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Filters

.

Filters may be classified as either digital or analog.

.

. Digital filters are implemented using a digital computer or special purpose digital hardware.

Digital filters are implemented using a digital computer or

special purpose digital hardware.

a digital computer or special purpose digital hardware. EEE 309 Analog filters may be classified as

EEE 309

Analog filters may be classified as either passive or active and . usually implemented with

Analog filters may be classified as either passive or active and

.

usually implemented with R, L, and C components and operational amplifiers.

are

An active filter is one that, along with R, L, and C components, also .

An active filter is one that, along with R, L, and C components, also

.

contains an energy source, such as that derived from an operational

amplifier.

A passive filter is one that contains only R, L, and C components . It

A passive filter is one that contains only R, L, and C components. It is

.

not necessary that all three be present at the same time. L is often omitted

(on purpose) from passive filter design because of the size and cost of inductors and they also carry along an R that must be included in the design.

EEE202because of the size and cost of inductors – and they also carry along an R

EEE201because of the size and cost of inductors – and they also carry along an R

Passive Analog Filters

Background:

Four types of filters - “Ideal”
Four types of filters - “Ideal”
Lowpass (LP) H()
Lowpass (LP)
H()
Four types of filters - “Ideal” Lowpass (LP) H()  Bandpass (BP) H()  Highpass (HP)

Bandpass (BP) H()
Bandpass (BP)
H()

Highpass (HP) H()
Highpass (HP)
H()

H()  Bandpass (BP) H()  Highpass (HP) H() Bandstop (BS) H()  Transfer Function (Freq.

Bandstop (BS) H()
Bandstop (BS)
H()

H()  Highpass (HP) H()  Bandstop (BS) H()  Transfer Function (Freq. characteristics of circuit)

Transfer Function (Freq. characteristics of circuit)

H (

V out   ) V in
V
out
 
)
V
in

Passive Analog Filters

Background:

Realistic Filters:
Realistic Filters:

Transfer Function (Freq. characteristics of circuit)

V out

Transfer Function (Freq. characteristics of circuit) V out V in H (   ) Highpass

V in

Function (Freq. characteristics of circuit) V out V in H (   ) Highpass (HP)
H (   ) Highpass (HP) H()
H (
 
)
Highpass (HP)
H()
Lowpass (LP) H()
Lowpass (LP)
H()
in H (   ) Highpass (HP) H() Lowpass (LP) H()  Bandpass (BP) H()

Bandpass (BP) H()
Bandpass (BP)
H()

V in H (   ) Highpass (HP) H() Lowpass (LP) H()  Bandpass (BP)

Bandstop (BS) H()
Bandstop (BS)
H()

V in H (   ) Highpass (HP) H() Lowpass (LP) H()  Bandpass (BP)

All linear circuits act as some kind of filter.

All linear circuits act as some kind of filter. Given a circuit we would like to

Given a circuit we would like to find out its filtering characteristics

we would like to find out its filtering characteristics 1 . E x p e r

1.

Experimentally

2.

Analytically

Frequency response of circuit (experimentally)

( ) t V in Linear circuit Set
( )
t
V in
Linear circuit
Set
V ( t )  a cos   t  in 1 1 V
V
(
t
)
a
cos
t
in
1
1
V
( )
t
b
cos
t
out
1
1
1

Set

V

( )

t

( t

in

V

out

a

1 cos

b

2

cos

)

 t  2   t    2 2
t
2
t
2
2
V ( ) t out
V
( )
t
out

when source frequency is

V

in

V

out

  0

a

1

0

b

 

1

1

frequency is V in V out   0 a 1 0 b   1

when source frequency is

V in

V out

  0

a

1

0

b

 

2

2

frequency is V in V out   0 a 1 0 b   2

1

2

Set

V ( ) t  a cos   t  in 1 3 V
V
( )
t
a
cos
t
in
1
3
V
( )
t
b
cos
t
out
3
3
3

when source frequency is

V in

V out

a 0

1

0

b

3

3

is V in V out  a  0 1 0  b  3 

3

characteristics of different t ypes of filters and (LP, compare HP, BP, with B the S ) frequency

Plot

H

for different v alues o f

Transfer Function (Freq. characteristics)

H (

V out   ) V in
V
out
 
)
V
in

V out

characteristics) H ( V out   ) V in V out V in b a

V in

b

a

1

1

1

0

0

1

 

1

a

1

b 2

a 1

1

2

b

3

3

1

b

H (

)

1

V out

 2 b 3   3 1 b H ( )    

V in

b

2

2

H (

2

)

a

1

0

0

V out

  2 H (    2 )   a 1  0

V in

b

3

3

H (

)

3

a

0

0 a

here

1

2

3

Steps to find out filter characteristics of a circuit (analytically)

1. Calculate the expression of H (

2. Find out expression of

3. Calculate

4. Match with the following characteristics table

)

)

H (

H (

)

 

for

0 and



3. Calculate 4. Match with the following characteristics table )  ) H (  H

Passive Analog Filters

Consider the circuit below.

We want to find out its transfer function analytically

V

I

+

_

want to find out its transfer function analytically V I + _ R C + V

R

C

to find out its transfer function analytically V I + _ R C + V _
to find out its transfer function analytically V I + _ R C + V _
to find out its transfer function analytically V I + _ R C + V _
to find out its transfer function analytically V I + _ R C + V _

+

V

_

O

1 V (  ) j  C 1 0 H (  ) 
1
V (
 )
j
 C
1
0
H (
 ) 
R 
j
 C
1
H (
)
2
2
2
1 
R
C

V

i

(

)

1 1

j

RC

at

at

0



H (  ) H (  )
H (
)
H (
)

1

0

j  RC at at   0   H (  ) H (
j  RC at at   0   H (  ) H (

Matches with LP characteristics

Passive Analog Filters

Consider the circuit below.

V

i

Passive Analog Filters Consider the circuit below. V i + C _ R + V O

+

C

_

R
R
Analog Filters Consider the circuit below. V i + C _ R + V O _

+

V O

_

H (

)

)

)

 

R j

RC

1 1 j

RC

R

j

C

H (

 RC  )  2 2 2 1   R C
RC
)
2
2
2
1 
R
C

at

at

0



H (  ) H (  )
H (
)
H (
)

0

1

2 1   R C at at   0   H ( 
2 1   R C at at   0   H ( 

Matches with HP characteristics

Passive Analog Filters

Consider the circuit shown below:

V

i

C
C
L R
L
R

+

V O

_

+

_

V i C L R + V O _ + _
V (  ) R j  RC 0 H (  )  
V (
 )
R
j
 RC
0
H (
 ) 
R
j
 L
j
 C
 RC
2
2
2
2
2
1 
LC
R
C

V

i

(

)

1 1

j

RC

2

LC

H (

)

at

at

 H (  0  )  0  H (   )
 H (
 0
)
 0
 H (

)
 0
(  )  at at  H (  0  )  0 

Matches with BP characteristics

Consider the circuit shown below:

+ R + L V O V i _ C _ 1 j  L
+
R
+
L
V
O
V i
_
C
_
1
j
L 
2
V (
)
j
C
1 
LC
0
H (
) 
2
1
V
(
)
1 
j
RC
LC
i
R
j
L
j
C
at
  0
H (
)
2
1 
L
C
H (
)
at
 
H (
)
2
2
2
2
2
1 
LC
R C
 H (  ) 2 2 2 2 2   1   LC

1

1

 H (  ) 2 2 2 2 2   1   LC

Matches with BS characteristics

https://stanford.edu/~boyd/ee102/conv_dem

o.html