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1954 Berlin Conference

 USSR, UK, France and USA
 Discussed the war in Korea
 The possible reunification of Germany
 No agreements made but at least they were talking
 No change in stance
 Cold war was entrenched and neither side would give an inch (same as during the
Berlin Blockade)
1 9 5 4 Paris Agreement
 The occupation of West Germany ended (Federal Republic of Germany – FRG)
 Limited the production of atomic weapons (not ownership)
 Signed in violation of the Potsdam Conference
 Increased international tension
 Resolutely opposed by the USSR, the German Democratic Republic (GDR – East
Germany), and the other socialist states, as well as by the peace-loving public of the
European countries.
 West Germany (FRG) joined NATO – NATO forces to be stationed in FRG ‘for

1955 Geneva Summit - July

 US meets with USSR, Britain, & France to begin discussions on European security
and disarmament; no agreements made
 First since Potsdam in 1945.
 Agreement to end occupation of Austria, which became a neutral state.
“Peaceful coexistence,” but no agreement on arms limitations.
 Still, major “thaw” in the Cold War diplomatic “ice age.”
 However, improvement was limited because:
 In 1956 Soviet forces crushed Hungarian uprising / rebellion.
 1960 summit in Paris crashed when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down
 over Soviet airspace.
 “the Spirit of Geneva”

1955 Warsaw Pact is signed

1956 Hungarian Uprising

1957 Eisenhower Doctrine is announced

USSR launches Sputnik I – Lost the race

 Later that year, the US Vanguard fails attempt to go to space.

 This was publicly dubbed Kaputnik and USA are humiliated.
 Ultimately, provokes increased spending on New Look policy and an increased fear of
a missile gap.
1958 relations sour with Khrushchev's ultimatum for Allies to leave Berlin: 6-month deadline
passed without incident, extended indefinitely

1958 Congress passes National Defense Education Act – creation of NASA

1959 Camp David Summit

1960Paris Summit and U2 Crisis

 Sours relations that had been moderately repaired at Geneva.
 USA humiliated as Eisenhower exposed as a liar due to the Soviet knowledge of U2
spy plane missions and the condition of Garry Powers.
 Showed that Eisenhower should have accepted the rejection of the ‘Open Skies’
policy at Geneva – didn’t stick to his word
 Left no chance of improving relations from that point on.

Key People
Dwight D. Eisenhower - 3 4 th U.S. president
 WW2 General who liberated Jews from concentration camps
 Authorized CIA-sponsored coups abroad
 Committed federal funds to fighting Communists in Vietnam.

John Foster Dulles

 Secretary of State, helped devise Eisenhower’s New Look foreign policy
 Emphasized massive retaliation with nuclear weapons; advocated using nukes in
 Chief of NATO
 Wanted to liberate the satellite states
 Advocated Brinkmanship and Massive Retaliation

Stalin Died – 1953

Triumvirate rule til 1955 – Malenkov (after he had Beria executed), Khrushchev, Molotov
Khrushchev won out by 1955

Henry Kissinger – National Security Adviser 1969-1975

 Believed that world peace would be achieved through the judicious manipulation of
the balance of power
 Believed the Soviet’s a threat – thought the best way to mitigate it was through
promoting China
 German descent

JFK – 1961 – 1963


 Both sides faced decreasing living standards as a result of military spending.

 1955 in USSR it was about 33% of GDP
 By 1954, USA was 12%

 Arms race continued

 Space race began

Leadership change 1953 – Truman out – Eisenhower in (AKA Ike)

Stalin out and Triumvirate in (then Khrushchev in by 1955)

Dwight Eisenhower 1953 - 1963

Eisenhower’s “New Look” (Aims) – AKA the Eisenhower Doctrine
i. Halt the advance of “creeping socialism” in U.S. domestic policy
ii. “Roll back” the advances of Communism abroad – especially 3rd world.
iii. Proposed the use of nuclear weapons and new technology rather than ground troops
and conventional bombs.
iv. “Massive retaliation” against the USSR for Communist advances abroad.
v. New and cheaper weapons to reduce military spending, which had escalated rapidly
during the Truman years.
vi. Eisenhower suggested ‘open skies’ policy to reduce suspicion – Khrushchev declined
vii. Stabilize defense spending, keeping it at roughly half the congressional budget
viii. Reduce the Military Industrial Complex (MIC)

Started the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to begin top-secret intelligence flights over the
Soviet Union by using the brand-new high altitude U-2 reconnaissance planes
Ensured that USA were winning the arms race (USA 5500 nuclear warheads vs USSR 650
nuclear warheads)

1956 Hungarian uprising - Soviet Union brutally crushed an uprising in Hungary.

 Highlighted that the satellite states wanted to break away
 They were encouraged by deStalinisation
 Khrushchev called for the other Warsaw Pact nations to invade Hungry Imre Nagy
was executed
 US government through “Radio Free Europe” promised ‘rollback’ but failed to
support Hungarian rebels
 Lost the trust of Eastern Europeans and nullified rollback promised by Khrushchev.
 30,000 Hungarians died in the uprising and only 25,000 of the resultant 200,00
refugees were invited to take refuge in the USA
 Despite Hungary’s request for American recognition and military assistance,
Eisenhower’s hands were tied because he knew that the USSR would stop at nothing
to maintain control of Eastern Europe.
 He could not risk turning the Cold War into a nuclear war over the interests of a small
nation such as Hungary.
 Reinforced the spheres of influence

Reaction to Sputnik
 Eisenhower created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in
1958 to spearhead the American space program.
 Successful protection of Berlin 1958 over the border dispute with the USSR.
 Refused to recognise East Germany or negotiate with Khrushchev
 Successfully stood up to his election promise to show no weakness in foreign policy.

1958 Berlin Crisis

 The FRG had pulled off an economic miracle
 Highlighted the degree of difference
 1958 –Khrushchev called for all of the West’s troops to leave Berlin
 Wanted to ‘Free Berlin’ from capitalism
 US refused
 Eisenhower invited Khrushchev to the US – so Kh dropped the demand
 When Kennedy met Khrushchev at the Vienna Summit in 1961 – Khrushchev
renewed his demand but with an ultimatum – build the wall
 Kennedy didn’t back down – wall went up 1961
 JFK said “it’s a hell of a lot better than war”
 Physical manifestation of division
 US condemned but again did nothing

Central Intelligence Agency to begin top-secret intelligence flights over the Soviet Union by
using the brand-new high altitude U-2 reconnaissance planes
Khrushchev’s Aims 1953 - 1964

Improve relations with the West – Peaceful Co-existence (as much within the USSR as with
the West)

5 Principles
i. Mutual respect of territory and sovereignty
ii. Non-aggesssion
iii. Non-interference in domestic affairs
iv. Equality and mutual advantage in negotiations
v. Economic cooperation (within and outside the Soviet Union)

 Destalinisation
 World Peace
 Ushered in the Warsaw Pact
 Gained the use of atomic weapons - parity

Malenkov suggested a ‘New Course’ – peace with the West, focus on living standards, no
need to wage war – they will self-destruct.
When Malenkov was edged out by 1955, Khrushchev proceeded with the ‘New Course’
Khrushchev was convinced that capitalism would self destruct – all he had to do was wait.

The battle of living standards, for the hearts and minds of people began

Khrushchev labelled Stalin a murderer, neglecting Lenin’s legacy, seeking self-glorification.

So he promised deStalinisation – announced in his ‘secret speech’
He knew that the satellite states hated Stalin and need them on side ASAP
 to ease controls in the East
 increase consumer goods available and to restructure collectivisation.
 relax censorship
 reduce the role of the secret police
Spoiler Alter: it never happened

Internationally, he wanted to:

drop claims to Turkey
 restore relations with Israel, Greece, and Yugoslavia
 decrease propaganda in the West
 agree to exchange wounded and sick soldiers in the Korean conflict.
 Khrushchev said, there are only 2 ways to proceed, peaceful co-existence or the most
destructive war in history.
 Undertook numerous trips to the USA (and Nixon went to Moscow 1959)

Launched Sputnik 1954, first satellite into outer space – HUGE propaganda win
Diverted public opinion from the negative views of Communism, proved it worked
Increased fear and tension in the West – they had lost the race to space.
Revived old fears
The Limits of Massive Retaliation
The doctrine of massive retaliation proved to be dangerously flawed
It effectively left Eisenhower without any options other than nuclear war to combat Soviet
This dilemma surfaced in the 1 9 5 6 uprising in Hungary. Despite Hungary’s request for
American recognition and military assistance, Eisenhower’s hands were tied because he
knew that the USSR would stop at nothing to maintain control of Eastern Europe. He could
not risk turning the Cold War into a nuclear war over the interests of a small nation such as
Covert Operations (less relevant for Europe)
As an alternative, Eisenhower employed the CIA to tackle the specter of Communism in developing countries outside the Soviet
Union’s immediate sphere of influence. Newly appointed CIA director Allen Dulles (the secretary of state’s brother) took enormous
liberties in conducting a variety of covert operations. Thousands of CIA operatives were assigned to Africa, Asia, Latin America, and
the Middle East and attempted to launch coups, assassinate heads of state, arm anti-Communist revolutionaries, spread propaganda,
and support despotic pro-American regimes. Eisenhower began to favor using the CIA instead of the military because covert
operations didn’t attract as much attention and cost much less money.

The Eisenhower Doctrine (less relevant for Europe)

In 1 9 5 7 , in order to protect American oil interests in the Middle East, Eisenhower announced the Eisenhower Doctrine, which
stated that the United States would provide military and economic assistance to Middle Eastern countries in resisting Communist
insurgents. Although not terribly significant, this doctrine, as well as the restoration of Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi in Iran,
demonstrated the growing importance of oil in American foreign policy decision making.

The 17th Parallel (less relevant for Europe)

An international convention in Geneva, Switzerland, tried to avert further conflict in Vietnam by temporarily splitting the country into
two countries, with the dividing line at the 1 7 th parallel. Ho Chi Minh erected his own government in Hanoi in North Vietnam, while
American-supported Ngo Dinh Diem founded a South Vietnamese government in Saigon. This Geneva Conference agreement
stipulated that the division would be only temporary, a stopgap to maintain peace until national elections could be held to reunite
the country democratically.
Although the USSR consented to the agreement, Eisenhower rejected it. Instead, he pledged continued economic support to Ngo
Dinh Diem and convinced Great Britain, France, Australia, and other regional nations to join the mostly symbolic Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization (SEATO), modeled after the highly successful NATO.
Sputnik and the Space Race
In October 1 9 5 7 , Soviet scientists shocked the world when they announced they had
successfully launched the first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1.
Several months later with the launch of Sputnik 11.
Although the satellites themselves posed no danger to the United States, Americans feared
that the Soviet Union now had the ability to attack New York or Washington with nuclear-
tipped intercontinental ballistic missiles, or ICBMs, from anywhere on the planet. In reality,
the Soviet ICBM development program lagged far behind its American counterpart.

Fear that the USSR would win the “space race”

Spurred Eisenhower and Congress into action.
Eisenhower created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1 9 5 8
Congress, increased defense spending and passed the National Defense Education Act in
1 9 5 8 to fund more science and foreign language classes in public schools.
Khrushchev and Camp David
For a brief period during Eisenhower’s final years in office, it seemed that the US and the
USSR might resolve their differences peacefully and perhaps even end the Cold War.
U.S.-Soviet relations also improved dramatically after Khrushchev spent 2 weeks touring the
United States in 1 9 5 9 .
He and Eisenhower even had a cordial meeting at the woodsy presidential retreat at Camp
David, in Maryland.
Many Americans hoped that the so-called spirit of Camp David would ease tensions
between the two superpowers.
The U-2 Incident
After returning home to Moscow, Khrushchev invited Eisenhower to visit the Soviet Union
and hold a multilateral summit in Paris the following year.
The plans fell apart, however, after the Soviet Union shot down an American U-2 spy plane
in 1 9 6 0 .
Eisenhower denied the existence of U-2 missions over the Soviet Union, but then the USSR
produced the American pilot, whom they had captured alive.
Embarrassed, Eisenhower refused to apologize or promise to suspend future spy missions
against the USSR.
The U-2 incident instantly repolarized the Cold War, reversing the thaw that Khrushchev’s
visit had brought and forcing the abandonment of the Paris summit.
Eisenhower’s Farewell
Facing a two-term limit, Eisenhower delivered his farewell address in January 1 9 6 1 .
Ironically, he used his last speech as president to address a problem that he himself had had
a hand in creating—the increasing dependence on nuclear weapons as a tool of foreign
policy. By 1 9 6 0 , a growing number of Americans had begun to protest the United States’
apparent willingness to wage nuclear warfare. Eisenhower had also begun to see nuclear
weapons as more of a threat to global security than as a stabilizer. Afraid that the U.S.
government and even Americans’ civil liberties might succumb to the power of what he
called the “military-industrial complex,” Eisenhower cautioned that “the potential for the
disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.” Although little was made of
Eisenhower’s words at the time, his words came back to haunt Americans during the
Vietnam War.