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# Problem Solving Techniques

You should be able to calculatethe image position for an object in ffont ofa piane or spherical
mirror. Use the mirror equations:i: - p for a plane mirror and (1ip) + (lii) : (1/f, where f = % R
for a spherioal mirror. Be careful about the signs of the various quantities. Be sure you know the
location of the image formed by a plane mirror and how to tell if the image is visible to an
observer at a given location. Recall that the lateral magnification is given by m - - i/p and that
the lateral sizeh' of the image is relatedto the lateral sizeh ofthe object by h'= mh. Krow how
to interpret signs.

You should know how to find the image formed by a spherical refracting surface and by a lens.
If the incoming rays make small angleswith t1lecentralaxis, use (n1/p)+ (nzli) = (nz - n1/r for a
single surfaceand (1/p) + (1/D = (1/0 for a thin lens in air. You should also-knowhow to
computethe focal length, given the radii of the two surfacesofa lens. SeeEq. 34-10.

## You should understandcompoundlens systems,such as microscopesand telescopes.Be su.re

you car calculate the angular magnification for each ofthese instruments,

## Questionsand Example Problemsfrom Chapter 34

QuestionI
Lake monsters,mermen,andmermaidshavelong been"sighted" by observerslocatedeitheron
a shoreor on a low deck of a ship.From sucha low point, an observercan interceptraysof light
that leavea floating object (say,a 1ogor a porpoise)andbendslightly back downwmdtoward
the observer(onesuchrefractedray, exaggerated,is shownin figue a below). The observerthen
perceivestlle objectas being elongatedupwardfrom the water (andprobablyoscillatingbecause
of air turbulence)in a miragethat might easilyresembleoneofthe fabled creatures.Figureb
beiow gives severalplots of heightfrom the water surfaceversusair temperature.Which oneof
the plots bestillustratestlre air-temperatureconditionsthat canbendthe light rays so asto create
this miraee?

Temperature
(t,
Question2
In the figure betowyou look into a systemoffwo
verticarparallel mirorc A and B separatedby
distanced' A griruringgargoyleis pe^rched at p"irn o-,]ail*"e -Each
producesa fust (leastdeeo)imageotthe gargoyf". 0.2d from mirror A. minor
ffr"" _i,'orp.od;;;;;;";;;;;"g"
with the object beingthe iist iniage in th;dd;;;;Then "u"f,
imagewith the objectbeine tl eachmirrorproducesa third
in theoppositemirror, *a ,o oo_vo"-Jgirt
*9:t :f,ry-*rgargoyre
images. r""
rmagesm mrror A? -
H#;";;;;dl;;;.;;"1il?,il;"1#ffi
hrmdre.sof orinninr,-"._^_,,,1::::ld,image
,il:.
C.
4.0.d
l.et
J
0-.rar
-Tl
(\$l d

Problem I
You look throrigha carneratowardan imageof
' a hummingbirdin a planemirror. The camera
4'30 m in front of the minor. The bird is aicum"ra is
t"uet, 5.00m to your right and 3.30m aom
\'/ isthedistance between
thecamera
andtheapparent
*"r#frT#"t prriu-* ,rtrr" tird,simage

4'3Dh n ?'lont

S.oD'\i ll : 5.oo."r
"/1'
i J:'l,,;b.".,..-2,d1le,^nc,q,{rre
ll i,z'-i

ArYr!4.tu

(zl.76rq-r Z.3o'..)

d* = ("t,go.,'3.ior.,)a r ( 5-oa^r1!
5.oe^

d"
\./

d = g.lory)
I
Problem2
The imagebehinda convexmirror (radiusof cwvature= 68 cm) is located22 cm ftom the
miuor. (a) Whereis the objectlocatedand (b) what is the magnificationof the minor?
Detenninewhetherthe imageis (c) upright or invertedand (d) largeror smallerthan the object.
-&8c"\
O=
)-*L=t ---+J =t-!
-- -3.fo",
9= /"c Pt+Pr;
i = - l). "..r - -J- - o.olL crq*t
+-
/P= -J'lcrq - I l.rq
P=?
= ---) n\ 6 A c,"t
? ,/o.orr.;t rr

(b)

(.)

(r)
Problem3
A small cup of greentea is positionedon the centralaxis ofa sphericalmirror. The lateral
magnifrcationofthe cup is +0.250,andthe distancebetweenthe mirror andits focal point is
2.00 cm. (a) What is the distancebetweenthe mirror and the imageit produces?(b) Is the focal
lengthpositive or negative?(c) Is the imagereal or virtual?

ln=*tl=+O-\5o
' C = -o.l.sop
lY
= -q'oo t
?
9 -- t 2..-bDctn
-O.lSOp axrfi.,r! ( i' o)

Jt-
\ ,a /wLe l=
: lrn\aA, lA
t.-
)y+-* a/u-t{ r)
( 1,.1.
f= -1.oo". Snagl t't )i"""
P=
- 9 - ' - ^- - A " ' . '
./' I.t/ L -L *tVt
"4-*, -++=4 II

()
rr.J/v\J1

3/.. I
--) 3 (-r'oo".
/aL -A.oocrn

tDE:ffi (.)
Probfem 4
A concavemirror hasa radiusof curvat're of 24 cm.How
far is an objectfrom the mirror if an
rmageisformedrtr is (a) virtual ano:.0 timesae
si;;L object,(b) rearand 3.0 times rhe
sizeofthe object?

4pr f='/xr

## (o) rurdf^..1 )J;*4e^ ^,i€ t+7';+\$.l*,14 ht', > O

[1 :-c/v=3.o
rr
--- i = -a"of
,/ .tt
/t p *I ' / ; =/ r /
- t/
/ Ct - )
tl
'ri o
_ | -; tl^ ----+
z-o? ( y 3f
>= )-
tacr.,
= 8.ocrq
..
(U) 2."-n *.yU^ o"" ,r^*,*) 2o rq < o
tr)> - i/,= -3"o -,-.+ i = 3.ol
t/ |t tl tt I t/- tl/
probrem5/P* /i= /S ---" /f '#r= /+ n
_ -)-
)/27=-n.n
-ip = fG..,
Fill in thetableberow,eachrowofwhich refersto a difrerent
eitheraplane combination
ofan objectand
a spherical
_mirror, y,'.ro., ----- concave
mirror.Distances
centimeters. 9o"u9*
If a numberlacksa sign, arein
find the,t*"r ".rpl#*

## Type fri p m RealImage? InvertedImaee?

(a) .o aO - b +10 +1.0 No.
Plo"t No
O) e-t..-- +20 +tto 60 +30 - e
(c) Convex -Lo-40 -4.0 t5a 0.&
Yus Y"'
No N"
(d) Gn.... +g +lb ta.. +24-O.SO
Ve3 Yes

(")
n: .!1P n a=-sP - - ( + l . o ) ( + r o ) ) ( ' = - r o
/e =b"{y =+.-+ -+ 7l= o ---J t="D
"==:
rl
[- = "D'
*;+

(b)
/t V+-'/r- *.*, * n=-%=g
* =-d

(o)
fi=k-
(d) -o,it- ,1""+ ," a-;"bJ,-,r.lp rrrr-u+i-0.ora^.fq <o )4 =lo,ro'
r.=......- ,
v\---% . c"=-mp=-(-o.s")().r)
-JL = '--r-*l
--; \-: s
k=**i lI*a"
Problem 6
A beamofparaliellight raysfrom a laseris incidenton a solidtransparent sphereof indexof
refractionn (seethe figurebelow).(a)Ifa point imageis producedat thebackofthe sphere,
a
what is the index ofrefraction of the sphere?(b) what index of refraction,if any,will produce
point image at the center ofthe sphere?
t)r Da D^-D'
35-g: ", =
,ft"o"r -r-5,-,';Jf"ar {*
Yvt-

## 1''b n - D-l"P n = ::-

r'
/^\ .i - !.-\ _, ,\
\-./ lJt- rlo,.- ,.r -.2-+-. --:---.-
&ac {-
- i i
I la
'/\
z = d' ('
n/ : n-l

## ( b) D,=l. o -------) = D::

!9 * ll f-'- - r1-)g
-d= t +
',.-= f)
l1a:- -, (
" /v-r^'J4
I D'Jg
- {- \-y -* aJ p+r:'t'k *' "-}-^* i
* , o --> dc o't r -> o1
i d-t
- ,tJ'",ih -veA *,'-+-0'r
- I
Problem7 I
you havea supplyofflat glass1n= 1.5)anda lens-grinding machinethat canbe.setto grinda
like
radius of curvatureof either40 cm or 60 cm. You areaskedto prepmea set of six lenses
a choice
thoseshownbelow. what will be the focal len\$h of eachlens?Q'Jote:Whereyou have
) "tr*^r \$.o,cna< r,o^Ne4
"t** <
/*.,&,"j ) r)O 5 c,oo,c4^r{ -Ou,'\$a,.eet- A

(r) (.)
'/+=
("-')(+,-d) C, = ,lil n ea"-..,g*1;
Bi-conYex Planar Meniscus
convex convex
(o) t/9, 6s-')(*.*-*..) : o"oesct'-r

\$ . /.,ru,;' ----o[=l^l
J'
-,) - -#.) = D"otrsc.nI
rV.=
(l\
Bi-concale
(r)
Plana| Nleniscrrs
( b)
Y I r.s (*
conca\/e concaYe

f: Zocm
(c) - (r.s-r)(+o.--*.*)
(") r/(:(t"r)(-L.,,--J_t
Y= )-9o.- tJ .l0eF,
)

r d\ /+-('4(G; r\
t{occ.' 1
(4) t/, = ( r.r-t) r-)
a- - l 10cr.)
T-
i9" -qo'"'j
Problem8
A bright object and a viewing screenareseparatedby a distanceof 76.0 cm. At what location(s)
betweenthe object andthe screenshoulda lensof focal length 16.0cm be placedin orderto
producea crisp imageon the screen?
J)Fr\"g'/\

## ll* ,J,.ibr** -k,\tfuL)4j,\M\a

u,-rti^* ^"rJ #* AA/"*j/, 4"""r,,4*
-!4.la"tx"Q 1". P

tr t L+ = ?6-o" 'o
t/ ).-- |
/Y
+-)'=
i + = ?{e.. O c.o -
|

I 'lG
/* *:"' J6'P n ) ----) - =' -E
7 (?b-?) ll" ('71,'P)P ]b- ? tb

'/t"
^!
p-p = I )li"
e
pt- tra.o".) p + )2]bcroa= o
J =
egt^*fia w/a+e,&-a D
I
aa-qcrqo"
Problem 9 b 5o I ctrr
A movie camerawith a (single)lens of focal length 75 mm takesa picture of a personstanding
27 m avray.lf the personis 180cm tal1,what is the height of the imageon the film?

?5t,'q = -7-*
lt I I
f=
= t5"to?r.,
i"r=4 '/t
u T y

p = A?..)
I t/
/ t
- -)-
?5*lo',.'
--)--
a"t n
=
13.3 ---+ i = O.O15 r.r
.-r=--

= l\$Dcr.r
[
- ( o"o?5 ,.'
| ' -(> lr') = -c/ ---) tQ= tD= A.?*lO3
n-L_ /P ' .-:-
/l
a'. / fr)

r ll
rr= Yh * h,'- mh
tt
h= ( a-?'.ro-')( rro"^)
h'= o'bo.t
Problem 10
In the figure'below,a peasits at a focal point of the first (nearer)thin diverginglens,4'00 cm
from that lens.The lensesme identical andseparatedby 10.0cm, with a commoncentra.laxis.
(a) Whereis the imageof the peaproducedby the secondlens?(b) Is that imageinvertedor does
it havethe sameorientationasthe pea?(c) Is it real or virhsal?
+'
z--------------
a -a
Ta-'ir

=-g.oocn
\$^=\$,

a-------------+A-----------)
' lo jotpl
{.oocrr;

## )M^D.a"y'*r@lou i '/r"* Vp=/+ - t1c'=/+ Yp

g- -
)1- !-oOc-s
'-ilf
o-
t '= f'P'
{,'..

4 . o o c\$
lJ-
P'-f'
Lt=' ? (-ar,DD.n)( q, oo".n)
L, =
4.Do.,q- (-4.*-t

/,= -A.oO.n

## \ "m^u;-r{ rd a.oocntb }pe!-#*lrfu p"* !e\4 }rAi.2 ^-alAcm

-A )te ^"i'* ,t Pu ^r&").!Y^'

l/^
*
ll cnq
.(.'
l^f2- ---)
(-q.e-,xB.d
Lo=
le"r, -(-1'ooca)
P',i
I
- a.l.O0clt

, C\=
?
--) 3.ooont )no 1"4*otr nt
"d?"'a1
attzA-!e")

(c) A^/,,"*
aq(O,\$n^*r*,"€, -\ffil

## (+)(ii) =(ffi)(tr) =/, -,

(,b)M=n',".= ,{v\42
))
Problem 11
In the figurg below, an object is piacedin front ofa converginglensat a distanceequalto twice
the focal length/ of the lens.On the other sideof the lensis a concavemiror of focal lengthB
separatedfrom tJrelensby a distance2(fl +/.2). Light from the objectpassesrightwardthrough
the lens,reflectsfrom the mirror, passesleftward throughthe lens,andforrnsa final imageof the
object.What are(a) the distancebetweenthe lens andthat fina1imageand (b) the overall lateral
magniftcationM of the object?Is the image(c) real or virtual (if it is virnral, it requiressomeone
looking throughthe lenstowardthe mirror), (d) to the left or right ofthe lens,and (e) inverted.or
non-inverted relativeto the obiect?
oo
4r,ut 94ot\ D" -QN
-IT--

C c-^
,l )l
'o = j-YL
D,. -- o\)l
R-f'
^,.}
L1- ? Y-
- Lt= )t
n r - dt l
d.tt
-- 4\c
cl dlr

4 Ue
(
.\,
+\,a,\\fu^\t )l
fl\, ^It(\'o.42 o ,Jtf.o^r" Af, b )et ^q\t
-al.^a;fri" lxr-na Ar rrA"*pdMt )}rt.rnrr^4
^ //' /'\ ^a 'J-ra
/\ /'
cI (T,+TxJ- cLT, =
I

4 a
la.- (,?\- I ). f r : LLf') = Afa.
? f^-T r ;I'tr- Ta.

Lf= 2.far

## I fr,, Nn;4"#/\s,\r%r ;^ ;'t ^ *aia,na Af{ }t mo lt'l'* a6

W'o .vu^lin ',bta fle Arg*\$+ffia -A9^A
-- ^f( (\ ^r-lC
?z a\ Tr{T*,1 - }Tr = }l-r
t-
t::
)3
=f, " C .=
Lg J:}--fi-
a
-5E
= _J3t)--- La-
..<-
c\ lt

## io= ? l'a f{,-f ,,

-J'-n A ^ ._.
(q) Ay\$ NW\AA
U-
)/rt\D\,/W u
(b) M = rn,\$x rD3
'(-#)i-#)(f)
M,=(-*)(.tX-*)= r --+ 11=-l
(t) .-A,we,la2o, }*,
\$/^-l "-^gr:"@
(,d)+^^,/ ,ttvtot4t )a b, -bg*a fu Ps,,

Ce-) -rt^*

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