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CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY BY CHRISSI KEOGH
CLASSICAL SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
BY CHRISSI KEOGH
THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD
THE ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD

What is the Enlightenment?

It occurred from 1600 to 1800; it was an intellectual period in Europe.What is the Enlightenment? During in this era, revolutionary ideas regarding the relationship between society and

During in this era, revolutionary ideas regarding the relationship between society and man evolved.from 1600 to 1800; it was an intellectual period in Europe. The time saw a generation

The time saw a generation of thinkers known as Philosophes that happened across Paris; extending to Scotland and other countries in Europe. Philosophes that happened across Paris; extending to Scotland and other countries in Europe.

Philosophes (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals in the Enlightenment period. These people applied reason to (French for philosophers) were the intellectuals in the Enlightenment period. These people applied reason to di erent concepts such as economics, social issues, philosophy etc.

“Have courage to use your own reason” -Immanuel Kantperiod. These people applied reason to di ff erent concepts such as economics, social issues, philosophy

Key Concepts

Favouring Science over Religion; it was a time that rejected ‘supernatural’ ideas.Key Concepts Philosophers ideas had importance over Priests. Belief that men-society relationship could be perfect and

Philosophers ideas had importance over Priests.it was a time that rejected ‘supernatural’ ideas. Belief that men-society relationship could be perfect and

Belief that men-society relationship could be perfect and productive.that rejected ‘supernatural’ ideas. Philosophers ideas had importance over Priests. Science was a superior concept.

Science was a superior concept.Philosophers ideas had importance over Priests. Belief that men-society relationship could be perfect and productive.

Timeline

Industrial Revolution/Urbanisation

Timeline Industrial Revolution/Urbanisation 1760 The American War of Independence 1776 1789 French Revolution Key

1760

Timeline Industrial Revolution/Urbanisation 1760 The American War of Independence 1776 1789 French Revolution Key

The American War of Independence

1776 1789
1776
1789

French Revolution

Key Philosophes

Montesquieu (1689-1755)Independence 1776 1789 French Revolution Key Philosophes Voltaire (1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot

Voltaire (1694-1788)French Revolution Key Philosophes Montesquieu (1689-1755) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Immanuel

David Hume (1711-1776)Philosophes Montesquieu (1689-1755) Voltaire (1694-1788) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Adam

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)(1689-1755) Voltaire (1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Adam Smith (1723 – 1790) Adam

Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804)Voltaire (1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Adam Smith (1723 – 1790) Adam Ferguson (1723-1816)

Adam Smith (1723 – 1790)Voltaire (1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Adam Ferguson (1723-1816)

Adam Ferguson (1723-1816)(1694-1788) David Hume (1711-1776) Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Adam Smith (1723 – 1790)

The Birth of Sociology

“The Philosophy of the Eighteenth Century had been critical and revolutionary, that of the nineteenth century will be inventive and constructive”- Saint-Simon (1760-1825).The Birth of Sociology Sociology is the idea that rational Science can be applied to the

Sociology is the idea that rational Science can be applied to the social world to create progress and an improved lifecritical and revolutionary, that of the nineteenth century will be inventive and constructive”- Saint-Simon (1760-1825).

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

Grew up in the wake of the French Revolution.Auguste Comte (1798-1857) As a person, he rejected religion and royalty and focused on studying society;

As a person, he rejected religion and royalty and focused on studying society; this he named Sociology . Sociology.

During his young life the European society was experiencing alienation and violent conflicts.and focused on studying society; this he named Sociology . Influenced by Henri de Saint-Simon. Established

Influenced by Henri de Saint-Simon.society was experiencing alienation and violent conflicts. Established a new religion of humanity based on Science.

Established a new religion of humanity based on Science.and violent conflicts. Influenced by Henri de Saint-Simon. Di ff erent ideas: Theological - In this

Di erent ideas:

religion of humanity based on Science. Di ff erent ideas: Theological - In this stage, anything

Theological- In this stage, anything that cannot be explained is put down to the supernatural. - In this stage, anything that cannot be explained is put down to the supernatural. It is divided into three stages: a) Fetishism: where man accepts existence of the soul or spirit. B) Polytheism: where man begins to believe in magic. They believed in several Gods, created the class of Priests and get the blessings of these Gods. C) Monotheism: Man believes there is only one centre of power which controls the activities of the World. They believed in the power of a single God.

Metaphysical-In this stage it was believed that the an abstract power determines World events and -In this stage it was believed that the an abstract power determines World events and does not believe in one single God.

Positivism- No place for belief or superstition; everything is explained in a rational sense. Comte - No place for belief or superstition; everything is explained in a rational sense. Comte was against all types of irrational elements in that of social thinking. It only takes into account logical or mathematical proof; rejecting both theism and metaphysics.

EMILE DURKHEIM

1858-1917

EMILE DURKHEIM 1858-1917

Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas

Social phenomena and societies cannot be understood in reference to individuals.Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Individuals are the products of society. ‘Social facts’ are facts that can

Individuals are the products of society.societies cannot be understood in reference to individuals. ‘Social facts’ are facts that can be studied

‘Social facts’ are facts that can be studied scientifically. They influence the way individuals act and how they think.to individuals. Individuals are the products of society. Humanity has a dual character; including the capacity

Humanity has a dual character; including the capacity for morality and an insatiable appetite.facts’ are facts that can be studied scientifically. They influence the way individuals act and how

Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas

Religions represent the expression of moral codes, they define acceptable behaviour and lay out what is socially necessary.Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Durkheim is also known as a ‘functionalist’. Social facts have a cause

Durkheim is also known as a ‘functionalist’.acceptable behaviour and lay out what is socially necessary. Social facts have a cause and a

Social facts have a cause and a function; the cause explains the origin whereas the function explains the perseverance.necessary. Durkheim is also known as a ‘functionalist’. Durkheim explains how change is possible. ‘Utilitarians’

Durkheim explains how change is possible.the origin whereas the function explains the perseverance. ‘Utilitarians’ have the belief that industrialisation is

‘Utilitarians’ have the belief that industrialisation is underlined by rational economic behaviour.the cause explains the origin whereas the function explains the perseverance. Durkheim explains how change is

Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas

Society requires an increasing division of labour in order to maximise production as well as increasing the amount of human happiness.Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Vast amount of individuals become a social force and their behaviour can

Vast amount of individuals become a social force and their behaviour can be understood from a societal perspective.as well as increasing the amount of human happiness. In order for such a social force

In order for such a social force to exist; society itself must have changed in some key respect.behaviour can be understood from a societal perspective. There is not any evidence suggesting the sum

There is not any evidence suggesting the sum of human happiness has been increased by industrialisation.exist; society itself must have changed in some key respect. In a study of suicide it

In a study of suicide it was suggested that while individual cases may be best explained by psychology; the social phenomenon of suicide rates is best explained by sociology.some key respect. There is not any evidence suggesting the sum of human happiness has been

Social Change

Durkheim’s approach to human societies come in two fundamental types; traditional and modern.Social Change Firstly, traditional society can be categorised as mechanical solidarity . This is due to

Firstly, traditional society can be categorised as mechanical solidarity . This is due to the resemblance of the members of society based mechanical solidarity. This is due to the resemblance of the members of society based on functions and beliefs.

Furthermore, modern societies are can be categorised as organic solidarity . This is the analogy that relates to organs in the body; each organic solidarity. This is the analogy that relates to organs in the body; each have separate functions yet are mutually dependent.

Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas

The division of labour exists yet the term does not just refer to di ff erent jobs but instead the institutions and functions within society. erent jobs but instead the institutions and functions within society.

The economic division of labour reflects societalbut instead the institutions and functions within society. di ff erentiation. Societies either have to compete

di erentiation.

Societies either have to compete or co-operate in order to survive. This is settled by the triumph of morality over appetite.the institutions and functions within society. The economic division of labour reflects societal di ff erentiation.

Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas

Society experiences dysfunction and conflict which is caused by the absence of established normalities and functions. This state Durkheim describes as ‘anomie’.Durkheim’s Theories and Ideas Durkheim’s theory of power and exploitation needs developing. Often, he is considered

Durkheim’s theory of power and exploitation needs developing. Often, he is considered a defender of capitalism- a ‘conservative’ thinker.functions. This state Durkheim describes as ‘anomie’. He called himself a ‘socialist’ despite being opposed to

He called himself a ‘socialist’ despite being opposed to Marxism and communism.power and exploitation needs developing. Often, he is considered a defender of capitalism- a ‘conservative’ thinker.

THE MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY

KARL MARX

1818-1883

THE MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY KARL MARX 1818-1883

Marx’s Quotes

Marx’s Quotes “Men can be distinguished from animals by consciousness, by religion or anything else you

“Men can be distinguished from animals by consciousness, by religion or anything else you like. They begin to distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence, a step which is conditioned by their physical organisation. By producing their means of subsistence men are indirectly producing their actual material life.” -Marx

[In McLellan, D. (1973) pp. 144-145]

Marx’s Quotes

Marx’s Quotes “ The human being is in the most literal sense a zoon politikon (an

The human being is in the most literal sense a zoon politikon (an animal which lives in communities), not merely a gregarious animal, but an animal which can individuate itself only in the midst of society. Production by an isolated individual outside society is as much of an absurdity as is the development of language without human beings living together and talking to each other” -Marx

[In Callinicos, A. (1983) pp. 69]

Marx’s Theories and Ideas

Marx’s model is referred to as ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ model.Marx’s Theories and Ideas Within said model, the material is referenced as “means of production” and

Within said model, the material is referenced as “means of production” and surrounds “forces of production” and “objects of production”.is referred to as ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ model. “Relations of production” refers to the social side.

“Relations of production” refers to the social side.“forces of production” and “objects of production”. “The mode of production” is the combination of the

“The mode of production” is the combination of the relations and means of production that define societies essential nature. of production that define societies essential nature.

Modes of Production

Primitive Communism: this concept originated from Marx and ‘Friedrich Engels’ both arguing that societies were originally based this concept originated from Marx and ‘Friedrich Engels’ both arguing that societies were originally based on egalitarian (people who believed in equal opportunities) social relations etc.

Antiquity: meaning the ancient past; prior to the middle ages. meaning the ancient past; prior to the middle ages.

Feudalism: a social system of the Middle Ages in which people fought and worked for nobles a social system of the Middle Ages in which people fought and worked for nobles who gave them land use and protection in return.

Capitalism: is a political and economic system within which the country’s industry and trade get controlled is a political and economic system within which the country’s industry and trade get controlled by private owners (for profit) instead of by the state.

Who Exploits Who?

In antiquity, plebeians (commoners) and slaves get exploited by the upper classes; patricians . plebeians (commoners) and slaves get exploited by the upper classes; patricians.

In feudalism, the serfs (lowest feudal class) as well as the peasants are exploited by aristocracy and landowners serfs (lowest feudal class) as well as the peasants are exploited by aristocracy and landowners.

In capitalism, the proletarians (industry workers) are exploited by the bourgeoisie (capitalists). proletarians (industry workers) are exploited by the bourgeoisie (capitalists).

Marx’s Theories and Ideas

Marx defines class as an objective representation in relation to the means of production.Marx’s Theories and Ideas Marx also introduces the idea of “class consciousness” in some works. Class

Marx also introduces the idea of “class consciousness” in some works.representation in relation to the means of production. Class struggle transforms society; the material factors

Class struggle transforms society; the material factors within society are the determinants of what is possible.in relation to the means of production. Marx also introduces the idea of “class consciousness” in

Marx’s Quotes

Marx’s Quotes “ In so far as there is merely a local interconnection among these small

In so far as there is merely a local interconnection among these small holding peasants, and the identity of their interests begets no community, no national bond and no political organisation among them, they do not form a class.” -Marx

[The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, A.

(1852)]

Marx’s Theories and Ideas

Within Marx’s theory there are two aspects; the materialist and the humanist . These are also sometimes known as ‘ structure ’ and materialist and the humanist. These are also sometimes known as ‘structure’ and ‘agency’.

Capitalism is based on production for ‘accumulation’ and capitalists themselves are continuously changing the means of production.sometimes known as ‘ structure ’ and ‘ agency ’. Additionally, capitalism also creates new class

Additionally, capitalism also creates new class i.e. the proletariats.are continuously changing the means of production. Marx considers the material basis for creation of classless

Marx considers the material basis for creation of classless societies a result of an absence of scarcity. absence of scarcity.

Marx’s Theories and Ideas

Throughout history there has been class struggles.Marx’s Theories and Ideas However, beneath that struggle is the development of productive forces. Feudalism created

However, beneath that struggle is the development of productive forces.and Ideas Throughout history there has been class struggles. Feudalism created aspects of capitalism but the

Feudalism created aspects of capitalism but the system itself had to be eradicated in order for capitalism to thrive.that struggle is the development of productive forces. In the beginning capitalism was largely progressive,

In the beginning capitalism was largely progressive, however, after a while it puts a strain on further human development.had to be eradicated in order for capitalism to thrive. Technical developments within capitalism prove it

Technical developments within capitalism prove it is possible creating a better world, although, whether it occurs depends on active participation of people and class struggle.In the beginning capitalism was largely progressive, however, after a while it puts a strain on

Marx’s Quotes

Marx’s Quotes “ Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as

Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.” -Marx

[The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, A.

(1852)]

THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM MAX WEBER 1864-1920

THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM

THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM MAX WEBER 1864-1920

MAX WEBER

1864-1920

THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM MAX WEBER 1864-1920

Weber’s Theories and Ideas

Weber rejects mono-casual explanations and materialist conceptions (Marxist) of history. This is based on the fact that they remove the human elements in social action.Weber’s Theories and Ideas The correlation between capitalism and Protestantism is accepted. Weber reverses the Marxist

The correlation between capitalism and Protestantism is accepted. Weber reverses the Marxist view of base and superstructure.conceptions (Marxist) of history. This is based on the fact that they remove the human elements

Weber ’s Theories and Ideas

He sees capitalism as a system within which the goal is to maximise profits through peaceful means, rational organisation of production and the use of Science and technology.Weber ’s Theories and Ideas He considers capitalism a system within which there are not any

He considers capitalism a system within which there are not any limits on desires to accumulate. Traditional limits/boundaries are no longer in function.of production and the use of Science and technology. Weber’s analysis of capitalism is extremely similar

Weber’s analysis of capitalism is extremely similar to that of Karl Marx.within which there are not any limits on desires to accumulate. Traditional limits/boundaries are no longer

Calvinists and Belief in God

Weber highlights an a ffi nity between the belief system of Calvinists and the necessary behaviour of successful capitalists. nity between the belief system of Calvinists and the necessary behaviour of successful capitalists.

Calvinist beliefs: an absolute God who is incomprehensible to humans. God is divine while humans are : an absolute God who is incomprehensible to humans. God is divine while humans are not and it is impossible to understand God’s ways. Trying to understand His ways is considered arrogant.

This God is considered to have created the world and universe for His own glory; all humans exist only to serve the greater glory of God. God does not exist for humanity, humanity exists for God.humans are not and it is impossible to understand God’s ways. Trying to understand His ways

Calvinists and Belief in God

The theory continues that we are all pre-destined to either salvation or damnation. God has already decided the fate on whether people should be saved or damned. God’s decision cannot be changed, or questioned as we cannot assume our power is greater than His.Calvinists and Belief in God A small minority will be saved for heaven while the vast

A small minority will be saved for heaven while the vast majority is condemned to eternal damnation.as we cannot assume our power is greater than His. In addition, all pleasures of the

In addition, all pleasures of the flesh are considered sinful.is greater than His. A small minority will be saved for heaven while the vast majority

Calvinists and Belief in God

These beliefs indirectly encourage investigation using Science.Calvinists and Belief in God Having a belief in predestination creates a pathological state of anxiety.

Having a belief in predestination creates a pathological state of anxiety.beliefs indirectly encourage investigation using Science. Calvinists overcome their anxiety by living a life of hard

Calvinists overcome their anxiety by living a life of hard work. Wealth gets accumulated rather than consumed.in predestination creates a pathological state of anxiety. Their behaviour is not logical but rather psychological;

Their behaviour is not logical but rather psychological; Calvinists try to reassure themselves that they must be an elected one for heaven.of anxiety. Calvinists overcome their anxiety by living a life of hard work. Wealth gets accumulated

Calvinists and Belief in God

Wealth accumulation, scientific investigation, frugal consumption, strong productivity and reinvestment are all the behaviours generated by the Calvinist belief system; corresponding to the requirements of capitalism.Calvinists and Belief in God Weber demonstrates that action can be shaped by beliefs; he believes

Weber demonstrates that action can be shaped by beliefs; he believes in the typology of action . typology of action.

Typology of Action

Traditional

Traditional

A ff ective

A

ective

Wetrational (value rational)

Wetrational (value rational)

Zweckrational (instrumentally rational)

Zweckrational (instrumentally rational)

This idea fits with his idea of Verstehen.

This idea fits with his idea of Verstehen.

Weber is not attempting to replace one mono-casual explanation of history with another; he is

Weber is not attempting to replace one mono-casual explanation of history with another; he is suggesting that there is non mono-casual explanation in the first place.

The Future is Bleak

While Weber is against the idea of determinism he believes the future is going to experience increasing rationalisation and bureaucratisation.The Future is Bleak The e ff ect of this is to destroy the human spirit

The e ff ect of this is to destroy the human spirit and create an “iron cage ect of this is to destroy the human spirit and create an “iron cage of bureaucracy”.

and bureaucratisation. The e ff ect of this is to destroy the human spirit and create
CAPITALISM: A MARXIST ANALYSIS
CAPITALISM: A MARXIST ANALYSIS

CAPITALISM

What is Capitalism?

Capitalism is a system that lacks a central organisation and is made up of individual capitalist concerns; the main aim is accumulation. There is a strong desire for profits.CAPITALISM What is Capitalism? These profits are the result of labour. The values of any given

These profits are the result of labour. The values of any given thing is essentially determined by the necessary amount of labour power needed to produce it.aim is accumulation. There is a strong desire for profits. Labour power is elastic. Competition forces

Labour power is elastic.the necessary amount of labour power needed to produce it. Competition forces investment to create competitive

Competition forces investment to create competitive edge.labour power needed to produce it. Labour power is elastic. Overall, this results in capitalism being

Overall, this results in capitalism being more and more productive and constantly increases technology.of labour power needed to produce it. Labour power is elastic. Competition forces investment to create

CAPITALISM

There tends to be a rise in the organic ratio of fixed capital in relation to labour . organic ratio of fixed capital in relation to labour.

These usually lead to the rate of profit falling.organic ratio of fixed capital in relation to labour . Therefore creating a crisis of overproduction

Therefore creating a crisis of overproduction and profit squeeze; some companies go bankrupt.labour . These usually lead to the rate of profit falling. However, each crisis is eventually

However, each crisis is eventually overcome i.e. each slump is eventually followed by a boom.and profit squeeze; some companies go bankrupt. Capitalist state: the executive of the modern state,

Capitalist state: the executive of the modern state, however, it is a committee for managing bourgeoisie a the executive of the modern state, however, it is a committee for managing bourgeoisie a airs.

The capitalist state attempts to overcome individual interests.Capitalist state: the executive of the modern state, however, it is a committee for managing bourgeoisie

CAPITALISM

In the long-run, there is a tendency to incorporate huge number of workers into huge productive units and cities.CAPITALISM Additionally, there are constant tries to increase exploitation which strives workers to organise as well

Additionally, there are constant tries to increase exploitation which strives workers to organise as well as defend their interests.number of workers into huge productive units and cities. Due to capitalists forcing trade union issues

Due to capitalists forcing trade union issues on workers; these workers learn their own power and become class conscious . class conscious.

CAPITALISM

The tendency for capitalism to centralise means crises increase in severity, and the e ff ects of each crisis get more and more dramatic. ects of each crisis get more and more dramatic.

While the system may be able to recover, it leaves many individuals unable to and in these cases changing the system seems a more reasonable solution.the e ff ects of each crisis get more and more dramatic. Feudalism became an obstacle

Feudalism became an obstacle in human progress and was violently eradicated- therefore for Marx’s capitalism in its decline also became an obstacle and has to be overthrown.to recover, it leaves many individuals unable to and in these cases changing the system seems

CAPITALISM

While creating the proletariat; capitalism creates issues for itself. Marx believes this class will rise up and remove capitalism; alike to when the bourgeoisie overthrew feudalism. This will, in his theory, create a new era.CAPITALISM In proletariat terms the only solution is communism or socialism. Due to the lack of

In proletariat terms the only solution is communism or socialism.feudalism. This will, in his theory, create a new era. Due to the lack of any

Due to the lack of any private property there would be no rich or poor, no masters over servants and ultimately no inequality all together.terms the only solution is communism or socialism. Despite these theories, Marx does no give a

Despite these theories, Marx does no give a detailed analysis of how communism would function in practise.any private property there would be no rich or poor, no masters over servants and ultimately

SUICIDE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION: DURKHEIM
SUICIDE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION: DURKHEIM

Rationalist strategy to understand the social reality

Emile Durkheim describes his position as sociological rationalism . sociological rationalism.

“man is a product of history: there is nothing in him that is either given or defined in advance” - Durkheim [1979, pp. 69].describes his position as sociological rationalism . Demonstrating Sociological method: Rules of Sociological

given or defined in advance” - Durkheim [1979, pp. 69]. Demonstrating Sociological method: Rules of Sociological

Demonstrating Sociological method:given or defined in advance” - Durkheim [1979, pp. 69]. Rules of Sociological Method (1895) 


Rules of Sociological Method (1895) It argues that “the cause of sociology that is (i.e.) objective, specific and methodical” -Durkheim [1982, pp. 35].

Social Facts

‘a thing originating in the institutions or culture of a society which a ff ects the behaviour or attitudes of an individual member of that society.’ ects the behaviour or attitudes of an individual member of that society.’

Social facts have a representational nature i.e. they are signs of common culture. E.g. law, language, religious practises, the division of labour and beliefs.or attitudes of an individual member of that society.’ Bonds of Social Solidarity They determine the

Bonds of Social Solidarity

They determine the extent to which individuals are connected to specific rules.division of labour and beliefs. Bonds of Social Solidarity It is also the extent to which

It is also the extent to which individuals get controlled by norms, values of society and social rules.and beliefs. Bonds of Social Solidarity They determine the extent to which individuals are connected to

Social Relatedness

Mechanical solidarity is the social integration of members in a society that share common beliefs

Mechanical solidarity is the social integration of members in a society that share common beliefs and values. The common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that functions internally in individual members allowing them to cooperate.

Di ff erentiation required a new form of solidarity i.e.

Di

erentiation required a new form of solidarity i.e.

organic connection to community.

Relationship: Individual and Society

In the Division of Labour (1893) the relationship between specialisation and di ff erentiation of function, secularisation, individualism and freedom of markets. erentiation of function, secularisation, individualism and freedom of markets.

Modern society contains certain pathological features.between specialisation and di ff erentiation of function, secularisation, individualism and freedom of markets.

Suicide (1897)

“every case of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act performed by the victim himself and which strives to produce this result” -DurkheimSuicide (1897) [In Aron (1970) pp. 35] What causes suicide? Social Phenomenon Suicide is not seen

[In Aron (1970) pp. 35]and which strives to produce this result” -Durkheim What causes suicide? Social Phenomenon Suicide is not

What causes suicide?

Social Phenomenon-Durkheim [In Aron (1970) pp. 35] What causes suicide? Suicide is not seen as an expression

Suicide is not seen as an expression of mental state/ individual pathologies-Durkheim [In Aron (1970) pp. 35] What causes suicide? Social Phenomenon Balance between integration and regulation

Balance between integration and regulation35] What causes suicide? Social Phenomenon Suicide is not seen as an expression of mental state/

Types of Suicide

Egoistic: suicide occurs in a society which experiences excessive individualism i.e. low social integration. Committed by suicide occurs in a society which experiences excessive individualism i.e. low social integration. Committed by people who are not supported in a cohesive social group.

!

Altruistic: a term coined to describe suicide committed for the benefit of others in a community a term coined to describe suicide committed for the benefit of others in a community e.g. self-sacrifice for military objectives in wartime. It reflects a courageous indi erence in the loss of a life.

Anomie (normlessness in contemporary world): a condition in which social and moral normalities are unclear or not present. Lack of a condition in which social and moral normalities are unclear or not present. Lack of norms lead to atypical behaviour.

Fatalistic (over-regulation): that occurs in social conditions where the individual experiences prolonged unjust treatment. Durkheim considers it that occurs in social conditions where the individual experiences prolonged unjust treatment. Durkheim considers it the result of excessive regulation; when you are over-regulated in a society.

Suicide and the Wider Society

Expression of a moral crisis in Western society.Suicide and the Wider Society Over integration and over-regulation can lead to pathological consequences. Critique

Over integration and over-regulation can lead to pathological consequences.Society Expression of a moral crisis in Western society. Critique Durkheim places over-emphasis on the social

Critique

Durkheim places over-emphasis on the social causes.can lead to pathological consequences. Critique Under representation of individual mental states. Not enough

Under representation of individual mental states.Critique Durkheim places over-emphasis on the social causes. Not enough recognition of the role of belief

Not enough recognition of the role of belief in determining whether or not a death is considered a suicide.causes. Under representation of individual mental states. Some factors of Durkheim’s studies need to be challenged.

Some factors of Durkheim’s studies need to be challenged.mental states. Not enough recognition of the role of belief in determining whether or not a

THE CONCEPT OF ALIENATION: MARX
THE CONCEPT OF ALIENATION: MARX

The Concept of Alienation

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have had a significant impact in current understandings of modernity.The Concept of Alienation Contemporary society regularly uses the concept of alienation. Alienation highlights a sense

Contemporary society regularly uses the concept of alienation.significant impact in current understandings of modernity. Alienation highlights a sense of dissatisfaction with

Alienation highlights a sense of dissatisfaction with experiences and lack of control or connection with people/institutions.significant impact in current understandings of modernity. Contemporary society regularly uses the concept of alienation.

Why does Alienation occur?

Alienation is a central theme in Marx’s philosophy of history.Why does Alienation occur? There are themes of alienation in capitalism; the origins do not exist

There are themes of alienation in capitalism; the origins do not exist within our psychology but instead in social relations.is a central theme in Marx’s philosophy of history. Marx’s goal was to understand as well

Marx’s goal was to understand as well as explain what about capitalism is dysfunctional.are themes of alienation in capitalism; the origins do not exist within our psychology but instead

Labour

The Economic and Philosophical Manuscript (1844)Defines labour as: “mans self-confirming essence” - Marx.

The basis of human labour involves culture, life and the ability to engage with nature. the ability to engage with nature.

Labour is considered a fundamental part of our existence. existence.

Marx’s materialism: Human capacity to produce and reproduce on the basis of existence; objective activity in that Human capacity to produce and reproduce on the basis of existence; objective activity in that of food, shelter and clothing.

Alienation as a Term

It occurs when there is a lack of control, when the ability to control ones life, environment, labour, institutions and social relations is deprived.Alienation as a Term It can also represent a sense of disconnection i.e. separating oneself from

It can also represent a sense of disconnection i.e. separating oneself from others, the inability to develop ones life.labour, institutions and social relations is deprived. Thesaurus: objectification, estrangement, rationalism,

Thesaurus: objectification, estrangement, rationalism, anomie & fetishism.It can also represent a sense of disconnection i.e. separating oneself from others, the inability to

Religions Involvement in Alienation

Influence of Ludwig Feuerbach.Religions Involvement in Alienation Religion dissociates us from ourselves. We project our power onto God- what

Religion dissociates us from ourselves.Involvement in Alienation Influence of Ludwig Feuerbach. We project our power onto God- what we create

We project our power onto God- what we create dominates us.of Ludwig Feuerbach. Religion dissociates us from ourselves. Religion is considered the heart of a heartless

Religion is considered the heart of a heartless world or the spirit of an unspiritual situation.We project our power onto God- what we create dominates us. “Religion is the self-conscious feeling

“Religion is the self-conscious feeling of man who has not yet either found himself or has already lost himself.” -Marx.heart of a heartless world or the spirit of an unspiritual situation. [In Elements of the

[In Elements of the Philosophy of Rights, (1835)]

Forms of Alienation

A worker is alienated from the product of his labour i.e. the worker gets

A

worker is alienated from the product of his labour i.e. the worker gets

objectified. The product being produced is therefore of higher

importance than whoever is producing it.

A worker is also alienated from the process of production. Therefore,

A

worker is also alienated from the process of production. Therefore,

there is no internal satisfaction in working; the worker is externalised from the process. Certain forms of work can create a sense of loss in purpose and meaning for a worker, for instance, television sales.

Alienation can also be experienced in the sense of conscious productive activity i.e. what distinguishes

Alienation can also be experienced in the sense of conscious productive activity i.e. what distinguishes humans from other animals. The idea that what is animal becomes human and what is human becomes animal.

Another form of alienation is in the sense of humans being alienated from social communities

Another form of alienation is in the sense of humans being alienated from social communities and other people. ‘The basis of life under capitalism is replaced individualism’.

Overall Concept

The overall idea of alienation is that control over the world has been taken by capitalism i.e. in an exploitive and egoistic way.Overall Concept This negativity is shown through environmental struggles we have, economic issues, social justice and

This negativity is shown through environmental struggles we have, economic issues, social justice and what we consume.idea of alienation is that control over the world has been taken by capitalism i.e. in

This negativity is shown through environmental struggles we have, economic issues, social justice and what we
This negativity is shown through environmental struggles we have, economic issues, social justice and what we
RATIONALISATION/DISENCHANTMENT: WEBER
RATIONALISATION/DISENCHANTMENT: WEBER

Rationalisation

Rationalisation: Refers to the impact of planning modern life. Refers to the impact of planning modern life.

Bureaucracy: is a form of administration that relies on rules, regulations, chains of command, hierarchies and is a form of administration that relies on rules, regulations, chains of command, hierarchies and guidelines.

Formal rationality: amount of quantitative calculation & logical thought used when performing administrative duties. amount of quantitative calculation & logical thought used when performing administrative duties.

Substantive rationality: measures of ultimate values. measures of ultimate values.

Iron Cage

Individuals become more and more insignificant due to large administrative structures.Iron Cage Reduced all value of non- religious functional bureaucracy. McDonaldization “The process by which the

Reduced all value of non- religious functional bureaucracy.more insignificant due to large administrative structures. McDonaldization “The process by which the principles of

Reduced all value of non- religious functional bureaucracy. McDonaldization “The process by which the principles of

McDonaldization

“The process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world” -George Ritzer.of non- religious functional bureaucracy. McDonaldization Represents Weber’s bureaucratisation and iron cage. Rules,

Represents Weber’s bureaucratisation and iron cage.society as well as the rest of the world” -George Ritzer. Rules, regulations and systems predetermine

Rules, regulations and systems predetermine the structure of the production process.Represents Weber’s bureaucratisation and iron cage. It represents a loss of individual choice and creativity.

It represents a loss of individual choice and creativity.systems predetermine the structure of the production process. Assembly line production of food (from production to

Assembly line production of food (from production to sales).systems predetermine the structure of the production process. It represents a loss of individual choice and

Disenchantment

Growth of Science takes over other ways of understanding the world.Disenchantment Science is unable to provide meaning to substantive questions of how we should live or

Science is unable to provide meaning to substantive questions of how we should live or how we should die.of Science takes over other ways of understanding the world. Disillusionment: is the loss of an

Disillusionment: is the loss of an ethical substantive value in Western culture. is the loss of an ethical substantive value in Western culture.

Pessimistic outlook: our fate is characterised by rationalisation and disenchantment of the world. our fate is characterised by rationalisation and disenchantment of the world.

Weber’s Theories and Ideas

Weber’s Theories and Ideas Individuals would have to find meaning in modern life by finding areas

Individuals would have to find meaning in modern life by finding areas not colonised by rationalisation.Weber’s Theories and Ideas World becoming dispirited. Socialism is not a solution to rationalisation & the

World becoming dispirited.life by finding areas not colonised by rationalisation. Socialism is not a solution to rationalisation &

Socialism is not a solution to rationalisation & the loss of meaning.would have to find meaning in modern life by finding areas not colonised by rationalisation. World