energy for recording. A high frequency acoustic
pulse is transmitted out to the casing at regular intervals. Sound travels through
the borehole fluid, contacts the casing and travels along it before returning
through the borehole fluid back to the receiver. Some of the signal will pass
through the casing into the cement, and into the formation before it is returned.
The segmented receiver 3ft from the transmitter detects the early part of the
returning signal to determine the casing-cement bond. The single crystal
receiver 5ft from the transmitter detects the later part of the signal that comes
from the cement and formation and is used to generate a VDL which is used to
evaluate the cement-formation bond.

41
Behavior of acoustic waves inside borehole

Interpretation of Variable Density Log


Waveforms from 3ft receiver are processed to make a cement map where
amplitude of each segment is converted into a color or gray scale.
Tool stack of RBT-
 TTTC-U- Telemetry through tubing cartridge- Ultrawire
 Roller centralizer/centrolers- used to centralize the tool in the wellbore so
that correct measurements are made
 Radial Bond tool
 Roller centralizer/centrolers
 Bull nose- Used to terminate the telemetry signal
42
Production Logging-
Production logging is a cased hole service which comprises of tools run in
completed well to ascertain the nature and behaviour of fluids in or around the
wellbore during production or injection. These measurements are used to
analyse dynamic well performance, to diagnose well problems and monitor
results of a stimulation or completion. Production logging is used for purposes
like-
 Locating sources downhole of undesired fluid phase production such as
water entries
 Isolating mechanical problems such as leaking pipes, leaking packers,
and fluid movement in cement channels behind pipe
 Evaluating the effectiveness of well treatment or workover operations by
comparing the before and after job surveys
 Accumulating baseline well performance information for comparison
with later monitor surveys
 In EOR projects, maintaining injection efficiency by evaluating the
injection profiles of individual wells in a field
Temperature surveys are the most common surveys to locate fluid movement
downhole. Small entries and even flow in channels behind pipe can be
detected. Generally, if a well is not flowing, the temperature of the fluid in
the borehole will eventually approach the formation temperature (geothermal
gradient). When a well is produced, formation fluids enter the borehole and
move uphole. Gases cool when entering the borehole while liquids do not. In
either case, their movement uphole is easily detected by deviations of the
borehole temperature from the geothermal gradient. Production logging job
involves high risk due to dealing with live wells and generally rigs are not
present. Equipment’s required in production logging job are generally heavy
and most important part is that logging operation is carried out during the
flowing condition of well.
Before carrying out the operation, Pressure Control Equipment(PCE) needs
to be attached to well head to control excess pressure coming from the well
bore.

43
44
Components of Pressure control equipment-
1. Wellhead Adapter-
It is used to connect the pressure control equipment to the wellhead. It
should be properly tightened to avoid problems.
2. Wireline valves BOPs-
Wireline BOP is designed to control well pressure by sealing around
the cable and it our last line of defence when we are unable to regain
control of seal at the grease injection head. Two rubber faced metal
rams which are contoured to fit a particular size of cable acts as
sealing element. Hydraulic single ram BOP is generally used it is
activated by hydraulic pressure instead of mechanical force. Although
for backup, manual handle are given, turning two handles which are
connected to a threaded shaft. At the end of shaft there is a plate which
pushes the ram towards the cable.

Hydraulically operated BOP


3. Tool Trap-
There is a flapper which have a slot larger than the wireline, but
smaller than the toolstring. The flapper is spring loaded and will be
lifted as tool is pulled through but will fall back as the tool is above
the trap. To open the flapper externally, hydraulic pressure must be

45
applied. The tool trap remains closed during normal operation. It is
only opened at the commencement of a job to allow the tool to
descend from the risers/lubricator into the well. It is closed again once
the tool is in the well.
4. Lubricator(Riser)-
It is series of interconnected length of pipes, the purpose of which is
provide a space for the tool to contained in under pressure, when
opening or closing the wellhead. The length of lubricator used should
be as long as tool string. Lubricator pipes used in GNDR base are of
8ft length. Each lubricator pipe is equipped with high pressure quick
union. Wireline and other components of WHE string are connected to
each other with quick unions. Lubricators should be cleaned out, seal
areas greased to prevent corrosion and fitted with thread protectors.
5. Tool Catcher-
It is placed under the ball check valve and above the lubricator. It is
used to save the tool if it is pulled into the top end of lubricator and
weak point is broken. When catcher is activated, it latches into the
fishing neck of the cablehead and hold the tool safely in the riser.
6. Ball check Valve-
It is a safety device which is installed below the grease injection
control head. It will seal off the well, in case if cable is broken or
pulled out of the grease injection head
7. Grease injection head-
It controls and contain pressure while allowing cable to travel in/out of
the well. It has two sub-assemblies- stuffing box and flotube
assembly.
Stuffing box is designed to pack off on a stationary wireline by means
of rubber powered by hydraulic pressure.
Flotube assembly is made up to tightly fit around the wireline. Each
flotube have pressure rating of 1400-1500 psi. When entering a well
under pressure, viscous grease in injected into the flotubes. Grease
fills the remaining annular space in flotube and outside surface of
wireline, forming a liquid seal that contains the well pressure allowing
movement of wireline.
8. Line wiper-
It wipes off the excess grease from a moving wireline.

46
Platinum Resistance thermometer(PRT)
Platinum Resistance Thermometer-
It is a small and compact tool. The tool plays a critical role in production
logging and is an integral piece of equipment in any production logging string.
The PRT measures downhole temperature by measuring the electric resistance
of a piece of pure platinum wire. The piece of platinum wire is known as
temperature sensor. The probe is contained in a pressure tight needle, protruding
into an open slot through which borehole fluid can flow. The measurements
from the low mass probe result in high resolution data with fast temperature
response. It has less logging time due to fast temperature response. It can be
used to determine top of cement and fluid movement both inside and outside the
pipe. If run standalone, it is run with sinker bar to provide enough weight to tool
string(generally 2 sinker bars are used).

47
PRT tool
There are 2 type of bars which are used to provide weight to tool string-
1. Weight bar
2. Sinker bar
Weight bar do not have electrical connections inside them so they
electrically isolate the upper and lower part whereas sinker bar have
electrical connections, it can be attached anywhere in the tool.
Tool Stack if run only with prt(top to bottom)
 TTTC-U(Telemetry Through Tubing Cartridge- Ultrawire)
 Sinker bar
 Sinker bar
 PRT

48
Plug Setting Services -
Setting tools are devices used for positioning and setting various types of
sealing elements in casing and or tubing. Examples of sealing elements are -
1.Bridge plugs- It is set to isolate the lower part of the wellbore. They may be
permanent or retrievable, enabling the lower wellbore to permanently sealed
from production or temporarily isolated from a treatment conducted on an upper
zone.
2.production packers- It is an essential component of completion process of oil
or gas wells used to provide a seal between the outside of the production tubing
and inside of the casing or wellbore wall.
3.cement retainers- It is drillable packer that consistently contain well pressures
at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Mainly there are two types of setting tools:


1. Two stage hydraulic setting tools
2. Electro-Mechanical

Two-Stage Hydraulic Setting Tools


Two-stage hydraulic setting tools use explosives to provide the energy, which
drives a hydraulic piston that provides the setting force, thus, the reason they are
called two stage tools. The first stage is the explosive action, and that initiates
the hydraulic action.
Two-stage setting tools rely on a series of explosive elements in combination to
provide the initial force. These elements include:
1. Primary igniter composed of black powder and a hot wire to initiate the
reaction.
2. Secondary igniter (Baker style only) to create an even burn front to the main
power charge.
3. Main-power charge
4. RED igniter

The two principle designs of setting tools are:


5. Baker E-4 Wireline Pressure Setting Tool (WPST)
6. Gearhardt Owen (GO) Shorty Setting Tool( Generally used by HLS Asia)

49
Baker E-4 WPST
The E-4 WPST design belongs to Baker Oil Tools. When the electrical current
is sent downhole to the firing head and the main power charge starts to burn, the
expanding gases then act against a piston. This piston either forces a metered
amount of oil through a venturi (small hole at the top), and the hydraulic oil
drives the setting tool. This mechanical advantage transfers the internal
pressure to the outside of the tool through the use of a crosslink in the setting
sleeve. The setting sleeve pushes down, jamming the top slips into the casing.
The tool then starts to move upward, causing the bottom slips to set. The
remaining energy breaks the shear stud, which may be as high as 57,000 lb.

GO-Shorty Setting Tool


The Shorty setting tool is also a two-stage tool; however, it differs from the
Baker tool in that the gas pressure generated by the power charge drives the
setting piston directly. In addition, the oil in the tool serves to control the rate of
stroke and as a buffer to prevent mechanical shock damage to the tool
components during the setting process. GO-Shorty setting tools will produce the
necessary stroke to set conventional bridge plugs, cement retainers, and seal-
bore permanent packers in setting ranges that do not requirean extra amount of
stroke. An electrically-actuated, high-temperature rated igniter located at the
upper end of the tool is ignited and produces a flash flame, which ignites the
power charge that is located directly below the igniter. The power charge, which
is constructed combustible elements, begins to burn. The resultant gas derived
from the burning charge gradually builds up to high pressure and is routed
through a channel in the top piston. The pressurized gas migrates down the
center of the top piston of the tool and out into an annular cavity formed
between the top piston and bottom cylinder. The pressure acting on this area
drives the piston assembly upwards. The plug, attached to the bottom piston, is
pulled against the setting sleeve, causing the plug elements to stroke. This
motion anchors the bridge plug to the casing and then pulls the release stud of
the plug in half, freeing the setting tool for retrieval from the well. An
oil-damper system is built into the tool, to control the speed at which the tool
strokes. As the tool elongates, this oil is forced through an annular orifice and
out of the tool at a controlled rate, which prevents the tool from stroking too fast
and damaging the tool once the release stud pulls apart.

Excess oil will be purged out automatically during assembly. Likewise, oil
expansion caused by high temperature during running will be purged in the
same manner.

50
Manual bleeder valve provides a safe, easy method for bleeding off trapped gas
pressure before disassembly of the tool is begun.
Bleeding is then accomplished by backing the firing head out of the setting tool.
The GO-Shorty has a built-in advantage over Baker setting tools. The Shorty is
equipped with a mechanical shear stud that prevents premature movement of the
mechanical elements. The shear stud is designed to require a minimum of 5,000
lb of force to be applied before the piston will be allowed to stroke. This feature
prevents premature setting of a plug or packer by hydrostatic pressure or
external force applied to the tool.

Electromechanical-Setting Tool
Electro-mechanical device is designed to produce a linear force for setting (or
pulling) well-bore tools, such as bridge plugs, or packers. The slickline version
uses batteries to provide the energy to the motor and timing circuits. An electric
line version without the timer, circuits, and batteries is also available.

51
Perforation-
Perforation is the wireline procedure of introducing holes through the casing
(inner wall) and/or the cement sheath into a formation so that the fluids can flow
from the formation into the casing. The simple purpose of perforation is to
establish an effective way of communication between wellbore and the
formation after casing has been cemented in place. The perforation operation
can be performed in different ways.
Perforating guns parameters-
 Shot density- Shot density is defined as the no. of shots or holes that gun
would create in 1 foot of the casing. It is expressed in SPF.
 Shot phasing- It is defined as the angular difference in degrees that each
shot is separated from the shot above it. First shot is zero degree shot.
 Gun clearance- it is the distance from the outside of the gun system to the
inside of the casing/tubing.
Shot density and shot phasing are dependent upon each other. As shot
density increases, shot phasing decreases.

HSC gun SPF=6 and shot phasing=60o


Classification of gun system-
Perforating guns can be divided into two categories-
1. Hollow steel carrier gun
2. Capsule gun

52
Hollow steel carrier-
Hollow steel carrier guns are comprised of a rigid hollow steel carrier and an
aluminium or steel charge carrier. Hollow steel carrier is also called gun barrel.
It is designed to protect the component of perforation string from pressure and
wellbore fluids. Nitrogen gas is filled in the HSC guns to protect the carrier gun
from external environment. Charge carrier is designed to carry the charges and
detonating cord according to the phasing and shot density required. The carrier
is secured inside the gun barrel by a retainer ring.
Advantages of hollow steel carrier gun systems-
 Explosives are protected from the well bore pressure and fluids
 Gun debris is do not left up in the well, it is retained by carrier only
 Casing remains protected from the explosion
Types of HSC gun-
1. Slick wall guns
2. Scallop guns
3. Port-plug guns
Slick wall gun-
It is also referred as throw away gun(TAG). It is comprised of a plain, smooth
external steel carrier and an internal charge carrier. It is more economic than
other HSC guns because it does not involve much machining costs. Its gun
barrel and carrier are of one time use only.
Scallop guns-
It is similar in design to the slick wall gun except that its gun barrel is machined
to reduce the carrier thickness in the area where charge has been positioned.
There is increased charge performance due to thinned barrel wall at the position
of charge which makes easier for charge to penetrate the gun barrel and strike
the casing. Proper care must be taken in alignment of the carrier in the scallop
gun as if charges are not aligned with the scallop, the charges will fire out of the
scallop.

53
Dummy charge for HSC gun

HSC gun
Capsule guns-
In this type of gun charges, detonating cord and detonator are mounted on or in
between on thin strips of wire or metal. Thus, this type of gun is knows as
exposed gun as the elements of gun are directly exposed to the inside of
wellbore. The charges of capsule gun are specially modified to include a
threaded mail pin section which allows it to screwed directly to the carrier.
Its advantages include-
 Easy to use in deviated wells as they are flexible
 Can be easily used in tight hole conditions i.e. less entrance diameter like
tubing
 Larger charges can be easily mounted
Disadvantages-
 Gun system is directly exposed to well bore fluid and pressure
 Casing or tubing directly experiences explosion

54
Logging unit study of KWT001OH-

Logging truck is one of the most important parts of onshore logging. The trucks
contain all the things that we need to perform logging and perforation services at
wellsite. The latest state of art technology and engineering design make truck and
system installed in truck and computer system a platform that can be upgraded as
there are changes in technology.
Usually logging truck has four components-
1. Driver cabin- It is used to drive the logging unit from one place to another
place.
2. Power pack unit- This section provides power to the logging cabin and
winch section.
3. Logging cabin- It contains all the control panel to carry out logging and
perforation operations.
4. Winch section- wirelines are installed on cable drum. The unit can be single
drum or dual drum. KWT001OH is dual drum unit. One drum has
heptacable and another one has monocable.
Meaning of KWT001OH-
KWT indicates make of the truck which is Kenworth in our case.
001 indicates serial no.
OH indicates open hole (Open hole units can also perform cased hole services)
Specifications of KWT001OH-
Model Height Width Length Tare
Weight
Kenworth T- 13 ft., 2in 7ft, 11in 38ft, 4in 29830 kg
800

It contains Caterpillar 10 engine which provides power of 338 HP.

55
KWT001OH
Power pack unit-
Power pack unit provides power to logging cabin and winching section. The
power pack unit of logging truck is based on hydraulic system. The hydraulics
deals with the transfer of energy with the transfer of pressure when the fluid
is stationery. In hydraulics fluid power laws of hydromechanics are used.
Pressure, or energy, or signals in form of pressure are transferred. We use
hydraulic systems in logging truck because transmission of power is very easy.
Pumps and motors are connected by flexible hoses.

There are 2 types of hydraulic systems-


1. Closed loop- When hydraulic fluids flow continuously between pump and
motor without going to the reservoir
2. Open loop- When hydraulic fluid from motor first goes to the reservoir and
then the fresh fluid from reservoir flow to pump inlet
There are 2 independent closed loop hydraulic circuits in logging truck. In
hydraulic circuits mechanical energy is converted to hydraulic energy. The
hydraulic energy is then processed in either closed loop circuit or open loop
circuit and then converted back to mechanical energy. The pressure which is
fed through pipes or hoses within the manifold transports the energy. In order
to store and take care of the pressure fluid, a series of additional devices are

56
necessary such as tank, filter, cooler, heating element, measurement and
testing devices.
The 2 closed loop hydraulic circuits are independent but share a common
prime mover and a common hydraulics oil tank. One hydraulic circuits are
used to control direction, speed and torque of winch and other one is used for
running the alternator for logging cabin.
Prime mover for both circuits is truck diesel engine. Mechanical energy turns
the pump which sucks hydraulic fluid from a tank and pushes it out under
pressure. The pressurized fluid in taken to the motor via hose. The pressurized
fluid then turns the motor, losses energy and returns to tank.
Displacement of a pump (or motor) is the amount of fluid moved per rotation.
It is measured in CC. We have two different hydraulic pump which are rotated
by a common prime mover. One pump is of 56 CC which is used to power
alternator which in turn provides power to logging cabin and wireline. Other
pump is of 90 CC which is used to drive winch section.
Broadly pumps are classified into two categories-
1. Fixed displacement- They can be operated in either direction for a fixed
flow output speed and torque.
2. Variable displacement – They can be operated in either direction for a fixed
flow output speed and infinitely variable torque.
Variable displacement pump uses a tiltable swashplate to vary displacement
(output flow). The swashplate is mounted on bearings and connected to
hydraulic control cylinders. The control directs fluids to and from the
cylinders causing the swashplate to tilt and change displacement of pump.
Tilting the swashplate in opposite direction reverses fluid flow to the motor
and its direction of rotation. Displacement of pump can be controlled by a
simple electrical joystick lever which is provided in winch control panel.
Winchman’s joystick sends a DC voltage to solenoid cells mounted on the
hydraulic pump.
Basic hydraulic support system-
1. System relief valve- It consist of a ball held seated in the valve body by the
compressive force of a heavy spring. When pressure at inlet is insufficient
to overcome the force of spring the valve remains closed. When the preset
pressure is reached the ball unseats and allows fluid to flow through the
outlet to tank. The pressure at which valve first opens is called the cracking
pressure.

57
2. Charge pump- A charge pump is a simple gear pump to supply system with
clean and cool fluid, compensate for leaks and keep the system under
pressure. As gears of pump rotate oil is trapped and pushed from one port
to another port. 2 charge pump are there in power pack unit for 2 different
pumps (56CC and 90 CC).

Charge Pump

2.Winching Section:

Winching section of logging unit is most important part as it helps in


communicating with tool downhole. It consists of a drum assembly, which
is hydraulically controlled, and a cable is wound around it, and its rotation
causes the cable to spool or unspool from the drum which enables to drive
up and down motion of tool string in the well.
In KWT001OH, there is dual drum assembly one for heptaconductor cable
and other for monoconductor cable.
Winching unit is operated by 90cc pump in power pack unit. Spooling and
unspooling of wireline cable is operated by Winchman with the help of
winch controls provided in the control panel in logging truck. There are
two joystick valves, one joystick valve is in order to control up and down
hole movement of the cable, whereas, other Joystick valve is connected to
spooling arm which helps in guiding the cable for proper alignment during
spooling.
Components of winch section-
1.Kerr Head:
Model used- Kerr AM5K
Winch section consists of Measurement head, also called as Kerr
Head(kerr is the name of manufacturing company). Kerr head is depth and tension
measuring system which is connected to the system inside engineer’s cabin with

58
help of odometer drive cable and Optical encoder cable mounted on spooler arm
(steering arm).
It uses dual spring loaded measuring wheels to measure the amount of wireline
in or out of the hole. The measuring wheel is connected to optical encoders that
transmits electrical pulse via a cable to the winchman’s control panel. Measuring
wheels has a circumference of 2ft. One rotation of wheel dials a count of 2ft on
optical encoder which further transmits electrical signals via a cable to the
winchman’s panel. An independently powered magnetic encoder is used for back
up indication. There is a load pin present in kerr for measuring tension. This
tension measured is the summation of the weight of the-
1. Wireline in the well
2. Toolstring
3. Drag exerted on the Toolstring

Load pin kerr head

There are other components of winch section-


Cable section- contains cable reels for different works like load cell, intercom,
SP(Spontaneous potential), DLL
59
Pneumatic section- cable drums can be moved upward or downward by using
pneumatic system.
3. Engineer section-
This section carries all the control panels to carry out logging operations.
There are mainly three surface acquisition systems used in HLSA-
 Excel 2K
 LogiQ A
 LogiQ B
In KWT001OH, LogiQ B system is used. There are 2 different racks of
systems that are in KWT001OH.
In Rack 1-
a) DC power supply-
Manufacturer- MATASUDA
It provides power to Cased Hole Interface Panel(CHIP)
b) CHIP- based on warrior software
Cased Hole Interface Panel- Manufacturer: Scientific data
systems Inc.
This panel is responsible for the acquisition of all signals
and data coming from the tools and the depth/tension
systems and outputting them to warrior software for
interpretation and recording.
c) Cable Shooting Panel(CSP7)-
The CSP7 is the shooting power panel for both the 7-
conductor cable and monocable perforating operations. A
CCL amplifier/filter and meter are incorporated in the
panel and the major functional unit within the panel is the
key lock safety switch. The CSP7 performs following
functions-
• A pathway between the cable conductors (through the
7-conductor rotary connector on the cable reel) and the
remainder of the surface system.
• An American Petroleum Institute (API) safe-perforating
environment through means of a switch that can be set to
SAFE, LOG, and SHOOT.
• A CCL amplifier, filter and meter for perforating
operations on either a 7-conductor or a single-conductor
logging cable.

60
d) Printex- printer to easily print the log on wellsite

e) Transformer mode panel(XMP)

f) Power and Telemetry control panel(PTC)- PTC is used to


supply power and telemetry to different power and
telemetry systems
g) Elgar power supply(AC1)- AC power supply rated at
1250W.
h) Elgar power supply(AC2)- AC power supply rated at
2500W.
i) Sorrenson power supply(DC1)- DC power supply rated at
600V 4A
j) Sorrenson Power supply(DC2)- DC power supply rated at
600V 4A
k) California power supply(AC3)- AC power supply rated at
6000W. It is used generally for Reservoir Description
Tool(RDT).
In Rack 2-
a) RMPC- Rack Mounted Personal Computer- It is same as
our personal computer but it is more ruggedized and it
has different compartments for different things.
b) Local hub- connect all other components with each other
c) Printer- Itera lite
d) UPS- backup power supply for RMPC

Cable shooting panel

61
Base Work

1.Housekeeping and logistics-


In bay 5, swept the whole floor, dusting of ready box and mopping the floor
with water so that no oil or grease remains on floor which can result in
hazard.
All tools should be arranged in rack and they should be in area where
environmental conditions do not affect them. If there is no space, then tool
can be kept outside in racks but with proper covering and packing
The housekeeping should be done safely as tools are heavy weighted and
they have very complex electronics inside them and if the tool trips then
electronics instrument of tool can be damaged.
Different types of logistics equipment are used for shifting the tools and
other things from one place to another place-
1. Trolleys- There is a V- shaped groove present in trolleys for cylindrical
tools. The tool does not trip easily due to presence of this V-shape
groove.

Trolley

62
Tool trolley
2. Bottom Trolley- This type of trolley is used in well head equipment job.
In this type of trolley one end is closed. During WHE job, top most part
of the WHE stack is attached to the closed end of bottom trolley, and
when whole WHE stack is pulled up for attaching to the well head using
mast then bottom trolley supports the WHE.

Bottom Trolley
3. Stacker/superlift- It is a machine used in bulk material handling. Stacker
have different capacities. Stacker used in HLS Asia is of capacity 1000
lb. It consists of a pulley system to move the platform up and down.

63
Stacker/superlift
2. Loading of Unit-(ASEP001OH)
The loading of the unit is one of the core parts on field marking the
commencement of the job. Whereas, while preparing for the job the main focus
is on gathering the essential and required tools for the job. The check lists are
completed of General supply of the unit to the main checklist of the job that needs
to be performed at the wellsite according to the client need and the unit is prepared
for the job under supervision. The adequate supply of the supplementary tools is
kept in case of the failure of the first one.
Some of the steps of loading the truck are as follows:
 The tools should be placed on their respective allotted positions only to
avoid time wastage on the job.
 The tools should be put carefully and their safety should be ensured while
loading
 The tools should have the ready tag or PM1 tag on them to be loaded.
 Adequate supply of safety gloves, cloth rag and hats should also be
included.
 Rig up equipment should be loaded
 Adequate no. of trolleys should be loaded
 The supervisor must ensure the checklist is completed.
 First of all, suitable checklists are needed to be selected on the basis of the
type of job to be done.
64
Checking alignment of charge before departure

Truck(ASEP001OH)
65
For a perforation operation, the directions for getting the unit ready are as
given below:
 A check of perforating gun is done before loading it into the truck. Check
of perforating guns include checking of alignment of guns and also
determining size of charge by placing dummy charge.
 Perforation gun loaded on truck was a scallop gun of 6 SPF and 60 o
phasing.
 Charges/explosives are loaded
 Explosives should be securely placed in the explosive box
 Caps and Tandems of size of the gun is selected and loaded
 Before tying guns with chain, a shaped charge or dummy charge of
equivalent size is aligned manually into the shots for verification purpose.
3.Preventive Maintenance of tools-
The casing-collar locator (CCL) is an important tool which is used for
depth correlation. When combined with a gamma ray log, it allows depth
correlation of a cased-hole logging run. Because it constitutes the primary depth
control, the CCL is run on almost every cased-hole tool string. The tool comprises
a coil-and-magnet arrangement with a down hole amplifier. It contains two like-
facing magnetic poles positioned on either side of a central coil. The magnetic
lines of flux are disturbed when the tool passes through a location consisting of a
casing collar. This is because when the tool passes through the casing collar, the
thickness of the metal across the casing increases which causes disturbance in the
magnetic flux. Corresponding to the change in the magnetic flux is converted into
a certain amount of voltage. This voltage signal is amplified and recorded at the
surface in the form of a voltage spike.

CCL tool
66
Bow spring centralizers are used to centralize the logging tool while conducting
a logging operation. It works on simple principle of spring. This tool is an
adjustable type of a centralizer, whose width is adjusted by the spring. The core
of the tool consists of a spring with a high spring constant value and the outer
layer consisting of 6 – 8 flexible metallic bows with high elastic values. One of
the ends of the spring is clamped while the other one consists of a threaded nut
which is capable of moving to and fro by the virtue of the parallel threading (i.e.
one on the inner side of the bolt and the other between the central rod and the
spring). This transverse motion of the nut causes the spring to compress and
restore. When the spring is compressed, its length decreases and hence the
clamped bows bend acting as a centralizer.

Bow spring centralizer


A comprehensive preventive maintenance program can greatly reduce the
frequency of equipment failures by finding and correcting potential problems
before failures occur. The PM#1 procedures include quick inspection,
maintenance, and resistance checks that are done after each job. PM#2 procedures
consist of periodic inspections and detailed maintenance, done by maintenance
team, it is performed based on the equipment or tool.
PM#1 procedure include-
1. Cleaning of tool with AC-90 to remove grease, oil and dirt. Threads
should be cleaned with a brush and protection caps of tools should also
be cleaned.
2. Visual inspection of tool to check for any cracks

67
3. Electrical continuity of tool is checked by applying Voltage across its
terminals and measuring the resistance with help of Fluke Digital or
RS260/RS270 Analog Multimeter. The obtained value is cross verified
with standard resistance value of the tool.
4. PM1 Tag(yellow) is attached to the tool after filling details like name
of engineer, date and any remarks.

4. Troubleshooting of offshore power pack unit-


Power pack unit provides power to logging cabin and winching section. It
contains motors and pumps to provide power. In offshore unit, there are 3
different section for logging purposes-
1. Engineer cabin
2. Winching section
3. Power pack unit
All 3 sections can be transported independently. Due to some problem the
offshore power pack unit was not starting. We tried to start it manually by starting
motor by rotating the lever.

Troubleshooting of offshore power pack unit

68
5.Testing of TTTC-U- Telemetry Through Tubing Cartiridge-Ultrawire
It is a telemetry tool which is used to give command to tool downhole from
surface facility and it also sends downhole data to surface.
The TTTC-U (Through Tubing Telemetry Cartridge - Ultrawire) consists of
four tools combined into
one housing-
1. Ultrawire/Ultralink Downhole Controller (XTU)-
The purpose of the XTU Downhole Controller is:
• To collect data from tools on the Ultrawire toolbus and to transmit this data to
the surface via the Ultralink line automatically or under user control.
• To facilitate bi-directional communication between the surface system and
individual Ultrawire tools.
• To convert high voltage DC power from the Ultralink line to supply the low
voltage tools on the Ultrawire toolbus.

2. Casing Collar Locator (CCL)


The CCL responds to changes in metal volume such as at tubing collars and
perforations. As the tool passes a collar, or a change in metal volume, lines of
metal flux between two opposing permanent magnets are disturbed. This
induces a low frequency voltage or EMF in a coil mounted between the
magnets. This signal is amplified and compensated for line speed to maintain a
high signal gain in all circumstances. Finally, the signal is converted by a
voltage-controlled oscillator for recording in the Ultrawire section of the tool.

3. Production Gamma Ray (PGR)


The PGR comprises a Sodium Iodide scintillation crystal and photomultiplier to
measure incident gamma radiation. PGR operates as part of a Ultrawire
toolstring and derives power and control from a suitable system controller e.g.
XTU. The detector is unshielded and will thus accept radiation from any
direction.
4.Halliburton PNT/Ultrawire Crossover (XHU)
The XHU enables a Halliburton Pulse Neutron Tool (PNT) to communicate
with the Ultrawire telemetry system and provides power at 200V DC for the
PNT.
During testing, tool was first cleaned with AC 90(cleaning liquid) and a dry cloth.
Then tool was connected to RMPC (Ruggedized Rack Mounted Personal
Computer) in lab and was tested for gamma ray count and casing collar locator.

69
At first, gamma ray count rate was not coming due to some problem in PGR, then
tool was opened up using C- spanner and electronics of tool was pulled out and
examined. Then after proper adjustments the tool was fixed up.

6. Winching operation on garage winch


A winch is a simple cable mounted spool of approximately 1-meter width,
approx. ½ m spool width and 1-meter flange width. One end of the winch is
connected with a gear transmission mechanism through heavy duty chains. This
gear mechanism is in turn powered and controlled by an operating panel.
Together, this entire operating system is known as a winch and the corresponding
operation is known as winching operation. The main controlling panel of garage
winch has three main operations carries one lever which is used to perform
winching operation. During If joystick position is forward then drum will rotate
anticlockwise and if joystick position is in backward then drum will rotate
clockwise. Due to lot of noises at working site, there are certain hand signals
which are used during winching operation.

70
Hand signals in winching operation

Garage Winch

Garage winch control panel

71
7. Preparation of power supply cable for offshore unit
In power supply cable for offshore unit there are 4 conductor wires which are
used for power transmission. First, the insulation of cable was cut for around 2 ft.
using wire cutter and NT cutter on both sides. This exposed the 4 conductors of
wire. Then for 1ft. approx. of insulation of each of four wires was cut using wire
cutter and NT cutter. Then clampers were fitted in 3 of the conductor wires at one
end and then silicon tape (high temperature tape) was attached to the 3 of the
conductor wires.
To properly apply the tape, the tape should be stretched and applied. Then for
attaching an adaptor on other side we have to perform soldering (Soldering is a
process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and then
flowing a filler metal into the joint—the filler metal having a relatively low
melting point, with soldering we get permanent connections between electronic/
electrical components). Then, the 3 of the conductor wires were soldered into the
adaptor using solder wire. After soldering, filler material around the connection
was cleaned using AC90 and a brush. Then splicing tape(scotch) and silicon tape
was applied using above mentioned technique only.

Wire clamper attached to the conductor wire

Silicon tape Splicing tape

72
Adaptor attached to the other end
8. Troubleshooting wireline-
The resistivity between conductor wire and its armor is expressed in giga (10 9)
ohms. But due to some problem it was detected the resistivity reading between
armor and conductor wire is in mega ohms. This suggests that there is a short
region in wire which decreases the value of the resistivity.

After calculations it was estimated that wire was short from around 350 m from
free end. The short region was need to be found rather cutting the wire, because
of two main reasons:
 If the wire was cut the actual length 1450 m (approx.) would get reduced
to 1100 m and would rarely be left useful for most of the purposes due to
the decreased length.
 The cost of the cable was very high; and hence the 350 m (approx.) portion
cut from the cable would go waste for no sense.
Attempts made to solve the issue
The most obvious way to catch the short region in an electrical cable is to
bend it. By doing this, the shot region would get perfectly short and a large change
in resistivity would be seen.
Hence the shot region can accurately be determined. After this, a thorough
analysis can be carried out with the help of which the wire can be restored.
At the first attempt a thin flow tube was taken and passed throughout the
wire keeping the wire on the ground and the flow tube a bit above it so that the
wire bends a bit at the both the ends of the flow tube.
A meggermeter (Meggermeter enable us to measure electrical leakage in wire,
results are very reliable as we shall be passing electric current through device

73
while we are testing. It is used for verifying the electrical insulation level of any
device such as motor, cable, generator winding, etc.) was connected between
armor and conductor wire and resistance was measured. A change in resistance
was expected but it was not observed.

Calculation of short region in wire


After discussions, it was decided to bring thermal imaging camera.
According to the heat and electric current relation equation,
𝐻 = 𝐼 2 𝑅𝑡
Where, H = Heat produced
I = Electric Current(Amperes)
R = Resistance of the wire (Ohms)

74
t = Total time for which the current passed
(seconds)
If we pass large value of current through then heat produced will be more and as
resistance of that region is less it will be at lower temperature than other region.
Then by using thermal imaging camera it will be detected but due to some reason
this method was also not successful.
9. Troubleshooting of alternator-
Alternator belongs to the family of electric rotating machines like DC motor or
generator. It converts electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy or vice-versa.
In power pack unit we use hydraulic alternator which uses hydraulic fluid to run.
Due to some problems, the alternator was functioning properly then for
troubleshooting alternator, pressure hoses were opened from all 4 ports and the
alternator was opened up and all its components were inspected were inspected.
After inspection, it was found that one hydraulic valve (Hydraulic valve properly
directs the flow of hydraulic fluid by governing direction, pressure and flow) was
not functioning properly then that hydraulic valve was changed to get proper
output from alternator.

Alternator
10. PM1 of GPLT shock sub-
Gamma perforator logging tool(GPLT) is a depth correlation tool designed
specifically for operation with explosive equipment, such as perforating guns,
packers and plugs, and coring guns. The tool can operate in liquid or gas-filled,

75
openhole or cased hole wells. No borehole corrections are performed in the
algorithms, and calibration procedures are only used to ensure that the tool is
working properly before and after jobs. The tool has a built-in shock absorber
system and does not require an external shock sub. In addition, the electronic
components are covered with silicon potting to help dampen the shock wave that
impacts components.
It has three configurations-
 Normal perforating and plug setting
 Standalone gamma/CCL- correlation
 Side wall coring
GPLT shock sub is used to dampen the shock waves that tool experience during
the operation.

GPLT Shock Sub


PM1 of GPLT shock sub includes-
1. Cleaning of tool with AC90 spray to remove dirt, oil, grease.
2. Visually check tool for cracks, check O ring for any cuts.
3. Checking electrical continuity by Analog/digital Multimeter by connecting
probe between points given in PM1 sheet and matching obtained values
with the standard values.
4. Proper greasing before assembling the tool.

76
Greasing of threads of GPLT shock sub
11. Disassembling of grease injector-
Grease injector controls and contain pressure while allowing cable to travel in/out
of the well. It has two sub-assemblies- stuffing box and flotube assembly.
Stuffing box is designed to pack off on a stationary wireline by means
of rubber powered by hydraulic pressure.
Flotube assembly is made up to tightly fit around the wireline. Each
flotube have pressure rating of 1400-1500 psi. When entering a well
under pressure, viscous grease in injected into the flotubes. Grease fills
the remaining annular space in flotube and outside surface of wireline,
forming a liquid seal that contains the well pressure allowing movement
of wireline.
Grease injector was disassembled and its flotube assembly was changed
as after very long time due to continuous movement of wireline from
flotube its diameter changes and it becomes unable to provide required
pressure control. Each flotube in grease injector reduces incoming
pressure by around 500 psi.
12. Construction of monocable head-
Due to the nature of wireline work there is requirement of a weak link
constructed between the cable and the tool string which in deployed in a well to
allow for the capability of separating from the tool string in the event it becomes
stuck in the well.
They are mainly two types of weak link-
1. Solid weak link- used in open hole DITS cable head
2. Cased hole weak link- constructed from individual armors of cable
Cased hole weak link is constructed as part of cable head. The cable head serves
as a housing to protect the weak link and also as the electrical and mechanical
construction point between the cable and tool string.

77
First the stinger is slide over the cable from end of the cable. Then cable is
wrapped with steelgrip tape about 1.5 ft from the end of cable. This covering of
tape protects the wireline when it in secured in bench vise. Next cable is placed
between two halves of the cable clamp and secured tightly in vise.

Secure wireline into bench vise


Using nylon thread, wrap the cable 15-18 in from the end. The cord is used to
prevent the brass core from slipping during the construction of cable head. Slip
the brass core from end of the cable and seat it against nylon thread. Brass core
should be flat upside down. As the single conductor cable head uses strands of
armor from the cable to make the weak point assembly. We have to perform the
weak point calculations to determine the number of outer and inner armor
strands of armor required for weak point assembly. We have used 10 strands of
outer armor and 2 strands of inner armor to build the rope socket.
Now, use a pair of pliers to unravel the first strand of outer armor. Bend the
armor strand around the rounded part of brass cone and pass the strand of armor
through the nearest hole in bottom of the brass cone.

78
Bending the armor around the cone

Pull out the strand tightly with the help of electric plier. Then, bend the strand
out from the brass cone at the right angle to keep the strand tight around the
cone.

Passing the strand through the cone

79
Bending the strand
Using wire cutters and cut off the strand of armor that is coming out of the edge
of brass cone. Repeat the process with remaining 9 strands of outer armor,
leaving space between each strand around the cone.

Outer armor strands around cone


Clip the remaining nine strands of outer armor directly above the cone without
bending them over the curve of the cone.
Now take two strands of inner armor and bend them over the top of cone. Then,
insert them through the corresponding empty holes in base of the cone. Pull the
both strands tight and bend them at a right angle from bottom of the cone then
cut them off evenly with the base of the cone.

80
Insert inner armor strands in cone
Take nylon thread and wrap it around the remaining strands of inner armor
about 0.5 inch above the brass cone. Bend each of the remaining strands of
inner armor down over the nylon thread and cut the strands with help of wire
cutter leaving small length of armor strands pointing down. Take extra care that
any sharp edge should not point upward.

Inner armor strands removed


Take the cable out of the bench vise, remove cable clamp and slide the stinger
over the brass cone. Slide the brass cone retainer over the insulated conductor
wire with the beveled side down until it rests on the cone. Hold stinger in one
hand and attach cable head sleeve over the insulated conductor wire using hands
only. Secure cable head in bench vise. Measure 4in to 5in of conductor wire
from cable head sleeve and cut the extra wire. Remove insulation of 1in of
conductor wire. Install the thread boot over the end of conductor wire and slide
it down the cable head sleeve.
Insert exposed portion of the conductor wire in brass terminal nut of contact
sub. Twist the wire around brass terminal to secure it to the contact sub.
81
Connection of conductor wire with contact sub
Slide the boot over the end of terminal and seal the large end of boot with nylon
thread.
Screw contact sub into cable head sleeve and them clamp the contact sub into
the bench vice. Then using pipe wrench tighten the cable head sleeve onto the
contact sub. Remove the contact sub from bench vise and clamp stinger in the
bench vise. Using pipe wrench tighten the cable head sleeve into the stinger.
Now our cable head is properly assembled, proper greasing of cable head is
necessary for correct functioning of cable head. After every run in the well, it is
necessary to grease the cable head. To grease the cable head, first remove set
screw from cable head sleeve using allen key. Use a grease gun to fill the cable
head with silicon grease.
13. Under pressure test of Radial bond tool-
Radial bond tool(RBT) is tool which is used to determine cement strength
assure the asset owner of hydraulic isolation between producing and non-
producing zones, and the integrity of the well, by the effective placement of the
cement between the well tubulars (typically casing) and the formation.
Proper calibration should be performed as part of annual maintenance schedule
or after a major service or repair. The calibration is performed in free pipe. It
can be difficult to find truly free pipe in a well. Therefore, before a job the free
pipe calibration is performed using the calibration tank. To simulate downhole
conditions and to compress any air voids the tank is filled with
water. The tank represents casing and it is closed at one end and open at one
end. After inserting the tool string from end, that end is closed tightly. After that
pressure is allowed to build up in the tank by filling it with water. After a
required pressure of 500-700 psi is reached then water supply is turned off.
There should not be any leakage in the tank(casing) as that could lower the
82
pressure. A pressure gauge is also installed on the casing to check the pressure
inside the casing.

Under pressure test of RBT

Tool stack of RBT

83
14. Cleaning and oiling of overbody, jemco and cleaning of standoff-
Overbody has a metallic ribbed design which provides flexibility and smooth
motion in borehole. Spring bow adds strength to the overbody and help in keeping
the tool centralized. They are mostly used in open hole operations.

Overbody.
Jemco has a design similar to the overbody but its metallic ribs are more
hardened than overbody. They are mostly used in open hole conditions.

Jemco

84
Cleaning and oiling of equipment’s is important as if they are not cleaned and
oiled properly then they will get rusted.
Steps of cleaning and oiling-
 Clean with a dry cloth
 Look for any defects or damage to the equipment
 Dip a different cloth in oil and apply on the metallic bows and the joints.
Standoff- standoff are used to provide protection from differential sticking to the
tool. They are mostly used in tools which has calipers or pads. There are two
types of standoff used-
1. Rubber standoff- made of rubber
2. Teflon standoff- made of Teflon
Teflon standoff are more temperature resistant than rubber standoff.

Rubber standoff Teflon Standoff

15. Observed XRMI calibration-


As explained above X-tended Range Micro Imaging(XRMI) is an imaging tool.
Its provides us with borehole image.
Tool stack of XRMI used in calibration- (top to bottom)

85
 Load Cell Cable Head(LCCH)
 Casing Collar locator
 Multi conductor swivel assembly
 Green isolator
 D4TG (DITS 4 Telemetry Gamma)
 XRMI electronic
 Sonde
 Bull Nose
For calibration of XRMI, test box is used in which there is box involving
electronics that creates a particular image of borehole tool. One by one, test box
is connected to each of the pad (there are 6 pads in XRMI) each of the pad is
calibrated.

XRMI test box

86
XRMI calibration

16. PM1 of DLL test box-


DLL is dual latero log tool (resistivity tool). For proper calibration of tool, the
test is used. In test box of DLL there are 4 boxes. Each box stimulates formation
of different resistivity. For stimulation of resistivity, network of resistors was
employed in box.

87
Series of resistor in DLL test box

PM1 of DLL test box include-


 Cleaning box with cloth to remove dirt
 If the ports of DLL test box are very dirty then spray isopropyl to clean
them
 Check the error in fluke Multimeter by joining two probes
 Using fluke Multimeter check electrical continuity of text box according
to PM1 sheet, if there is any error in the Multimeter then do the
correction in resistance value
 Write the resistance values in PM1 sheet after applying error correction
to them
 If the values are not coming accordingly to the PM1 sheet, then take the
test box in lab and get it checked
 If all the values are according to PM1 sheet, then apply ready(green) tag
on the box.

88
PM1 of DLL test box

17. Physical verification of central store(PV)-


Physical verification is a process to verify the record of any storehouse or any
place where we store the things for future use. Physical verification includes
checking part no., quantity and location of parts or components that are present
in store. If the quantity of components is less or more then indicate it in the data
sheet.
During PV, some of the objects observed are-
1. O ring- O ring is a seal in the form of ring with circular cross section.
Mainly, they are used between thread or joints to form perfect seal
between two things. It also acts as the pressure seal.
Parameters of O-ring:
 Size
 Hardness- it is measured in durometer
 Manufacturing material-
Mainly there are 4 types of materials of which O rings are made-
a) Nitrile
b) Buna-N
c) Fluoro Carbon
d) Viton
Manufacturing material of O ring is decided based upon the
temperature which O ring will experience.
89
2. Retainer ring-
It is type of ring that hold something else in its place. It is installed in
assemblies or shaft to hold them.
3. Back up ring
4. Electronic components- IC’s, resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes,
adaptors, connections
5. Screws
6. Boot adaptor
7. other tool components
18. PM1 of logging truck(KWT001OH)-
As logging truck is heart of the logging operation, Preventive maintenance of
logging truck is very important. It is done in a period of one month.
Procedure-
1. Cleaning of logging truck and its rig up equipments- cleaning is done in
washing pit. For removing grease and oil, diesel is used to clean the
logging truck
2. Cleaning of driver cabin- mats of driver cabin are taken out and cleaned
also all things are driver cabin are arranged.
3. Cleaning and arranging engineer cabin- mats of engineer cabin are taken
out and cleaned thoroughly. All files in engineering should be arranged
properly. All meters like fluke Multimeter, meggermeter should be in the
engineering cabin. Checklist of engineering cabin is completed

Electrical continuity check


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4. All nuts and bolts in truck are checked. They should be tight and there
should be no damage to them. Proper care should be taken so that during
tightening nut and bolts, threads should not get damaged.
5. Greasing is done- To provide proper lubrication, greasing should be done
very carefully. There are total of 96 greasing points in KWT001OH
including 14 in Kerr head.
6. Cleaning of Kerr head- Kerr head should be cleaned with AC 90. Its
pulleys should be cleaned safely
7. Checking electrical continuity of cables- Salt water test of intercom, load
cell, DLL and SP reel is carried out
8. Battery check- Voltage of battery is checked once when truck is in off
condition and second when truck is start. Voltage of battery when truck is
start is approx. greater than 1 volt when truck is off.
9. Engine oil check- Engine oil level is checked
10.General supply check list is done
11.Grease guns are filled- both silicon and general grease guns are filled
12.Tool check list is done
19. Calibration of SDLT-
Spectral Density Logging Tool is used to measure the electron density and
gamma ray absorption properties of formation. Gamma rays is continuously
emitted from Cs-137 of 1.5 Curie and gamma ray lose energy as they collide
with the electrons of atoms present in the formation. Using measurement of
gamma rays returning to the tool is used to compute the bulk density(ρb) and
photoelectric factor(Pe) of the formation.
As SDLT measures the density of formation, it is required to check and
calibrate the tool before every job operation. Visual inspection of calipers of
SDLT should be done, there should be not any damage to the calipers.
According to the company policy calibration in usually performed-
 After every 30 days
 After major tool repair
 After replacing wear plates on pad assembly

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Calibration of SDLT

Calibration of SDLT
Calibration is performed with Magnesium block(Mg) and aluminum block(Al)
of known ρb, Pe values. Our aim is to determine gains and offsets for converting
measured count rates to calibrated count rates.

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First, proper barricading of area is required while tool is calibrated as it includes
radioactive source(Cs-137) and signage board depicting that there is presence of
radiation.
Calibration steps-

 Dual Spaced Neutron Tool(DSNT) is attached to SDLT and put on


trolleys.
 Then DSNT is connected to Gamma Telemetry Tool(GTET) through a
jumper.
 Calibration blocks of aluminum and magnesium are cleaned with a clean
dry cloth.
 Apply light coating of oil or grease to remove air gaps as we could
observe density differences due to air gaps and grease has less density
difference with the calibration blocks than air so it will cause minimum
errors to the calibration

Oiling of calibration blocks


 Check source cavity for any obstructions and check the O rings of the
source holder. Till this step source has not been installed.
 Position tool joint with X end of the block
 Pad must be rotated so that detectors point straight down into block and
source cavity is on the upper side of block

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Source Cavity
Source Cavity

Detector

Calibration Block

 Now install the source from side. Keep special care in installing source.
 Power up the tool and measure density values of aluminum and
magnesium and cross verify them with the actual values usually written
on the calibration blocks only.
 According to the obtained values gain and offset is determined.

20. Preparation of WHE hoses-


Well head equipment(WHE) is used in production logging to contains pressure
coming from the wellbore. In WHE, pressure hoses are an important part.
Connection to pressure hoses were attached and proper binding up of cable was
done.
21. Splicing Job-
Splicing is an important job in wireline services because as some times, if the
tool is stuck up in the borehole we have to perform fishing. During fishing
techniques, our wireline is cut and these reduces the length of wireline. Also, if
there is some fault in wireline and it needs to be removed then cable is cut to
remove the fault, this leaves us with two parts of wireline having short length,
thus incapable of performing wireline operations. Due to reduction of length in
wireline, wireline cannot perform operations at greater depth thus we
join(splice), two wirelines to get wireline of desired length.
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Splicing job was performed between 2 spools of cable having length of 2100 m
and 1600m. At first, in the cable drum of logging unit both lengths of wireline
were spooled up. Wireline of 1600m is spooled over the 2100 m cable.
According to the client needs, 1600m of wireline needs to spooled up first in the
cable drum of logging unit and then cable should be spliced and then 2100 m
part should be spooled up.
Spooling of cable-
To perform the job, 1600m was cable was spooled out to the garage winch.
Then, 2100 m cable was spooled out on different garage winch. Then for
perform spooling to the cable drum, capstan was used.
Capstan is a machine through which wireline is passed to give tension to it. It is
essential that logging cable be sent on winch using the proper spooling profile
only. The proper spooling profile is the profile that will match the tensions
expected during logging as closely as possible. Thus, it is very important to
build up cable tension as quickly as possible so that cable in lower layers will
have the highest tension possible. The higher the cable tension, the more
resistant the cable is to being crushed (change in shape of cable). There are
certain parameters which we need to remember during spooling-
1. Fleet angle- It is defined as the angle between-
 line passing through centre of sheave and flinch of drum
 line passing through centre of drum and centre of sheave
Maximum value of fleet angle is 1.25o.
2. Bed tension- Tension at which lowest layer is spooled. After that tension
is kept on increasing to a pre-determined value. In above mentioned job,
bed tension was kept between 1500-2000 lbs.

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Spooling profile for 7-conductor

Fleet angle

Spooling job
For spooling, a sheave was tied to a vertical pole and 1600 m of cable from
garage winch was spooled up to the logging unit. During spooling, the constant
hammering was done to set the layers.

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The 1600 m cable was spooled up to the cable drum. Length of the cable up on
the unit was approx. 1550 m as 50 m of cable was passing through capstan and
sheave.

Capstan

As the cable is heptacable, there are 7 conductors at core. Cable has 12 inner
armor and 18 outer armor. Thus we have to join at total 37 points (7+12+18).
During splicing, all the joints are not made at same point, as this could increase
the diameter at that particular point and mechanical strength of cable decreases
largely at that point. So, each cable would be joined at a distance of 2 feet.
Thus we need 74 ft. (37*2=74) of cable out of the drum. Taking margin, 80ft
length was considered. The outer and inner armor of 2100 m cable (the one
which is on the winch) is taken out in such a way that their helical shape retains.
For outer armor, a pair of 6 wires were made of 80ft each, making 3 pairs.
For inner armor, a pair of 4 wires were made of 80ft each, making 3 pairs.
For conductor wire, we need 16ft of wire as 14ft (7*2=14) of length for splicing
and a margin of 2ft. By taking out inner and outer armor, we have 80 ft. of
exposed conductor wire, thus 64ft of conductor wire was cut. Thus, we have 16
ft. of exposed conductor wire and 80ft of inner and outer armor.

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For 1600m cable, outer and inner armor are uncoiled by 14ft and then these are
cut as we need 16ft of conductor wire to perform splicing.

Uncoiling of armor wires


To join the cables, any conductor cable is chosen at random from 7 conductor
wire of both the cable that needs to be spliced (both the conductor wire should
be same for the cable needs to be spliced). Then, insulation of both the cables is
peeled off for 2 ft. and inner conductor wires are exposed. All conductor wires
are separated. Then each conductor wire is joined with other and twisted using
electrical plier. This point of meeting is then then sealed with dental floss. After
covering it with dental floss, two different tapes are applied to the meeting
point. One tape is high adhesive and another one is high temperature tape. In
this way, all seven conductors of cable are joined. The extra 2ft conductor wire
is then cut.

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Splicing table

Splicing of conductor wire

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Splicing of conductor wire

For splicing of inner armor, a single armor wire from each of these cable was
chosen, and they are set helically on the wire. Every inner armor is coiled up to
the 2 ft. and then cut. Inner armor is not joined using any type of tape. Both the
inner armor is only touched at a point. Similarly, all other inner armor is joined.
After inner armor are joined, coiling of outer armor starts. Outer armor is coiled
over the length of 38ft. They are also joined in the same way as inner armor.
Now, after splicing both the cables, the total length of cable becomes 3700m.
then the remaining part was spooled up to the logging unit using capstan.
22. Troubleshooting of KWT001OH-
There was hydraulic oil leakage from the backward portion of KWT001OH.
The oil was first cleaned up and suspected spots where leakage could happen
was identified and these spots were properly cleaned with AC90 spray and a
clean paper was kept there. If is leakage on those spots, then the oil would fall
on paper which will give us idea where is the leakage. But we were unable to
identify the leakage, then after some time the unit was taken to washing pit for

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some work. Then we saw the oil is leaking from winch drum motor. The oil was
leaking only when the truck is in motion. The oil leaked during truck motion
was getting deposited and then this oil was leaking when truck was stationary.
After that winch motor was opened and its was checked for leakage.
23. Post job maintenance-
Post job maintenance includes cleaning of tool string that was used, logging
truck, rig up equipment, trolleys and other things that were used in job.
Proper greasing of sheave wheel is done. There are 2 grease points in sheave.
Greasing of sheave is done for proper working of sheave. Grooves of sheave are
cleaned thoroughly with diesel.
24.CSNG calibration-
Observed calibration of CSNG against thorium blanket.
25.DLL calibration-
Tool string used-
 Load cell cable Head
 Spontaneous potential- measures the potential difference within the
formation due to difference in concentration of various ions
 Current Return- provide a return path for current
 Bridle- used to increase length of tool
 Bear sub
 D4TG- telemetry tool
 DLL-power
 Green isolator- Provides electrical isolation
 DLL- instrument
 Sonde- contains measurement related electronics
 MSFL- used to measure resistivity of mud cake
 Bull nose- used to terminate telemetry signal
26. FWST calibration-
Tool string used-
 Load cell cable head
 D4TG-telemetry tool
 FWST-TX- transmitter for full wave sonic tool
 Green isolator- provides electric isolation
 FWST-RX- receiver for full wave sonic tool
 Bull nose- used to terminate telemetry signal
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27. Understanding fishing assembly-
The loss of a tool down the wellbore has caused trouble practically from the
start. Fishing is well workover and intervention technique described as the
applications of tools, equipment and techniques for the removal of stuck tools
from the wellbore. The tool that needs to be removed is termed as ‘fish’. Key
elements of fishing operation include understanding and dimensions of the fish
to be removed, wellbore conditions, tools and techniques that will be employed
and handling of fish at surface.
Fishing Techniques-
1. Cut and thread-
It the cable is keyseated(wireline is stuck to the borehole wall) , then most
easy thing to perform is to cut and thread the cable through drillpipe. If
the tool length is less and/or borehole diameter is large or unknown then
cut and thread technique is only reliable option.
2. Reverse cut and thread- It is similar to cut and thread technique except
that the wireline remains connected to the toolstring after successful
engagement of the fish and while pulling out of the hole. The cable is cut
every 90 feet during pulling out.
3. Side- door overshot- Tool stuck at the end of surface pipe is best
recovered using the side door overshot technique. Casing internal
diameter should not be less than 5.5 in to allow the cable head torpedo to
pass through the side door. This technique should not be used on key
seated cable.
Fishing kit-
Fishing tools are designed to retrieve various types of fish from inside of
tubing, casing. They are engineered to withstand heavy pulling, torsional and
jarring strains without damaging the fish. Whole assembly of fishing kit is
fine thread so much torque should not be applied during assembly.
There are four types of fishing assembly-
1. Extra full strength
2. Full strength
3. Slim strength
4. Semi strength
Components of fishing kit-
1. Top sub- it is the uppermost component of fishing assembly. It has a
proper box connection to assure correct connection with fishing string.
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2. Bowl-

Bowl is located between the top sub and guide. Inside the bowl there is a
helix structure which holds the exterior helix structure of grapple. Due to
helical design, any expansion or compression strain is evenly distributed
over entire area of bowl, grapple, and the fish. Due to this design, damage
to the fishing assembly and fish is minimized. In bowl, 3 components are
fixed during fishing- packoff, grapple, grapple control.

3. Guide-
It guides the fish into grapple of the fishing assembly. It also minimizes
damage to the fishing assembly by blocking the entry of fish than the
maximum size of fishing assembly. They are basically two types of
guide-
a) Plain guide
b) Lip guide

4. Grapple-
Grapple fits into the bowl and acts as gripping mechanism for fishing
assembly.

Grapple

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Fishing assembly

5. Grapple control-
Grapple also fits inside bowl. It transmits torque from bowl to the grapple
while allowing grapple to move vertically inside the bowl.

6. Packoff-
It is designed to pack the specific catch size of grapple. It has an internal
lip that seals around the fish.

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Safety in Logging
Some of the logging tools use radioactive sources and high voltages. After
lowering of the casing and cementation, perforation operations are carried out to
establish flow of hydrocarbon from the well to the surface. The process involves
use of explosives to carry out the job. To handle these issues and to minimize
risk associated with above jobs, Best practices have been formulated and safety
procedures has adopted. Many regulations are adopted from Atomic Energy
Regulatory Board (AERB), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC),
Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organization (PESO), Oil Industry Safety
Directorate (OISD) and Director General Mines and Safety (DGMS). All
personal involved with the logging operation should have been imparted proper
training. A brief safety meeting must be conducted by logging crew In-charge
with concerned rig personnel prior to commencement of the job at site.
General precautions:
 Wear a helmet before commencing work. Check the area for possible safety
problems.
 Inspect all the logging rig-up equipment before use. Mud spillage must be
removed from derrick floor to avoid skidding.
 All the persons at site must remain at a safe distance from the moving cable,
rotating sheaves and cable drum. Proper and sufficient mud circulation must be
ensured.
 The logging unit should be equipped with a shooting panel having Safe
lockable switch which shunts all logging power lines to earth via a resistor,
when in SAFE mode and the logging job should be suspended under condition
of lightening, thunderstorm etc.
 In Production logging all the well head pressure control equipment (PCE)
must be thoroughly serviced before operation.
 It should be ensured that the grease injector pump can be operated from the
safe distance of not less than 10m from well head.
 While working in H2S environment, special corrosion resistant logging
equipment, ‘O’ rings seals and cable should be used. The personnel should use
protective mask.
Fire Precautions
An area within 30m of the well head should be treated as danger zone in which
no smoking or open flame should be permitted and all the electrical equipment
should be flame proof.
Adequate number of fire extinguishers should be kept readily available at site.
During rig less production logging job, a fire tender with operator must be
stationed at the well site.

105
Radiological Safety
In nuclear logging devices, neutron or gamma ray source is used along with
nuclear radiation detectors for carrying out logging. Radioactive sources are
sealed, doubly encapsulated as per the specifications of regulatory authority so
as to with stand borehole temperature, pressure, impact, vibration and puncture.
The radiation hazard can be minimized:
 By reducing the time of exposure
 By maintaining a safe distance from the source
 By shielding the source of harmful radiations.

Following measures should be taken for storage, transportation and handling of


radioactive sources.
 At base the sources should be stored in a strong room as per the AERB
regulation and plan approved by BARC. The room should be located at an
isolated but wellguarded place.
 Warning signs should be displayed prominently in front of the room.
 The sources should be transported in shielded containers approved by the
regulatory authority. The containers should be locked, secured with the unit/van
during transportation. The radiation warning signs must be displayed
conspicuously on the unit carrying the radioactive sources.
 Proper record of all the source inventory and movement must be kept with
RSO.
 Regular wipe test must be conducted for leakage detection.
 The sources should be handled by trained personnel only. Long tongs should
be used for placing the sources in the borehole tools and keeping them back in
the transport container after the use.
 The transfer of the source to and from the container to logging device must be
completed in the least possible time. Move away from the tool while field
checking the tool with verifier that contains radiation sources.
 The tools utilizing accelerator type of neutron sources should be powered only
inside the well or calibration tank. After the job, tools should be washed only
after removing the radioactive source.
 All personnel handling the source should wear radiation monitoring badges.
These badges must be sent to BARC or its approved agency for processing. The
records of radiation exposure of all the personnel should be kept by designated
RSO(Radiation Safety Officer).
 In case of emergencies the Head, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division
(RPAD), BARC, Mumbai must be informed immediately.
 If fire or explosion occurs in a well in which radioactive source is present, it

106
should be treated as lost in the well and should be abandoned. If however the
source is at the surface immediate steps should be taken to remove it to the safe
place.
Explosives Safety
 The Explosive rules 1983 and the recommended oil field practices must be
followed in storage, transportation, handling and disposal of explosives.
 Explosives should be stored in licensed magazines constructed as per the
approved design of Chief Controller of Explosives, Nagpur.
 To and fro transportation of explosives from magazine to supply base should
be done in a licensed explosive van. The primary and secondary explosives
should be carried in approved containers placed separately.
 Explosives should be handled by persons authorized and trained for the
purpose.
 All mobile phones, VHF set, Telemetry, Generators, power for cathodic
protection and SRP must be switched off before commencing the job involving
use of explosives. The area should also be cleared of all combustible material.
 Use ballistic multi-meter for testing of detonating fuse/ igniter. Any stray
voltage measured between casing head-rig structure-logging unit should be
reduced to below 0.25v.
 Connect all the rig, well head and unit with grounding cable. Insulation check
of logging cable and accessories should be carried out.
 The cable and accessories should be discharged after such test. The shooting
panel of the logging unit should have all the safety provision as mentioned
under the paragraph of electrical safety.
 The safety switch must be put in SAFE mode before connecting charged gun
with logging cable. Electrical generators should not be switched on till the gun
is lowered at least up to 70m depth. Electrical arming of the gun should be done
prior to ballistic arming.
 Explosives should not be primed in condition of storm, lightening etc.
The job should be undertaken during day light hours only

107