Sei sulla pagina 1di 454



/ /

Key to phonetic symbols

Vowels and diphthongs

i: as in see si:. 3: as in fur /f3:(r)/
1 as in Sit /Sll, d as in ago /a'gau/
c as in ten ten/ ei as in page /peid3/
X as in hat had' do as in home /haum/
a: as in arm /a;m/ ai as in five /faiv/
as in got got/ at) as in now /nau/
as S^w as in join /dpin/
h a'
m put


13 as in near /ni»(r)/
as in too lu: CD as in hair /h<»(r)/
r as in cup kAp. oo as in pure /pju3(r)/

Consonants —
i as in pen pen s as in so sao/
b as in ba^j bsd / as in zoo //u:
f, as in tea ti:
I as in she /Ji;/
d as m <^icl ,did 3 as in vision /'vi3n
k as in cat kxi h as in how /hau;
9 as m got got m as in man macn,
tj as in chin ijm n as in no nao
^^ as in June d3u:n as in sing Ml]
f as in tall ihX 1 as in leg /leg/
V as in voice V3IS. r as in red red,
as in thin Oin, or. in yes jes;
ft as in then ftcn w as in wet wet/

represents primary stress

as m
about /^'baoi,
,, represents secondary stress
as in academic .acka'demik-

(r) An *r* parentheses is heard in British pronuncialion

^hen It immediately followed by a word beginning

vN'iih a vowel sound Otherwise it is omitted

H:itphcnv receding and/or following parts of a

rcpej»^ct irji,^ ..p,T7T~;4icalc that only the repealed
pan ha, ^,-s

I m\
General consultant A P Cowie

~ \

» j

Prepared with the assistance of

Alan Evison ^"^ "*

.r^^' hidt&i Mubjana

July as"*. 5^


Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press, Waltort Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP
t Oxford New York Toronto
Delhi Borpbay Calcutta Madras Karachi
Fetalffi^ Java Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo
Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town
Melbourne Auckland
and associated companies in
Beirut Berlin Ibadan Nicosia

Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press

© Oxford University Press. 1980, 1983

First published
Sixth impression 1987

{OffginclHy published as Oxford Keys English Dictionary, 1980)

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.

7l|if book is soj^ subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of
trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated
without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover
other than that ih which it is published and without a similar condition
including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

This kpok 4m9ludes some words which are or are asserted to be

proprietary names. The presence or absence of such assertions should
not be regarded as affecting the legal status of any proprietary name
or trademark.

ISBN 19 431280 1

Computer typeset in Times and Vnivers bv Oxford University Press

^riied in Hong Kong


This compact dictionary has been specially designed for

the learner of English. It deals with a general vocabulary
of more than 1 7,000 items in sufficient detail to meet many
of the reference needs of students, particularly at inter-
mediate level.

Even a dictionary small enough to shp into a pocket or

handbag must try to serve and harmonize certain basic
reference needs. At times the learner will simply wish to
check a spelling or trace the meaning of a word he has met
for the first time. But he will also look to the dictionary to
helphim use new vocabulary acceptably: he v/ill want to
compose as well as comprehend.

The user of this general dictionary who wants quick

access to meanings will be helped by the way in which the
various senses of a word such as agree or beat are
numbered and arranged, by the marking in bold print
of compounds, and by the simple language of the

At the same time the learner is given much guidance on

the forms and uses of words. Part of this help is with
spelling and pronunciation. Plural forms whose spellings
are hkely to cause difficulty are always carefully shown,
and the irregular written and spoken forms of verbs are all
indicated, some in special entries of their own. Space has
also been found for marking the difference between
countable and uncountable nouns— a familiar stumbling
block for the learner. Although the scale of the dictionary
rules out an elaborate treatment of idioms, they are easily
picked out from the text, and alternative forms are neatly
and economically shown — as m (every) now and thenj

This attractive dictionary is a remarkable feat of selection

and compression guided by a clear sense of the learner's
practical needs.

A P Cowie
Using the dictionary

The headwords are shown in bold type
The bold dot (•) shows where the word can be divided in
written English

When two headwords have the same spelling but different
meanings they are numbered


Compound words and

Compound words are made up of two or more words
joined together (e.g. words
crash-course). Derivatives are
formed from other words (e.g. craftily from craft). These
types of word appear in bold type at the end of an entry.

cour-age /'kAnds/ n [U] . . . '^ous /ka'reidsas/ adj

crash^ /kraej/ n[C] . . . '^-course/programme

Idioms and phrasal verbs

One of the major difficulties for any person learning
Enghsh is understanding idiomatic expressions and
phrasal verbs whose meanings are not clear from the
meaning of the headword. In this dictionary the most
important idioms and phrasal verbs are shown in bold
italic type, and are clearly defined with many examples
to show how they are used.

modeP /'modi/ vtji (-II-, US -I-) 1 shape (in some soft

substance). 2 work as a model(3,4). 3 oneself on/ ^
upon sb, take as a good example.

Nouns which can be used in the singular {a dog) and/or
plural {some dogs) are marked [C] (countable):

grape /greip/ n [C]

Nouns which do not have a plural form (sugar, milk) are

marked [U] (uncountable). These nouns are used with
some, much, a lot of, enough, etc.

linen /'hmn/ n [U]

Some nouns can be used as either countable or un-

countable. They are marked
For example coffee
is [C] as in Two and [U] as in Have you any
coffees please,
more coffee please? Most nouns in EngHsh have regular
plural forms, by adding s to the noun e.g. dog—dogs, or by
adding es if the noun ends in s, z, x, ch or sh e.g.
church— churches. If a noun does not have a regular plural
it is shown in the dictionary.

man^ /maen/ n [C] (/>/ men /men/)

lady /'leidi/ ^2 [C] {pi -dies)
wolf /wulf/ n {pi wolves /wulvz/)
All adjectives of one syllable (e.g. nice, green) and most of
those with two syllables (e.g. gentle, happy) make the
comparative and superlative forms by adding -r, -sV,
-er, -est; or -ier, -iest to the end of the adjective. These are
shown in the dictionary:

gentle /'dsentl/ adj (-r, -st)

green^ /gn:n/ adj (-er, -est)
happy /'haepi/ adj (-ier, -iest)

When the spelling and pronunciation of the past tense {pt)
and past participle {pp) of a verb are irregular, these forms
are shown at the beginning of the entry for the verb:

know /nsu/ vtji {pt knew /nju:/; pp ~n /naun/)

rise^ /raiz/ vi {pt rose /raoz/; pp risen /'rizn/)

Doubled consonants. Many

verbs that end in a single
consonant have this repeated to make the past
tense, past participle or present participle (e.g.
stop— stopped— stopping). Some adjectives repeat the
final consonant in the same way (e.g. hot—
hotter— hottest). These are shown in the dictionary:

pin^ /pm/ v/ (-nn-)

sad /saed/ adj (-der, -dest)

The box a
Many headwords can be used for more than one part of
speech. The word gear, for example, can be used as a noun
and a verb. These different uses of one word are separated
in each entry by a box d.

The tilde ^
The symbol ~ is used in place of the headword in ex-

amples, derivatives, compounds, and idiomatic expres-


cair /kD:l/ « [C] . . . 4 message; summons; invitation:

telephone '^s. a close ^v., a narrow escape from
danger, '-^-box, public kiosk with a telephone.

The slant mark /

The slant mark / is used to show choice in a phrase. For

argue for/against/that means that argue for, argue
against and argue that are all possible expressions in

Brackets ( )

Brackets ( ) show words that may be omitted

are used to
from a phrase or sentence. For example:
take up arms (against) means that take up arms
and take up arms against are both possible expressions.

The arrow c>

The arrow O used to show a cross-reference. It guides
you to another part of the dictionary where you will find
further information.

order^ «... 3 [U] obedience

/'D:d3(r)y to the law. O
disorder, law and ^^^ O law(3).
Symbols and
abbreviations used

abbr abbreviation (P) Proprietary name

adj adjective Pl plural
adv adverb PP past participle
(anat) anatomy prep preposition
aux verb auxiliary verb pres part present participle
IC] countable noun pron pronoun
(chem) chemistry Pt past tense
conj conjunction rel pron relativepronoun
eg For example sb somebody
(elec) electricity {Scot) Scotland
esp especially sing singular
ifig) figurative {sD slang
(Fr) French sth something
(GB) British [U] uncountable noun
{gram) grammar {US) American
{hist) historical vi verb intransitive
i e in other words vt verb transitive
{lit) literary O look at (cross-
{maths) mathematics reference)
{med) medicine A taboo
{mil) military a shows a change in
{myth) mythology the part of speech
n noun in an entry
opp opposite
1 A/above
promise, law), cannot '^, can-
not tolerate.
abil-ity /a'bibti/ n (pi -ies) [C.U]
skill; power (to do something).
ab-ject /'aebd3ekt/ adj (formal)
(of conditions) poor; miserable:

Aa living in ~
poverty. '>^ly adv
ablaze /a'bletz/ adj. adv (formal)
1 on fire. 2 (fig) shining: her eyes
--v with e.xcitement.

A\ a /ei/ {plA's. a's /eiz/) the first able /'eibl/ adj 1 be '^ to do
letter of the Enghsh alphabet. sth. have the power, means or
a^ /a strong form: ei/, an /an opportunity. c> can^. 2 (-r, -st)
strong form: aen/ indefinite ar- clever; capable, i^^^-'bodied adj
ticle {an is used before a vowel) 1 physically strong, ably adv
one (but no particular one). 2 ab-nor-mal /,aeb'nD:ml/ adj not
(used when speaking or writing normal; unusual. 'x/ity
about number. quantity, /-'maebti/ n [C,U] (p/-ies).
groups, etc): a lot of money. 3 aboard /3'bD:d/ adv, prep on or
each: 60 miles an hour. into a ship, aircraft, or (US) a
aback /a'baek/ adv be taken ->-', train or coach.
be suddenly surprised. abode /s'baud/ n of/ with no
aba-cus /'aebakas/ n [C] (pi ^^es) fixed '^, (legal) having no per-
frame with beads sliding on rods manent home.
used for calculating. abol-ish /a'bolij"/ vt put an end
aban-don /a'baendan/ vt 1 go to: ~ taxes. abol-ition
away from; desert. 2 give up: '^ /.ajba'hjn/ n [UJ
an idea, '^ed adj left or desert- A-bomb /'ei bom/ « O atomic
ed: an '^edcar. '>^ment n [U] bomb.
abashed /s'baejt/ adj (formal) abom-in-able /s'bominabl/ adj
very embarrassed or ashamed. 1 causing hatred and disgust. 2
abate s'beit/ vt/i make or be- (informal) unpleasant; bad: '\^
come less: the wind^^d. '>^ment weather, abom-in-ably adv. .

n[\J]: noise -^^ment abo-rig-inal /,aEb3'nd33nl/ adj. n

ab-at-toir /'aeb3twa:(r)/ n [C] [C] (person, animal, etc) existing
slaughter-house (for cattle, in a region from earliest times.
sheep, etc). abort /a'bort/ vt/i 1 come to
ab-bess n [C] woman at
/'aebes/ nothing; cancel: -^ a spaceflight.
the head of a convent. 2 give birth to an undeveloped
ab-bey /'asbi/ n [C] (pi ~s) build- foetus, '^ive adj unsuccessful:
ing(s) in which monks or nuns an ~/ve revolution
lived. abortion /a'bDiJn/ n [C,U]
ab-bot /'aebat/ n [C] man at the (legal) (instance oO abort-
head of a monastery. ing(2).
ab-brevi-ate /a'brirvieit/ vt shor- abound /a'baund/ vi have, exist,
ten (a word, title, etc), ab- in great numbers or quantities.
brevi'ation n [C] shortened about^ /a'baut/ adv of degree a
form (esp of a word). little more or less than; a little
ab-di-cate /'aebdikeit/ v/// give before or after: '>- enough/ten
up a high office (eg the throne). o'clock. O exactly, just^(2).
ab-di*ca-tionn[U] about^ /a'baut/ adv, prep 1
ab*do-men /'aebdaman/ n [C] the (showing position, movement)
stomach and bowels, ab- here and there, in no particular
domi'nal /aeb'dominl/ adj direction: walking ^
(the town);
ab-duct /aeb'dAkt/ vt take (a per- papers lying ^
(the room). 2
son) away by force. c> kidnap. (used with be): There was no one
ab'ductionHn//i[C,U] '^, no one present or near. 3 rel-
abet /a'bet/ vt (-tt-) aid and '^ ated to: Tell me all -^ it. How/
sb. (legal) help him to do What '^..., (used to make a
wrong. suggestion). 4 be '^ to start,
ab-hor /9b'hD:(r)/ vt (-U-) (for- etc, be ready to do something.
mal) hate; detest. '>^rence S bring sth '^, C> bring (5).
/ab'horsns/ n [U]. '>^rent adj above /a'bAv/ adv 1 at a higher

abide /a'baid/ v/// '^ by. keep (a point. 2 earlier (in a book etc).

above/accept 2

above^ /a'bAV/ prep 1 higher not do something (eg drink

than: fly ~ ihe clouds. 2 greater beer).
in number, price, weight, etc. 3 ab-sten-tion ab'stenjn n [C,U]
'^ all. more than anythmg else. (instance oQ abstaining, esp not
over and ^. addition to.
in voting.
ab-ra-sion '3'brei3n; n 1 [U] ab-sti-nence /'aebstmans, n [U]
rubbing, scraping. 2 [C] area abstaining, eg from drinking
where something has been wine, beer, etc.
rubbed or scraped away. ab-stract 'aebstraekt/ adj
ab-ras-ive a'breisiv n [C,U] thought of as an idea, not using
substance used for making sur- particular examples. '>^ 'art, art
faces smooth, a adj 1 causing which does not represent ob-
abrasion. 2 (Jig) harsh: his ^ jects, scenes, etc in an obvious
manner. way. a n [C] short account (of a
abreast a'brest/ adv side by book, speech).
side, be /keep '^ (of/with), absurd ab'said/ adj unreason-
be up to date: be ~ of the news. able; ridiculous. '>-ity n [C,U]
abridge /a'brids, vi make (a (pl-\es). '^\y adv
book, etc) shorter, abridg(e)- abun-dance /a'bAndans/ n [U]
ment«[C,U] great amount: an '^ of food.
abroad s'brDid adv in or to a abun-dant /-ant/ at^ more than
foreign country: travel'^. enough.
abrupt /9'brApt/ adj 1 very sud- abuse^ n 1 [C,U] wrong
den: an ~
stop. 2 (of speech, be- use: an ~of power. 2 [C] unjust
haviour) bad-tempered; un- custom or practice. 3 [U] angry
friendly, -^ly adv. ^ness n [U] attack in words; bad language.
ab-scess 'aebses/ n [C] painful abuse^ /3'bju:z/ vt 1 make a
swelling m the body containing wrong use of: '^ one 's authority.
pus. 2 say cruel or unjust things to or
ab-scond /ab'skond/ vi go away about a person, abus-ive
suddenly, esp to avoid arrest. a'bjirsiv/ adj using bad lan-
ab-sence /'aebsans, n 1 [C,U] guage.
(occasion or period of) being abys'tnal /a'bizmal/ adj very
away: ^
from school. 2 [U] non- bad: an ^failure. '>^ly adv
existence: in the -^ of informa- abyss /s'bis/ n [C] (pi '^es) 1
tion. hole so deep as to appear bot-
ab-sent^ /'aebsant' adj '^ from, tomless. 2 (fig) deepest degree.
not present at. '^-'minded adj aca-demic /laeks'demik, adj^ of
unaware of what is happening teaching, studying; of schools
because thinking of something etc. 2 too concerned with theory
else. and not sufficiently practical, a
ab-sent^ /ab'sent/ vr (formal) ^ n [C] professional scholar, '
oneself from, stay away \y adv
(from). ac-cel-er-ate /ak'sebreit/ vt/i 1
ab-sen-tee /,aebs9n'ti:/ n [C] per- increase the speed of. 2 (of a mo-
son who is absent. tion or process) become faster.
abso-lute/'2ebs3lu:t/a<//l com- ac-cel-e'ration n [U]. ac-cel-
plete: ^
trust. 2 not limited: an er-ator n [C] device, eg the pe-
~ ruler. 3 undoubted: proof. ~ dal in a car, for controlling
-^ly adv (a) /'aebs3lu:tli/ com- speed.
pletely: He's -^ly right, (b) n [C]
ac-cent^ /'aeksant/ 1 force
/,3ebs3'lu:th/ (informal) I agree given to a syllable when speak-
with you. ing. 2 written symbol over or
ab solve /ab'zolv/ vr ^ from. under a letter, eg cafe. 3 individ-
say somebody is free (from sin, a
ual, local or national way of
promise, etc). pronouncing.
ab-sorb /ab'soib/ vt 1 take in, eg ac-cent^ /aek'sent/ vt put em-
a liquid, heat, light. 2 hold
the phasis on (a syllable or word).
attention, interest of: '^ed in his
ac-cen-tu-ate /sk'sentjueit/ vr
y^ork. -^ent adj that ab- give more force or importance
sorbs (1 ): '^ent paper. to.
ab-sorp.tion /ab'so.-pjn/ n [Uj ac-cept /ak'sept/ vr// 1 (agree to)
action of absorbing(l).
receive (something offered). 2
ab stain ab'stem/ vi'^(from) agree to; recognize: ~
a respon-

sibility. ^able /-sbl/ adj. (music) wind instrument with a

'>^ance /-ans/ n [U] keyboard.
ac-cess /'aekses/ n [U] 1 way (in) ac-cost /a'kost/ vt go up to and
to a place. 2 '^ to. opportunity speak to first, esp a stranger.
of reaching or using: to good ~ ac-count^ /s'kaunt/ n 1 [C]
books, --wible /ak'sesabl/ adj. (commerce) statement of money
ac-ces-sion /aek'sejn/ n [U] (to be) paid or received, open
reaching a high position or an '^. start to keep one's money
state. at a bank, etc. C> currentV2),
ac-cess-ory /sk'sesari/ n [C] (/>/ deposit^(3), joint^ and save\ 2
-ies) 1 person who helps, esp in a [C] calculation. 3 [C] report;
crime. 2 thing that is extra, but description: give an of the ~
not essential. meeting. 4 [U] take sth into
ac-ci-dent /'aeksidant/ n 1 [C] '-^: take ^ of sth. note or con-
something unexpected and usu- sider it. 5 [U] on ^ of. because
ally unfortunate. 2 [U] by ac- of. on no '^. not for any
cident, by chance: I met her bv reason.
~. ^tal /-'dentl/ adj. '^ally ac-count^ "^ for.
/a'kaunt/ vt/i
/-tall/ a^v (a) be an explanation of. (b)
ac-claim /s'kleim/ vt applaud give an explanation of money
loudly. D n [U] applause; appro- spent, '^able /-abl/ adj '^able
val. for. responsible for.
ac-cli-mat-ize /a'klaimalaiz/ vtji ac-count-ancy /a'kauntansi/ n
get used to a new climate or en- [U] profession of an accountant.
vironment. ac-count-ant -D'kaontant/ n [C]
ac-col-ade /'aekaleid/ n [C] {Jig) (GB) person who keeps and ex-
praise; approval. amines business accounts.
ac-commodate /s'komsdeit ac-crue /a'kru:/ vi increase: in-
vt 1 provide lodging for. 2 terest ~5 on your loan.
change to fit something else: ~ ac-cu-mu-late /a'kjurmjuleit/
oneself to a new plan, ac-com- vtji make or become greater in
mo'da-tion n [U] {GB) furnish- quantity, accumu'lation n
ed or unfurnished room(s). ac- [C,U].
'commodating, helpful. ac-cu-racy /'aekjsrasi/ n [U] de-
ac-compani-ment a'kAm.- gree of being correct.
panimant/ n [C] 1 thing that usu- ac-cu-rate /'aekjsrat/ adj exact;
ally goes with another thing. 2 correct.'>^\y/ adv

(music) music played to support ac-cu-sa-tion isekju'zeijn/ n [C]


a singer or solo instrument. charge of doing wrong.

accompanist /a'kAmpanist n ac-cuse /a'kjurz/ vt say that
[C] person who accompanies a somebody has done wrong, the
musician. accused, the person(s) charg-
ac-com-pany /a'kAmpani/ vt ed with a crime, accuser, per-
ipt.pp -led) 1 go wit'.i: accom- son who accuses.
panied by his wife. 2 (music) play accustom /s'kAstam/ vt be
an accompaniment (2) to. '^ed to. have experience of; do
ac-com-piice /a'k vmplis/ n [C] often, "s-ed adj usual: in his '^ed
helper or companion (in doing seat.
something illegal). ace /eis/ n [C] 1 the one on dice,
ac-com-plish 'a'kAmpliJ/ vt playing-cards, etc. 2 (informal)
succeed in doing. '>^ed adj well an expert.
trained; skilled, -^-^ment n (for- ache /eik/ vj, n [C] (cause, have a)
mal) (a) [U] completion, (b) [C] continuous pain: My back was
thing well done; skill. aching. -^ for. want very much.
ac-cord /a'koid n [U] of one's achieve get (some-
/s'tjirv/ vt 1
own '^. without being asked or thing) done. 2 gain or reach by
forced; willingly. effort: ~
success, achiev-able
ac-cord-ing /a'kordir)/ prep ~ /-sbl/ adj. ~ment /-mant/ n [C,
to. 1 on the authority of (eg the U]
Bible). 2 proportion to: pun-
in acid adj 1 sour. 2 (fig)
ished ^
to the crime. 3 in order sarcastic: -^comments, a n [C,U]
of: books arranged ~
to subject. (chem) substance, containing
"^ly ac/v for that reason. hydrogen, which dissolves me-
ac-cord-ion /a'koidian/ n [C] tals. '-^ test, (jig) test of the

acknowledge /adapt
value ofbomething. an -^ of Parliament. 4 main divi-
acknowledge /ak'nolids/ vt 1 sion of a play. 5 a short perfor-
admit: / ~ my mistake. 2 report mance: a circus ~. put on an
that one has received (eg a let- '>^. pretend. |A'>^ of 'God. the
ter). 3 express thanks for ac- result of natural forces, eg
knowledg(e)ment n [C,U] floods.
acne /'aekni/ n [U] pimples on the act^/aekt/ v///1 do something: hc
face and neck. must ~
at once. 2 take the part
acorn /'eikoin/ n [C] seed or fruit of, eg a character in a play or
of the oak tree. film, --wing adj doing the duties
acous-tic /9'ku:stik/ adi of of another {person for a time:
sound, acous-tics n [UJ (a) The '^ Manager.
(with a sing verb) the scientific act-ing 'aektir)/ n [U] (art oQ
study of sound, (b) (with a pi performing in a plav.
verb) the design of a hall etc, that ac-tion /'aekjn/ n 1 [U] process of
makes it good, poor, etc for doing things, put (sth) out of
hearing music or speeches. ~, stop (it) working. 2 [C] thing
ac-quaint /a'kwemt,' v( 1 '^ done; act. 3 [0,11] fighting in
sbloneself with, get to war: killed in/go into ~.
know. 2 be '^ed (with sb), ac-ti-vate /'aektiveit/ vt make ac-
have met (him) personally. tive: '^ a bomb.
~ance /-ans/ n (a) [U] know- ac-tive /'aektiv/ adj able to do
ledge gained through ex- things; busy, '^ly adv
perience, make sb's '^ance. ac-tiv-ist /'aektivist/ n [C] person
get to know him. (b) [C] person taking an active part, eg in a pol-
whom one knows (less intimate- itical movement.
ly than a friend). ac-tiv-ity /aek'tivati/ n {pi -ies) 1
ac-quire /3ikwai9(r)/ vt gain by [U] being active. 2 [C] thing (to
skill or one's own efforts. be) done; occupation.
ac-qui-si-tion /.jekwi'zijn/ n 1 ac-tor /'aEkt9(r)/ n [C] man who
[U] {Jorma[) collecting. 2 [C] acts on the stage, etc.
something acquired, ac-quis- ac-tress /'aktns/ n [C] woman
itive /aikwizotiv/ adj fond of who acts on the stage, etc.
collecting things. ac-tual /'aektjoal/ adj existing m
ac-quit /a'kwit/ vt (-tt-) -^ sb fact; real. '>^ly /'aektjuli/ adv (a)
(ofIon sth). declare that (he) really: '^ly he's a thief, (b) sur-
IS not guilty. ^taln[C,U] prisingly: He '^ly won the race!
acre n [C] measure of
/'eik9(r)/ acu-men /3'kju:men/ n [U] abil-
land, about 4000 sq metres. ity to understand quickly: busi-
'^age /'eik3rid3/ n [U] area of ness '\^.
land measured in acres. acu-punC'ture /'aekjupAijk-
ac-rid /'zekrid/ adj (of smell or tj3(r)/ n [U] (med) pricking the
taste) sharp; bitter. skin with needles to take away
ac-ri-moni-ous /laekri'maunias/ pain.
adj iformaf) (of arguments, etc) acute /3'kju:t/ adj 1 (of pain,
showing hate, disappointm.ent. mind, etc) strong, quick to react.
ac-ri-mony /laekrimani/ n [U] 2 (of diseases) coming quickly to
ac-ro-bat /'aekrabxt/ n [C] per-
son who can do skilful physical
a crisis. O
chronic. 3 (of
sounds) high; shrill. -^^ accent,
acts, eg on a tightrope,
-.^ic symbol over a letter, eg cafe. 'V/
h^hxiik/adj.'^icsnpl -angle, angle of less than 90''.
ac-ro-nym /'aekranim/ n [C] ' adv. ^ness n [U]
word formed from the initial let- ad /sd/ n [C] (informal) (abbr for)
ters of a name, eg NASA advertisement.
across /a'kros/ adv, prep (C> the Adam's apple /'aedamz aepl/ n
verb entries, eg come, get, put,
lump in the front of the throat.
run.) 1 from side to side of:
walk ada-mant /'aedsmant/ adj refus-
the street. 2 on the other
house is just -^ the street.
ing to change one's opinion.
adapt /a'daept/ vt make suitable
3 so as to form a cross: He sat for a new use, situation, etc.
with his arms -^ his chest.
'>^able /-abl/ adj. '>^atron
act' /aekt/ n [C] 1 thmg
done 2 /aedaep'teijn/ n [C,U] process, re-
process of doing: caught in the
sult of adapting, 'x^er, '>.'Or
'^. 3 law made by a
government: /-t3(r)/, (a) person who adapts.

(b) a fitting eg for an electric '^ment/i[C]

socket so that more than one ad lib /,aed 'lib/ a^v (informal)
plug(2) may be used. done without preparation, a vi
add /aed/ v///1 join; put together. (-bb-) (informal) do, say, with-
'V. sth up. find the sum of. '>^ out preparation, a adj: re- ^
up (to), (a) give as a result: mar/c5.
The figures ^
up to 365. (b) (in- ad-min-is-ter /9d'mmist3(r)/
formal) indicate; mean, (c) (m- vtji 1 control, manage: 'v. a
formal) be beUevable: It just country, govern it. 2 give: ->-

doesn't '^ up. 2 say something justice I help to people.

more. ad-min-is-tra-tion /3d,mmi-
ad-der /'aed3(r)/ n [C] small poi- 'streijn/ n [U] 1 management;
sonous European snake. public affairs, government (of a
ad-dict /9'dikt/ vt be ^ed to. country). 2 administering of jus-
drink, smoke, etc without being tice, relief, etc. ad-min-is-tra-
able to stop, d n /'aedikt/ person tive /ad'ministrativ/ adj.
who is addicted to something ad'min-is-tra-tor n [C]
harmful: a *drug '>^. ad-diction ad-mir-able /'aedmarsbl/ adj ex-
/a'dikjn/ n [C,U]. -^ive cellent, ad-mir-ably adv
/a'diktiv/ causing addiction.
fli^' ad-mi ral /'aedmarsl/ n [C] ofTicer
ad-di-tion /a'difn/ n 1 [U] ad- in command of a country's war-
ding. 2 [C] person or thing ad- ships.
ded, in ^
(to), as well (as). ad-mir-ation /laedma'reijn/ n
'>-al /a'dijanl/ adj extra: -^a/ [U] feeling of pleasure, respect.
costs. ad-mire /3d'mai3(r)/ vt look at
ad-dress /a'dres/ n [C] 1 num- with pleasure; have a high opin-
ber, street, etc where a person ion of. ad-mirer, person who
lives.2 speech (to an audience). admires, ad-mir-ing adj.
D vt /a'dres/ 1 make a speech to. ad-mis-sion /sd'mijn/ n 1 [U]
2 write the name and address ( 1 admitting(1 ); fee for this: /i^
on an envelope, etc. 3 '^ sth to. free. 2 [C] confession: make an
send (a remark, complaint, etc) ^ of guilt.
to. ad-mit /ad'mit/ vt/i (-tt-) 1 allow
adept /'aedept/ adj expert, to enter; let in: The secretary
skilled: ~ in photography. '^ted me (into the office). 2 ac-
ad-equate /'sdikwat/ adj satis- knowledge; confess: / ^ my
factory; sufficient, '-v/ly adv mistake/that I was mistaken, "s,
ad-here /3d'hi3(r)/ vi (formal) 1 to. confess. '>^tance n [U] right
stick (to). 2 be loyal to. ad-her- to enter, ^ted-ly /ad'milidli/
ence /-rans/ support;
n [U] adv by general agreement.
loyalty, ad-her-ent /-rant/ n [C] ado /9'du:/ n [U] fuss; trouble:
supporter (of a cause, political Without more ~
he agreed.

party, etc). ado-lescence /,aed3'lesns/ n [U]

ad-hesive /ad'hitsiv/ adj able to period between childhood and
stick, a Ai [C,U] substance that maturity. ado-lescent
sticks, eg gum. ad-hesion /laeda'lesnt/ adj. n [C] (person)
/3d'hi:3n//i[U] growing up.
ad-jac-ent /a'dseisnt/ adj next adopt /a'dopt/ vt 1 take (a child)
to, near (to). into one's family with legal
ad-jec-tive /'aedjiktiv/ n [C] guardianship. C* foster. 2 ac-
(gram) word that names a qual- cept and use (an idea, a recom-
ity, or that defines a noun, eg mendation), adoption
green, pretty, bad. ad-jec-tival /a'dopjn/ n [U]. 'v/ive adj taken
/,aed3ik'taivl/a(^ by adoption: His '^ parents.
ad-journ /a'dssrn/ vtji stop, eg a adorable /a'dDirabl/ adj lov-
meeting for a time, '^ment n able: an ~
[C,U] ador-ation /,aed3'reijn/ n [U]
ad-ju-di-cate /3'd3u:dikeit/ vtji worship; love.
(formal) decide; judge: onj ~ adore /3'dD:(r)/ vt 1 worship
upon a disagreement, ad-ju- (God); love deeply; respect high-
di'ca-tion n [C,U]. ad-ju-di- ly. 2 (informal) like very much:

ca.tor/-t3(r)/w[C] She '^s being tickled.

ad-just /a'dsASt/ vt set right; ador-ing /9'dD:rii)/ adj loving: '>-

regulate. '>^able /-dbl/ adj. parents.

adorn /affection 6

adorn /a'doin/ vi add orna- (abbr oO advertisement( b)

ments) to. ~ment n (U] ad-ver-tise /'aedvataiz/ vtji
adrift /s'drift/ adv. adj (of ships make known to people (by
and boats) floating freely. printing notices in newspapers,
adu-la-tion laedju'leijn n [U] etc).'>^ment 'ad'vartismant/ n
(the giving oQ too much praise. (a) [U] advertising, (b) [C] pub-
adult /'aedAlt adj grown to full licannouncement (in the press,
size;(of persons) mature, d n [C] TV, etc.
1 person or animal grown to full ad-vice ad'vais/ n [U] a person's
size.2 {legal) person old enough opinion about what to do.
to vote, marry, etc. (give sb) a piece I a word of
adul-tery s'dAltari a; [U] volun- '<', (give) an opinion.

tary se.xual intercourse of a mar- ad-vise /ad'vaiz/ vi/i 1 give ad-

ried person with somebody to vice to; recommend. 2 inform:
whom he or she is not married. Please -^ us when you are com-
adulterer n [C]. adulteress ing, ill- /well-advised. c> ill/
n [C]. adulterous adj well, ad-viser, p>erson who
ad-vance^ ad'vams/ n [C,U] 1 gives advice, ad-vis-able /-abl/
forward movement; progress, in adj sensible; to be recommend-
'>>' (of), before. 2 (as an adj) be- ed, ad-vis-ory adj giving ad-
fore; early: have ~ notice, be vice.
told that something will happen. ad-vo-cate /'aedvakat/ n [C] per-
ad-vance^ ad'varns/ vtji 1 son who speaks in favour of a
come, bring or move forward. 2 person or idea (esp in a court of
make progress. ~ment
n [U] law): an ~
of peace, a vt
progress, ad-vanced adj far on /'aedvakeit/ support.
in life, studies, progress, etc. O aer-iar /'eanal/ adj in, through,
elementary. from the air: an ~
photograph, a
ad-van-tage ad'varntids/ n 1 n [C] part of a radio or television
[C] something likely to bring system which receives or sends
success, esp in competition. 2 out signals.
[U] benefit; profit, take of ^ aero-bat-ics 'leara'baetiks//? [U]
sb, deceive him take (full) ^ acrobatic feats by aircraft.
of sth. use it profitably. '>^ous aero-drome 'earadraum/ n [C]
/iaedv3n'teid33s/ adj profitable; small airport (the usual word).
useful. aero-dy-nam-ics /,earaudai-
advent /'aedvant/ n 1 coming of 'naemiks/ n [U] science of the
an important development, motion of aircraft, bullets, etc
season, etc: the ^
of atomic through air.
power. aero-plane /'earaplem/ n [C] air-
ad-ven-ture /3d'ventj"3(r)/ n 1 craft with engine(s).
[C] exciting or dangerous jour- aero-sol /'earasol/ n [C] contain-
ney or activity. 2 [U] risk; dan- er for spraying scent, paint, etc.
ger, eg in travel, ad-ven-turer, aero-space /'earauspeis/ n [U]
(a) adventurous person, (b) the earth's atmosphere and the
person ready to make a profit by space beyond.
taking risks adven-tur-ous afar /a'fa:(r)/ adv from '^, from
adj (a) ready for adventure, (b) a distance.
full of danger and excitement.
af-fable /'aefabl/ adj polite and
ad-verb /'aedv3:b/ n [C] (gram) friendly, af -fabiy adv
word that answers questions af-fair /a'fea(r)/ n [C] 1 some-
with how. when, where and adds thing (to be) done: his business
to the meaning of a verb, adjec- ~5. 2 sexual relationship: have
tive or another adverb, eg quick- an ~with her. 3 event: The fire
ly, now. ^ial /aEd'v3:bi3l/ adj. n was a terrible'^.
af-fect /a'fekt/ vt have an effect
ad-ver-sary /'aedvasari/ n [C] {pi on: The cold climate '^ed his
-les) enemy; opponent.
health, ^ed adj not natural or
ad-verse "aedvars/ adj unhelp- genuine: '^ed speech. '>^a-tion
ful: -^ conditions, '^ly adv ad- /laefek'teijn/ n iCU] behaviour
versity /3d'v3:s3ti/ n [C,U] {pi that is not natural.
-les) trouble: cheerful in
adver- af-fec-tion /a'fekjn/ n [U] kind
feeling; love. '>^ate adj showing
ad-vert /'sedvatt/ n [C] {informal) love, 'lately adv
affidavit /aggregate

af-fi-da-vit /,aefi'deivit/ n [C] sequence: the ^math of war.

(legal) written statement made '--^thought, idea that comes
on oath. later.
af-fili-ate /s'filieit/ vr// (of an in- after-noon /,a:ft3'nu:n/ n [C]
stitution or a member) join; con- time between morning and even-
nect: groups ^d
to the Univer- ing.
sity, af f ili'ation n [C.U] after-wards /'a:ft3W3dz/ adv
af-fin-ity a'finati/ n {pi -ies) 1 after; later.
[C] strong connection (eg be- again /s'gen/ adv 1 once more: //
tween languages). 2 [C] strong you fail the first time, try ^.
liking: She feels a strong ^
to Ifor now and '^, occasionally.
him. ,f/me and (ftime) '^^
af-firm /a'faim/ vr// declare posi- repeatedly. 2 to or in the origi-
tively. '>^ation /laefa'meijan' nal condition, position, etc: to be
[C,U]. '>^ative adj. n (answer- home ^. 3 as many/much '^,
ing) 'yes': An affirmative answer. (a) the same number/quantity.
af-fix^ /a'fiks/ vt attach: '^ a (b) twice as many/much.
stamp to a document. against a'genst/ prep 1 (show-
af -f ix^
/'asfiks/ n [C] suffix or x>^t- ing opposition): vote/write a ~
T\\,tg-ly,-able,un-. proposal. 2 (showing collision):
af-flict /a'flikt/ vr cause pain or The rain was beating ~
the win-
mental harm: '^ed with dows. 3 in contrast to: The trees
rheumatism, affliction /-Jn/ n were black ^ the sky. 4 to
[C,U] (cause oQ suffering. prevent: have an injection 'v-
af-fluence /'aeflusns/ n [U] smallpox. 5 touching: Place the
wealth. af-fluenta<// wealthy. ladder ~the tree.
af-ford /s'ford/ vt (with can age^ eids n 1 [C] length of time
could) 1 have enough time or a person has lived or a thing has
money for: We can't a holi- ^ existed, be /come of '^, be/
day. 2 run the risk of: / can't ~ become an adult in law. under
to neglect my work. ^, too young. 2 [U] later part of
af-f ront /a'frAnt/ vt,n [C] insult, life (contrasted with youth). 3
esp in public. [C] long period of time: the
afield /a'fitld/ adv far '>^. far Stone atomic ~. 4 (p[) (infor-
away from home. mal) very long time: waiting for
afloat /'s'flsut/ adj 1 floating. 2 ^5. '-^-group, number of per-
on board ship. sons of the same age. ''-<w limit,
afoot /s'fut/ adj in progress: a minimum or maximum age at
scheme ^ to improve the roads. which a person can do some-
aforesaid /a'forsed/ adj (legal) thing. ,'>^-'old adj known for a
said or written before. long time: '^-old customs.
afraid /a'freid/ adj 1 frightened: age^ /eid3/ vt/i (pres part ~ing or
be ~ of the dark/hurting him. 2 aging, /jp 'x.d /eid3d/) (cause to)
be -x^, be sorry to say that: I'm grow old: He's ag(e)ing fast.
-^^ we shall be late. aged adj (a) /'eid3d/ of the age
afresh /a'frej/ adv again. of: a boy '^ ten. (b) /3eid3id/ adj
aft /a:ft/ adv (naut) at or near the very old. ag(e)ing n [UJ
stem of a ship. process of growing old.
after /'a:ft3(r) adv. conj later in agency /'eid33nsi/ n (pi -ies) [C]
time: He died three days (/ had ~ ofTice or work of an agent (1 ): a
left), a prep 1 later in time: ~ travel'^.
dinner. 2 following: 'Against' agenda /3'd3end3/ n [C] (pi ~s)
comes ~
'again' in a dictionary. (list oO things to be done, busi-
3 behind: Shut the door -^ you. 4 ness to be discussed.
as a result of: / shall never speak agent /'eidsant/ n [C] 1 person
to him again '^ what he said. 5 in who acts for another: a ^house-
spite of: He failed ~ all his ef- ~. 2 (science) substance produc-
forts. 6 repeatedly: day '^ day. 7 ing an effect: Rain and frost are
in the style of: a painting ~
Rem- '^s that wear away rocks.
brandt. 8 in search of: The police ag-gra-vate /'aegraveit/ vr 1
are ~ my brother. make worse: ~
an illness. 2 (in-
after- /a:ft9(r)/ prefix second or formal) annoy: an aggravating
later, '^.-effect, effect that delay, ag-gra'va-tion n [C,U]
occurs later, 'x.math, (fig) con- ag-gre-gate /'aegrigat/ n [C] to-

talobtained by adding together. aground /s'graond/ adv. adj (o\

ag-gres-sion /a'grejn, n (C,U] ships) touching the bottom ol
attack that has no (obvious) the sea.
cause, ag-gres-sor /3'gres3(r)/ ahead /s'hed/ adv in front; in ad-
n [C] country, person, making vance, go '^. (a) make pro-
an aggressive attack. gress, (b) (informal) continue
ag-gressive /a'gresiv/ ad/^ at- look '^, prepare for future
tacking without a reason. 2 needs.
energetic and not afraid of op- aid eid vt help (the usual word)
position, -^ly adv. '>^ness n [U] a « 1 [Uj help: He came to my •^
aghast 3'ga:st/ adj filled with What's It in ^ of. What is ii

fear or horror. used for*^ 2 [C] something that

agile '£d3ail (3^ moving quick- helps: a ^hearmg"^
ly and easily, '-o^ly adv. agil-ity ail /eil; vt'i 1 trouble; What "^s
.a'djibti, /7[U] 2 be ill: The child was '^ing.
ag-ing ''eid3ir) mC> ageing. '>^ment/7[C] illness.
agi-tate 'aed3iteit vi i 1 shake aim /eim/ n 1 fU] act of. skill in.
(a liquid). 2 cause anxiety to a aiming, eg with a gun. 2 [C] in-
person. 3 for. argue publicly
'>^ tention; objective, a vtji 1 point
in favour of. agi'ta-tion n (a) (a gun, etc) towards. 2 send,
[U] shaking (of a liquid), (b) [U] direct, a blow, criticism, at: She
anxiety: in a state of ^. (c) [U] '-^ed a book at his head. re- My
social or political unrest, 'agi- marks were not '^ed at you. 3
ta-tor n [C] person who agitates have as a plan: Harry -^s at be-
for, esp political, change. coming a doctor, '^less a^ hav-
aglow a'gbu adj bright with ing no aim(2). '>^less-ly adv in
colour or excitement: with ~ no particular direction.
pleasure. ain't /emt/ (sf) = arelisjam not.
ag-nos-tic /aeg'nostik/ adj. n [C] and have /has not: I going. We ~
(person) believing that nothing '^ got any.
can be known about God. air^ ;e3(r), n 1 [U] the mixture of
ago /a'gau/ adv (with the past gases which we breathe, in the
tense) before now: The train left 'N^, (a) uncertain: .My plans are
a few minutes '>^. still in the ~. (b) (of opinions,
agog /a'gog adj eager: excited: etc) passing from one person to
'^ for news. another, clear the ->-. (Jig) les-
ag-ony /'aegani, n (sing, or pi sen suspicion by giving facts,
-ies) great pain. ag-on-i2ed etc. c> also hot. 2 by '^, in an
/'aeganaizd/ adj expressing ag- aircraft. 3 [U] on the ~, broad-
ony, ag-on-iz-ing 'aeganaizir)/ cast(ing). go off the ~, stop
fli^y causing, showing,
agony. broadcasting. 4 [C] appearance;
agrarian /a'greansn/ aJyof land manner: an ~ of importance.
(esp farmland). give oneself/put on '^s, be-
agree /a'gri:/ vtH 1 accept an have in an unnatural way to im-
idea, etc; say 'Yes'. 2 have the press people, '^wborne adj (a)
same opinion(s); We ^d that we transported by air. (b) (of an
should start early. 3 be the same: aircraft) in flight. ,'>^-
This bill does not -^ with your ori- con'ditioned adj (of a room,
ginal estimate. 4 suit, eg the building, etc) supplied with
health of: The climate doesn 'i 'v- cool, dry air. ''>^-conditioner
with me. 5 accept or approve: n [C]. '-^^craft, (used with a sing
The Manage- has -v-J your ex- or pi verb) aeroplane(s).
penses, ^able /-abl/ adj (a) ''^craft car-rier, ship with a
pleasant, (b)
ready to agree: long, wide deck for aircraft.
Are you -^ to the proposal? 'v^ab- ''^field, area of open ground
ly a^v pleasantly, ^ment
n (a) for aircraft, '-^force, the mili-
be in '>., have the same opin- tary forces of a country in the
lon(s). (b) [C] arrangement, air. ''^ hostess, stewardess in
contract between persons, an aircraft. '-^^ lift, large-scale
governments, etc: sign/come to/ transport of persons or supplies
reach an '\..
by air. ''x.line, regular service of
ag.ri.cul.ture /'aegrikAltj3(r)/ n passenger aircraft, '-^^mail,
lUJ science or practice of farm- mail carried by air. ''>^plane,
ing agri'culturala^ (US) = aeroplane, '-^^port.

place where airliners land and simple water plant.

take off. ''>- raid, attack by air- al-gebra /'aeldsibra/ n [U]
craft. ''>-'Ship, lighter-than-air branch of mathematics in which
flying-machine with engine(s). letters represent quantities.
''>^strip, strip of ground for the alias /'eilias/ n [C] {pi '^es) name
use of aircraft. ''>- terminal, which a person, esp a criminal,
building(s) (in a town centre) uses to hide his own. n adv also
where passengers, etc travel to called.
or from an airport, '^tight adj alibi /'aehbai/ n [C] {pi ~s) 1
not allowing air to enter or es- {legal) plea that one was in an-
cape, ''x/way, route regularly other place at the time of a
followed by aircraft. crime. 2 {informal) excuse (for
air^ /e9(r)/ vt 1 dry (clothing etc) failure, etc).
in the open air or a warm place. alien /'eilian/ n [C] person who is
2 let fresh air into (a room, etc). not a subject of the country
3 let others know: one's views.
-c- where he lives, a adj'X foreign. 2
air-ing /'earn]/ n give sth an (of behaviour) unlike: Cruelty is
'^. (a) expose it to the fresh air. quite 'v- to her.
(b) discuss it. ''>^-cupboard, alien-ate /'eilianeit/ vt cause (a
warm cupboard for drying bed- person) to become unfriendly.
clothes, towels, etc. alight^ /a'lait/ adj on fire.
airJess /'eslis/ adj not having alight' /a'lait/ vi 1 get down
enough fresh air. from a train, etc. 2 (of a bird)
airy /'eari/ adj (-ier, -lest) 1 hav- settle (on a branch, etc).
ing plenty of fresh air moving align /a'lam/ vtji 1 arrange in a
through it. 2 of or like air. line. 2 agree with (and join):
aisle /ail/ n [C] passage between They '^ed themselves with the so-
rows of seats, eg in a church. '^ment n [C, U]
ajar /3'd3a:(r)/ adj (of doors) alike adj like one an-
slightlyopen. other.D adv in the same way.
akin /a'km/ adj {lit) similar to. ali-men-tary /jaeh'mentari/ adj
alarm /a'lam/ n [C] (signal giv- of food and digestion, the -^
ing a) warning of danger: givej canal, parts of the body
raise the ~, *fire-^. 2 [U] fear through which food passes.
caused by danger, a vt cause an- ali-mony /'aehmani/ n [U] money
xiety to: ^ed at the news. '^ paid by a man to his wife after a
clock, one that rings at a fixed legal separation.
time. 'N^ing a<^' causing fear. alive /a'laiv/ adj^ hving. 2 in ex-
alas /a'laes/ int cry of sorrow. istence: Interest kept -^ by the
ai-ba-tross /'aelbatros/ n [C] newspapers. '^ to. aware of. '>^
large, white seabird. with, full of (living things).
al-bino /lael'birnsu/ n [C] {pi 'v.s) al-kali /'aelkalai/ n [C] {pi ~s)
animal or person born with {chem) substance that combines
white skin and hair and pink with acids to form salts.
eyes. air /o;l/ adj 1 (with pi nouns) the
al-bum /'aelbam/ n [C] 1 blank whole number of: A-^ the
book for photographs, auto- horses. 2 the whole extent or
graphs, postage stamps, etc. 2 amount: A'^ hope is lost; ~ the
long-playing record. way. 3 any: beyond'^ doubt.
al-co-hol /'aelkshol/ n [U] (pure, all* jyXIadv 1 entirely: dressed ^
colourless liquid in) such drinks in black. 2 much: You'll be the ~
as beer, wine, brandy, whisky. better for a holiday. 3 along. ^
'X'ic /-'holik/ adj of or contain- (a) for the whole length of. (b)
ing alcohol. D n [C] person ad- {informal) all the time: / knew
dicted to alcohol, "o^ism n [C] that -^ along! '^ for. {informal)
addiction to alcohol. strongly in favour of. '^ the
al-cove /'aelkaov/ n [C] part of a same. = nevertheless. '^ the
wall set back from the rest. same to. not be important to:
ale /eil/ n [C,U] kind of beer. // 's ~ the same to me if you go
alert /a'lait/ adj fully awake and now. '^ in. (a) {informal) ex-
ready to act. d n warning of hausted, (b) with everything in-
danger, on the ~, ready to act. cluded: an ^-in price, v- out.
a vt tell a person of danger. {informal) using all possible
alga /'aelgs/ n [C] {pi algae strength: an '^-out effort. '^
all/also I

right, (also alright) (a) safe; ai-iu-sion /a'luisn/ n [C] {formal)

not harmed, (b) I agree; Yes. -»- indirect reference to: books full
there, {informal) mentally of '^s to his work.
alert, -x. told, altogether: 20 ally^ /'aelai n [C] {pi -ies) 1 per-
men. ~told. son, state, etc allied to another
alP jyXl pron 1 everything or by treaty. 2 person who gives
everybody: They were broken.~ support.
'v/ of. every one; the whole: aliy^ /a'lai/ vt {pt.pp -led) 1 -^^

Take ~ of them it. 2i(not) at (oneself) with/to. by

'w (not) in any way: not at ->- treaty, marriage, etc. 2 allied
not at ->-, (p>olite reply
suitable, to, (of things) related to: Eng-
when receiving thanks), once lish is allied to German.
(and) for '^. now and for the al-ma-nac /'D:lm3naek, n [C] an-
last time,in -^, c> in '^ in '^. nual book with information
considering all the facts. about the sun, moon, tides, etc.
Allah "aeb/ n name of God Almighty /prl'maiti/ n the
among Muslims. A^.God.
al-lege /3'!ed3, vt say as a fact: almond /'aimand/ n [C] nut of a
He ~5 that he saw the thief, al- tree similar to the peach.
le-ga-tion /laeli'geijan/ n [C] al-most /'Dilmaust/ adv very
al-le-giance 3'ii:d3ns/ n [U] nearly: '^ five years old.
loyalty (to a ruler, etc). alms /a:mz/ n [U] money,
al-le-gory 'asligari/ n [C] {pi -ies) clothes, etc given to the poor.
story in which ideas are symbol- aloft /a'loft/ adv high up, esp on
ized by persons: 'The Pilgrim's a ship.
Progress' is an '^. alone / s'lsun / adj, adv lonely. O
al-lergy 'aeladsi n [C] {pi -ies)
' 1 without company or help: liv-
{med) (condition of) being af- ing ^. 2 let '^. without con-
fected by, sensitive to, particular sidering: He cannot afford his
foods, fur, etc. al-ler-gic fares let ~ cigarettes, let /leave
/3'l3:d3ik/a<// sb/sth '^. not interfere with.
al-levi-ate /a'lirvieit/ vt make along /a'lor)/ adv 1 onward; for-
(pain, sufTering) less. al- ward: Come ~.' 2 (in informal
levi'ation/j[U] requests): Come ~ to my office.
aMey /'aeli / n [C] {pi ^s) 1 nar- get '^. C> get. a prep through
row passage or street. 2 narrow the length of: We walked ~ the
area for games, eg bowls. road. -^ with, together with.
al-li-ance /a'laians/ n [C,U] along-side ailog'said/ adv, prep
union, eg of states, groups (by close to, by the side of (a ship).
treaty): enter into an ^. aloof 'a'lurf; adv apart, a adj {of
al-lied/a'laid/Oally. a person's character) keeping
aMi-ga-tor /'Eeligeit3(r)/ n [C] away; reserved, -^ness n [U]
American reptile like a croco- aloud /a'laud/ adv in a voice loud
dile. enough to be heard: He called ^^^
al-lo-cate /'aebkeit/ vt give (eg for help.
money) as a share or for a pur- alp /aelp/ n [C] high mountain,
pose, al-io'ca-tion n [C,U] esp the Alps between France
al-lot /a'lDt; vt (-tt-) decide a per- and Italy. '>^\neadj
son's share of something. al-pha-bet /'aelfsbet/ n [C] the
^ment n [C] (a) part or share, letters used in writing a lan-
(b) a small area of land for guage, arranged in order, '^'i-
growing vegetables. cal /-'betikl/ adj in the order of
aMow /9'lau/ vt/i 1 give permis- the alphabet. '>^i-cally a^v
sion. 2 money or time.
give, esp al-ready /p:l'redi/ adv before
^ for. take into consideration: now: I've ~
6ee« there /been
~ for delays because of traffic. there '^.
-^able /-abl/ adj. '^ance n [C] al-right/D:l'raa/a</v = all right.
sum of money given regularly. Al-sa-tian /,ael'seijn/ n [C] large
make '^ance(s) for. allow dog, like a wolf. {US = German
al-loy /'aebi/ n [C,U] mixture of also /hds^o/ .adv too: Tom has
metals. been to Canada. Harry has ~
allude /3'lu:d/ vj mention; refer been there, not only... but ^,
both... and: He not only read it

11 altar/amiss

but ^ remembered it. --v/mentwiU]

al-tar /'D:lt3(r)/ n [C] 1 raised ama-zon /'aemazan/ n [C] tall,
table for olTerings made to a strong, active woman.
god. 2 (in Christian churches) am-bas-sa-dor /aEm'baES3d3(r)/
the Communion table. n [C] 1 minister representing his
al-ter /'D:lt3(r)/ vr// change: These country in a foreign country. 2
clothes must be '^ed. ^v/ation authorized representative.
/p:it3'reijn/ n [C,U] change: am-ber /'aEmb3(r)/ n [U] hard,
make ^5. yellow gum for making orna-
ai-ter-nate^ /oil'tamat/ adj by ments, etc; its yellow colour.
turns, first one and then the ambi-dextrous /,aembi-
other: Tom and Harry do the 'dekstras/ adj able to use both
work on ~ days, -^^ly adv hands equally well.
al-ter-nate^ /brkaneit/ vt/i do, am-bi-guity /laembi'gjurati/ n {pi
happen, one thing after another: -ies) 1 [U] state of being ambi-
He '^s between happiness and guous. 2 [C] expression with
sadness. ,alternating 'cur- more than one meaning.
rent, electric current that regu- am-bigu-ous /aem'bigjuas/ adj
larly changes direction. C> with more than one meaning.
direct current. am-bi-tion /aem'bijn/ n 1 [U] de-
al-ter-na-tive /D:l't3:n3tiv/ adj be successful. 2 [C] object
sire to
that may be used instead: There of such a desire: achieve one's
are ~
answers to your question, a '^{s). am-bitious adj.
n [C] 1 choice between two amble /'asmbl/ vi ride or walk
things. 2 one of two or more without hurrying, a n [C] gentle
possibilities, -^ly adv as a pace.
choice. am-bu-lance /'aembjubns/ n [C]
al-though /o:l'd9u/ conj O vehicle for carrying sick or in-
though. jured people.
al-ti-tude /'aeltitjuid/ n [C] am-bush /'aembuj/ n [C,U] (men
height, esp above sea-level. hiding to make) a surprise at-
alto /'aeltau/ n [C] {pi ^s) 1 tack. D vr attack from a place of
man's singing voice between hiding.
tenor and treble. 2 instrument amen /,ei'men in church services:
with the same range. a:'men/ int word at the end of a
al-to-gether /,D:lt9'ged3(r)/ adv prayer meaning 'May it be so'.
1 entirely: / don't '^ agree. 2 amen-able /a'mirnsbl/ adj (of
considering everything: A'^, it persons) willing to be guided: be
was a badjourney. '^ to advice.
al-tru-ism /'aeltru:iZ3m/' n [U] amend /s'mend/ vt/i 1 improve.
concern, caring for the good of 2 change the words of a rule, etc.
others first, al-tru-ist n [C]. al- --s^ment n [C] change; correc-
tru-is-tic /-'istik/ adj tion.
alu-min-ium /,aelju'mini3m/ amends /a'mendz/ n pi make -^
{US = alu-mi-num /a'lurmi- (for sth), compensate for (a
nam/) n [U] light, white metal wrong); apologise.
(symbol Al). amen-ity /a'miinsti/ n {pi -ies) 1
al'ways /'o:lweiz/ adv 1 at all {pf) things that make life
times; each time: // '^ rains in pleasant: eg a park, cinema. 2
April. 2 for ever: /V/'n^ love her. [U] pleasantness.
am/aem/C>-be. am-ethyst /'aemiGist/ n [C] pre-
amal-ga-mate /a'maelgameit; cious stone, purple or violet.
vt/i (of societies, businesses) ami-able /'emuabl/ adj {formal)
mix; combine, annal-ga'ma- friendly: an '^ man. ami-ably
tion/j[C,U]. adv
amass /a'maes/ vr collect: ~ a amic-able /'aenukabl/ adj peace-
fortune. ful; friendly: reach an 'v. agree-
ama-teur /'aEm3t3(r)/ n [C] 1 ment, amic-ably at^v
person who paints, plays sport, amid /s'mid/, amidst /s'lrudst/
etc for pleasure, not profession- prep among, in the middle of.
ally. '>^ish adj without skill. amiss /s'mis/ adj, adv wrong(ly);
amaze /a'meiz/ vt fill with great out of order: not much ~. take
surprise: '^d at the news, amaz- sth '^. feel offended: Please
ing adj causing great surprise. don 't take my comments ~.
ammeter /ancestor 12

am-meter , met-
'aemit3<r)/ n [C] Keep the baby '^d. 2 make (a
er that measures electric current person) laugh or smile, 'v/ment
in amperes. n (a) [U] state of being amused,
am-mo-nia 's'maunia, n [U] (b) [C] something that enter-
strong-smelling gas; solution of tains, amus-ing 3'm]u:zir) / adJ
this gas in water. an isn strong form a;n C> a
ammunition /,aemju'nijn/ n anachronism a'naekranizam/
[U] military stores, esp bullets, n [C] 1 something wrongly
shells, bombs, etc. placed time: In the sentence
am-nesia /aem'ni:zi3/ n [U] (med) 'Julius looked at his
loss of memory. watch' there is an ~. 2 person,
am-nesty 'aemnasti n [C] (pi attitude, etc regarded (unfav-
-ies) general pardon, esp for ourably) as out of date.
political offences. ana-conda laena'konda/ n [C]
amoeba a'mitba/ n [C] {pi ^s or (pi ~s) large S. American snake
~e l-h'vJ) very small form of liv- that crushes animals to death.
ing matter, found in water, am- anaemia (^US = anemia)
oebic adj of, caused by, amoe- /3'ni:mi3/ n [U] lack of red cells
bas. in the blood, causing paleness.
amok, amuck /s'mok/ adv run anae-mic adj
'V., go about wildly (doing great anaes-thesia (US =an-es)
damage). /,aenis'0i:zi3/ n [U] being unable
among /a'niM)/, amongst to feel an-aes-
(pain, etc),
/s'mAQSt/ prep 1 in the middle thetic /-'9etik/ n [C] substance
of: hiding ~
the bushes. 2 within that produces anaesthesia. O
a group: decide -^ yourselves. 3 general, local an-aes-the-
one of: ->- the best in the world. tize 3'ni:s93taiz vt. an-aes-
am-or-ous /'aemaras/ adJ show- the-tist 3'ni:s63tist n [C]
ing (esp sexual) love. '>^ly adv ana-gram 'aenagraem/ n [C]
amount /a'maunt/ vi 's^ to. be word made from the letters of
equal to.a « [C] 1 total: He could another word (eg plum— lump).
pay only half that ~. 2 [C] quan- anal-ogy /o'nael^dsi n (pi -ies) 1
tity: A large ^
of money. [C] partial likeness: an '^ be-
amp /semp/ n [C] (abbr for) am- tween the heart and a pump. 2 [U]
pere. act of explaining one thing by
am-pere /iaempe3(r)/ n [C] unit comparing it with another.
for measuring electric current. anal-og-ous /a'naelagas/ adj
am-phib-ian /asm'fibian/ n [C] 1 similar.
animal able to live both on land analyse (US = -lyze) /'aen>
and in water. 2 aircraft, vehicle laiz/ vt 1 examine in detail. 2
adapted for both land and wat- study: ~ the facts.
er, amphibious adJ analy-sis /a'naebsis/ n (pi -ses
amphitheatre WS =-ter) ,-si:z/) 1 [C,U] examination in
/'2emfiei3t3(r)/ n [C] building detail by dividing into parts. 2
with rows of seats rising round = psychoanalysis, analyst
an open space. /'aenahst/ n [C] (a) person skilled
ample /'aernpl/ adJ (-r, -st) 1 with in making (esp chemical) analy-
plenty of space: an ^ garage. 2 ses, (b) = psychoanalyst.
plentiful; sufficient: '^ re- ana'lyticaJy
sources, am-ply /'aemph/aJv ana-lyze C> analyse.
am-piify /'aemphfai/ vt (pt.pp an-archy /'aenaki / n [U] absence
-ied) 1 givemore details about. of government; disorder, an-
2 increase the strength of, esp arch-ist n [C] p>erson who fav-
sound. amplification ours anarchy.
/.aemphfi'keijn/ n [U]. am-pli- anat-omy /a'naetanu/ n [U]
f ier n [C] appliance for amplify-
(science oQ the structure of ani-
ing, esp sound. mal bodies. ana-tomi-cal
am-pu-tate /'aempjuteit/ vt cut /laena'tonukl/ fli//.
off, eg a leg, by surgery, am- an-ces-tor /'aensest9(r)/ n [C]
pu'tationn[C,U] person from whom one is des-
amuck /a'mAk/ adv O amok. cended, an-ces-tral /aen'ses-
amu-let /'smjubt/ n [C] thmg tral/ adj from one's ancestors.
worn to protect against evil, etc. an-ces-try /'aensestri n [C] (pi
amuse /a'mjurz/ vt 1 entertain: -ies) line of ancestors.

13 anchor/anonymous
an-chor /'aeqkaCr)/ n [C] 1 heavy bony.
piece of iron to keep a ship se- ani-mal /'aeniml/ n [C] 1 living
cured to the sea bottom. 2 thing thing that can feel and move:
or person that gives security, d Men. birds, flies, fish are all '^s.
vt/i make (a ship) secure with an 2 any animal other than man. 3
anchor, ^s^age n [C] place where (as an adj) physical, not spiri-
ships may anchor safely. tual; of animals(1 ).

an-chovy /'aentjsuvi/ n [C] (pi ani-mate^ /'aenimst/ac// living.

-ies) small fish of the herring ani-mate^ /'aenimeit/ vt give life
family. to; make lively, .-^d car'toon,
ancient /'emjant/ adj 1 belong- cinema film of a series of draw-
ing to times long past. 2 very ings, ani'ma-tion n [U] (a)
old: an '^ hat. liveliness, (b) process of making
an-cil-lary /aen'sibri/ adj 1 giv- animated cartoons.
ing support: ~
workers. 2 secon- ani-mos-ity /,aeni'mps3ti/ n [C,
dary: -^ industries. U] (pi -iesstrong hatred.

and /and strong form: aend/ cO/iy ankle n [C] joint connect-
1 as well as; with: a table '^ four ing the foot with the leg.
chairs. 2 as a result: Work hard annex\ an-nexe /'aenaks/ n [C]
'^ you will pass. 3 (showing con- smaller building added to a larg-
tinuation): for hours ^
hours. 4 er one.
(informal) to: Try ~
come early. an-nex^ /a'neks/ vt take posses-
an-ec-dote /'aenikdaut/ n [C] sion of (territory, etc).
short, amusing story about a an-ni-hi-late /a'naialeit/ vt des-
real person or event. troy completely, an-ni-hi'la-
anemia, anemic, C> anaemia, tion«[U] .

anaemic. an-niversary /,aeni'v3:s3ri/ n

anem-one /a'nemani/ n [C] small day each year when
[C] (pi -ies)
star-shaped flower. - something is celebrated.
an-es-thesia C> anaesthesia. an-no-tate /'aenateit/ vt add
anew /a'njur/a^v again: begin '^. notes (to a book, etc), an-
angel /'emdsal/ n 1 messenger no'tationwiCU]
from God. 2 lovely or innocent an-nounce /a'nauns/ vt 1 make
person, -^ic /aen'dselik/ adj of known: He ~c/ his engagement.
or like an angel. 2 make known the arrival of: He
anger /'seqgaCr)/ n [U] the feeling ^d Mrs Brown. '>^ment n [C].
that makes people want to quar- an-nouncer, (esp) person who
rel or fight: filled with ^. o vt announces programmes on the
make (a person) angry: He is radio or television.
easily ^ed. an-noy /s'noi/ vt irritate; make
angle^ /'aeqgV " 1 space between angry, '^ance n [C,U]
two lines that meet: an acute/ an-nual /'aenjual/ adj 1 coming
obtuse -c. 2 (fig) point of view: every year. 2 lasting one year, a
What '^ are you using in the n [C] 1 book with the same title
story? but new contents every year. 2
angle^ /'aeggl/ vi 1 fish with a plant that lives for one year.
hook. 2 (fig) use tricks to get '^ly adv
something: 'v- for an invitation. an-nu-ity /s'njutsti/ n [C] (pi -ies)
angler n\C]. angling n [U]. money paid every year.
Ang-li-can /'aeqghkan/ n [C], adj an-nul /a'nAl/ vr (-II-) put an end
(member) of the Church of En- to, eg a marriage. '>^ment n [C,
gland. U]
ang-li-cize /'aeqglisaiz/ vt make an -ode /'aenaud/ n [C] (elec) posi-
English: ~
a French word. tively charged electrode.
Anglo- /,aer)gbu/ /?re//x English: anoint /a'nomt/ vt put oil on (as
^-^French; ^-^Saxon. a religious ceremony), -^ment
angry /'aerjgri/ adv (-ier, -iest) 1 A7[C,U]
filled with anger. 2 (of a wound) anom-aly /a'nomali/ n [C] (pi
inflamed. 3 (of the sea, sky) -ies) abnormal thing: A bird that
stormy, angri-ly adv cannot fly is an ~.
an-guish /'aepgwij/ n [U] great anon /a'non/ adv (old use) soon.
mental suffering. '>^ed adj anon-ym-ity /laena'nimati/ n [U]
angu-lar /'aerigjub(r)/ af^/l hav- state of being anonymous.
ing sharp corners. 2 (of persons) anony-mous /o'nDnimas/ adj
anorak/anxious 14

without a name, or with a name anti-biotic /,aentibai'Dttk/ n [C],

that is not made known. adj (substance) capable of des-
an-orak /'aenaraek n [C] water- troying bacteria, eg penicillm.
proof jacket with a hood. anti-body /'aentibodi n [C] {pi
an-other /3'nA69(r); pron. adj 1 -IBS) substance in the blood that
an additional (one): cu;? o/ ^ destroys harmful bacteria.
coffee? 2 a similar (one): Nap- ~ an-tics /'aentiks/ n pi odd, amus-
oleon. 3 a dilTerent (one): Do ing action or behaviour.
that ~
/ime. an-tici-pate;,xn'tisipeit/ v7l do
answer /'a:ns3(r)/ n [C] 1 reply: something before somebody
an '^ to your letter. 2 solution: else.2 see what is likely to hap-
The^ to 3 X 17 IS 51. a vt/i^ pen and take action: '^ an at-
reply: Have you ~e</ his letter? tack. 3 expect: We trouble.~
'>-' the door, open when some- antici'pa-tion n [U]
body has knocked. 2 '^ back, anti-cli-max /,aenti 'klaimaeks/zi
be impolite when told one has [C] disappointing end to some-
done wrong. '^ for, (a) be re- thing.
sponsible for. (b) be punished anti-clock-wise ,aenti 'klok-
for. '>^able /-abl/ adj (a) that waiz/ adv in the opposite direc-
can be answered, (b) respons- tion to the movement of a clock.
ible: '^ablefor one 's actions. anti-cyc-lone /laenti'saikbun/ n
ant /aent/ n [C] small insect that [C] area of high atmospheric
lives in organized societies, ''s^- pressure. O depression (4).
hill, mound over an ant's nest. anti-dote /'aentidaut, n [C] med-
an-tag-on-ism /aen'taeganizam, icine used against a poison or a
n [C,U] opposition; dislike: feel disease.
~ for j toward a person, an-tag- anti -freeze /'aentifriiz/ n [U]
on-ist n [C] opponent (the usual substance added to water to
word), an-tag-on'is-tic adj stop it freezing, esp in engines.
an-tag-onize ,aen'taeg3naiz/ vt anti-quated /'aentikweitid/ adj
make an enemy of; annoy. out of date; old-fashioned.
ant-arc-tic /laen'taiktik/ adj, n an-tique jaen'tiik/ adj belonging

(of the) south polar regions. to the distant past, a n [C] very
ante-ced-ent ,aenti'si:dnt/ adj old and valuable object.
coming before in time, u n {pi) an-tiquity laen'tikwati/ n {pi

ancestors; history of a person. -ies) 1 [U] ancient times. 2 {pT)

ante-date /laenti'deit/ vt 1 give ancient buildings, works of art.
(-ega letter) an earlier date than anti-sep-tic ,aEnti'septik/ n [C],

the true one. 2 come before in adj (substance) preventing dis-

time: This '^s Columbus by ease by destroying germs.
several centuries. anti-so-cial ,|aenti's3ujl/ adj 1
ante-di-luvian ;,2entidi'lu:vi3n/ not in the interests of society: It
a^/ out-of-date; old-fashioned. is^ to leave litter. 2 disliking the
ante-lope /'aentilsup/ n [C] ani- company of other people.
mal like a deer. an-tith-esis /aen'tiGasis/ n (pi
ante-natal /.asnti'neitl/ adj be- -ses /-si:z/) [C,U] direct oppo-
fore birth: -^ clinic Icare. contrast of ideas.
an-tenna /aen'tena/ n [C] {pi ~e ant-ler /'aentl3(r)/ n [C] horn of a
l-nv.l) 1 insect's feeler. 2 aerial. deer.
an-them /'aenGam/ n [Q] music an-to-nym /'aentanmi/ n [C]
sung in churches. O
national. word opposite in meaning: Hot
an-thol-ogy /,aeni0Dl3d3i/ n [C] is the ~ of cold. C> synonynri.
(p/-ies) collection of poems. anus /'einas/ n [C] {pi ~es) {anat)
an-thro-poid 'asnBrapoid/ adj
opening through which solid
like man. a n [C] animal like
waste leaves the body.
man, eg a gorilla. an-vil /'aenvil/ n [C] heavy block
anthropology /laenGra- of iron on which a smith ham-
'poladsi/ n [U] science of man, mers metal into shape.
esp of the development of man- anxiety /aeg'zaiati/ n {pi -ies) 1
kind. ,an-thro'pol-ogist/i[C]
[C,U] fear and uncertainty
anti- /laenli/ prefix against: about the future. 2 [U] strong
antiseptic. '-^ to please.
anti-air-craft /.aenti 'eakroft anxious /'aerjkjas/ adj 1 feeling
«^/' against aircraft: ~gunA. anxiety. 2 causing anxiety: an '>^

IS any/applaud

time. 3 ^
to/for/that, eager: apol-ogy /3'pDl9d3i/ n [C] (pi
He 's very ^ to please, 'v/ly adv -ies) expression of regret: make
any^ /'em/ ai// 1 one; some: Have one's ~. an '>^ for, a poor ex-
you ~
m///c? r/jfv haven 't r/i//- ^ ample of.
t^ren. {Note: used in questions apostle /a'posl/ n [C] 1 one
and negatives.) 2 no matter chosen by Jesus to spread His
which: Come -^ c/aj. 3 (informal) teaching. 2 leader of a new faith.
a, one: /r hasn't '^ handle. 4 //? apos-trophe /s'postrafi/ n [C]
''v. case; at ^'^ rate, whatever the sign '
to show omission of
happens. letter(s) as in I'm. for lam.
any^ /'em/ adv at all: Is he feeling ap.pal /3'pd:1/ vt (-II-) fill with
'v. better^ fear; shock deeply: -^led at the
any^ l*em/ pron = some^. news. '^Wng adJ
any-body /'embtxii/ «, pron 1 a ap-par-atus /laepa'reitas' n [C]
person, not a particular one: /^ (pi ~es) instruments or ma-
~ there'' A^
will tell you. chinery used for a purpose.
any-how /'emhau/ adv 1 in any ap-par-ent /s'paerant/ adj 1
possible way. 2 in any case: It's clearly seen: His loyalty was ~.
too late now, '^. 2 seen but not necessarily true:
any-one /'eniWAn/ n, pron = the ^
cause. '>^ly adv
anybody. ap-par-ition /,a;p3'rijn/ n [C] ap-
any-thing /'eniGir)/ ^, /7ro« an pearance, esp of a ghost.
event, thing, not a particular ap-peal /s'pirl/ vi 1 make a
one: Has '^ unusual happened? strong request: '^ to him for
(as) easy, etc as '^, (infor- mercy. 2 (legal) take a question
mal) very e-dsy (to a higher court, etc) for a new
any-way /'eniwei/ adj = any- decision, 3 go (to a person) for a
how. new decision. 4 attract: She -^s
any«where /'eniwe9(r)/ adv to, to me. an^ [C] strong request. 2
in any place: I'm not going ~. [C] act of appealing(2,3). 3 [U]
Put it down '^. (power oO attraction: *sex-'-<^.
aorta /ei'D:t3/ n [C] (pi '^s) main '>^ing adj (a) requesting strong-
artery through which blood ly, (b) attractive.
leaves the heart. ap-pear /9'pi9(r)/ v/1 come into
apart /9'pa:t/ adv 1 distant: The view. 2 arrive. 3 (a) (of an ac-
houses are 500 metres ~. 2 sep- tor) come before the public, (b)
arate(ly): with his feet '^. 3 into (of a book) be published, (c)
pieces: // fell ~. ^
from, as (legal) present oneself: -<- before
well as: five boys ^
from me. a court. 4 give the impression of
apart-ment /a'partmant/ n 1 [C] being: She '^s sad. ^ance n [C]
room. 2 (>/) set of rooms as a (a) act of appearing, (b) what a
home. thing or person appears to be.
apa-thy /'aepsGi/ n [U] absence of (c) style of dress: an untidy ~.
sympathy or interest, apa- ap-pend /a'pend/ vt (formal) add
thetic ''laepa'Getik/ adJ in writing at the end. <^age n
ape /eip/ n [C] 1 monkey with no [C] something added to, joined
tail.2 person who copies behav- to. a larger thing.
iour. D vfcopy behaviour. appen-di-ci-tis /Sipenda'saitis/
aperi'tif /a'peratif/ n [C] alco- n [U] disease of the appen-
holic drink before a meal. dix(2).
ap-er-ture /'aep3tj9(r)/ w [C] ap-pen-dix /a'pendiks/ n [C] (pi
opening: the ~
o/a camera. ~es or -dices /-disiiz/) 1 some-
apex /'eipeks/ « [C] (pi ~es or thing added, esp at the end of a
apices /'eipisi:z/) highest point: book. 2 small organ attached to
the ^
of a triangle. the large intestine.
apiece s'piis/ adv each: Give ap-pe-tite /'spitait/ n 1 [C,U]
them a pound '^. strong desire, esp for food.
aplomb /s'plom/ n [U] self- ap-pe-tizer /'aepitaiz3(r)/ n [C]
confidence. something to encourage the ap-
apolo-getic /ajpola'dsetik adj / petite, ap-pe-tiz-ing adj excit-
making an apology, --^ally adv ing the appetite.
apolo-gize /3'pDl3d3aiz/ vi say ap-plaud /3'pb:d/ vt/i 1 show
one is sorry: -v. to her for being approval by clapping the hands.
rude. 2 agree with: / ~
your decision.

apple/Arabic l<

ap-plause /a'pb-^/ n [U] (time oQ being an apprentice.

apple ;'aepl/ n [C] (tree with a) ap-proach /a'prautj/ v///1 come
round with firm flesh.
fruit O near(er) (to). 2 (Jig) be as good
Adam's apple. as: Few writers ~ Shakespeare.
appliance d'plaisns/ n [C] 3 make a request or offer: ~ the
tool; machine. manager for an increase in sal-
ap-pli-cable 'xplikabl, adj that ary. D /I 1 [U] act of approach-
can be applied; suitable. ing. 2 [C] way, road, ^v^able
ap-pli-cant 'aeplikant n [C] per- ' /-abl/ adj (a) that can he
son who applies (esp for a job). approached, (b) easy to talk to.
ap-pli-ca-tion /,aepli'keijn/ n 1 ap-pro-pri-ate^ /a'prauprist/ adj
[C,U] (making of a) request: on suitable; correct. '>^lv adv
^; ~ form. 2 [U] putting one ap-pro-pri-ate' /a'prauprieit/ \i
thing onto another; [C] sub- 1 put on one side for a purpose.
stance used: an ~ for burns. 3 2 take as one's own: ~ ideas
[U] putting to a special use; the ap-pro-pri'ation n [C,U]
~ of a new process to industry. 4 ap-pro-val /3'pru:vl/ n [U] per-
[U] (Jormat) effort: put '^ into mission; agreement: Your plans
your studies. have my 'v-. on ^, (of goods) to
ap-ply /a'plai/ vt/i (pt.pp -led) 1 be returned if not
ask for: ~ for
a visa. 2 (a) lay ap-prove /a'prurv, vtji 1 give
one thing on another: ^ cream one's approval of: '^ of a mar-
to a cut. (b) put mto operation: riage. 2 agree to: The minutes of
'^ economic sanctions. 3 con- the meeting were '^d. everyone
cern: // does not -^ to you. 4 -^ agreed that they were correct.
oneself (to sth). give all approvingly adv
one's attention to. applied adj approxi-mate^ /a'proksimst/
put to practical use: -^ science. adj very near (to). '^Xs adv
ap-point /a'psmt 1 decide: vi ap-proxi-mate^ /a'proksmieit/
The time -^ed. 2 choose (a per- vtji come near to (esp in quality
son) for a post, -^-ment n (a) or number), approxi'mation
[C] arrangement to meet; make n [C] almost correct amount.
an ~ (b) [C] position; He got
. apri-cot /'eiprikot/ n 1 [Cj (tree
the ~ as manager. with) orange fruit with a stone. 2
ap-praise /a'preiz/ vt {formal) [U] its orange colour.
estimate the value of. ap- April /'eipral/ n fourth month of
praisal /a'preizl/ n [C,U] the year.
ap-preci-able /a'priijabl/ adj apron /'eipran/ n [C] garment
that can be seen or noticed:" -^-^ worn in front to protect clothes.
difference I growth. ap-preci- apt /aept/ adj (-ex. -est) 1 quick
ablya</v to learn. 2 well suited: an ~ re-
ap-preci-ate /3'pri:|ieit/ vtji 1 mark. 3 having a tendency (to
judge the value of and enjoy; ~ do something): ~ to break, ^ly
a holiday. 2 put a high value on; adv suitably, -•^ness n [U]
We your help. 3 (of land, etc) ap-ti-tude /'aeptitjuid/ n [C,U]
increase in value. ap- talent: an "^for languages.
preci'ation n (a) [C,U] judge- aqua-lung /'skwalAr)/ n [C] (F)
ment, (b) [U] recognition: in -^ breathing unit for underwater
of your help, (c) [U] rise in swimming.
value. appreciative aqua-marine /,£ekw3m3'ri:n/ n
/a'priijativ/ adj showing appre- [C,U] bluish-green (jewel).
ciation (b). aquar-ium /a'kweanam/ n [C]
ap-pre-hend /,aepn'hend/ vt 1 with
(^/ -^s, -ria /-ri3/) (building
(legaf) arrest. 2 understand. an) tank for keeping fish.
apprehension /,aepn'henjn aquatic /s'kwstik/ adj 1 (of
n [U] 1 understanding: an of ^ plants, animals, etc) living in
the problems. 2 (also/?/) Cea.i.feel water. 2 (of sports) taking place
-^ for her safety. 3 (legal) act of on or in water.
arresting. appre-hensive aque-duct /'aekwidAkt/ n [C]
licpn'hensiv/ a^ worried. raised channel for carrying
3p-pren-tice a'prentis/ n [C] water eg across a valley.
person learning a trade, a vt put Ara-bic /'aerabik/ adj of the
m sb's care as an apprentice: a Arabs, a n [U] language of the
hoy ^d to CI builder, ^^^ship n Arabs. A-^ numeral, the signs
7 arable/armour

0,1,2, 3, etc. central part of an amphitheatre.

ar-able /'aerebl/ adj (of land) 2 (fig) scene of competition: the
suitable to be ploughed. political'^.
ar-bit-rary /'arbitrsri/ adj 1 aren't /ant/ = are not.
based on opinion, not on ar-gue /'a:gju:/ vt/i^ express dis-
reason. 2 using unlimited agreement; quarrel: arguing
power: an ruler.
'%. over/about it. 2 '^ (for/
ar-bi-trate /'arbitreit/ v/// decide against /that. .), give reasons

by arbitration, arbi'tra-tion n (for, against). 3 debate: The

[U] settlement of a dispute by a lawyers '^d the case, ar-gu-able
person chosen as a judge, 'ar- /-9bl/ adj that can be disagreed
bi-tra-tor n [C] person appoint- with, ar-gu-ably adv
ed to settle a dispute. ar-gu-ment /'aigjumsnt/ n 1 [C]
arc /a:k/ n [C] part of the circum- (serious) disagreement. 2 [C,U]
ference of a circle. discussion; reason for or
ar-cade /a:'keid/ n [C] covered against. 'v/a-tive /ia:gjo-
street, with shops. 'mentativ/ adj fond of argu-
arch /a:tj/ n [C] curved structure ing(l).
supporting what is above it; pas- aria /'ojia/ n [C] (p/'^s) song for
sageway under an arch, a vt/i a single voice in opera.
form an arch: The cat ^ed its arid /'aerid/ adj dry, barren.
back. arise /a'raiz/ vi{pt arose /a'raoz/,
archae-ol-ogy (also and US pp arisen /s'rizn/) 1 come into
ar-che-ol-) /,a:ki'Dl3d3i/ n [U] existence: A difficulty has ^n. 2
study of ancient remains, ar- (old use) stand up.
chaeo-logi-cal adj /a:ki^ ar-is-toc-racy /iSeri'stDkrasi/ n
*lDd3ikl/ archae'ol-ogist n [C,U] (pi -ies) the highest social
rc] class, esp persons with titles
archaic /|a:'keiik/ adj (of lan- (dukes, earls, etc).
guages, words) not now used. aris-to-crat /'aeristakraet/ n [C]
arch-angel /,a:k'emd3l/ n [C] person of noble birth. 'X/ic
chief angel. /-'kraetik/ adj
arch-bishop /lartj'bijsp/ n [C] arith-me-tic /a'riBmstik/ n [U]
chief bishop. science of numbers; working
archer /'a:tj9(r)/ n [C] person with numbers. '>^al /-'metikl/
who shoots with a bow and ar- a<3{/of arithmetic.
rows, arch-ery n [U] (art oO ark /a:k/ n (in the Bible) Noah's
shooting with a bow and ar- ship.
rows. arm' /a;m/ n upper limb,
[C] 1
archi-pel-ago./,a:k!'pel3g3u/ n from the shoulder to the hand.
[C] ipl -^s, ~es ) (sea with a) keep sb at '^^ 's length, (fig)
group of many islands. treat him coldly, with open
archi-tect /'a:kitekt/ n [C] per- ^ 's. warmly. 2 sleeve. 3 some-
son who designs buildings. thing like an arm: the '^s of a
'>^ural /,a:ki'tekj3r3l/ adj of chair. 4 weapon: a ^fire-^.
architecture. '^ure /'a:ki- '-^-chair, chair with supports
tektj3(r)/ n [U] art of building; for the arms. ''>^pit, hollow un-
style of building(s). der the arm.
archives /'a:kaivz/ n pi (place arm^ /a:m/ vtji supply weapons;
for keeping) written records. prepare for war. the '>-'ed
arch-way/'a:tjwei//i c> arch. forces, the military forces.
arc-tic /'a:ktik/ adj. n (of the) ar-mada /a:'ma:d3/ n [C] (pi ~s)
north polar regions. great fleet of warships.
ardent /'a:dm/ adj very enthu- ar-ma-dillo /lOrma'dibu/ n [C]
siastic, ' adv (pi ~s) small animal of S Ameri-
ardu-ous /'ordjuss/ at^/ needing ca covered with bony plates.
much energy; difficult. '>^ly adv ar-ma-ment /'a:m3m9nt/ n 1
are /s(t) strong form: a:(r)/ be.O (usually pt) weapons, esp large
area /'eana/ n [C] 1 surface guns. 2 [U] process of getting
measure: the ^
of the page. 2 re- military forces equipped.
gion of the earth: desert ~j. 3 ar-mis-tice ''a:mistis/ n [C] (in
{fig) range of activity: ^s of dis- war) agreement to stop fighting
agreement. for a time.
arena 'n'n:n3' n [C] (pi -^s) 1 armour (US = armor)
arms/artist 18

/'a:m3(r)/ [U] 1 defensive

n arrogancenfU]
covering for the body: a suit of ar-row /'aerau/ n [C] 1 pointed
-^. 2 metal covering for tanks, stick shot from a bow. 2 sign
etc. 3 (collective) tanks, etc. ( >•) to show direction.
'>^ed adj. ar-mou rer, manu- ar-senal ''a:s3nl/ n [C] govern-
facturer of arms, ar-moury ment building(s) where weapons
place where arms are kept. and ammunition are made or
arms /aimz/ n pl^ weapons, /ay stored.
down (one's) '^. stop fight- arsenic /'a:snik/ n [U] strong
ing, take up ~
(against), get poison.
ready to fight, (be) up in '>^ arson /'a:sn/ n [U] crime of set-
(about/over), (Jig) protest ting fire to prooerty.
strongly. 2 {heraldry) design art /a:t/ n 1 [U] expression of
used by a noble family, town, what is beautiful, esp in .paint-
etc. ''>--race, competition ing, sculpture, etc; '.ill in such
among nations for military expression. 2 [C] subject which
strength. is not considered a science eg

army /'a:mi/ n [C] ipl -ies) 1 the painting, literature. 3 [C.UJ

'v/, the military forces of a trickery; trick. 'V/ful adj cun-
country, on land. 2 large num- ning. '^fuWy adv
ber: an •^ of workmen. arte-fact C> artifact.
aroma /a'raoma/ n [C] sweet ar-ter-ial /a:'ti3ri3l/ adj 1 of or
smell, '^tic /,aer3'maetik/ adj Uke an artery. 2 (fig) 'v. roads,

arose /a'rauz//?/ of arise. important main roads.

around /a'raund/ adv, prep 1 on artery /'artari/ n [C] (pi -ies) 1
every side. 2 about; near: He tube carrying blood from the
lives ^London. It's si.x ^ heart.2 main road or river.
o'clock. arthri-tis /,a:'6raitis/ n [U] in-
arouse /a'rauz/ vt 1 awaken: ->^ flam.mation of a joint in the
suspicion. 2 cause (somebody) to body, arthri-tic /a:'9ntik/ adj
become active. arti-choke /'artitjauk/ n [C] 1
arrange /3'remd3/ vt/i 1 put m globe '>^, plant like a large
order: '^ flowers. 2 make plans: 2 Jerusalem '^, plant
'^ a meeting. 3 come to an agree- with white roots used as a vege-
ment: ^
a loan. 4 adapt (music): table.
~ apiece for the violin. '>^ment ar-ticle /'a:tikl/ n [C] 1 separate
n (a) [U] putting in order, (b) thing: ~5 of clothing. 2 piece of
(pf) plans; preparations, (c) [U] writing in a newspaper. 3 (legal)
agreement: come to an '^ment clause in an agreement. 4
over expenses, (d) [C] result of (gram): definite ~, 'the'; indefi-
arranging: an '-^ment for piano. nite '>^, 'a', 'an'.
array /a'rei/ n [C] arrangement ar-ticu-late^ /a:'tikjubt/ adj 1
ofthings in order. (of speech) in which the sounds
ar-rears n pi 1 money
/a'riaz/ and words are clear. 2 (of a per-
that is of rent, be in -^
owing: 'v, son) able to put thoughts into
(with), be in paying. 2
late clear speech. '>^ly adv
work waiting to be done. ar-ticu-late^ /a:'tikjuleit/ vt/i 1
ar-rest /a'rest/ vt 1 seize (some- speak (distinctly). 2 connect by
body) by the authority of the joints, ar-ticu'la-tion n [U] (a)
law. 2 stop (a process): Poor production of speech sounds,
food '^^s natural growth. 3 attract (b) (connection by a) joint.
(attention), a n[C] act of arrest- arti-fact, artefact /'a:tifaekt/
mg. (be/place) under '^, n [C] something made by man.
(be/be made) a prisoner. arti-fi-cial /larti'fijl/ adj 1 not
ar-ri-val /s'raivl/ n 1 [U] act of natural or real; made by man. 2
arrivmg. 2 [C] person or thing not sincere: ^
laughter, -^^ly adv
that arrives: The new -^ ( = artil'lery /a:'tibri/ n [U] big
baby) is a boy. guns; branch of an army that
ar-rive /s'raiv/ vi\ reach a place: uses these.
- home. 2 come: the day -^d. 3 ar-ti-san /,a:ti'zaEn/ n [C] skilled
^ at, reach (a decision, etc). 4 workman.
(modern use) be successful. art-ist n [C] 1 person
ar-ro-gant /'aeragant/ adj behav- who practises an art, esp paint-
ing in a proud manner. '>^ly adv. ing. 2 person who acts with skill.
19 artiste/assassin

'^^ /a:'tist»k/ adj (a) done with shame -^ly /a'Jeimidh; adv
skill and good taste, (b) .of art ashore /3'jD:(r)/ adv on or to the
orartisls. ^ally a(iv. art-istry shore.
/'a:tistn/ n [U] artistic skill. Asian /'eijn/ n [C] adj (native) of

art-iste /a:'ti:st/ m
[C] profes- Asia.
sional singer, actor, etc. aside /a'said/ adv on or to one
arty /'a:ti/ adj {informal) side: He laid the book -v.. a /? [C]
pretending to be artistic. (on stage) words that others are
as^ /3Z strong form: aez/ ad\ as .. supposed not to hear.
as. in the same degree: tail ^ ~ ask /a:sk/ vt/i (pt.pp '>^ed) 1 re-
as^ /3Z strong form: aez/ conj 1 quest: '^ (him) how to get there.
when; while: I saw him -^ he was 2 invite: ->- him in. ^^^ for it/
getting off the bus. 2 since: A^^ trouble, behave in such a way
he wasn 't ready, we went without that trouble is likely. 3 demand
him. 3 (in comparisons): twice ~ as a price: What are they '^ing
large '^. 4 Much '^. although. for the house?
5 in the way: Leave it ~
// is. 6 askance /a'skains/ adv look '^
like: dressed '^ a woman. 7 (to at, look at with suspicion.
avoid repetition): He is tall. ^ askew /s'skju:/ adv. adj not
are his brothers. 8 in the capacity level.
of: respected '^ a judge. 9 such asleep /o'slirp/ adj^ sleeping: He
^, for example. 10 '>^ for with fell'^. fast '^. in adeep sleep. 2
reference to. 11 so ^
to, (a) in (of arms or legs) without feeling.
order to. (b) with the result asp ssp/ n [C] small poisonous
that: behave so ^
to annoy your N
snake of Africa.
neighbours. 12 '^/so long '^, as-para-gus /s'sparagas/ n [U]
(a) on condition that: You can plant whose green shoots are
go. so long "^ you get back soon. eaten as a vegetable.
(b) while: You shall never enter as-pect /'aespekt/ n [C] 1 appear-
'^ long -^ / live. 1 3 -s^ much, so: ance (of a person or thing). 2
/ thought '^ much. ->^ we/f. also. front that faces a particular
'^ yet, up to this time. direction: a house with a south-
aS'bes-tos /aes'bestos/ n [U] ern ~. 3 side (of a problem):
soft, grey, mineral substance study every '^ of the question.
which does not burn. aspersion /a'spsrjn/ n cast
as-cend '/a'send/ vt/i 1 (formal) ^^s on sb. say false things
go or come up (a mountain, etc). about him.
2 -^ the throne, become king as-phalt /'aesfaelt/ n [U] black
or queen, --wancy, (also -ency) substance for making road sur-
/-ansi/ n [U] influence; power. faces. D vt surface (a road) with
as-cen-sion /a'senjn/ n [C] act asphalt.
of ascending, the A'>-, the de- as-phyxia /as'fiksia/ n [U] suffo-
parture of Jesus from the earth. cation.
as-cent /a'sent/ n [C] act of as- as-phyxi-ate /as'fiksieit/ vt
cending; way up. make ill, cause the death of,
as-cer-tain /,aes3'tem/ vt find through lack of air. as-
out; make certain about. phyxi'ationn[U]
as-cribe vt (formal)
/a'skraib/ as-pi r-ate /'aesparat/ n [C] the
consider to be the cause of: ~ sound of 'h'. d /'aespsreit/ vt say
failure to bad luck. with an 'h' sound.
asep-tic /,ei'septik/ adj clean; aspir-ation /laespa'reijn/ n [C,
free from bacteria. U] ambition.
asex-ual /,ei'sekju9l/ fl<^' 1 with- as-pire /3'spai3(r)/ vi be filled
out sex. 2 (of a person) showing with ambition: '^ to become an
no interest in sexual relations. author.
ash' /aej/ n [C] tree with hard as-pirin /'aesprm/ n (P) [U] medi-
wood; [U] wood of this tree. cine to relieve pain; [C] tablet of
ash^ /aeJ/ n [U or pi] 1 powder left this.
after something has burnt. 2 (pi) ass /aes/ n [C] 1 donkey. 2 (fig)
the remains of a body after stupid person.
cremation. ''>^-tray, receptacle as-sail /a'seil/ vt attack, -^ant n
for tobacco ash. A-^ Wednes- [C] attacker.
day, firstday of Lent. as-sas-sin /a'saesm/ n [C] person
ashamed /s'Jeimd/ adj feeling who assassinates, --v/ate vt kill

assault/at 20

an important person for politic- before there is proof: his in- ~

al reasons. '>-ation /-'neijn/ n nocence. 2 take on: 'v. office, be-
[C,U] murder of this kind. gin to govern. 3 take something
as-sault /3's3:lt/ n [C] sudden at- not genuine: ~
a new name.
tack, a attack violently.
v/ as-sump-tion /a'sAmpjn/ n [C]
as-semble /a'sembl/ vt/i 1 gath- 1 something regarded as true or
er together: a crowd '^ed. 2 put likely. 2theactofassuming(2).
together (the parts of). as-sur-ance /a'Juarans/ n 1 [U]
as-sem-bly /a'sembli/ n (pi -ies) (often self-'^) belief in one's own
1 [C] number of persons coming ability. 2 [C] promise: give an ->^.
together: school -n,. 2 [U] act of 3 [U] insurance: lifc^.
assembling (parts). '-^^ line. as-sure /3'Ju3(r)/ vt 1 say posi-
process of mass production in tively. 2 cause (a person) to be
which parts of a machine move sure. 3 insure, esp against death.
along for fixing together. as-sured a^confident.
as-sent /a'sent/ /( [C] official ag- as-ter-isk /'aestarisk/ n [C] the
reement. D vi (formal) give ag- mark *
reement (to. eg a proposal). astern adv in or at the
as-sert /a'ssit/ vt 1 make a claim stern of a ship.
to: 'V. one's rights. 2 declare: ~ as-ter-oid /'aestaroid/ n [C] very
one's innocence, as'sertion small planet.
/-Jn/ n (a) [U] act of asserting, asthma /'aesma/ n [U] disease
(b) [C] strong statement. '>^ive marked by difTicult breathing.
ac(/ showing confidence. -x/tic /laes'maetik/ adj
as-sess decide the
/a'ses/ vt 1 as-ton-ish /a'stonif/ vt surprise
value or amount of (eg a tax). 2 greatly, 'x/ing adi very surpris-
(fig) test the value of: a ^ ing. '>^mentw[U]
speech. '>^ment n [C,U]. ^sor astound /a'staund/ vt shock
n [C] person who assesses taxes, greatly; amaze.
etc. as-tral adj of the stars.
as-set /'aeset/ n [C] 1 (usually pi) astray /a'strei/ adv. adj off the
anything that may be sold to pay right path, esp (fig) into doing
debts. O liability. 2 valuable wrong: led'\^.
quaHty or skill. astride /a'straid/ adv. adj. prep
as-sign /a'sam/ give as a
vt 1 with one leg on each side (oQ-
share or task: -^ work to be done. as-trol-ogy /a'stroladsi/ n [U]
2 name as a time, place, etc. 3 study of the stars in the belief
appoint: A'^ your best man. that they infiuence human af-
^mentAi[C,Uj fairs, as-trol-oger n [C].
as-simi-late /a'simaleit/ vt/i ab- as-tro-naut /'aestranD:!/ n [C]
sorb; take in (food, information, person who travels in a space-
foreign people, etc). as- craft,
similation /i[U] as-tron-omy /a'stronami/ n [\]]
as-sist /a'sist/ vt/i (formal) help. science of the stars and planets.
^ance n [U] help, -^ant n [C] astronomer n [C]. astro-
helper: a Kshop-'^ant. nomi-cal /laestra'nomikl/ adj
as-so-ci-ate /a'ssujiat/ n [C] 1 (a) of astronomy, (b) enor-
person joined with others in mous: an astronomical amount.
work or crime. 2 companion, a as-tute /a'stjuct/ adjc\e\ev; sens-
/a'saujieit/ v///1 connect. 2 join; ible: an ^^ businessman, -x^ly
be in the company of. adv. ^ ness n [U]
as-so-ci-ation /3,S3usi'eiJn/ n 1 asy-lum /a'saibm/ n 1 [C,U]
[U] associating; connection, in (place oO refuge. 2 (formerly)
^ (with), together. 2 [C] per- home for the mentally ill (mental
sons joined together for a pur- home /hospital). 3 protection
pose: the ^Automobile /4~. /^ from cruel treatment, etc: /jo//7-
'football, (common abbr = ical'^.^.
:.occcr) game in which two teams
at /at strong form: aet/ prep 1 (a)
try to kick a ball into a goal.
in or near: '^ the station, (b) to-
assorted /3'sD:tid/ adj of vari- wards: look ~
him: guess -^ the
ous sorts. meaning. 2 (a) (showing a point
as-sort-ment /3'sD:tm3nt/ n [C] of time): 2 o'clock.
- in^. C> O
assorted collection. on^. (b) (of age): ~
(the age of)
as-sume /a'sjuim/ vt 1 believe 15. (c) (showing order): 'y^ first.

21 ate/audience

3 (a) (showing occupation): ~ your work. 2 look

trate on: -^ to
work, (b) (after adjectives): after: Which doctor is '^ing you?
good ^ (c) (state,
translation, 3 be present at: ->- a meeting.
condition): 'v- war. 4 (rate, cost, '>^ance n (a) [C,U] being
etc): -^ /m// speed; sell them ~ present, at school etc. (b) [Cj
25p. 5 by: shocked'^ the news. number of persons present: a
ate/et/p/ofeat. large '^. -s-ant n [C] servant or
athe-ism /'eiGuzam/ n [U] belief companion.
that thereis no God. athe-ist n at-ten-tion /a'tenjn/ n 1 [U]
[C].athe'istic adj careful thought: pay/attract ~.
ath-lete /'ae91i:t/ n [C] person 2 care; work: My
old car needs
trained for physical games. some '^. 3 [U] (mil) position in
ath-letic adj (a) of
/aeG'letik/ which a man stands straight and
athletes, (b) physically strong still.

and fit. ath-let-ics «p/ physical at-tent-ive /a'tentiv/ adj paying

exercises and sports. attention. '>-ly adv
aMas /'aetbs/ n [C] boqk of at-test /a'test/ vt/i 1 give proof
maps. of: His wealth '^s his ability. 2
at-mos-phere /'aetm3sfi9(r)/ n 1 declare on oath.
the '>^, gases surrounding the at-tic /'aetik/ n [C] room in the
earth. 2 [C] air. 3 [C] feeling roof of a house.
from aplace, conditions, etc: an at-ti-tude /'aEtitju:d/ n [C] 1 way
~ of peace in the country, at- of thinking or behaving. 2 way
mos-pheric /-'ferik/ adj of the of standing: in a threatening '^.
atmosphere. at-tor-ney /9't3:ni/ n [C] (pi '^s)
atoll /'aetol/ n [C] ring of coral person with authority to act for
reef(s) round a lagoon. another in business or law.
atom /'aetam/ n[C\^ smallest un- at-tract /a'traekt/ vt 1 pull to-
it of an element that can take wards: A magnet -^5 steel. 2 get
part in a chemical change. 2 (fig) the attention of: Lights ^
very small amount, 'v/ic 3 find attractive, at'traction
/a'tomik/ adj of atoms. ,'>^ic /-Jn/ n (a) [U] power of pulling
'bomb, bomb whose power towards, (b) [C] that which at-
comes from splitting atoms. tracts: the '^s of a big city. '>^ive
atro-cious/a'trauJas/aiZ/l very adj having the power to attract;
cruel: an '^ crime. 2 (informal) pleasing.
very bad: '^ weather. '>^ly adv at-tribute^ /s'tribjuit/ vt con-
atroc-ity /a'trosati/ n (pi -ies) sider as a quaUty of, the result
[U] wickedness; [C] cruel act. of: '^ his success to hard work, a
at-tach /9'taetJ/ vtji 1 fasten (one n [C] 1 quality be-
thing to another). 2 be '^ed to. longing to a person or thing. 2 a
be fond of. 3 consider to have: ^ symbol of a person or his posi-
importance to. '>^ment n (a) tion.
[U] being attached, (b) [C] auber-gine /'3ub33i:n/ n [C] egg-
something attached, (c) [C] af- plant, used as a vegetable.
fection: an '>^ for her. auburn Poibsn/ adj (of hair)
at-tache /a'taejei/ n [C] person reddish-brown.
attached to an embassy: the nav- auc-tion /'D:kj"n/ n [C,U] sale at
al ^. ->- case, small case for which goods are sold to the per-
documents. son offering the most money, d
at-tack /a'taek/ n 1 [C] violent at- vt sell bv auction, '-^eer
tempt to defeat: make an on. 2 ~ /-'ni9(r)/ n [C] person in charge
[C] hostile criticism. 3 [C] in- of an auction.
stance of disease: a ^heart ^. a vt aud-acious /oi'deijas/ adj dar-
make an attack. '>^er n [C] ing, '^lyadv
at-tain /a'tem/ (formal)
vt/i aud-ac-ity /3:'d£es3ti/ n [U] dar-
achieve; gain: '>^one's hopes! ing; impudence.
success. '>^ment, (a) [U] act of aud'ible /'o:d3bl/ adj able to be
attaininjg. (b) [C] (usually pi) heard, aud-ibly adv
skill; ability. audi-ence /'o:di3ns/ n [C] 1
at-tempt /a'tempt/ vt try; make gathering of persons to hear a
an effort, a n [C] effort to do speaker, singer, etc. 2 persons
something: an '^ to escape. listening, reading: The pro-
at-tend o'tend,' vr// 1 concen- gramme has a large ^. 3 formal

audit/aversion 22

interview by a ruler: The Pope sort of writing, autobio-

granted an '^ graphic(al) /-'graefik(3l)/ adj
audit n [C] official exami-
/'D:dit/ auto-crat /'3:l3kraet; n [C] 1 rul-
nation of business accounts, d v7 er with unlimited power. 2 per-
examine accounts. '>^or n [C] son who acts like this. 'X/ic
aud-ition /3:'dijn/ n [C] test of a /,y.t3^krxUk; adj.
singer or an actor, a v7 give an auto-graph 'o:t3gra:f/ n [C]
audition to. person's handwriting; his sig-
audi-tor-ium /pidi'tDrriam/ n [C] nature. D 17 write one's name on.
ipl ~s) (part oO a building in auto-mate /bitameit, vt convert
which an audience sits. to, control by, automation.
aug-ment /D:g'ment, vt/i (for- auto-matic prta'majtik/ adj 1
mal) mcrease. (of a machine) able to work
august D:'gASt/ adj majestic; without attention. 2 (of actions)
causing respect or awe. done without thought, a n [C]
August 'o:g3St/ n the eighth small automatic gun. '>^ally adv
month of the year. auto-ma-tion /prts'meijn/ n [U]
aunt /a:nt/ n [C] sister of one's (use oQ machines to save lab-
father or mother; wife of one's our.
uncle, --wie, n {informal) aunt. auto-mo-bile /'aitomabiil/ n [C]
au pair /|3o 'peD(r)/ adj (in GB) (esp US) motor-car.
girl from overseas who, in return auton-omous /o:'tDn3m3s/ adj
for household duties, receives (of states) self-governing.
board and lodgmg. auton-omy /Dr'tonami/ n [C,U]
auspices bispisiz/ n pi under self-government.
the ^ of, helped and favoured au-topsy /'D:topsi/ n [C] (pZ-ies)
by. (med) examination of a body
aus-pi-cious /oi'spijas/ adj fav- after death.
ourable; prosperous. 'x,|y adv autumn /'Ditam/ n [C] season,
aus-tere /D:isti3(r)/ adj 1 (of a between summer and winter,
person) severely moral and --•^al |D:'tAmn9l/a<^'
strict. 2 (of a way of Hving) sim- auxili-ary /Dig'ziliari/ adj help-
ple and plain. '>^ly adv. aus- ing; supporting.
terity /Di'sterati/ « [u] -x, oneself of.
avail /a'veil/ vt/i
auth-en-tic /or'eentik/ adj ge- (formal) make use of. a n of
nuine; known to be true. '>^ally nol little ^, not helpful, to no
adv. '^ate vi prove the origin, '^, unsuccessfully.
authorshfip, etc of. ^^a-tion avail-able /s'veibbl/ adj that
/o:,eenti'keiJn/ n [U] act of prov- may be obtained: There are no
ing to bfe genuine. '>^ity tickets'^, avail-a'bil-ityr/7 [U]
/,D:8en'tiS3ti/ n [U] quality of be- ava-lanche "aEV3la:nJ'/ n [C] 1
ing genuine. mass of snow sliding down a
author hMx)! n [C] 1 writer. 2 mountain. 2 great amount: an '>^

f>erson who begins something. of letters.

'>>'essn [C] woman author. av-ar-ice /'asvsris/ n [U] greed
'^ship n [U] origin of a book. (the usual word), av-a'r-icious
authoritative /oriGoritativ/ adj {formal) greedy.
adj 1 having authority. 2 com- avenge /a'vends/ vt take revenge
manding: in an ^
manner. 3 reli- for: '^ an insult.
able: an '^ report, ^^{y adv av-enue /'aevanju:/ n [C] 1 road
auth-or-ity /Dr'eorati/ n (pi -jes) with trees on each side. 2 {fig)
1 [U] power to give orders. 2 [C] way (to an aim): ~5 to success.
person(s) having authority. 3 av-er-age /'aev3rid3/ n [C] 1 the
[C] person, book, etc that sup- middle value of a number of
plies reliable information. quantities. 2 level regarded as
auth-or-ize /'orBaraiz/ vt give ordinary, d adj^ found by mak-
authority to (a person). ,A'^d ing an average: The -^ age of the
'Version, (common abbr AV) boys is fifteen. 2 of the ordinary
the English Bible, first published standard, a vt/i 1 find the aver-
1611. auth-ori'zation n [U] age of. 2 do as an average: 200 ~
autobiography /p:t3|bai- miles a day.
'ografi/ n {pi -ies) 1 [C] a per- aver-sion /a'varfn/ n 1 [C,U]
son's life story written by him- strong dislike. 2 [C] thing or per-
self. 2 [U] the practice of this son disliked.
23 avert/back

avert /3'v3:t/ vt(formal) 1 turn ax-iom /'aeksism/ n [C] statement

away (one's eyes, etc). 2 prevent: accepted as true, -^'matic adj
'^ disaster. obviously true.
avi-ary /'eiviari/ n [C] {pi -ies) axis /'aeksis/ n [C] (pi ~s
place for keeping birds. /'aeksi:z/) 1 line round which a
avi-ation /,eivi'eij"n/ n [U] (art thing turns: the earth 'S '^.2 pol-

and science oO flying in aircraft. connection between states.

avid /'aevid/ adj (formal) eager; axle /'aeksl/ n [C] rod on which a
enthusiastic, ^ly adv. wheel turns.
avo-cado /laevg'kaidau/ n [C] (pi ay, aye /ai/ int. adv (Scot, region-
~s) green tropica! fruit. al) yes. a n vote in favour.
avoid /s'void/ v/ keep or get
away from; escape; ~ danger.
'>>'able at//' that can be avoided.
'^ance rj[\J]
avoirdupois /'aevada'poiz/ n
[U] system of weights used, be-
fore metrication, in B.
await /a'weit/ vt wait for.
G Bb
awake' /a'weik/ v/ (pt awoke/
a'wauk/, /7/7 awoken/a'waukan/) B, b /bi:/ (pi B's, b's /bi:z/) the
= wake. second letter of the English al-
awake^ /a'weik/ a<^' roused from phabet.
sleep. -^ fo, aware of. babble /'baebl/ vt/i talk, quickly,
awaken ,
a'weikan/ vt = wake. Uke a baby, a n [U] foolish talk;
awaken-ing /a'weiknii)/ /? [C] talk not easily understood.
act of becoming aware. babe/beib'/j[C](//Obaby.
award /a'wo.-d/ vt give (by offi- ba-boon /ba'burn/ n [C] large
cial decision): -^ ///•5/ a n /^r/ze'. monkey.
[C] 1 decision made by a judge. 2 baby n [C] (pi -bies) 1
thing given by a decision. very young 2 (si) sweet-
aware /3'we3(r)/ adj o// ^ heart, Hke a baby.
'-^^ish, of,
f/iaf, having knowledge. '-^^-sit-ter, person paid to look
'>^nessA;[U] after a baby
for a short time.
away /a'wei/ aJv 1 to or at a dis- Hence, sit v/(-tt-).

tance: The sea is two miles ~. 2 bach-elor /'baetj3b(r)/ n [C] 1

continuously: He was working unmarried man. c> spinster. 2
'^. 3 (used to show loss, weaken- (man or woman who has taken
ing): The water has boiled ~. 4 the) first university degree: 5~
right /straight ^, at once. of Arts /Science.
awe n [U] fear and respect.
/d:/ back^ /back/ adv 1 to or at the
''>^-inspiring adj filling with rear: Stand '^, please! go '^ on
awe. ''>-someflc^" causing awe. one 's word, fail to keep a pro-
aw-ful /'Difi/ adj 1 terrible: a« -^ mise. 2 in (to) an earlier posi-
^^ar/;. 2 (informal) very bad; tion: Throw the ball '\.. tome. 3 in
very great, --wly a^iv very return: hit her '^. have/get
(much): -^hot. ^
one 's ^own (on sb). (infor-
awhile /a'wail/ adv for a short mal) have one's revenge. 4 (of
time. time) ago: a few years ^.
awk-ward /'oikwad/ at// 1 (of back^ /baek/ n [C] 1 part of the
objects, places) not well design- human body from the neck to
ed; (of circumstances, etc) the buttocks, do/say sth
inconvenient, an '>^ custom- behind sb's -^. without his
er, a difficult person. 2 (of liv- knowledge (always unpleasant).
ing things) clumsy. 3 embarrass- get off sb's '^. stop being a
ing: an ~
silence. '^\y adv. nuisance, put one's ->- into
'^nessA;fUl sth, work very hard at it. put/
awoke c> awake\ get sb's ^
up. make him
axe /ceks/ n [C\ (pi •^s "aeksiz/) angry, turn one's '^ on sb.
tool for chopping trees, ,/idve abandon him. 2 upper surface of
an ''>^ to grind, (fig) have pri- an animal's body. 3 part of a
vate reasons for doing some- chair on which a person's back
thing, a vt reduce, eg costs; dis- rests. 4 part farthest from the
miss. front: the ~ of the house.

back /bailiff 2

''-v/ache, pain the back

in disease, bac-terial j-rialj adj
''^bite vt/i say things to bad^ /baed, adj (worse, worst) 1
damage a person's reputation. wicked, immoral. 2 unpleasant:
/x/bone, (a) bones down the '>- news. 3 serious: a mistake. ~
middle of the back; spine, (b) 4 of poor quality, be in a ,-V'
(Jig) strength of character. 'ivay. be very \\\._not (so) >^.
''X/breaking adj (of work) ex- (informal) quite good. 5 rotten;
hausting. ,'>^'date vt begin at a '^ eggs, go '>", become unfit to
date back in the past. |'>^'fire n eat. 6 for, hurtful: Smoking

[U] sound in an engine when gas is ~ for the health.

7 diseased: a
explodes at the wrong time, d vi '^ finger. 8 (informal) unfortu-
(a) produce this sound. (b)(//g) nate: // 's too '>^ she's ill. 9 (infor-
fail: his plan '^fired. mal) sorry: I feel so ~ about that.
'^x^ground, (a) part of a scene 'x. debt, one unlikely to be
at the back, (b) relevant condi- paid, 'x/ly adv (worse, worst)
tions: the political 'Aground, (c) (a) in a bad manner: ~/>' made.
f>erson's past, education, etc. (b) by much: ~/>' defeated, (c)
''x/hand, stroke (in tennis, etc) very much: want it ^ly. (d) -^^/y
with the back of the hand for- off, poor, 'x.ness n [U]
ward. I'-^handed, adj (Jig) (of bad^ /baed/ n [U] that which is
comments) sarcastic. ''>^ing, bad.
(a) help; support, (b) material bade /baed/ c> bid.
to support something, '^lash. badge /baeds/ n [C] something
(fig) violent reaction. ''>-log, worn to show occupation, rank,
work to attended
be to. etc.
'-x-num-ber a newspaper, etc badger^ /'baed33(r)/ n [CJ small,
now out of date. ,'>^'side, (in- night animal living in holes.
formal) buttocks, ,^'stage, (in badger^ /'baedp(r)/ vt annoy
a theatre, etc) behind the stage. (with questions, etc).
'-x/Stroke, swimming on one's bad-min-ton /'baedmintan/ n
back, '-x-water, (a) part of a [U] game played with rackets
river not reached by its current. and shuttlecocks across a net.
(b) (Jig) place not afTected by baffle' /'baefl/ vt be too difficult
progress. to do; prevent (a person) from
back^* /baek/ vt/i 1 go or cause to doing.
go back: -^ a car. 2 support. '>^ baffle^ /'baefl/ n [C] plate to con-
sb up, support him in every trol the flow of gas or liquid.
way. 3 bet money on (a horse, bag' /baeg/ n [C] 1 flexible con-
etc). 4 '^ down (from), give tainer with an opening at the
up a claim, etc. '^ out (of), top, used for carrying things: a
withdraw. 5 put on as a surface *hand^. let the cat out of
at the back: --^ed with iron. 6 be the '>^, tell a secret. 2 '^s'of,
at the back of: Their house '\.s on (sf) plenty of: '^s of money.
to our garden,, (a) person bag^ /baeg/ vt/i (-gg-) 1 put into
who bets on a horse, (b) person a bag. 2 (of sportsmen) kill: a ~
who gives (Financial) support. deer. 3 hang loosely: trousers
backgammon /baek'gaeman/ n that ^ at the knees.
[U] game played with draughts bag-gage /'baegids/ n [U] lug-
and dice. gage.
back-ward /'baekwsd/ adj 1 to- baggy /'baegi/ adj (-ier, -iest)
wards the back. 2 having made hanging loosely: ~ trousers.
less than the usual progress: a ~ bag-pipes /'baegpaips/ n pi mus-
child. 3 hesitating, back- ical instrument with a bag and
ward(s) adv (a) towards the pipes.
back: He looked '^s. (b) with bail' /beil/ n [U] money paid as
the back or the end first: say the security that a person will ap-
alphabet ^(s). know
sth\.s, pear for his trial: release on '^. a
know it perfectly. vt '^ sb out, obtain his free-
bacon /'beikan/ n [U] salted dom by payment of bail.
meat from the back or sides of a baiP /beil/ n [C] (cricket) cross
pig piece over the wicket.
bac-terium /bsk'tianam/ n [C] baiP /beil/ vt/i throw water out
(pi -na /-ri3/) smallest
form of of a boat, x, out bale^ O
life, sometimes causing bail- iff /'beihf/ n [C\ 1 sherifTs
25 bait/ bangle

officer.2 landowner's agent. baMis-tic of rock-

/ba'listik/ ac^'
bait /belt/ n [U] 1 food to catch ets, bullets, etc.bal-is-tics n
fish or animals. 2 (Jig) anything [U] (with a sing verb) study,
thattempts. a vl/i^ put food (on science, of projectiles.
a hook) to catch fish. 2 torment bal-ioon /ba'luin/ n [C] bag filled
with cruel remarks. with air or gas. d vi swell like a
bake /beik/ vt/i 1 cook, be balloon, -^ist, person who fiies
cooked, in an oven. 2 make hard in balloons.
by heating, 'baking-powder, baMot /'baebt/ n 1 [C] (paper
powder to make dough rise. used in a) secret vote. 2 votes re-
baker, person who bakes corded, a vi give a vote. ''>^-
bread, etc. place where
'>^rv, box, box into which ballot-
bread is baked (and sold). papers are put.
bal-ance^ /'baebns/ n 1 [C] appa- balm /ba:m/ n [U] 1 oil for
ratus for weighing, be/hang in soothing pain. 2 (fig) that which
the 'v/, (fig) be still uncertain. 2 gives peace of mind, balmy adj
[U] condition of being steady: (-ier, -iest) (a) (of air) soft and
keep/ lose one's '^. 3 [U] (in art) warm, (b) healing.
harmony of design. 4 (accounts) balsa /'b3:ls3/ n [C,U] (light-
difference between two columns weight wood of a) tropical
of an account. 5 amount owed American tree.
after a part payment. ''^- bal-us-trade /,baeb'streid/ n [C]
sheet, (accounts) written state- banisters round a balcony, etc.
ment showing credit and debit. bam-boo /(baem'bu:/ n [U] tall
bal-ance^ /'baebns/ vt/i 1 keep hollow plant of the grass family.
(something, oneselQ steady. 2 ban /basn/ vt (-nn-) forbid, d n
(accounts) compare one's debts [C] order that forbids.
and what one is owed; (of two ba-nal /b3'na:l/ adj dull, ordi-
sides) be equal. 3 compare (two nary: ~ remarks.
objects, plans, etc). ba-nana /ba'nain?/ n [C] long,
bal-cony /'baelkani/ n [C] (pi yellow, tropical fruit.
-ies) 1 platform on an outside band /baend/ n [C] 1 thin strip of
wall of an upstairs room. 2 (in a material for tying things: a rub-
theatre) seats upstairs. ber '^. 2 line, different from the
bald /bD:ld/ adj (-er, -est) 1 hav- rest, on something: a white plate
ing no hair. 2 (Jig) plain, simple: with a red -^ round the edge. 3
a '^ statement. '>^ly adv. ^s^ness group: a '^ of robbers. 4 group
who play music together. 5
bale^ /beil/ n [C] material pressed (radio) range of wavelengths, a
together and tied, a vt make into vt/i 1 put a band on. 2 unite in a
bales. group: ~ together. ''>^stand,
bale^ /beil/ vt -^ out (of), (of an open-air platform for a
airman) jump with a parachute. band(4). ''>^wagon, /'iv/np on
bair /bo:l/ n [C] 1 sphere used in the 'N^, join in because success is
games: cricket '^.beon the ^, guaranteed.
be alert. 2 a round mass: a of ^ ban-dage /'baendids/ n [C] strip
wool. 3 round part: the -^ of the of material for binding round a
thumb, ''v/'point, pen that uses wound. D vt tie up with a ban-
a tiny ball to write. dage.
balP /bo:l/ n [C] social gathering ban-dit /'baendit/ n [C] robber,
for dancing. ''>^room, large one of an armed band.
room for dancing. bandy^ /'baendi/ adj (of the legs)
bal-lad /'baelad/ n [C] song or curving outwards at the knees.
poem, esp one that tells a story. bandy^ /'baendi/ vt exchange
bal-iast /'baebst/ n [U] 1 heavy (words, blows).
material to keep a ship steady. 2 bang /baeq/ n [C] violent blow;
sand thrown out of a balloon to sudden, loud noise, a vt/i hit
make it go higher, a vt supply violently; make a loud noise: -^
with ballast. at the door. The door '\.edshut.
bal-ler-ina /,baeb'ri:n3/ n [C] banger /'baer)3(r)/ n [C] (si) 1
woman ballet dancer. sausage. 2 noisy firework. 3 old,
bal-let /'baelei/ n [C,U] 1 perfor- worn car.
mance of dancing that tells a bangle /'baeqgl/ n [C] band worn
story. 2 the dancers. as jewelry.
banish /bark 2

ban-ish send away

/'baenij/ v/ 1 called to the 'x^. become a
as a punishment. 2 put out of barrister. ''>^maid, woman who
(the mind), -^ment n [U] serves drinks at bar (3).
ban-is-ter 'baenist3(r); n [C] ''>-man, man who does this.
fKJSts and handrail of a stair- ''>^ten-der, barmaid or bar-
case. man.
banjo /baen'd33u/ n [C] (pi ~s or bar^ IbQir)! vt (-rr-) 1 fasten (a
~es) musical instrument played door) with barsM2). 2 obstruct
by plucking the strings. ~ the way. 3 ban: '^ from a com-
bank^ /baeqk/ n [C] 1 side of a petition.
river. mound of sloping land.
2 bar" ba:(r)/, bar-ring /'ba:rir)
3 ('sand'N-') rising part of the prep (informal) except. '^ none.
seabed, d v///1 (a) make^up. without exception.
into banks, (b) put coal on (a barb ba:b/ n [C] curved point
fire). 2 (of a car or plane) tilt (eg of a fish-hook, etc), ^^.^ed adj
when turning. having barbs: '^ed wire.
bank^ /baeqk n [C] 1 building for
' bar-bar-ian /ba:'be3ri3n/ adj. n
keeping money safely. 2 (place [C] uncivilized (person), bar-
for storing) supplies: a 'hlood-^. baric /bot'baenk; adj (a) of or
a vt/i 1 place, keep money in a like barbarians, (b) rough and
bank. 2 ^
on, depend on. .--w rude, bar-bar-ity /ba:'baer9ti/ n
'holiday, day (except Sundays) [C,U](;?/-ies) savage cruelty.
when banks
are closed. bar-be-cue /'ba:bikju:/ n [C] 1
''v.note, piece of paper money. iron framework for cooking an
'^er, person who owns a bank. animal. 2 party at which food is
-^^ing, business of keeping a cooked over a fire, d v7 roast
bank. (meat, etc) in this way.
bank-rupt /'bsqkrApt/ adj, n [C] bar-be r /'ba:b3<r)/ n [C] person
{legal) (person) unable to pay who cuts men's hair.
his debts, n vt make bankrupt. bar-bitu-rate /ba:'bitjur3t/ n
bankrupcy /'baerikrapsi/ n [C,U] (chem) substance, pills,
[C,U] causing sleep.
ban-ner /'baen3(r)/ n [C] flag: bard /ba:d/ n [C] (lit) poet.
(//» the ~ offreedom. bare /be3(r)/ adj (-r, -st) 1 with-
banns baenz/ n pi announce- out clothing, covering, lay 'v.,
ment in church of a marriage: expose. 2 not more than: the ~
put up the '^. necessities, a vt uncover; reveal.
ban-quet /'bserjkwit/ n [C] elab- ''>^faced, insolent: open: a
orate meal, a vtji give, take part ^faced lie. ''>^foot adv with
in, a banquet. bare feet, -^^iy adv only just.
ban-tarn /'bsntam/ n [C] kind of '>^nessA?[U]
small hen. bar-gain ,"ba:gm/ n [C] 1 agree-
ban-ter /'baent3(r)/ vtH tease ment to buy or sell, into the ^,
playfully, d n [U] unimportant in addition. 2 (in industry) ag-
talk. reement over wages, etc. 3
bap-tism /'baeptizam/ n 1 [C,U] something bought cheaply, a
ceremony of sprinkling a person vr//1 talk to reach an agreement
with water, accepting him as a (about buying or selling). 2 get
Christian. 2 ^
of fire, first ex- more than you '^ for. (infor-
perience of war. bap-tize mal) be unpleasantly surprised.
/bsp'taiz/ vr give baptism to. barge^ /bards; n [C] fiat-
bar^ /ba:(r)/ n [C] 1 long piece of bottomed boat.
eg metal, wood. 2 length of barge^ /bards/ ^' (informal) 1 -<-
wood or metal across a door, into, rush/move heavily into. 2
window etc: prison ^5. 3 room^ '>^ in/into, rudely interruptr ~
counter, where drinks are serv- into a conversation.
ed. 4 (Jig) obstacle: Poor health bari-tone /'bseritaun/ n [C] male
IS O'^ to success. 5 narrow
band voice between tenor and bass.
(of colour, light, etc). 6 (music) bark^ /bark/ n [U] outer covering
notes of music marked off with of a tree.
vertical lines. 7 ridge of sand at
bark^ /bark/ n [C,U] the cry made
the mouth of a river. 8 barrier in
by dogs. D vt/i 1 (of dogs, etc)
a law court, the B'^, profession
give a bark or barks. 2 say
of barrister; barristers, be (something) in a fierce voice.

27 barley/bat

bar-ley n [U] plant like

/'ba:li/ as a basis for.
grass and its seed (called grain). base^ /beis/ adj (of persons,
for food and beer-making. thoughts, etc) worthless. '^
barn /ba:n/ n [C] building for metal, non-precious metal.
storing hay, etc on a farm. base-ball /'beisbo:l/ n [Uj
bar-nacle /'barnakl/ n [C] shell- American game played with a
fish that fastens itself to rocks, bat and ball.
ships, etc. base-ment /'beismant/ n [C]
ba-rom-eter /b9'rDmit9(r)/ n [C] lowest part of a building, below
instrument for measuring atmo- ground level.
spheric pressure and forecasting bash /baej/ vt (informal) strike
the weather, baro-met-ric a n [C] violent blow.
/,baer3'metrik/a<^' bash-ful /'baejn/ adv shy (the
bar-on /'basran/ n [C] 1 peer of usual word), '^ly adv
the lowest rank. 2 {US) indus- basic /'beisik/ adj essential; fun-
trial leader,'v/ess n [C] baron's damental: -^ vocabulary, '^^ally
wife; female baron, -^^et n [C] /-kli/ adv fundamentally.
peer lower in rank than a baron. basil /'baezl/ n [U] sweet-smelling
bar-rack /'baerak/ vtji shout herb.
rudely at. basin /'beisn/ n [C] 1 round,
bar-racks /'baeraks/ n pi large open dish for holding liquids; its
building(s) for soldiers to live in. contents. c> wash-basin. 2
bar-rage /'baera:3/ n [C] 1 arti- bowl for preparing food in. 3
ficial barrier across a river. O place where water collects. 4
dam. 2 {mil) heavy gunfire onto area drained by a river.
a particular area. basis /'beisis/ n [C] (pi bases
bar-rel /'baeral/ n [C] 1 round /-si:z/) 1most important part of
wooden container; amount that a mixture. 2 (fig) foundation: ar-
a barrel holds. 2 metal tube of a guments with a firm ~.
gun. n vt (-II-) put in a barrel. bask /ba:sk/ v; 1 enjoy warmth
''>^-organ, instrument from and light: ~/>jg in the sun. 2 (fig)
which music is produced by enjoy (approval, etc)'.
turning a cylinder. bas-ket /'ba:skit/ n [C] fiexible
barren /'baeran/ adj 1 not able container: a 'shopping'^.
to produce crops, fruit, young bas-ket-ball /'barskitbarl/ n [U]
ones. 2 (Jig) without value, in- game in which two teams try to
terest: a ^ discussion. throw a baU into baskets above
bar-ri-cade /,baeri'keid/ n [C] the ground.
barrier of objects as a defence, a bass' /'baes/ n [C] (pi ^) kind of
vt block (a street, etc). fish (perch).
bar-rier /'baena(r)/ n [C] 1 some- bass^ /beis/ adj deep-sounding.
thing that prevents or controls D n [C] lowest part in music;
progress or movement. 2 singer or instrument with lowest
boundary: the ^sound-'^. 3 (fig) notes.
obstacle: a ~
to progress. bas-soon /ba'su:n/ n [C] wind-
bar-ris-ter /'baerista(r)/ n [C] instrument made of wood, giv-
(not US) lawyer who speaks in ing very lownotes.
higher law courts. C> coun- bas-tard /'baistad/ n [C] 1 ille-
sel (2). gitimate child. 2 A
(vulgar) un-
bar-row /'baerau/ n^ = wheel- pleasant person (a term of ab-
barrow. 2 small cart, moved by use). 3 A
unfortunate man:
hand. Poor ^! a adj 1 (of persons) ille-
barter /'ba:ta(r)/ vt/i exchange gitimate. 2 (of things) not ge-
(goods) (for other goods), a n nuine.
[U] exchange made in this way. baste /beist/ vt 1 pour fat over
base^ /beis/ n [G] 1 lowest part of (meat). 2 sew (cloth) loosely.
anything, on which it rests. 2 bas-tion /'bsestian/ n [C] 1 part
place at which armed forces, etc of a fortification that stands out
have their stores, etc. 3 (maths) from the rest. 2 place where
the starting point (usually 10) something is defended: a 'v- of
for a numerical system. '>>'iess free speech.
adj without cause or reason: bat' /baet/ n [C] small, blind ani-
^lessfear^. mal that flies at night, as blind
base^ /beis/^ vt '^>on/upon. use as a -v., unable to see well.
bat /bead 28

bat^ baet/ n [C] wooden imple- place where a battle is fought.

ment for striking the ball in eg ''^ship, large warship with big
cricket, do sth off one's guns and heavy armour.
own ~, (Jig) do it without be- battle-ments 'bactlmants/ n pi
ing told to. a vt/i (-tt-)use a bat. wall on top of a castle with
'bats-man, (cricket) player openings through which to
who bats. shoot.
bat^ /baet/ vt (-tt-) not '^ an bauble /'bo:bl/ n [C] bright orna-
^eye/id. not show any surprise. ment of little value.
batch /baetj/ n [C] group of per- bawl /bo:!/ vt shout or cry
sons or things. loudly: ~ for help.
bath /bare/ n (pi ~s /ba:dz/) 1 bay' /bei/ n [C] (also '~ laurel)
[G] washing of the body, by ly- tree whose sweet leaves are used
ing in water. 2 [C] (container in cooking.
for) liquid in whieh something is bay^ /bei/ n [C] areaof the sea
washed. 3 (pi) public building partly enclosed by land.
with baths and an indoor swim- bay^ /bei/ n [C] 1 space between
ming pool. 4 = bathtub. D V///1 pillars that divide a wall. 2 ex-
give a bath to. 2 have a bath. tension of a room; recess. 3 part
''x/room, room in which there of a college for those who are ill:
is a bath, '-^tub, vessel in which the'sick"^.
baths are taken. bay-onet /'beiamt/ n'[C] blade
bathe /beid/ vr//1 put in water. 2 fixed to a rifie. a vt stab with a
go into the sea to swim. O also bayonet.
sunbathe, a « a swim, bather, ba-zaar /b3'za:(r)/ n [C] 1 shop
Krson who bathes, bath-ing n selling various cheap goods. 2
] going into the sea to swim. sale of goods for charity. 3 (in
'bathing-costume, one-piece' Eastern countries) market.
garment worn by women for ba-zoo-ka /ba'zuika/ n [C] {pi
swimming. 'N/S) portable weapon for firing
bat-man /'baetman/ n [C] (pi rockets.
-men) (GB mil) army officer's be' /bi:/ vi (pres tense am, is, pi
personal servant. were, pres part
are, pt was,'
baton /'baetan/ n [C] 1 police- being, pp been) 1 (showing
man's short, thick stick, used as existence, identity, place, time):
a weapon. 2 short, thin stick There is a house. Tim is big. The
used by the conductor of an or- hooks are on the table. Today is
chestra. Monday. 2 (showing change):
bat-tal-ion /ba'taelisn/ n [C] He wants to ~ a fireman. 3 go;
army unit made up of several come (esp pp been): He has
companies. been to Paris, for the time
bat-ten /'baetn/ n [C] 1 long '>^ing. until some other ar-
wooden board. 2 (on a ship) rangement is made. the... to-,
of wood to fasten down
strip 'be, the future...: the ^bride to-
covers, d vr ^ down, make se- 'be.
cure with battens. be^ /bi:/ aux 1 (with pres part to
bat-ter' /'baEt3(r)/ v/// strike form continuous tenses): They
hard and often; beat out of are I were reading. 2 (with a /)/? to
shape: -^ the door down. i<-^ing form the passive): He was killed.
ram, (mil) heavy log (formerly) 3 (with a /o-infiniti»e) (a) must:
used for knocking down walls. You are to be congratulated, (b)
bat-ter^ /'baet3(r)/ n [U] mixture intend: They are to be married.
offlour, eggs, milk, etc. beach /birtj"/ n [C] coastline
bat-tery /'baetan/ n [C] (plAes) 1 covered with sand or pebbles, a
connected electric cells from vt move (a boat) up on to the
which current will flow. 2 army beach. ''>^head, fortified posi-
unit of big guns. 3 set of similar tion established on a beach by
things: a '^ of lenses j tests. 4 an invading army, '--wwear,
series of boxes in which hens are clothes for sunbathing, swim-
kept for laying eggs: -v- hens. ming, etc.
battle /'baetl/ n 1 IC] fight be- bea-con /'birkan/ n [C] light on a
tween armed forces. 2 [C] (Jig) or coast, to give warning of
any struggle, a vi struggle: bat- danger.
tling against poverty, '-afield. bead /bi:d/ n [C] 1 ball of wood.
29 beady /become

glass, etc' with a hole through it animal. 2 cruel or disgusting

for threading on a string. 2 (pf) person. '>^ly adj {informal)
necklace of beads. 3 drop of nasty: What '^ly weather!
liquid: -^s of sweat. beat^ /bi:t/ n [C] 1 repeated
beady /'bi:di/ adj (of eyes) small stroke, orsound of this: the of ^
and bright. a drum. 2 rhythm in music or
beak /bi:k/ n [C] hard part of poetry. 3 route over which a po-
bird's mouth. liceman goes regularly.
beaker /'bi:k3(r)/ n [C] 1 open beat^ /bi:t/ vt/i {pt '^, pp ^en
glass vessel for chemical experi- /'bi:tn/) 1 hit repeatedly. '^ a
ments. 2 drinking glass. retreat. (Jig) go back. 2 (of the
beam /bi:m/ n [CJI long hori- sun, rain, etc) strike. 3 mix thor-
zontal piece of wood or steel etc oughly: '>- eggs. 4 change the
used to carry the weight of a shape of by blows: ^
building. 2 (a) ray of light, (b) flat. 5 defeat: He •^ me at chess.
radio signal to direct an aircraft, 6 move up and down regularly:
a vt/i 1 (of the sun, etc) send out His heart was still '^ing. -^
light and warmth. 2 (fig) smile time, measure time (in music)
happily. 3 send (a radio pro- by making regular movements.
gramme, etc) in a particular 7 ^ about the bush, talk
direction. about something indirectly.
bean n [C] 1 (plant with)
/bi:n/ dead '^. tired out. -^^ it. {si) go
seed in long pods (used as food): away. 8 '>^ down (on). The sun
^soya ~; ^coffee-^s. full of '^s, was '^ing down on our heads.
lively, spill the ^s, make a shining with great heat. '^ sb/
secret known. sth off, force to retreat. '>^ sb
bear^ /be3(r)/ n [Cj 1 large, heavy up, fight and hurt badly, ^en
animal with thick fur. 2 rough, adj shaped by beating, go off/
clumsy person. keep to the ^en track, do
bear^ /be9(r)/ vt/i {pt bore something/not do anything un-
/bo:(r)/, pp borne /born/) 1 carry. usual, '^er n [C] utensil used for
2 have; show: ~
the marks of beating, '^ing n [C] punishment
blows. 3 feel: the love she bore by striking; defeat.
him. 4 support: Tl\e ice is too thin beau-ti-cian /bjur'tijn/ n [C]
to •^ your weight. 5 tolerate: / person who works in a beauty-
can 't ~that man. 6 give birth to: parlour.
~ a child. {Note: compare born: beau-ti-ful /'bjurtifl/ adj giving
He was born in 1932.) 7 turn: ~ pleasure to the mind or senses.
{to the) right. 8 -^ (sth or sb) ^ly adv. beau-tify /'bjurtifai,
out. support a person or thing. vt {pt,pp-\ed) make beautiful.
'^ up (against/under sth), beauty /'bju:ti/ n {pi -ies) 1 [U]
be strong in the face of (sorrow, qualities that give pleasure- to
etc). '^ with (sb). treat pat- the senses or to the mind. 2 [C]
iently. person, thing, that is beautiful.
bear-able /'bearabl/ adj that can '^^-parlour/salon, place
be tolerated. where wbmen have treatment to
beard /biad/ n [C] hair of the be more beautiful.
lower part of the face (excluding bea-ver /'bi:v9(r)/ n 1 [C] fur-
the moustache), -^^ed adj hav- coated animal that lives both on
ing a beard. land and in water. 2 [U] its fur.
bearer /'be3r3(r)/ n [C] 1 person be-came pt of become.
who brings a letter or message. 2 be-cause /bi'koz/ conj 1 for the
person who carries a coffin. 3 reason that: I did it ^
they asked
person who presents a cheque at me. 2 '>^ of. prep by reason of:
a bank. B'^ of his bad leg, he couldn't
bear-ing /'beani)/ n 1 [U] way of walk fast.
behaving, standing, etc. 2 (C,U] beckon /'bekan/ vt/i call a per-
relation, connection: That has son nearer by a movement of the
no ~ on the subject. 3 [C] direc- hand.
tion: a ^compass -s^. find one's be-come /bi'kAm/ vt/i {pt be-
^s, {fig) find one's position, be- came /bi'kema/; pp '^) 1 come
come confident, lose one's or grow to be: He became a doc-
^s, {fig) be lost, puzzled. tor. 2 '>' of. happen to: What's
beast /bi:st/ n [CJ 1 four-footed ~ of John? 3 suit: That hat '^s
bed /belfry 30

you. be-com-inga^y attractive. -^ you go. prep 1 earlier than:

bed^ 'bed; n [C] 1 piece of furni- the day yesterday. '>^ /ong.

ture on which to sleep: go tO'^. 2 soon. 2 in front of (esp in order):

flat base on which something B comes <>- C.
rests: The machine stands on a '>^ be-fore-hand /bi'foJiaend/ adv
of concrete. 3 bottom of the sea, earlier.
etc. 4 piece of ground (for flow- be-friend /bi'frend/ vt make a
ers), '-^-clothes n pi sheets, friend of.
blankets, etc for a bed. ''>^pan, beg /beg/ vt/i (-gg-) 1 ask for
vessel for urine, etc used by an (food, money, etc); live by ask-
invalid in bed. ''v/rid-den adj ing for money. 2 ask with deep
confined to bed by weakness or feeling, go '^ging, (of things)
old age. '-^room, room for be unwanted.
sleeping in. i^'sitting-room, be-gan C> begin.
(informal = ,
-^'sitter, ''v.-sit) beg-gar /'beg9(r)/ n [C] person
room for both living in and who lives by begging, eg for
sleeping in. '^spread, cover money. '>^ly adj very poor; de-
over a bed during the day. serving contempt.
''>^stead, framework to sup- be-gin /bi'gm/ vt/i (pt began
port the mattress. /bi'gaen/, pp begun /bi'gAn/) (-
bed^ /bed/ vt/i (-dd-) 1 plant: ~ nn-) start, to ^
with, in the
out plants. 2 >^ dovt/n. give bed- first place. '>^ner, (esp) person
ding to; go to sleep. stilllearning, ^^^ning, starting
bed-ding /'bedii]/ n [U] ^ = point.
bed-clothes. 2 straw, etc for be-grudge /bi'grAds/ vt feel
animals to sleep on. envy at: We don't ^ your going
be-dev-il /Tji'devl/ vt (-II-) con- to Italy.
fuse; cause trouble: Plans '^led be-gun c> begin.
by accidents. be-half /bi'ha:f/ n on '^ of, for;
bed-lam /'bedbm/ n [C] scene of in the interest of: speak on his '^.
noisy confusion. be-have /bi'heiv/ vi 1 act; con-
be-drag-gled /bi'draegld/ adj duct onself: make your boy ~
made wet or dirty. (himself), show good manners. 2
bee /bi:/ n [C] small, stinging in- (of machines, etc) function.
sect that produces wax and be-hav-iour (US = -ior)
honey, make
a ''^-li'ne for. go /bi'heivi3(r)/ n [U] way of behav-
directly towards. ''>^hive, box ing, manners.
for bees to live in. be-head /bi'hed/ vt cut off the
beech /bi:tj/ n [C] tree with head of.
smooth bark and small nuts; [U] be-hind^ /bi'hamd/ adv, prep 1
its wood.
in, to the rear of: Hide the ^
beef n [U] flesh of an ox,
/bi:f/ tree. 2 not having made equal
bull or cow, used as meat, a v/ progress: ~
other boys in his
{s[) complain. *^steak, thick
class. 3 remaining after: the
slice of beef, beefy adj(o[a. per- storm left ruin '^ it. 4 in arrears:
son) muscular; strong. ~ with the rent.
been O be\ be-hind^ /bi'hamd/ n [C] (infor-
beer /bi3(r)/ n [U] alcoholic ma/) buttocks.
drink made from malt and flav- be-hind-hand /bi'hamdhaend/
oured with hops, beery adj like adj Idle: be -^ with the rent.
beer; smelling of beer.
beige /bei3/ n [U] colour of sand.
beet n [C] plant with a
n at^' sand-coloured.
sweet root, '-^root, red beet be-ing /'bi:ir)/ n 1 [U] existence.
used as a vegetable. come into '^, begin to exist. 2
beetle /'bi:tl/ n [C] insect with [C] human creature.
hard, shiny wing-covers.
be-lated /bi'leitid/ adj coming
be-fall /bi'fal/ vt/i (pt befell very late: a '>^ apology.
/bi'fel/; pp -^en) (///) happen belch /beltj/ vt/i 1 send out, eg
smoke. 2 send out gas from the
be.f it /bi'fit/ vt (-tt-) be suitable stomach noisily, through the
for. 'x.ting adj proper; suitable.
mouth. D n [C] act or sound of
be-fore /bi'f3:(r)/ adv at an earli- belching.
er time; already: I've seen
that bel-fry /'belfri/ n [C] (pi -ies)
film '^. a con/earlier than: Do it (church) tower in which bells

31 belief/bereave

hang. be-moan /bi'maun/ vt show

be-lief /bi'litf/ n 1 [U] the feeHng great sorrow for: ~
his fate.
that something is true: -^ in his bench /beptj/ n [C] 1 long seat. 2
honesty. 2 [C] something accept- worktable at which a carpenter,
ed as true: religous ^s. etc works. 3 the B'>^, judge's
be-lieve /bi'h:v/ vt/i 1 feel sure of seat or office; judges as a group.
the truth of something. 2 -^ in, bend /bend/' n [C] 1 curve or
(a) trust: / ^
in that man. (b) turn: a ->- in the road, round
feelsure of the existence of: '^ in the ^, (si) mad. 2 the "^s, (in-
God. (c) feel sure of the value of: formal) pain suffered by divers
He '^s in getting plenty of exer- caused by coming to the surface
cise. of the sea too fast, a vt/i (pt.pp
vt cause to seem
be-little /bi'htl/ bent /bent/) 1 force into a curve
unimportant: ^
Don 't his work. or angle: 5~ the wire back. 2 be-
bell /bel/ n [C] metal, usually come curved; bow down: ^
shaped like a cup, that makes a down and touch your toes. 3 be
ringing sound when
struck. bent on, be determined: bent
ring a ^, (informal) recall to on learning English.
memory, ''^^-push, button to be-neath /hi^niiQ/ prep, adv^ be-
ring an electric bell. low. 2 not worthy of: '>^ con-
bel-liger-ent /bi'lidsarant/ adj, n tempt.
[C] (state, party, nation) at war ben-edic-tion /,beni'dikj"n/ n
or eager to be at war. [C] blessing (esp by a priest).
beMow /'bebu/ vt/i make a ben-efac-tion /,beni'f2ekjn/ n 1
Toud, deep noise (like a bull); [U] doing good. 2 [C] good deed;
shout. charitable gift, ben-efac-tor
bel'lows /'bebuz/ n pi (also a /'benifaEkt3(r)/ n [C] person who
pair of'^) apparatus for blowing gives money to eg a charity.
air into, eg a fire. ben-efac-tress n [C] woman
belly /'bell/ n [C] {pi -ies) 1 {in- benefactor.
formal) = abdomen. 2 the sto- ben-efi-ciai /ibem'fijl/ adJ hav-
mach: have a ^achc. 3 bulging ing a good effect, helpful.
part of anything. ''X/-ache vi ben-efici-ary /ibeni'fijari/ n [C]
(informal) grumble; complain. (pi -ies) person who receives a
'x/ful, (informal) enough; too benefit, esp money, under a will.
much: I've had a '^ful of your bene-f it /'benifit/ n 1 [U] advan-
noise. give sb the
tage; help, of ^
be-long /bi'loi)/ vi 1 '^ to, (a) the doubt, assume that he is
be the property of: These to ^ innocent because there is insufii-
me. (b) be a member of: '^ to a cient evidence that he is guilty. 2
club. 2 have as a right place: [C] favour; advantage: the '^s of
Does it ^
here? '^'ings n pi per- education. 3 [C] money to which
sonal articles; possessions. a person is entitled:
be-loved /bi'lAvd/ pp. adi dearly unemployment ~. d vt/i do good
loved, a n /bi'Uvid/ [Cj dearly to.
loved person. ben-ev-ol-ence /bi'nevabns/ n
be-low /bi'bu/ adv 1 at or to a [U] wish to do good.- ben-ev-
lower level: We saw the ocean ~, ol-ent adJ kind and helpful.
'^ sixty (years of age); ~
£20. 2 be-nign /bi'nam/ adj 1 (of per-
referred to later (in a book, etc). sons) kind and gentle. 2 (of a
3 downstream from: a few yards disease) not dangerous. O mal-
~ the bridge, hit ^ the belt. ignant(2).
fight unfairly. bent' /bent/ n [C] natural skill in
belt /belt/ n [C] 1 band of and liking: a ~ /or mu5/c.
material worn round the waist. bent^/7/,ppof bend^.
2 endless strap, used to drive be-queath /bi'kwi:5/ vt give
machinery: a ^fan-'^. 3 any wide (property, etc) to a person after
strip, surrounding area, etc. C> death.
green -v.. p vr 1 fasten with a be-quest /bi'kwest/ n 1 [U] be-
belt. 2 (informal) strike with the queathing. 2 [C] thing bequeath-
fist(s). 3 (informal) move very ed.
quickly: ~j>7^ along the road. be-rate /bi'reit/ vr scold.
'>-ing n: give him a good ^ing. be-reave /bi'ri:v/ vt (pt.pp bereft
hit him hard (with a belt). /bi'reft/ or bereaved) 1 take
bereft /bi- 32

away from: of reason.

bereft '>^ter, -v/tor, person who bets.
mad. 2 (of death) cause sadness: be-tray /bi'trei/ vt ^ be disloyal
the ^d husband, man whose wife to. 2 allow (a secret) to become
has just died. '>^ment n (C,U) known. 3 show: His face '^edhis
be-reftp/./7/? of bereave. guilt, '^al n (a) [U] betraying or
be-ret /'berei/ n [C] flat, round being betrayed, (b) [C] instance
cap worn by soldiers. of this, ', person who bet-
berry /'ben/ n [C] (pi -ies) 1 rays.
kinds of small fruit with seeds: be-trothed /bi'traudd/ adj. n [U]
'straw'^. 2 coffee bean. (lit) (person) engaged to be mar-
berserk /ba'sack/ adj go '^. be- ried, be-t^othal /-dol/, engage-
come violently angry. ment to marry.
berth /b3:0/ n [C] 1 sleeping- bet-ter /'bet9(r)/ adj 1 having
place in a train, ship. etc. 2 place more qualities or abilities: He's
at a port where a ship ties up. a '^ man than his brother. 2 (of
give sb a wide '^, avoid him. health) improving: He feels ~
a vt/i tie up (a ship) at a wharf. today. O
good, best, a adv^ (of
be-set /bi'set/ vt (pt.pp '^) (-tt-) qualities, skills, etc) more: You
have on all sides: 'v- with difficul- play tennis ^
than I do. be '^
ties. off. richer, know
'v, (than).

be-side /bi'said/ prep 1 at the be wise enough not to: You know
side of: Sit ~ me. 2 '^^ the ~ than to go out with wet hair. 2
point, having nothing to do had '^. would be wise to: You'd
with (what is being discussed, ~ not say that. C> best, well, d n
etc). 3 -^^ oneself, losing one's get the -^ of sb. defeat; win
self-control. (an argument, etc), d vt im-
be-sides /bi'saidz/ adv more- prove; do better than: She hopes
over; also. Q prep in addition to. to ~
herself { = earn more).
be-siege /bi'si:d3/ vt 1 surround be-tween /bi'twim/ adv in or in-
armed forces. 2 '>^
(a place) with to a place or time that is in the
with, crowd round (with re- middle, fewf and far -x., very
quests, etc). rare, a prep 1 (of place, time): 'v-
be-spoke /bi'spsuk/ adj (of London and Oxford: the two~
clothes) made to order. world wars. 2 (of distance,
best /best/ adj of the most excel- amount, etc); ~ five and six
lent kind: the '^ {= quickest) miles. 3 to and from: This liner
way to Paris. O good, better, n sails ~ Southampton and New
adv in the most excellent jw^^ York. 4 (to show sharing; of two
He works -^ in the mornirfg. O only): Divide the money ~ you.
well, better, a pron the out- bevel /'bevi/ n [C] sloping edge,
standing person, thing, etc: the a vt (-II-, US = -I-) give a slop-
'^ of friends. All the '^! (used ing edge to."
when parting) With warmest bev-er-age /'bevsnds/ n [C] any
wishes! at its ^, in the best sort of drink except water.
condition, do one's ^, make bevy /'bevi/ n [C] (pi -ies) group
the greatest possible effort. (of women, birds).
make the -^ of a bad job. do be-ware /bi'we3(r)/ vt/i take
what one can, in spite of mis- cdxe: B-^ of the dog!
fortune, etc. ^'^^ 'man, bride- be-wil-der /bi'wild9(r)/ vt con-
groom's friend,supporting him fuse: She was '^edby the crowds.
at his wedding. ,<>^-iseiler, '>-ing adj.
book that is sold in very large be-witch /bi'witj/ vt 1 work
numbers. magic on. 2 charm. '>^ing adj
bes-tial /'bestial/ adi cruel; sav- be-yond^ /bi'jond/ adv farther
age. -^ity /-'£ebti//j[U] on: India and the lands '^. a prep
be-stow /bi'stau/ }}t give as an 1 at, on or to, the farther side of:
offering: '^ an honour on him. The house is ~ the bridge. 2 ex-
bet /bet/ v/// (pt.pp or -x.ted) ^ ceeding: ~ repair/expectations.
(-tt-) 1 risk money on a race, It's quite me, 'v. is more than I
doubtful event, etc. 2 {informal) can understand. ^ a Joke, no
be certain: / ^
/ win. a n [C] ag- longer amusing.
reement to risk money, etc on a bi- /,bai/ prefix 1 happening
future event; the money, etc of- twice (in one period): bi-
fered: make a ^,- win/lose a '^. monthly. 2 lasting for two, hap-

33 bias/bind

pening every two: bicentennial. 3- two wives or husbands living.

having two: bilingual. 'big-am-ist, person guilty of
bias /'bai9s/ n [C] (pi '^es) pre- bigamy, big-am-ous adj
judice, inclination: He has a bigot /'bigat/ n [C] person who
strong '^ against the plan, is will not change an opinion in
opposed to it. a vt (pt.pp spile of reason, -^ed adj intoler-
~(s)ed) influence (usually un- ant and narrow-minded.
fairly). bike /baik/ n, vi (informal abbr
bib /bib/ n [C] 1 piece of cloth for) bicycle; cycle.
tied under a child's chin. 2 top bi-kini /bi'ki:ni/ n [C] (pi ~s)
part of an apron. two-piece swimming-costume
BibJe /'baibl/ n sacred book of worn by women.
the Jewish and Christian reli- bi-lat-eral /ibai'laetsral/ adj with
gions, bib-li-cai /'biblikl/ adj two sides: a ~ agreement.
bib-li-ography n
/ibibli'ografi/ bile /bail/ n [U] liquid produced
[C] {pi -ies) of books and
list by the liver.
writings of one author or about bilge /bilds/ n [U] 1 ship's bot-
one subject, bib-li-ogra-pher, tom; (also ^^-water) the dirty
person who writes or studies water that collects here. 2 (si)
bibliographies. fooUsh talk.
bi-cen-ten-ary /,bai,sen'ti:n3ri/ bi-lin-gual /,bai'lii]gwdl/ adj 1
n [C](/>/-ies) (celebration of the) speaking two languages. 2 writ-
200th anniversary of an event. ten in two languages.
bi'Ceii'ten-nial /,bai,sen'tenidl/ bil-ious /'bilias/ adj feeling sick.
adj of a 200th anniversary: ^^ biir/bil/n[C}beakofabird.
celebrations, a n [C] 200th an- bilP /bi:l/ n [C] 1 written state-
niversary. ment of charges for goods or
bi-ceps /'baiseps/ n [C] (pi un- services. 2 poster; printed not-
changed) large muscle in the up- ice. 3 (legal) proposed law, to be
fjerarm discussed by a parliament. 4
bicker /'bik3(r)/ vi argue about (US) banknote. 5 certificate, d
small things. vt 1 announce in a programme.
bi-cycle /'baisikl/ n [C] two- 2'^sb for sth. send a bill(1
wheeled machine driven by pe- to.
dals, a v/ (usually cycle) ride a bii-let/'bilit/ n [C] private house
bicycle. where soldiers are lodged, a vt
bid' /bid/ n [C] 1 (at an auction place (troops) in billets.
sale) ofTer of a price. 2 make a bil-liards /'biliadz/ n [U] game
'>^ for. try to obtain (by offering played with balls and long sticks
something), a vr// {j}t,pp '^) (- on a table.
dd-) (at an auction sale) make bil-lion /'bihan/ n [C] 1 (GB) mil-
an offer of money, ^ding n [U] lion millions. 2 (US) thousand
act of offering a price at an auc- millions.
tion sale. bil-low /'bibo/ 1 n [C] (fig) any-
vtji (pt bade /baed/, pp
bid^ /bid/ thing that sweeps along like a
/'bidn/ or 'v/) (old t4se) 1
'^..'den great wave (eg fog, smoke), a vi
command. 2 say: '^ him good roll like waves, bill-owy adj.
morning. billy-goat /'bih gaut/ n [C] male
bi-en-nial /bai'enial/ adj lasting goat.
for two years; happening every bin /bin/ n [C] large container for
alternate year. storing bread, coal, etc: a
bier /bi3(r)/ n [C] movable *dust'^. for rubbish, etc.
wooden stand for a coffm. bi-nary /'bamari/ adj involving a
bi-focal /ibai'faukl/ (of spec-
flfi(/' pair: the -<- scale/system, with
tacles) designed for both distant only two digits, and 1
and near vision, bi-focals n pt bind /baind/ vt/i (pt.pp bound
spectacles with bifocal lenses. /baund/) 1 tie with rope. 2 (fig)
big /big/ adj (-ger, -gest) (oppo- link closely:bound by friendship.
site = little; C> large, small) of 3 wind something round: -^upa
large size, importance, etc: ^ wound. 4 fasten (sheets of paper)
feet: a ^
day. ''-v/head, (infor- into a cover: a book bound in
mal) conceited person, '--^wig, leather. 5 make (a person) obey
i"iportant person.
(si) or promise, law, etc: ^ him to
big-aniy /'bigami/ n [U] having secrecy, '^er, person or thing
bingo/black 34

that binds(4). '^ery. place dog 2 (informal) spiteful

where books are bound, '^ing. woman.
book cover. bite^ /bait/ n 1 [C] act of biting. 2
bingo /'biqgau/ n lUJ popular [C] injury from a bite. 3 [C] piece
gambling game. cut off by biting. 4 [C] catching
bin-ocu-lars /bi'nDkjolaz/ n pi ofa fish on a hook.
(also a pair of ~) instrument bite^ /bait/ vt/i (pt bit /bit/, pp
with lenses for both eyes, mak- bitten /'bitn/), 1 cut into with
ing distant objects seem nearer. the teeth, 'v, off more than
bio-chemis-try /,bai3u'kem- one can chew, attempt too
istn/ n [U] chemistry of Uving much. 2 (of insects, etc) sting;
things, bio-chem-ist n [C] (of fish) accept the bait. 3 cause
bi-ogra-phy /bai'ografi/ n 1 [C] pain to: His fingers were ^frost-
person's life-history written by bitten. 4 grip: The tyres did not
another. 2 [U] this branch of ~ on the icy road, bit-ing adj
literature, bi-ogra-pher n [C] sharp; cutting: a biting wind.
person who writes a biography. bit-ten /'bitn/ppof bite*.
bio-graphic(ai), /baieu- bit-ter /'bit9(r)/ adj 1 not sweet;
'graefik(l)/a^7 tasting sharp. 2 causing sorrow:
bi-ol-ogy /bai'Dl3d3i/ n [U] '>^ disappointments. 3 filled with

science of the life of animals and hate: ~ enemies. 4 very cold: a

plants, bi-ol-ogist n [U] expert ~ wind. D n [C,U] bitter beer: a
in biology. bio-logi-cal pint of 'V.. '>^ly adv: ^ly cold/
/,bai3'lDd3ikl/ai// disappointed, '-vness n [U]
bi-plane /'baiplem/ n [C] aircraft bitu-men /'bitjumsn/ n [U]
with two pairs of wings. black, sticky substance for mak-
birch /b3:tj/ n 1 [C] tree with a ing roads.
smooth bark and slender bran- biv-ouac /'bivuaek/ n [C], vi (pt.
ches. 2 [U] its wood. pp ~ked) (stay in a) temporary
bird /b3:d/ n [C] 1 feathered camp without tents.
creature with two wings, usually bi-zarre /bi'za:(r)/ adj very
able to fly. Ac/7/ two '^s with Strange.
one stone, achieve two aims at blab /blaeb/ vtji (-bb-) (st) tell (a
the same time. 2 (si) young girl. secret).
biro /'baiarau/ n [C] {pi 'v^s) (P) black /blaek/ adj (-ex, -est) 1
ballpoint pen. without light; opposite to white.
birth /b3:8/ n 1 [C,U] (process 2 great; extreme: ~
oQ being born, give '\^ to, pro- moods. 3 Negro, n « 1 [U] black
duce (a child).2 [U] origin: Rus- colour. 2 [C] Negro, a v/ 1 make
sian by r^. '/^-control, black. 2 declare that (work,
(method oQ preventing preg- materials) should not be done,
nancy, ''x/day, (anniversary of handled: The strikers '>^ed the
the) day of one's birth. cargo. ''>^berry, small black
bis-cuit /'biskit/ n [C] Hat, thin, berry, ''^bird, common Euro-
crisp cake. pean songbird. '^'^^board,
bi-sect /(bai'sekt/ vt divide into board used in schools for writ-
two. ing on. '^s^cur-rant, currant
bishop /'bijap/ n [C] 1 Christian with black fruit, j-v/ 'eye, bruise
clergyman of high rank. 2 chess around the eye. ''-^head, pim-
piece, '^ric, office, district, etc ple with a black top. |'>^ 'ice, in-
of a bishop. visible ice on a road, ''^^leg n [C]
bi-son /'baisn/ n [C] {pi unchang- person wlio offers to work when
ed) European wild ox; American others are on strike, d vt/i (-gg-)
buffalo. betray (fellow workers) by do-
bit^ /bit/ n [C] 1 part of a horse's ing this, '-^^list n [C] list of per-
bridle fitting in the mouth. 2 sons to be punished, a vt enter a
tool for drilling holes. person's name on such a list. I's^
bit^ /bit/ n [C] small peice: He ate 'magic, used for evil purposes.
every '^of(= all) His dinner. '^ ''>^mail vt, n [U] (force a person
by y. slowly; gradually, do to make a) payment of money
one's '^, one's share of work for not making known some-
nof a-*-, notatall. thing to harm his character.
bit /bit/ pt of bite^ Hence, ''>^mailer, person who
bitch /bitj/ n [C] 1 female does this. ,'>^ 'market, unlaw-
35 biacken/blind

ful buying and selling of goods of wind. 2 strong rush of air

that are officially controlled. from an explosion. 3 sound
''>-out n [C] (a) (during war- made by a wind-instrument, at
time) the keeping of all build- full '^. with all possible force, d
ings, streets, dark, (b) tempor- vt 1 blow up with explosives. 2
ary failure of the memory or destroy: His hopes were '^ed. 3
consciousness, (c) (darkness -^^ off. (of spacecraft, etc) be

caused by) putting out oi- all launched. ''>^-furnace, furnace

lights. D vtji cause a blackout; for melting iron ore.
lose one's memory, etc tempor- bla-tant /'bleitnt/ adj shameless;
arily. |'>^ 'sheep, person who too obvious: ~rudeness to one's
brings shame to his family. parents. '>^ly adv
'--wsmith, man who makes and blaze^ /bleiz/ n [C] 1 bright fire. 2
repairs things of iron. glow of colour: The tulips made
blacken /'blaekan/vr/ZI make or a~ of colour. 3 violent outburst:
become black. 2 say harmful in a '^ of anger.
things about (a person). blaze^ /bleiz/ vt/i 1 burn bright-
blad-der /'blaed3(r)/ n [C] 1 or- ly. 2 shine brightly: her eyes '^d.

gan in the body in which urine 3 show strong feeling: blazing

collects. 2 bag of rubber that can with anger, blaz-ing adj
be filled with air. blazer /'bleiz9(r)/ n [C] loose-
blade /bleid/ n [C] 1 sharp cut- fitting jacket (sometimes in the
ting part of a knife, razor, etc. 2 colours of a club, etc).
flat, wide part of an oar, propell- bleach /bli:tj/ n [U] chemical for
er, etc. 3 long, narrow leaf, esp removing colour (from material,
of grass. etc), a vt/i make or become
blame /bleim/ vt accuse a person white: bones '^ed by the sun.
of being responsible for some- bleak /bli:k/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (of
thing. D n [U] responsibility for the weather) cold and miserable;
failure, etc. '^^^less adj freefrom (of a place) bare; without shelt-
responsibility. --wworthy er. 2 (fig) depressing: the future
/'bleimwedi/ adj deserving looks ~. '>^ly adv
blame. bleary /ibha'ri:/ adj (of eyes)
blanc-mange /bb'mons/ n [U] tired and sore.
jelly made of milk. bleat /bli:t/ vt/i, n [C,U] (make
bland /blaend/ adj 1 gentle or the) cry of a sheep.
polite. 2 (of air, food) mild. '>^lv bleed /bli:d/ (pt.pp bled
adv. '>^x\ess n[\J] /bled/) 1 lose blood. 2 feel great
blank /blaeqk/ adj 1 (of paper) sorrow: Our hearts'^ for them.
with nothing written on it. 2 (of blem-ish /'blemij/ n [C,U] mark,
a document) with spaces in etc that spoils the beauty of
which details are to be filled in. 3 something; moral defect, a vt
empty; without expression: a ~ spoil the perfection of
look. My mind went '•^.un [C] 1 blend /blend/ vt/i mix together.
space to be filled (in a form, etc). a n [C] mixture made of various
2 emptiness. 3 cartridge without sorts (of tea, tobacco, etc).
a bullet, draw a '^. be unsuc- bless /bles/ vt (pt.pp ~ed
cessful. '^ cheque, signed but /blest/) 1 ask God's favour for.
with no amount stated. '^ 2 wish happiness. 3 make holy:
verse, without rhyme. '>^ly adv bread '^ed at the altar, '^ed
blan-ket /'blaegkit/ n [C] 1 wool- /'blesid/ adj (a) holy, (b) fortu-
len covering on beds. 2 (Jig) nate.
thick covering: a ~ of snow, a vt bless-ing /'blesig/ n [C] 1 the
cover: houses '^ed with snow. favour of God; prayer for God's
blare /ble3(r)/ n [U] sound or favour. 2 something that one is
noise (as of trumpets), a vt/i glad of: His help was a '^^.
make such sounds. blew/blu://>rofblow^.
bijas-p heme /blaes'fi:m/ v t/i blight /blait/ n 1 [U] disease of
speakln an irreverent way about plants. 2 [C] evil influence, d vt
God:~ blas-plreTWgr, person be a bad influence on; ruin.
who blasphemes, "btas-plifem- blind^ /blaind/ adj 1 unable to
ous /'blaesfamas/ adj. blas- see. 2 unable to judge: ~
to the
phemy /'blssfgim/ n [C,t^ faults of her children, turn a 'V/
blast / n [C] 1 sudden rush eye to. pretend not to see. 3

careless: ~ haste. 4 w ithout pur- ing or leaving, n vt make .i

pose: governed hy ^
forces. '>^ blockade of.
'alley, (a) narrow street with block-age 'blokids n [C] 1
no exit, (b) (Jig) profession with state of bemg blocked. 2 thini;
no opF>ortunity for progress. ,'>^ that blocks.
'drunk, very drunk. ''>^ spot, bloke bleuk rtlC](.v/)man.
(Jig)something one does not blond blond n [C], adj (man)
seem able to understand in spite having fair skin and hair.
of havmg information, -^lyadv. blonde blond n [C], adj
'>-ness/;[U] (woman who is) blond.
blind' l)lamd vt^ make blind. 2 blood bUd n [U] 1 red liquid
(Jig) take away the power of flowing throughout the body. 2
judgement: -^edhvlove. temper make one's -^^ boi/.
blind^ blamd n [C] 1 roll of make one very angry, (kill sb)
cloth pulled down to cover a in cold'^. when one is not feel-
window. 2 (Jig) something that ing angry. 3 family: of the same
deceives. ^. '-^ bank, O
bank'(2). ''>^-
blind-fold 'blamdfauld/ m bath, large-scale slaughter.
cover the eyes of (a person) with '"^-curdling adj producing
a bandage, a n [C] such a cover feelings of horror. ''>^-donor,
a a^ with the eyes bandaged. person who gives blood for
blink /blirjk/ v7/ shut and open transfusions. ''>^-group/
the eyes quickly, a n [C] act of type, class of human blood.
blinking. ''>^hound, large dog. '->- pres-
blink-ers 'bliijkaz/ n pi leather sure, force of the blood within
squares to prevent a horse from the arteries. ''>^shed, killing or
seeing to the side. wounding, ''^shot adj (of the
bliss blis n [U] perfect happi- eyes) red. '^-sports n pi out-
ness. '~f ul adj. ''>-f ully adv door sports in which animals or
blis-ter 'blist3(r) n [C] 1 swel- birds are killed. ''>^stream,
ling under the skin, filled with flow of blood in the body.
liquid. 2 swelling on the surface '-^^thirsty adj (-ier, -iest) tak-
of paint, etc. n v/// cause, get, a ing pleasure in killing. '~-
blister or blisters on. vessel, tube through which
blitz bhts n [C] rapid, violent blood fiows in the body. '>^less
attack (esp from the air), d vt at- adj without bloodshed: a -^less
tack in this way. victory ''^^less-ly adv
bliz-zard 'blizad' n [C] violent bloody 'b\\di! adj^ bleeding. 2
snowstorm. with much bloodshed: a ~ bat-
bloated 'bbutid/ adJ^ swollen: tle. 3 (vulgar) (to show emphas-
his -^ stomach. 2 (Jig): ^ with is): a ~ fool! a -^ genius! n adv
pride, very proud. (vulgar si) (to show emphasis):
blob /blob n [C] drop of liquid: too 'v, quick. ,'^-'minded, (si)
small round mass. unwilling to co-operate.
bloc /blok. n [C] group (eg of bloom blurm n 1 [C] fiower. 2
persons or states) with a special best time: in the full ->- of youth.
interest: the communist '-^. a vi 1 be in flower. 2 (Jig) be in
block^ /blok n [C] 1 large, solid full beauty.
piece of wood, stone, etc. 2 blos-som 'blosam/ n [C] flower,
group of buildings or apart- esp of a fruit-tree, d vi 1 open in-
ments: a ^ of flats. 3 number of to flowers. 2 develop: He '^ed
things taken together: a ^^ of out as a good athlete.
seats, (in a theatre); a of ^ blot /blot/ n [C] 1 mark caused
shares, (in a company). 4 ob- by ink spilt on pajjer. 2 fault: a
struction: a ~ in the pipe. O ^ on his character, a vt (-tt-) 1
road-block. ^'^ letters, capi- make a blot on. 2 dry up (wei
tal letters. ink) with blotting-paper. 3 ^
block' /blok/ vt 1 obstruct: out, hide: The mist '^tedout tin
roads '^ed by snow. 2 make (ac- view. 'X/ter, pad of blotting-
tion) impossible: ~
the enemy's paper. ''>^ting-paper, absor-
plans. bent pap>er to dry up wet ink.
block-ade /blo'keid/ n [C] the blotch /blotj/ n [C] large mark
surrounding of a place to (eg on the skin).
prevent goods or people enter- blouse /blauz/ n [C] garment
37 blow/ board

like a shirt, worn by women. a steep face, a adj 1 (of head-

blow^ /bbu/ n [C] 1 hard stroke lands) with a steep front. 2 (of a
(given with the hand, etc). person) rough but honest.
come to 'v.s. fight. 2 shock: ^nessn[U]
His wife 's death was a great -^ bluffs /bUf/ vt/i deceive by
blow^ /bbu/ vt/i ipt blew /blu:/; pretending to be stronger, etc
pp '^n /bbun/) 1 (of the wind), than one is. a n [U] deception of
flow. 2 (of the wind) cause to this kind, caf/ sb's '^. invite
move: The wind blew my hat off. him to carry out his threats.
3 send a strong current of air: -^ blun-der /'blAnd9(r)/ vt|i^ move
one's nose j a whistle. 4 produce about uncertainly, as if blind. 2
sound from (a trumpet, etc). 5 make foolish mistakes, n n [C]
(of a fuse) melt because the elec- careless mistake.
tric current is too strong. 6 {si) blunt /bUnt/ adj (-ex. -est) 1
spend (money) recklessly. 7 '^ without a point or sharp edge. 2
(sth) out. (be) put out by (of a person) not trying to be
blowing: ~ out a candle, 'v- polite, a vt make blunt, -"v^ly adv
one's brains out. kill oneself frankly, ^ness n [U]
by shooting in the head. '^ blu r /bl3:(r)/ n [C] something that
over, pass by: The storm will cannot be seen clearly: If you see
soon '^ over. '^ up. (a) explode: only a '^. you need glasses, a vt/i
The gunpowder New up. (b) lose (-rr-) make or become unclear:
one's temper. ^
sth up. (a) Tears '^redher eyes.
destroy by explosion, (b) in- blurb ,'bl3:b/ n [C] short descrip-
flate: '^ up a tyre, (c) enlarge tion of the contents of a book.
greatly: '^ up a photograph. blurt /bl3:t/ vt ^ sth out. tell,

''>>'lanrip/torch, for directing a eg a secret, suddenly, often

flame on to a surface. ''>^out, thoughtlessly.
(a) sudden escape of air, etc; blush /bUJ/ vi 1 become red (in
(esp)bursting of a tyre, (b) the face). 2 be ashamed, a n [C]
blowing out of an electric fuse. reddening of the face, eg from
''vz-up, greatly enlarged photo- shame.
graph. blus-ter /'blASt3(r)/ vt/i^ (of the
blow^ /bbu/ n [C] blowing: Give wind, etc) be rough or violent. 2
your nose a good ~ (of persons) speak in a loud,
blower /'bbu3(r)/ n [C] 1 appa- boastful way. d n [U] 1 noise of
ratus for forcing air, etc into violent wind. 2 forceful, noisy
something. 2 person who mak( talk, blus-tery adj (of the
things by blowing: a ^glass-^. weather) rough and windy.
blown /bbun//?/7of blow^. boa /'bsua/ n [C] (also ''>^-

blub-ber /'blAb3(r)/ n [U] fat of constrictor) large S. Ameri-

whales. can snake that crushes animals

bludgeon /'bUdsan/ n [C] short, to death.
thick stick, a vt ^ strike with a boar /bo:(r)/ n [C] 1 male pig. 2
stick. 2 (fig) force somebody to wild pig.
do something. board' /bo:d/ n [C] 1 long, fiat
blue^ /blu:/ adj (-r, -st) coloured piece of wood used in floors, etc.
like the sky on a clear day. o/ice 2 fiat piece of wood for a special
//I a -^^ moo/i, rarely, purpose: a 'notice"^. 3 by go
blue^ n 1 blue colour. 2
/blu:/ the 'v/, fail; be abandoned, be/
out of the ^, unexpectedly. 3 go on '^. be/go on a ship or air-
1 the -^^s, (a) slow sad music liner, above '^. honest; legal. 4
I from the southern US. (b) (in- group of persons controlling a
formal) sadness. ,'>^ 'blooded business: the B'^ of Directors. 5
adJ of aristocratic birth. [U] meals (eg at a lodging-
'-^bottle, meat fly. ,'>^-'collar house): B-^ and lodging.
adj of workers in factories. |'>^ board^ /bD:d/ vt/i 1 cover with
'film, obscene film, '--^^print, boards(l): -^ up a window. 2
(a) photographic print, usually get, supply with, meals. 3 get on
for building plans, (b) (fig) or into (a ship, train, bus, etc).
plan. ''>^-stock-ing, woman '^er, (a) person who boards
regarded as intellectual, blu-ish with somebody. c> 2 above, (b)
/'blu:ij/ at//' ofa blue colour. schoolboy or girl at a boarding-
bluffs /blAf/ n [C] headland with school, -^^ing, (a) structure of
boast/ bomb

boards(1 ). (b) the providing or adj (-ier, -lest) (of land) soft and
receiving of board(5). '-^^ing- wet.
card, pass for getting on an air- bo-gey /'baugi' = bogy
liner or ship. ''>^ing-house, boggle /'bogl/ vi refuse to be-
private house that provides lieve: The mind'^s {at the idea).
board and lodging, ''v/ing bo-gus /'baugas/ adj nol real.
school, one at which pupils bogy, bo-gey /'baugi/ n [C] (pi
live. -ies, ~s) evil spirit; cause of
boast /bsust/ n [C] words used in fear.
praise of oneself; cause for boir /boil/ n [C] red, poisoned
pride, a vt/i 1 make a boast. 2 swelling under the skin.
possess with pride: Our school boil* /bail/ n [U] boiling point.
^s a fine swimming-pool, ''^ful be on the 'v., be boiling.
/-fol/ adj (of persons) fond of boiP/bail, V7//1 (of water) reach
boasting, ''^f ully adv the temperature where it

boat /baut/ n [C] small open ves- changes into gas: When water
sel for travelling on water: '^•^s it changes into steam. The
'rowing-'\.. be (all) in the kettle is '^ing. 2 (of the sea, feel-
same '^. have the same dan- ings, etc) be very disturbed. 3
gers to face. D \i travel in a boat, cause water to boil; cook in boil-
esp for pleasure. ''>^-house, ing water: '^ an egg. 4 '^
shed in which boats are stored. aw/ayldry. boil until nothing
''>^-train, train that takes remains. -^ down to. be a
people to or from a boat. question of: All this '^s down to
boat-swain "bausan/ n [C] is another delay for us. '^ over.
senior seaman in charge of a flow over the side, ''-wing-
ship's rigging, boats, etc. point, (a) temperature at
bob^ /bob/ VI (-bb-) move up which a liquid boils, (b) (Jig)
and down: A cork '^bing on the height of anger, etc.
water, a n [C] quick up and boiler /'bDila(r)/ n [C] metal con-
down movement; curtsy. tainer in which water, etc is heat-
bob^ /bob/ vt (-bb-) cut (a ed, '-"vz-suit, overalls.
woman's hair) short. bois-ter-ous /'baistaras/ adj (of
bob-bin /'bobm/ n [C] small roll- a person) noisy and cheerful.
er forholding thread, etc in a bold /bauld/ adj (-er, -est) 1
machine. without fear. 2 without shame.
bobsleigh, bobsled /'bob- 3 well marked; clear: a -^ out-
slei, -sled/ n [C] racing sleigh, d adv. '-^^ness n [U]
line, "s^ly
vi ride in a bobsleigh. bol-lard /'bolad/ n [C] 1 post on
bode /iDsud/ v/ / ^ well/ ill for, a quay or a ship's deck for mak-
be a good /bad sign of. ing ropes secure. 2 post on a
bod -ice /'bodis/ n [C] close- traffic island.
fitting part of a woman's dress bol-ster^ /'baulsta(r)/ n [C] long
from the shoulders to the waist. pillow.
bod-ily /'bodah/ adj of the hu- bol-ster* /'baulsta(r)/ vr support
man body. D adv 1 as a whole: (a theory cause, etc).
transported'^. 2 in person. bolt^ /bault/ n [C] 1 metal fasten-
body /'bodi/ n [C] {pi -ies) 1 ing for a door or window. 2
physical structure of a man or large metal screw used with a
animal. 2 corpse. 3 body of a nut for holding things together.
man or animal without the 3 flash of lightning. O
head, arms and legs. 4 main part bolt. D vt/i fasten with a bolt.
of a structure: the '^ of a car. 5 bolt* /bault/ vt/i 1 (esp of a
group of persons who do some- horse) run away quickly. 2 swal-
thing together, in a '>^. all low (food) quickly, a n [C] act of
together. 6 mass: A lake is a-^of running away: make a -^for it.
water, ''^guard, man or men bolt^ /bault/ adv (only in) '^ up-
guarding an important person. right, completely upright.
•'>^work, main part, material, bomb /bom/ n [C] metal shell
of (esp) a motor- vehicle. filled with f'xplosive or gas, etc.
bog /bog/ n [C] (area oQ wet, soft a vt/i attack with bombs, '^er,
ground, a vtji (-gg-) -^ down. (a) aircraft used for bombing.
(cause to) be stuck fast: The car (b) soldier trained in bombing.
was '^ged down in the mud. '>-gy ''^sheil, (Jig) great shock: His

39 bombard /booze
death was a real '^shell to us. which books, etc are sold. ''>^

bom-bard /bom'baid/ vt 1 at- token, receipt to be exchanged

tack with shells from big guns. 2 for a bock at the value stated.
(fig) worry with many ques- '-^^worm, (a) small maggot
tions, etc. '>^ment n [C,U] that eats holes in books, (b)
bond /bond/ n [C] 1 written ag- person who is fond of reading.
reement that has force in law. 2 book^ /buk/ vt 1 write down
(usually fig) something that (orders, etc). 2 (of the police) re-
joins: the ~(5) of affection. 3 cord a charge against (a person):
printed paper promising to pay be '^edfor speeding. 3 order, eg
back money. tickets, in advance, '^able
bond-age /'bDndid3/ n [U] /-abl/ adj (of seats, etc) that can
slavery. be reserved. ''>^ing clerk, per-
bone /baun/ n [C] part of the son who sells tickets, eg at a rail-
skeleton of an animal's body. way station. ''>^ing office of-
fee/ in one's '^s that, feel fice where tickets are sold.
certain that, have a to pick
'^v^ bookie /'buki/ n [C] (informal)
with sb, have something to = bookmaker.
complain about, make no ,'>^s book-let /'bukbt/ n [C] pamph-
a^bout doing sth, not hesitate let; thin book.
to do it. a vt take bones out of (a boom^ /burm/ n [C] 1 pole to
chicken, etc). |'>^ 'dry adj com- keep the bottom of a sail
pletely dry. ("^^-'idle adj very stretched out. 2 heavy chain or
lazy. row of logs across a river or har-
bon-fire /'bDnfai3(r)/ n [C] large bour entrance.
fire in a garden, etc. boom^/bu:m/ vr//1 (of big guns,
bon-net /'bonit/ n [C] 1 woman's etc) make deep, hollow sounds.
hat, usually tied with ribbons. 2 '^ out, say in a loud deep
{GB) cover over the engine of a voice, a n [C] deep, hollow
motor- vehicle (CS = hood). sound.
bonny /'bom/ adj (-ier, -iest) boom^ /bu:m/ n [C] sudden in-
healthy looking. crease in trade activity, n v/ have
bo-nus /'baunss/ n [C] {pi '^es) a boom: sales are -^ing.
payment in addition to what is boom-er-ang /'burmaraeg/ n [C]
usual. curved wooden stick (used by
bony /'bauni/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 Australian Aborigines), which
fullof bones: a '^ fish. 2 having returns to the thrower.
prominent bones: '^fingers. boor /bu3(r)/ n [C] ill-mannered
boo /bu:/ int sound to show dis- person, --^ish.
approval. D vtji make such boost /burst/ vt increase (the
sounds. value, performance oO: -^ sales.
booby /'bu:bi/ n [C] stupid per- D n [C] act of boosting.
son. ''>^ prize, prize given to the boo-ster /'bu:st3(r)/ n [C] 1
person who comes last. ''>^- thing that boosts. 2 additional
trap, apparently harmless ob- dose of vaccine.
ject that will kill or injure when boot /bu:t/ n [C] 1 covering for
interfered with. the foot and ankle, made of
book^ /buk/ n [C] 1 number of leather or rubber, give sb the
printed sheets of paper fastened '^, (si) dismiss him from his job.
together in a cover. 2 main divi- put the -^ in, (sf) kick a per-
sion of the Bible. 3 packet of son. 2 (GB) place for luggage in
similar items fastened together, a motor-car (US = trunk), a vt
eg matches. 4 {pt) business ac- kick; dismiss, (a person).
counts, be in sb's good '^s, booth /bu:d/ n [C] 1 covered
have his favour or approval. stall, esp one where goods are
''>-case, piece of furniture with sold. 2 small compartment:
shelves for books. ''>^keeper, telephone /polling booth.
persoa who keeps accounts. booze /bu:z/ n [U] (informal) 1
'o^-keep-ing, keeping (busi- alcoholic drink. 2 period of
ness) accounts. ''>^maker, per- drinking, n vi drink (too much)
son who on horse-
takes bets alcoholic drink: go boozing.
races, etc. ''^mark(er), some- boozer n [C] (GB si) (a) person
thing put in a book to mark the who often has (too much) alco-
place, ''^stali, kiosk, etc at holic drink, (b) pub.
border/bout 40

border 'bD;d3<r) n [C] 1 (pari bottles. 2 '^ up. ijig) hold in, eg
near the) edge. 2 line between anger, i-^^-'green adj dark
two countries. 3 flowerbed in a green. ''>^-neck, (a) road
garden, a vt /I be an edge to. 2 where traffic is held up. (b) part
'w on/upon, (a) be next to. of a manufacturing process, etc
(b) be almost the same as: The where production is slowed
proposal ~5 on the absurd. down.
''Valine, line that marks
boun- a bot-tom /'botam n |CJ 1 lowest
dary, a ^'^line ^case. one that part of anything. 2 part farthest
is doubtful. from the front: at the -^ of the
bore^ bD:(r)/ vi!i make a round
garden. 3 bed of the sea, etc. 4
deep hole with a tool, a n [C] 1 (informal) part of the body on
(also ^'^•hole) hole made by bor- which a person sits, get to the
ing. 2 mside of a gun barrel; its '^ of sth. find out how it be-
diameter. gan. '>-lessa^y very deep.
bore^ /bD:(r)/ vt make (a person) bough 'bau n [C] large branch
feel tired by beingd n [C]
dull, of a tree.
person who bores, bor-ing adj. bought bo-.tprppof buy.
'>^dom n [U] state of being boul-der "bauldanfr)/ n [C] large
bored. rock.
bore^ ihy.{r)j pt of bear^. bounce /bauns,' vtli^ (of a ball,
born /born/ pp of bear^ 1 be '^. etc) (cause to) move or come
come into the world by birth. 2 back when sent against some-
destined to be: He was '^ a poet. thing hard: The ball -^d over the
borne lbo:n, pp of bear^ except wall. 2 (cause to) move up and
of birth; O
bear2(6). down violently; rush: -^ on a
borough /'bAra, n [C] (in En- bed. He ^d into the room. 3 (in-
gland) town that sends members formal) (of-a cheque) be return-
to Parliament and governs itself. ed by a bank because there is no
bor-row /'borau, vt;i get some- money in the account, a n [C] (of
thing on the understanding that a ball) act of bouncing.
it is to be returned. lend. O bounc-ing 'baunsir}' adj big
^er, person who borrows. and strong; healthy.
bor-stal /'bD:stl/ n [C] place bound^ /baund/ vt jump; move
where young criminals live and or run in jumping movements, d
receive training. n [C] jumping movement.
bosom /'buzam' n [C] 1 (old use) bound^ /baond/ pp of bind '>^

person's breast. 2 place where to. certain: -^ to win. -^ up in.

one feels joy or sorrow: a '>- very busy with.
/r/f/ii/, a good friend. bound -a ry /'baondri n [C] (pi
boss /bos/ n [C] (sf) person who -ies) line that marks a limit.
controls or gives orders, a vt bound-less 'baundlis/ adj
give orders to. bossy adj (-ier, without limits. '>^ly adv
-lest) fond of giving orders. bounds baundz/ n pi limit, out
boss-eyed /'bos aeid/ adj (sf) of '^, outside areas that one is
blind in one eyed; cross-eyed. allowed to enter.
bot-any /'botani n [U] science of boun-ti-ful ''bauntin/a<^' abun-
the structure of plants, botan- dant: a '^harvest.
ical /ba'taenikl' adj. bot-an-ist bounty /'baunti/ n (pi -ies) 1 [U]
/J [C] expert in botany.
generosity. 2 [C] something
botch /botj vt repair badly, a n given out of kindness (esp to the
[C] piece of badly done work. poor). 3 [C] reward offered to
both /bauG/ adj. pron (of two encourage something.
things, persons, etc) the two: '^ bou-quet bo'kei/ n\C] 1 bunch
books: ^~
are good. of fiowers. 2 perfume of wine.
bother /'bDd3(r)/
vtji 1 cause bour-geois ^bosyf^ a: n[C].ddj
trouble Don't -v, me
to; disturb: (person) of the middle class that
when I'm
working. 2 take owns property or engages in
trouble: Don 't ^
to stand up. a n trade, ' 'bu33wa:'ziV n [U]
[U] (cause oO worry, trouble. the '>' ie, bourgeois(l) per-
''>^some adj troublesome. sons.
bottle /'botl, n [C] container bout baut/ n [C] period of exer-
with a narrow neck, for liquids; cise, work or illness: a ^wrestling
its contents, a vt ^ put into '^i a ^ of influenza.
41 boutique/brain

boutique bu:'ti:k/ n [C] small Box-ing Day /'boksir) dei/ n day

shop eg clothes.
selling after Christmas Day.
bow^ /bsu/ n[C]1 piece of wood boy iboi; n [C] male child.
curved by a tight string, used for '^friend, male friend of a girl.
shooting arrows. 2 rod of wood '-^^hood, time when one is a
with horse-hair stretched from boy. 'y^ish adj like a hoy.
end to end, used for playing the boy-cott /'b^ikot/ vt refuse to
violin, cello, etc. 3 curve; rain- trade with (a person, country,
bow. 4 knot made with loops, d etc); refuse to handle (goods,
vt play (a violin, etc) with a bow. etc). D n [C] treatment of this
I'-w legged adj with the legs
< kind.
curved outwards at the knees. bra /bra:/ n [C] (informal) (abbr
1-^ 'tie, one made into a bow. oO brassiere.
bow^ /bau/ vtji 1 bend (the head brace^ /breis/ n [C] 1 thing used
or body): ~
to the king. 2 bend: to grip or support. 2 revolving
The branches ^ed down with tool for holding another tool. 3
snow. 3 submit: / ~
to your auth- (GB) (pi) straps passing over the
ority. D n [C] bending of the head shoulders to keep trousers up, 4
or body (in greeting, etc). (often pi) wires fastened to the
bow^ /bau/ n [C] (often pi) front teeth to make them straight.
of a boat. brace^ breis vti 1 support. 2
bowel /'bau^l/ n 1 [C] (usually steady oneself.
pf) intestine. 2 (pf) central part: brace-let /'breisht/ n [C] orna-
the '^s of the earth. ment for the wrist.
bowr baul/ n [C] 1 deep, round brac-ing 'breisir)/ adj stimulat-
dish.2 contents of such a dish. 3 ing: ~ sea air.
thing shaped like a bowl. bracken /'braekan/ n [U] large
bowP /baul' n 1 [C] heavy fern.
wooden ball. 2 {pf) game played bracket n [C] 1 wood
with these balls, a vtii 1 send a or metal support for a shelf, etc.
ball to the batsman in cricket. 2 2 either of the two symbols {
-^^ (sb) over, (a) knock down, used in writing. 3 classification:
(b) overcome: '^ed over by the an Hncome ~. n v/ put inside
3 play bowls.
AJCH'5. brackets; put together.
bowler^ /'b3ob(r)/ n [C] 1 per- brack-ish 'braekij"/ adj (of wat-
son who bowls in cricket. 2 per- er) slightly salty.
son who plays bowls^(2) brag /brasg/ vi (-gg-) boast.
bowleH /'b3ul9(r)/ n [C] (also (-^ brag-gart /'braegat/ n [C] person
^hat) hard, rounded, usually who brags.
black hat. Brah-min /'bra:mm/ n member
bow win-dow /,b3u 'wmdau/ n of the highest Hindu priestly
[C] curved window. caste.
box^ /boks/ n [C] 1 container, braid /breid/ n 1 [C] hair woven
usually with a lid, made of together. 2 [U] silk, linen, etc
wood, etc for holding solids: a ~ woven into a band, for edging
of matches. 2 separate compart- cloth. D vt make into braids.
ment, with seats, in a theatre, braille /breil/ n [U] system of
etc. 3 compartment in a law writing and reading for blind
court: a ^fury-'^. o vt put into a people.
box. ''^-number, {PO Bo.x brain /brein/ n [C] 1 {sing) (in
No.) number used in a news- man and animals) grey matter in
paper advertisement as an ad- the head. 2 mind; intellect: have
dress to which letters may be a good '^. have sth on the '^,
sent. ''>^-office, office for think constantly about it. 3 [C]
booking seats in a cinema, etc. clever person, n vt kill by a
box^ /boks/ vtIi fight with the heavy blow on the head. ''>^-
with thick gloves, for sport,
fists, child, original idea. ''>^ drain,
a n [C] blow with the open hand movement of trained personnel
(on the ear). out of a country. ''>^-storm,
boxer /'bDks9(r)/ n [C] 1 person mental upset, ''^/-wash, force a
who boxes. 2 breed of bulldog. person to change his beliefs by
box-ing /'boksir)/ n [U] sport of use of extreme mental pressure.
fighting with the fists, wearing ''>--wave, (informal) sudden in-
padded gloves: '^glove/match. spiration, '^iess adj stupid.

braise /break

brainy adj (-ier, -iest) intel- vi make this sound.

ligent. brazen 'breizn/ adj 1 made ot
braise /breiz/ v/ cook (meat) brass; like brass. 2 shameless: a
slowly in a covered pot. '^ woman.
brake /breik/ n [C] device for re- braz-ier /'breiziD(r)/ « [C] metal
ducing speed or stopping eg a framework for holding burning
bicycle, motor-vehicle, etc. a vtji coal.
use the brake. breach /bri:tj/ n [C] 1 breaking
bramble /'brambl/ n [C,U] or neglect (of a rule, duty, etc): a
rough shrub with prickly ~ of the peace, fighting in a pub-
shoots; blackberry bush. lic place. 2 gap. hole (in a wall.

bran braen/ n [U] outer covering etc). D v7 make a gap in.

of gram (wheat, etc). bread /bred/ n [U] 1 food made
branch /bra:ntj/ n [C] 1 part of a of flour baked in an oven: a
tree growing out from the trunk. loaf 'slice of '^. 2 (si) money, on
2 division of a road, railway, etc. the '^line, very poor. ''>^win-
3 division of a family, organiza- ner, person who works to sup-
tion, etc: a -^^ office, a vi divide port a family.
into branches. ^
out. (of a breadth /'bretG/ n O broadM2)
business firm, etc) expand in a measure from side to side.
new direction. break^ /breik/ n 1 [C] breaking;
brand /braend/ n [C] 1 trade- broken place. 2 [U] ~
of day (
mark; goods with such a mark. 2 day^), dawn. 3 interval: for ~
(also red-hot iron
''^ing-iron), lunch. 4 ( = ~o«/) (attempt to)
for burning a design into a sur- escape (esp from prison), make
face; mark made in this way. d vi a ^for it. (try to) escape. 5 (in-
1 mark (cattle, etc) with a formal) lucky change.
branding-iron. 2 give (a person) break^ /breik/ v/// (pt broke
a bad name: '^cf^ as a thief. ,'>-- /brauk/, pp broken /'braokan)
'new a J/ completely new. 1 (of a whole thing) (cause to) go
bran-dish /'braendij/ v/ wave into separate parts as the result
about: '^ing a pistol/sword. of force or a blow: The boy fell
brandy /'braendi/ n [C,U] (/?/ and broke his leg. 2 (cause to) be
-ies) alcoholic drink distilled separate because of force or
from wine. strain: He broke a branch from
brash /braej/ adj (informaf) self- the tree. 3 make useless; da-
confident; cheeky. mage: 'v. a clock. 4 'N^ even.
brass /bra:s/ n 1 [U] bright yel- make neither a profit nor a loss.
low metal. 2 [U] or (pf) thing(s) 5 (with various subjects): The
made of brass. 3 the ->-, musical storm broke, began. The fine
instruments made of brass. 4 [U] weather broke, ended. C> day-
(GB sf) money, .top ''^. (infor- break. 6 (with various objects):
mat) senior officials. I'v. 'band^ ~ new ground, (fig) make new
group of musicians with brass discoveries; ~
a person 's heart.
instruments. make him very sad; ~ the news.
brassiere, brass-iere make it known; ~ a ( World, etc)
/'braesi9(r)/n [C] (shortened to record, better than it. 7 disci-
bra) woman's garment to sup- pline: ~
a horse (in). 8 destroy:
port the breasts. ~ a person 's spirit/resistance. 9
brat /braet/ n [C] (badly behaved) not keep; infringe: ~
the law; ~
child. one's word/a promise. 10 inter-
bra-vado /bra'vardau/ n (/?/~es, rupt: '^ (the) silence; ~ one's
~s) [C,UJ display of boldness. journey. ^^ '^ away (from),
brave /breiv/ adj (-r, -st) 1 ready (a) go away suddenly, (b) give
to meet danger or suffering. 2 up (habits, belieQ- -^ down.
needing courage: a -^ act. a vt (a) collapse: Talks have broken
meet without showing fear: -^ down, (b) stop working: The car
great dangers, "^^ly adv. '>^ry broke down, (c) be overcome by
/'breiv3n/«[U] courage. emotion. ^
sth down, (a)
bravo /,bra:'v3u/ int. n [C] (pi destroy: ~
down resistance, (b)
~es, ~s) Well done! analyse, classify: ~
down expen-
brawl /broil/ n [C] noisy quarrel. diture. '>^ in. enter a building by
D quarrel noisily.
force. Hence, •'^-in n. '^ in
bray /brei/ n [C] cry of an ass. n on/upon, interrupt. '>^ into.

43 breakable/bride

(a) force one's way into (a (b) unstirred by wind. '>^less-

building, etc), (b) begin sudden- \y adv. ''>^takinga^' amazing.
ly: '^ into song/a run. '^ off, (a) breath-alys-er /'bre99laiz3(r)/ n
stop speaking, (b) pause. ->- [C] device to test the alcoholic
(sth) off. (a) (cause to) separ- content of a person's breath.
ate: The mast broke off. (b) end breathe /bri:5/ vtji 1 take air in-
abruptly: ^
off diplomatic rela- to the lungs and send it out
tions. '^ out. (of fire, disease, again. 2 say quietly; whisper.
violence) start, suddenly. C> breather, short pause for rest.
outbreak. '^ out (of), escape. bred /bred//7/.p/7 of breed.
Hence, ''>^out n. '^ out in. be- breech /bri:tj/ n [C] back part of
come covered with: -^ out in a gun barrel, where the cartridge
spots, 'y^ through, make a way or shell is placed.
through (obstacles, etc). O breed /bri:d/ vtii {pt.pp bred
breakthrough. '>^ up, (a) come /bred/) 1 keep (animals, etc) for
to pieces, (b) {fig) (of persons) the purpose of producing
mentally collapse, (c) (of a young: ->- horses/cattle. 2 give
school, etc) close for holidays, birth to young. 3 educate, bring
(d) (of a relationship) come to up: a well-bred boy. 4 be the
an end. '^ sth up, (a) smash. cause of: Dirt ~5 disease, a n [C]
(b) (cause to) divide: up a ^ 1 variety; type (of animals, etc).
piece of work, (c) bring to an 2 sort; type: a new ~of manager.
end: the police broke up a meet- '^er, person who breeds ani-
ing: "^ an alliance. Hence, ''>^- mals, -^ing n [U] (a) (in verbal
up n end of a marriage, etc. senses): the '^ing of horses, (b)
break-able /'breikabl/ ac^' easily good manners; education: a man
broken. ofgood^ing.
break-age /'breikids/ n [C] 1 act breeze /briiz/ n [C,U] a gentle
of breaking. 2 something that wind. D vi '^^ in/out, (informal)
has been broken. come in/go out quickly, breez-
break-down /'breikdaun/ n [C] ily adv. breezy adJ (a)
1 failure in machinery. 2 col- pleasantly windy, (b) (of per-
lapse of talks, health, etc: a ^ner- sons) lively.
vous ''^. 3 analysis of statistics: a breth-ren /'bredran/ n pi (old
~ of expenses. use) brothers.
breaker /'breik3(r)/ n [C] 1 large brev-ity /'brevati/ n [U] short-
wave breaking into foam. 2 per- ness (of human life, etc).
son or thing that breaks some- brew /bru:/ vt/i 1 prepare (beer,
thing. 'ice-'>^, ship used to tea, etc). 2 (Jig) be forming: A
break up ice. storm is '^ing. a n [C] result of
break-fast /'brekfast/ n [C] first brewing, '^er n [C]. '^ery,
meal of the day. a v/have break- place where beer is brewed.
fast. bribe /braib/ n [C] something
break-through /'breikBru:/ n given to persuade a person (to
[C] 1 movement through the do something wrong), a vt offer,
enemy's defences. 2 major dis- give, a bribe to. '^ry, giving or
covery in science, etc. taking of bribes.
break-water /'breikw3:t3(r)/ n bric-a-brac /'brik 9 braek/ n [U]
[C] structure built out into the old articles of furniture, china,
sea to shelter a harbour. etc.
breast /brest/ n [C] 1 milk- brick /brik/ n [C,U] block of
producing part of a woman's baked clay for building, u vt '^
chest. 2 upper front part of the uplin. block (an opening) with
body, make a clean '^ of bricks. ''>^layer, workman who
sth. confess. builds with bricks, '-v/work,
breath /breG/ n 1 [U] air taken structure made of bricks.
into and sent out of the lungs. 2 bri-dal /'braidl/ adj of a bride or
[C] single act of taking in and wedding.
sending out air. out of ^. un- bride /'braid/ n [C] newly mar-
able to breathe quickly enough. ried woman. ''^^groom
take sb's '^ away, startle /-gru:m/ n [C] newly married
him. under one's '^. in a man. brides-maid /'braidz-
whisper. 3 [C] breeze.
light meid/ n [C] girl attending a bride
'^less adj (a) out of breath. at her wedding. C> best man.
bridge /broccoli 4

bridge' brid3/ n [C] 1 structure cause to fall: '•^ down prices/the

providing a way across a river. government, (b) kill or wound:
etc. 2 raised part of a ship where He brought down the antelope. '^
the captain and officers work. 3 forward, (a) cause to be
upper part of th6 nose. 4 part discussed, etc. (b) advance: The
over which the strings of a viol- meeting has been brought for-
in, etc are stretched, a vi build a ward, is to be earlier. C> post-
bridge across; ^
a canal. pone. ~in, (a) produce as
''>^head (mil) strong position profit, (b) introduce: 'v, in a new
from which attacks can be fashion legislation. -^ off, (esp)
made. manage to do something suc-
bridge^ brids/ n [U] card-game cessfully. '>-' on, (help to) pro-

for 4 players. duce: The rain brought on his

bridle /'braidl n [C] part of a cold. '^ out, (a) show clearly:
horse's harness that goes on its ~ out the meaning, (b) cause (a
head, a vti 1 put a bridle on (a quality) to appear: Danger --^.f
horse). 2 (Jig) control: '^ your out the best in him. (c) cause to
passions. strike: Union leaders brought out
briefs 'bri:f/ adj (-er, -est) last- the workers, 'x^ round, (a)
ing only for a short time, in '^. cause (a person) to regain con-
in a few words. '>^ly adv sciousness after fainting, (b)
briefs /bri:f n 1 [C] summary of convert to one's views, etc. ^
the facts of a legal case, pre- to, = bring round(a5. up, ^
pared for a barrister. 2 informa- (a) rear; educate; up ~
tion, instructions, etc given in children animals, (b) vomit, (c)
advance, a vt 1 instruct or em- call attention to.
ploy (a barrister). 2 give a brink 'briqk n [C] 1 edge of a
brief(2) to. '^case, flat leather cliff, etc. 2 (Jig) edge of some-
case, for documents, etc. thing exciting or dangerous: on
briefs 'bri:fs n pi (also a pair of the '^ of war.
-^) pants without legs. brisk brisk/ adj (-er, -est) live-
brig-ade bri'geid/ n [C] 1 army ly; quick-moving; walk at a '^
unit of three battalions. 2 organ- pace, '^ly adv
ized body of f>ersons with bristle /'brisl/ n [C] a short stiff
special duties; the Jire-'s.. hair on an animal or brush, a vi
briga-dier ibriga'disCr)/ n [C] 1 (of hair) stand up. 2 (fig) show
officer commanding a bri- anger. 3 '>^ with, have in large
gade(1). numbers; bristling with guns.
bright /brait, adj (-er, -est) 1 Brit-ish 'bntij a^/yof Great Bri-
reflecting much light: shining. 2 tain or its inhabitants: the B'^,
cheerful and happy. 3 clever. British people.
-^en v?//make or become brigh- brittle /'britl adj hard but easily
ter, '^ly adv. ~ness n [C] broken (eg glass).
briMiant /'brilisnt/ adj 1 very broad' adj (-er, -est) 1
bright(l). 2 very clever. '>^ly wide. 2 from side to side: a river
adv. brilliance/i[U] fifty feet~. 3 full; in 'v, daylight.
brim brim rj [C] 1 edge of a cup. 4 general: a ~
distinction. 5 (of
etc. 2 edge of a hat. D v/ (-mnn-) the mind and ideas) liberal. 6 (of
'^ over, be full to the top. speech) with a strong regional
brine bram/ n [U] salt water, esp accent. |'>^-'minded adj liberal
for pickling food. and tolerant, -"o^ly adv generally:
bring /brii]/ vt (pt.pp brought '^ly speaking.
/hro:if) 1 carry or accompany broad^ /brD:d/ n [C] the wide
towards somebody: me my ^ part; the ^
of the back.
coat. 2 cause to come: Spring ^s broad-cast 'brordkarst/ vtji
warm weather. 3 -w sb/ (pt.pp ~) send out (speech, mus-
oneself to do sth, persuade: / ic, etc) by radio or TV. n [C]
can't ^ myself to tell him. 4 something broadcast.
(legal) start; ~
a case against broad-side /'brordsaid/ n [C] 1
her. 5 -^ about, cause to hap- (firingoO all the guns on a ship's
pen. ^ back,
(a) return; ^ side. 2 (Jig) strong attack (eg in
back a book, (b) cause to an argument).
remember, (c) reintroduce: 'v. broc-coli /'brokah/ n [C, UJ (j)l
back hanging. '^ down, (a) 'V.) kind of cauliflower with

45 brochure/buck

many sprouts. brought /brD:t//?r,/)/j of bring.

bro-chure /'braoJaCr)/ n [C] brow /brau/ n 1 (usually pi: also
short, illustrated, pamphlet, esp 'eye'>^) arch of hair above the
as an advertisement. eye. 2 forehead. 3 top ofa slope.
brogue^ /braug/ n [C] strong, brow-beat /'braubiit/ vt {pt ~,
thick-soled shoe. pp'^en -bi:tn/) bully.
brogue^ 'brsug/ n [C] Irish way brown /braun/ n [C.U] adj (-er,
ofspeakmgEngUsh. -est) (having the) colour of cof-
v7//' cook by
broil broil,' direct fee with milk, d vt/i make or be-
contact with fire; grill. come brown.
broke brsuk adj (stony /f/at) browse /brauz/ vi 1 feed (on
'^, {si) without money. grass, etc). 2 read without any
bro-ken ^'brsukan/ pp of break: definite plan, for mterest. o n [C]
a ~
home, one in which the par- (act, period, oO browsing.
ents have separated; (= im- ~ bruise /brurz/ n [C] injury by a
perfect) English: '^-^hearted. blow to the body, or to a fruit, so
filled with grief. that the skin is discoloured, a
bro-ker /'br3uk3(r)/ n [C] (usual- vtii 1 cause a bruise to. 2 show
ly ^stock-'^) person who buys the effects ofa blow.
and sells (business shares, etc) bru-nette 'bru:'net/ n [C] white
for others. woman with dark skin and hair.
brolly /'broil/ n [C] {pi -ies) {in- brunt /brAnt/ n [C] chief part:
formal) umbreWa. bear the ~
of an attack.
bron-chial /'broqkial/ a^' of the brush^ /brAj'/ n [C] 1 implement
tubes of the windpipe. of bristles, etc for sweeping,
bron-chi-tis /broq'kaitis/ n [C] cleaning, etc (eg ^tooth-^,
inflammation of the tubes of the ^paint'^). 2 (act oQ using a
windpipe. brush. 3 [U] rough low-growing
bronze /bronz/ n 1 [U] alloy of bushes. 4 short encounter: a ~
copper and tin. 2 [U] reddish with the enemy.
brown colour. 3 [C] work of art brush^ brAj, vt i 1 use a brush
made of bronze, d vtji make or on. 2 '^ sth aside/away, {fig)
become bronze in colour. pay no or little attention to (dif-
brooch /brautj"/ n [C] ornamen- ficulties, etc). ^ up (on), study
tal pin worn on a dress. or practise (something forgot-
brood /bru:d/ n [C] 1 young ten): ^
up {on) your French. 3
birds hatched at one time in a touch when passing.
nest. 2 {informal) family of chil- brusque /brursk/ adj (of speech
dren, a v/1 (ofa bird) sit on eggs or behaviour) rough and impol-
to hatch them. 2 ->-' over/on. ite.~ly adv. ~ness n [U]
{fig) think about (troubles, etc) Brus-sels sprout /jbrAslz
for a long time, broody adj (a) 'spraut/ n [C] green vegetable
(of hens) wanting to brood (1 ). with buds on a high stem.
(b) (f/g) depressed. bru-tal /'brurtl/ a5/ savage; cruel.
brook /bruk/ n [C] small stream. ^ly adv. ^ity /bru:'taebti/, [C,
broom /bru:m/ n [C] long- U] {pl-\es) (act oO cruelty.
handled implement for sweep- brute bru:i/ n [C] 1animal (ex-
ing fioors, etc. cept man). 2 stupid or savage
broth soup in which
/broG/ n [U] person, a adj unthinking and
meat has been cooked. physical: ~
strength, brut-ish
brothel /'broGl/ n [C] house at adj of orlike a. brute.
which prostitutes may be visit- bubble /'bAbl/ n [C] 1 (in air)
ed. floating ball of liquid containing
brother /'brAd9(r)/ n [C] 1 son of air. 2 (in liquid) ball of air or gas
the same parents as another per- that rises to the surface, a vi send
son. 2 member of the same so- up, rise in, make the sound of,
ciety, profession, etc. ''>^hood, bubbles, ''^-gum, chewing-
(a) [U] feeHng (as) of brother gum which can be blown into
for brother, (b) [C] (members bubbles, bub-bly /'bAbli/ adj
oO a society or organization. full of bubbles.
''>-'-in-law n [C] {pi ^s- in -law) buck^ /bAk/ n [C] male ofa deer,
brother of one's husband or hare or rabbit. C> doe.
wife; husband of one's sister. buck^ /bAk/ vt/i 1 (of a horse)
'-v/ly adj jump up with the four feet

buck/bully '

together; throw (the rider) by bugle 'bju:gl n [C] musical

doing this. 2 (informal) make wind-instrument, used for mili-
more cheerful: The good news tary signals, bugler, person
'^ed us all up. who plays a bugle.
buck^ ,bAk n [C] (si) US dollar. build' bild viii (pt.pp built
parss the ~
(to sb). (si) pass /bilt ) 1 make by putting parts,
the responsibility (to). etc together: ->^ u house. 2 rely
bucket z'bAkit n [C] 1 vessel for on: 'X. hopes on. 3 ->^ up. in-
carrying water, etc. 2 (also crease: Traffic IS '\.ing up. '^
''>-f ul) amount a bucket holds. sb/sth up. (a) increase a per-
buckle 'bAkl /; [C] metal fas- son's reputation (through pub-
tener, with a spike to go through licity), (b) make larger: 'v. up a
a hole in a belt. etc. a v/,/ 1 fas- business, (c) become covered
ten with a buckle. 2 (of metal, with buildings. Hence, '-^-^-up,
etc) become twisted from strain (a) increase: a '^-up of forces
or heat. (b) accumulation: a '^-up of
bud ;h\di n [C] leaf, flower or traffic, (c) flattering publicity
branch, at the beginning of its etc. ', person who builds,
growth, nip sth in the '^. put esp houses.
an end to, eg a plan, before it de- build^ ,bild/ n [U] (of the human
velops, a \i (-dd-) put out buds. body) general shape and size: a
'>^ding adj beginning to deve- man of powerful '^y.
lop: w^ poei. build-ing "bildiq/ n 1 [C] house
Bud-dhism 'bodizam/ n the re- or other structure. 2 [U] (art of)
ligion founded by Buddha constructing houses, etc.
(teacher) in N India, in about bulb /bAlb, n [C] 1 round, under-
the 6th century. Bud-dhist ground part of a plant. 2 thing
'bodist/ rt[C],a(/y like a bulb in shape: an electric
budge /bAd3 vt/i (informal) light'^. <^ous /'bAlbas/ adj like
(cause to) move: / can't ~ this a bulb.
stone. bulge /bAlds/ n [C] swelling, a
bud-geri-gar /'bAd33nga:(r)/ n v/// (cause to) swell outwards.
[C] small parakeet. bulk bAlk/ n [U] quantity, vol-
budget /'bAd3it/ n [C] estimate ume, esp when large, in '^. in
of future income and expendi- large amounts: buy in ~. the '^
ture (esp by government), d vi '^ of. the greater part of bulky
for. plan to save money for. adj (-ier, -iest) large; clumsy to
buff bAf/ n [U] 1 thick, soft move.
leather. 2 dull yellow colour, n bull /bul/ n [C] 1 male of the ox
17polish (metal). family, a ,-0- in a 'china shop.
buf -falo ibAfsbu/ n [C] (pi ~s) person who is clumsy where care
1 kind of ox. 2 N
American bi- is needed, take the ,^ by the
son. 'horns, meet a difficulty bold-
buf -fer /'bAf9(r)/ n [C] apparatus ly.2 male of the whale, elephant
to reduce the efTect oJ a collision and other large animals.
on a railway engine. '~dog, large dog, with a short,
buf-fet' /"bufei/ n [C] 1 counter thick neck. ''>-do2e vt (a) re-
where food and drink may be move earth with a bulldozer,
bought and consumed, eg on a (b) force a person to do some-
train. 2 table from which cold thing, ^dozer, powerful trac-
food is served, eg in a hotel. tor for moving large quantities
buf.fet^ /'bAfit, n [C] blow (usu- of earth, etc. ''>-'s-eye, centre
ally with the hand), a vt give a of a target.
blow to: '^edby the wind. bul -let /'built/ n [C] piece of lead
buf -f oon /bs'fuin/ n [C] clown. fired from a rifle or revolver.
bug /bAg/ n [C] 1 small insect '~-proof adj able to stop bul-
that lives in dirty houses. 2 (in- lets.
formal) virus infection. 3 (si) de- bull-etin /'bubtm/ n [C] official
fect eg in a computer. 4 small report of news.
hidden microphone, a vt (-gg-) bul-lion /'bulian/ n [U] gold or
(informal) put hidden micro- silver in bulk.
phones in. bul-lock /'bubk/ n [C] castrated
bug-bear /'bAgbe3(r)/ n [CJ bull.
thing feared or disliked. bully /'bull/ n [C] (y?/-ies) person
47 bulrush/burn

who uses his strength to frighten {mil) underground shelter.

or hurt those who are weaker, n bunny /'bAni/ n [C] {pi -ies)
vt ipt.pp -ied) use strength, etc in (child's word for a) rabbit.
this way. buoy /bDi/ n [C] 1 floating object,
bul-rush "bolrAj/ n [C] tall rush anchored to the sea bottom, to
with a thick head. show a danger, rocks, etc. 2 =
bul-wark 'bulwak; n [C] 1 wall lifebuoy, n vi 1 mark the posi-
built against attack. 2 [fig) thing tion of with a buoy. 2 '^ up, (a)
that defends or protects. keep afloat, (b) (Jig) keep up
bum^ /bAm n [C] {informal) but- hopes, dreams, etc.
tocks. buoy-ant 'bDiont/ adj 1 able to
bum^ bAm n [C] {si) tramp, float. 2 3 (fig) (of
(fig) cheerful.
beggar or lazy person. the stock market, etc) maintain-
bumble-bee /'bAmbl bi:/ n [C] ing high prices, -^ly adv. buoy-
large kind of bee. ancy «[U]
bump /bAmp/ vtii 1 strike or bur-den 'baidn; n [C] 1 load (esp
knock against. 2 move with a one that is heavy). 2 something
jolting motion: The bus ^ed difficult to bear: the ~
of taxa-
along the rough road. 3 'n^ sb tion, n vt put a burden on.
off, {si) murder him. a ad\ --^^some adj hard to bear.
violently, n « [C] 1 blow or bureau 'bjuarau, n [C] (pi ~x
knock; dull sound of blow. 2 -raoz ) 1 writing desk with
swelling on the body. 3 irregu- drawers. 2 government depart-
larity on a road surface, bumpy ment: the Jnforhy-tation B-^
adj (-ier, -iest) with many bureau-cracy /bjos'rokrasi/ n
bumps. [U] government officials who
bum-per^ /'bAmp3(r)/ n [C] bar are apointed. not elected by the
on a motor-vehicle to protect it people. bureaucrat
from damage. /'bjuarakrict n [C] official who
bum-peH /'bAmp9(r)/ adj large; works in a government depart-
abundant: a ~ harvest. ment, bureau'cratic^^/
bump-kin /'bAmpkm/ n [C] bur-glar 'b3:gb(r)' n [C] person
rough or stupid person, esp who breaks into a house to steal.
from the country. '-^^-proof adj made so that
bun /bAn/ n [C] 1 small, round, burglars cannot break into.
sweet cake. 2 twisted knot of bur-glary n [C. U] (pi -ies)
hair above the back of the neck. crime of breaking into a house
bunch /bAntJ/ n [C] number of to steal, burgle /'baigl/ vtji
sniall, similar things growing or break into(a building) to
fastened together: a -^ of commit burglary.
grapes flowers, a vt/i '^ up,
bur-ial /'berisl/ n [C,U] act of
form into a bunch. burying.
bundle /'bAndl/ n [C] number of burly 'baili/ adj (-ier, -iest) (of a
things fastened, or wrapped person) big and strong.
together, a vt/i 1 '^^ up, make burn^ /b3:n/ n [C] injury, mark,
into a bundle. 2 send in a hurry: made by heat or acid, -^er,
They ^dhim into a taxi. (part of an) apparatus from
bung /bAr)/ n [C] large stopper in which the flame comes: an 'oil-
a cask or barrel, a vt put a bung ^er. '>^ing adj (a) intense: a
into, '^ed up, blocked with ^ing thirst desire, (b) causing

dirt, etc. argument: a '^ing question.

bun-ga-low /'bArjgabu/ n [C] burn^ /bam/ vt!i{pt.pp'^\ /barnt/
house with only one storey. or ~ed /bsmd/) 1 use for light-
bungle /'bAqgl/ vtji do (a piece ing or heating: ->- coal in afire. 2
of work) badly and clumsily. damage, hurt by fire, heat or ac-
bun-ion /'bAnian/ n [C] inflamed id: ~ old papers. 3 {fig) be filled
swelling, esp on the big toe. with strong feeling: -^ with ang-
bunk^ /bAr)k/ n [C] narrow bed er. 4 '>^ av\fay, (a) continue to
fixed on the wall, eg in a ship. burn, (b) become less by burn-
bunk^ /bAgk/ n do a '^. {si) run ing. '^ down, be destroyed,
away. destroy, by fire: The house '^t
bunker /'bAi)k3{r)/ n [C] 1 part down. '^ out, (a) become extin-
of a ship where coal is stored. 2 guished, (b) (of a rocket) use up
sandy hollow on a golf-course. 3 its fuel, (c) be destroyed by fire:
burnish /buttress 48

'^t-out factories. smash it. go '>^, fail: The busi-

burnish /'b3:nij"/ vt/i polish by ness went '^.
rubbing. bustle /'bAsI/ vtli (cause to) be
burp b3:p n [C] viisf) belch. active and busy, a n [U] noisy
bur-row 'bArao, n [C] hole activity.
made in the ground (by rabbits, busy 'bizi ad/ (-ler, -lest) 1 oc-
etc), a v7 /make a burrow. cupied; having much to do. 2
bur-sar /'b3:s3(r)' n [Cj treasurer full of activity: a ~
day. 3 (of a
(esp of a college). telephone line) in use. d vt keep
burst^ b3:sl « [C]1 bursimg ex- oneself busy.
plosion. 2 brief, violent effort: a but' bAt adv only: IVe can ^
~ of energy. 3 outbreak: a '^ of try.
gunfire. but' /bat strong form: bAt/ con/
burst^ b3:st/ vt i(pi.pp '>^)y (of (showing contrast): Tom was not
a bomb, etc) (cause to) explode. there ^ his brother was.
2 (of river banks) (cause to) but^ /bat strong form: bAt/ prep
break outwards; (of a bubble) except, excluding: No-one knew
break; (of buds) open out. be ~ John '-^ for, except for: B^
'^ing to, be eager to. 3 be un- for your help we should not have
able to contain: '^ing with im- finished.
patience. 4 enter or leave sud- butcher 'butJ'D(r) n [C] 1 per-
denly: ~
out of the room. 5 -^ in son who k'ills and sells animals
fonjupon), mterrupt; arrive for food. 2 person who kills sa\ -

suddenly. -^^ into, begin sud- agely. n prepare meat [o:

v7 1
denly: -^ into flames tears Isong. selling as food. 2 kill violentl\
etc. '^ out laughing/crying. esp with a knife, butchery,
suddenly begm to laugh cry. (esp) needless and cruel killing
bury /'ben/ vt(pt.pp-\e^)^ place but-ler n [C] head ser-
(a dead body in a grave or m the
) vant house.
in a
sea. 2 put underground; hide butt' bAt' n [C] 1 large barrel. 2
from view: huned treasure: She thicker, larger end (esp of a
buried (= hid) her face in her rifle). 3 unburned end, eg of a
hands. '^ oneself in. become smoked cigarette.
very involved with. butt' bAt n [C] person who is a
bus bAS/ n (pi '^es) public target for ridicule, jokes, etc.
motor-vehicle that carries pas- butt^ bAt vti 1 strike or push
sengers, a vt i (-SS-) go. take, by with the head. 2 -^ ^in, (infor-
bus. ''^ stop, stopping place mal) interrupt a conversation.
for buses. but-ter ,'bAt3(r) n [U] food
bush boj n 1 [C] small plant made from cream, used on
with woody stems. 2 [Uj wild bread, etc. a vt 1 cover, cook
uncultivated land, esp in Aus- with, butter. 2'^sb up, flatter.
tralia, 'bushy adj (-ier, -iest) ''>-'Cup, wild plant with small
(a) covered with bushes, (b) yellow flowers, '^scotch, [U]
growing thickly: -^ v eyebrows. sweet substance made by boiling
busier, busiest C> busy sugar and butter together.
busi-iy /'bizih/ adv in a busy but-ter-fly /'bAtaflai/ n [C] (pi
way. -ies) insect with four wings, of-
busi-ness /'biznis/ n 1 [U] buy- ten brightly coloured.
ing and selling; commerce; but-tock /'bAtak/ n [C] either
trade. 2 [C] shop; commercial side of that part of the body on
enterprise, etc. 3 [U] task, duty: which a person sits.
It is a teacher's -^ to help his pu- but-ton /'bAtn/ n [C] 1 small,
pils, get down to '^, start the round, bit of plastic for fasten-
work that must be done, mind ing articles of clothing. 2 object,
one's own '^, not interfere like a button to control a ma-
with the affairs of others. ''X/- chine, etc: press /push the ~. a
like adj efficient, well organ- vt/i fasten with a button.
ized, ''^^man, man who is en- ''^hole n [C] (a) hole through
gaged in buying and selling, etc. which a button is passed, (b)
t»ust' /bASt/ n [C] 1 head and flower worn on the lapel of a
shoulders of a person made in jacket, n vt hold a person (to get
stone, etc. 2 woman's breasts. hio attention).
bust^ /bASt/ vtii (si) sth. ^ but-tress /'bAtris/ n [C] 1 sup-
) buxom/cafd

port built against a wall. 2 (fig) by-stander /'baistaend3(r)/ n [C]

thing that supports, d vt person standing near but not
strengthen, support. taking part in an event.
buxom /•bAksam/ adj (of
women) large and healthy.
buy /bai/ vt/i (pt.pp bought
return for money, d
/bo:t/) get in
n {informat) scJmething pur-
chased: a good ->-. ', person
who chooses articles to be sold
a shop.
/bAz/ vt/i 1 make a hum-
ming sound of bees). 2 move
quickly, -v. off. (si) go away. 3 C, c /si:/ {pi C's, c's /si:z/) 1 the
(of the ears) be filled with a buz- third letter of the English al-
zing noise. 4 {informal) fly very phabet. 2 the Roman numeral
close to another aeroplane (to 100.
threaten it), a « [C] 1 sound of cab /kseb/ n [C] 1taxi. 2 part of a
people talking, etc. 2 humming railway engine, lorry, etc for the
(of bees or other insects). '>^er, driver.
electrical bell that produces a cab-aret /'kaebarei/ n [C] songs,
buzzing note. dancing, etc provided in a res-
buz-zard /'bAzad/ n [C] kind of taurant, club, etc.
falcon. cab-bage /'kaebidz/ n [C,U]
by^ /bai/ adverb 1 near: A large plant with a round head of thick
crowd stood 'v-. 2 past: He hur- green leaves.
ried -^ without a word. (-^ and cabin /'kaebm/ n [C] 1 room in a
large, on the whole; usually. ship or aircraft, esp (in a ship)
by' /bai/ prep 1 near; at the side for sleeping in. 2 small house
of: 5/7 '>- me. '^ oneself, alone; made of logs; railway signal-
without help, stand '^ sb. sup- box. '->- cruiser, motor-boat
port him. 2 along, across, over: with a cabin.
We came -^ the fields, not '^ the cabi-net /'kaebrait/ n [C] 1 piece
roads. 3 past: He walked'^ me. 5 of furniture with drawers or
during: The enemy attacked -^ shelves for storing things: a ^fi-
night. 6 not later than: Can you ling '^, for letters, documents. 2
finish the work '^^ tomorrow? 1 most imp>ortant ministers of a
(of units of time, measurements, government.
etc): rent a house '^ the year; sell cable /'keibl/ n 1 [C,U] thick,
cloth '>- the metre. 8 through strong rope (of fibre or wire),
means of: live 'v teaching; killed used on ships, etc. 2 bundle of
'>^ lightning. 9 on or in: travel 'v wires for carrying electrical
land/sea/ air; ^ car /boat. 1 ac- power or messages; telegram, d
cording to: B'^ my watch it is 2 vt/i send (a message) by cable.
o'clock. 11 to the extent of: The ''>'-car/-railway, one up a
bullet missed me ~
two inches. steep slope, worked by a
by-elec-tion /'bai ilekjn/ n [C] cable(l).
election in only one area during cackle /'jaejk/ n 1 [C] noise made
the life of Parliament. C> gener- by a hen. 2 [C] loud laugh; [U]
al election. foolish talk, n vi 1 (of a hen)
by-gone /'baigon/ adj past: in '^ make this noise. 2 (of a person)
days. D n {pi) Let '^s be '^s. talk or laugh noisily.
Forgive and forget the past. cac-tus /'kaektas/ n [C] {pi '^es,
by-law, bye-law /'baib:/ n [C] cacti /'kaektai/) (sorts oO plant
law made by a local authority. with thick stem and leaves
by-pass /'baipars/ n [C] wide covered with prickles.
road passing round a town or ca-det /ka'det/ n [C] young per-
village, a v/ 1 provide with, son training in the police or arm-
make a bypass. 2 avoid: -^^ a ed forces.
problem /blockage. cadge /kaeds/ vt/i (informal) (try
by-prod-uct /'baiprodAkt/ n [C] to) get by begging; borrow: '^fS
substance obtained during the from a friend.
manufacture of some other sub- caf.6 /'kaefei/ n [C] sraaM
stance. restaurant where coffee, tea ar>J

cafeteria/ camel

food are served. voice; cry. 2 make a short visit: /

cafe-teria ,k.aefi'ti3ri3/
n [C] ~f</ on Mr Green, 'v. for. visit
self-service cafe. (a house, etc) to get somethmg,
cage keids n [C] framework or somebody. 3 name: He's '^ed
with bars, in which birds or ani- John. 4 consider: / -^ that a
mals may be kept, a v7 put, keep, shame. 5 summon: Please a ~
in a cage. doctor. 6 -^ a meeting!
cagey 'keid3i/a^ secretive. election, announce that one
cairn /kean/ n [C] heap of stones will be held 'v. a strike, order
as a landmark or memorial. workers to come out on strike. 7
ca-jole /ka'dpul/ vi use flattery '^ by. {informal) visit for a short
to persuade He '^.dme into j out
: time. '^ for. demand, require:
ofgoing. The problem '^ed for quick ac-
cake /keiky n 1 [C,UJ sweet mix- tion.'^ (sth) off. (a) tell it to
ture of flour, eggs, butter, etc come away: ~
your dog off. (b)
baked in an oven. 2 [C] shaped decide to stop;cancel: The strike
mixture of other kinds of food: was '^ed off. '>-' on. make a
'/u/i-~5. 3 [C] shaped piece of short visit, 'v. on/upon, appeal
other materials: a ~
o/ soap, a to; invite: ~o« the enemy to sur-
piece of ^, something easily render. out. (a) summon,

done. D vt;i coat thickly (with esp to an emergency: '^ out the
mud, etc). fire brigade, (b) instruct (work-
ca-lam-ity ks'laemati/ n [C] {pi ers) to come out on strike, -v*
-ies) great disaster sb/sth up. (a) telephone to.
cal-cium ,'kaelsi3m; n [U] soft (b) summon for (military, etc)
white metal (symbol Ca). service. Hence, ''>-'-up n [C].
cal-cu-lable 'kaelkjubbl/ adj cal-ler /'kD:l9(r)/ n [C] person
that may be measured. who visits or telephones.
cal-cu-late 'kaelkjuleit/ vta 1 calligra-phy ks'ligrdfi/ n [U]
fmd out by working with num- (art oO beautiful handwriting.
bers: -^ the cost. 2 design; in- caMing 'koiliq/ n [C] (esp) occu-

tend: '^d to attract attention. 3 pation or profession.

consider, cal-cu-lat-ing adj cal-li-pers- /'kaelipsz/ n pi ^ in-
scheming; crafty. ,cal-cu-'la- strument for measuring the
tion n rC,U]. calculator n diameter of round objects. 2
[C] machine that calculates au- supports attached to the legs of
tomatically. a disabled person to enable him
cal-en-dar ;'k2ehnd9(r)/ n [C] 1 to walk.
list of the days, weeks, months, cal-lous /'kaebs/ adj 1 (of the
of a particular year. 2 system by skin) made hard. 2 (fig) without
which the year is divided: the feeUngs or sympathy.
Muslim ~. cal-low /'kaebu/ adj young;
calf^ /ka:f/ n 1 [C] (pi calves inexperienced.
/ka:vz/) young of the domestic caMus /'kaebs n [C] {pi ~es)
cow; young of the seal, whale. 2 area of thick, hardened skin.
[U] (also '-^ skin) leather from calm ka:m/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (of
the skin of a calf. the weather) quiet; not wmdy;
calf^ /kaf/ n [C] {pi calves (of the sea) still. 2 not excited;
/ka:vz/) back of the human leg, quiet: keep ~. d n [C] a time
between the knee and the ankle. when everything is quiet and
cal-ibre(6'5 =-ber) 'kaelib9(r) peaceful, d vtii make or become
n 1 [C] inside diameter of a calm: ^him down. 'N/ly adv.
tube/gun, etc. 2 [U] quality of ~ness«[U]
character: soldiers of high '^. cal-orie /'kasbri/ n [C] unit of
cali-persAi/7/C> callipers. heat; unit of energy in food.
cair /kD:l/ n [C] 1 shout; cry: a -^ calve kaev vi give birth to a calf.
for help. 2 characteristic cry of a calves kaEvz//?/ofcalf.
bird. 3 short visit (to a house, ca-lyp-so ka'lipsau n [C] {pi
etc). 4 message; summons; invi- ~s) West Indian popular song.
tation: 'telephone -^5.a close cam-ber 'kaEmb3(r) n [C] slight
~. a narrow escape from dan- rise in the middle of a surface (eg
ger. '~-box, public kiosk with a a road).
telephone. came /keim/ /?/ of come.
call^ ko:l/ vtji 1 say in a loud camel /'kaeml/ n [C] long-necked
51 cameo /canon
animal, with one or two humps /-•Ieijn/«[C,U]
on its back. can-cer /'kaens3(r)/ n [C,U] dis-
cameo /'kaemisu/ n [C] (pi '^s) eased growth in the body: lung
hard stone with a raised design, '^. '>-ous fl<// of. like, cancer.
used as an ornament. can-did /'kaendid/ adj straight-
cam-era /'kaemara/ n [C] appa- forward, frank: a ^
ratus for taking photographs or -^ly adv
moving pictures. can-di-date /'kaendidat/ n [C] 1
cam-ou-flage /'k2em9fla:3/ n person who wishes to take an of-
[U] use of colour etc to make it fice or position. 2 person taking
difTicult to recognize the an examination.
presence of something or some- candle /'kaendl/ n [C] stick of
body. D vt conceal by means of wax with a string {wick) through
camouflage. it, for giving light. ''>^stlck,
camp /kaemp/ n [C] 1 place holder for a candle.
where people live in tents or can-dour {US =-dor)
huts. 2 (also 'holidays) organ- /'ka£nd3(r)/ n [U] quality of say-
ized centre for family holidays. ing what one thinks; frankness.
3 group of people with similar candy /'kaendi/ n [U] (also
ideas: Join the enemy ^. a vi ^sugar-^'-^) sugar made hard by
make, live in. a camp, go '>^ing. boiling; [C] {pl-\es) piece of this,
spend a holiday in tents, etc. a v7'/ {pt.pp -ied) preserve (eg
'>^er, person who camps. fruit) by boiling in sugar.
cam-paign /kaem'pem/ n [C] 1 cane /kem/ a/ [C] 1 stem of tall
military operations, usually in reeds and plants (eg bamboo):
one area. 2 series of planned ac- sugar-'^; a walking"^. 2 [C]
tivities: an ^advertising -w. d vi length of cane used to beat chil-
take part in a campaign. '>^er, dren. D v/hit withacane(2).
person who campaigns. ca-nine /'kemam/ adj oi', as of, a
cam-pus /'kaempas/ n [C] (pi dog.
' grounds of a school, col- can-is-ter /'ksnist9(r)/ n [C] 1
lege or university. small metal box with a lid. 2
can^ /kaen/ n [C] metal container cylinder fired from a gun: a
for liquids, food, etc; contents of 'tear-gas^.
such a container: an 'oil-'^: a -^ can-ker /'kaeqk3(r)/ n [U] 1 dis-
of beer. €> tin. a vt (-nn-) put ease of trees. 2 disease that
(food, etc) in a can. '^^nery, causes ulcers, ^ous adj of, like
place where food is canned. canker.
can^ /kan strong form: kaen/ aux can-na-bis /'kaenabis/ n [U] drug
verb {negative cannot, can't; smoked as an intoxicant. C>
pt could, negative couldn't) 1 hemp.
be able to; know how to: C~ cannery O can'.
you lift this box? She '^ speak can-ni-bal /'kaenibl/ n [C] person
French. 2 be able to: / hear~ who eats human flesh; animal
you. 3 {informal) (used to show that eats its own kind, '^ism, n
permission): You '^ go home [U] practice of eating the fiesh of
now. C'^jcould I see you for a one's own kind. '>^is-tic
moment. 4 (used to show possi- /-'hstik/ adj
biUty in the present): That can-non /'kaenan/ n 1 [C] {pi of-
can 't/couldn 't be true. ten unchanged) heavy gun, fixed
ca-nal /ka'nael/ n [C] 1 channel to a guncarriage. 2 [C] heavy,
cut through land for use of boats automatic gun used in modem
or for irrigation. 2 tube in a aircraft.
plant or animal: the alimentary can-not /'kaenat/ O can^.
ca-noe /ka'nu:/ n [C] light boat
ca-nary /ka'neari/ n [C] {pi -ies) moved by paddles, d vt travel by
small, yellow songbird. canoe, '-v/ist, person who pad-
can-eel /'kaensl/ vt/i (-II-, US = dles a canoe.
-I-) 1 cross out; make a mark on canon /'kaenan/ n [C] 1 church
(eg postage stamps). 2 say that law. 2 general standard or prin-
something arranged will not be ciple: the 'v-j of good taste. 3
done: The meeting was '^led. -^ priest, ^v/i-cal /ka'nonikal/ adj
out. balance; be equal: the two according to church law. '>^ize
arguments ->- out. '>i'la-tion /'kaenanaiz/ vt make (a person) a

ca Aon / caramel 52

saint. very small blood-vessel.

ca-non O canyon. capi-tal /'kspitl/ n [C] (often as
can-opy /'kaenapi/ n (C) (/)/-ies) an adj) 1 city where the govern-
1 (usually cloth) covering over a ment of a country is carried on.
bed, throne, etc. 2 cover for the 2 (of letters of the alphabet) not
cockpit of an aircraft. small. 3 [U] wealth used to pro-
cant /ksnt/ n [U] insincere talk. duce more wealth; money with
can't/ka:nt/ = cannot. which a business is started, a adj
can-tankerous /kxn'tsi]- punishable by death: '>^ offence.
karas/ adj bad-lemF>ered; quar- ,^'letter,egA,B,C,D
relsome. capi-tal-ism /'kxpitslizdm/ n
can-teen /kaen'ti:n/ n [CJ 1 place lUj economic system in which a
(esp in factories, offices) where country's trade and industry are
food is provided. 2 box of cut- privately owned. O socialism.
lery. 3 small water container. capi-tal-ist, (a) supporter of
can-ter /'kaent3(r)/ n [C] (of a capitalism, (b) person who con-
horse) slow gallop, a v/// (cause trols much capital ( 3)
to) gallop slowly. capi-tal-ize /'kxpitslaiz/ vt/i 1
can-ti-lever "kapntili:v3(r)/ n [C] convert into capital (3). 2 (fig)
large bracket extending from a take advantage of: '\^ on the
wall or base (eg to support a bal- enemy 's mistakes.
cony). ca-pitu-late /ka'pitjuleit/ vi sur-
can-vas /'kaenvas/ n (pi -^.ses) 1 render (on stated conditions).
[U] strong, coarse cloth used for ca-pitu'la-tion n [U]
tents, sails, oil-paintings, etc. 2 cap-size /kaep'saiz/ v/// (esp of a
[C] (piece of this for) an oil- boat) (cause to) overturn.
painting. cap-Stan /'kaepstan/ n [C] up-
can-vass /'kaenvas/ vt/i go from right device turned to raise
person to person and ask for anchors, etc.
votes, orders for goods, etc. a n cap-sule /'kaepsju:!/ n [C] 1
[C.U] (instance oO canvassing. seed-case that opens when the
canyon, canon /'kaenjan/ n [C] seeds are ripe. 2 tiny container
deep gorge. for a dose of medicine. 3 com-
cap /kzep/ n [C] 1 soft hat with- partment which can be ejected
out a brim, but with a p)eak. 2 from a spacecraft.
cover (eg on a milk bottle, tube cap-tain /'kaeptm/ n [C] 1 leader
of toothpaste), a vt (-pp-) 1 put of a team 2 (army) officer who
a cap on; cover the top of. 2 do commands a company. 3 officer
or say something better than in command of a ship, a v^ act as
somebody else. ^ a story, tell captain.
a better one. 3 select (a sports- cap-tion /'kaepjn/ n [C] 1 title of
man) for a national team. a newspaper article, photo-
ca-pa-bil-ity /(keipa'bibti/ n (pi graph.
-ies) 1 [U] power or capacity: cap-ti-vate /'kaeptiveit/ vt fasci-
nuclear ^. 2 (pi) talent that can nate: '^dby her beauty.
be developed. cap-tive /'kaeptiv/ n [C], adj(pcT-
<^-pable /'keipabl/ adj 1 talent- son, animal) taken prisoner.
ed; able: a '^ man. 2 -^ of, (a) cap'tiv-ity n [U] state of being
(of persons) able or likely to. held captive.
He'^ '\. of any crime, (b) (of cap-tor /'kaept9(r)/ n [C] person
things, situations, etc) ready for: who takes another person cap-
The situation is '>^ of improve- tive.
ment, ca-pably adv cap-ture /'kaeptj"3(r)/ vr make a
ca-pac-ity /ke'paesati/ n (pi -ies) prisoner of; take as a prize by
1 [U] ability to hold, learn: a force, an^ [U] act of capturing.
tank with a '^ of two litres. 2 [C] 2 [C] thing that is caught.
position: in my '^^ as Manager. car /ka:(r)/ « [Cl 1 = motor-car.
cape' /keip/ n [C] loose sleeveless 2 coach of a train: the ^dining"^.
garment, hanging from the ''>- park, place for parking
shoulders. motor-vehicles.
cape- /keip/ n [C] point of land cara-mel /^ksrsmel/ n 1 [U] out into the sea. burnt sugar used for flavouring.
cap.i|.|ary /ka'pibri/ n [C] (pi 2 [C] small, shaped piece of
-ies) small, narrow tube, esp a boiled sugar.

53 carat /carriage

carat n [C] 1 unit of

/'kaerat/ thinking of what one does, (b)
weight for precious stones. 2 done with care: a ^ful piece of
measure of the purity of gold. work, '^fully adv. '>^ful-ness
cara-van /'kaeravaen/ n [C] 1 n [U] 'X/less adj (a) (of a per-
company of persons making a son) not taking care, (b) done
journey together (eg across a de- or made without care: a '^less
sert). 2 covered cart for Uving in. mistake. (c) unconcerned
3 small home pulled by a about: '^less of his reputation.
motor-vehicle. 'N^iess-ly adv. <x/less-ness n
carbo-hy-drate /,ka:b3u- [U]
'haidreit/ n 1 [C,U] (kinds oQ care^ /ke3(r)/ vi 1 feel interest,
compound including sugars and anxiety or sorrow: He failed but
starches. 2 (/>/) starchy foods. J don 't think he '^s. 2 like: Would
carbon /'kaiban/ n 1 [U] non- you '>^ to go for a walk? 3 'w for,
metallic element that occurs in (a) like (to have): Would you '>-
diamonds and in coal (symbol for a drink? (b) look after: 'v./or
C). 2 [C,U] (also '^-paper) children.
(sheet of) thin paper coated with ca-reer /k3'ri3(r)/ n 1 [C] pro-
coloured matter for making gress through life. 2 [C] profes-
copies. 3 [C] copy made by the sion; occupation, d vi rush wild-
use of a carbon (2). ly: '^ down the street.
carbuncle /'ka:bAi]kl/ n [C] ca-ress n [C] loving
(esp) red inflamed swelling un- touch. D give a caress to.
der the skin. cargo /'kargau/ n [C,U] (pl'^es)
car-bu-ret-tor, (also -retor, goods carried in a ship or air-
-ret-ter) /,ka:bju'ret3(r)/ n [C] craft.
part of a motor-car engine in cari-ca-ture /,kaerik3'tju3(r)/ n
which petrol and air are mixed. [C] picture, imitation of a person
carcass, car-case /'ka:k3s/ n stressing certain features to
[C] dead body of an animal. cause amusement or ridicule, d.
card /ka:d/ n [C] 1 piece of stiff vt make, give, a caricature of.
paper used for various pur- car-nage /'ka:nid3/ n [U] killing
poses: a ^Christmas '^. alsoO of many people.
postcard. 2 (often ^playing-'^) car-nal /'ka:nl/ adj of the body;
one used for various games and scnsu&h '-^ pleasures.
for telling fortunes, on the'^s. carna-tion /ka:'neijn/ n [C]
likely. War is on the '^s. put plant with sweet-smelling white,
one 's '^s on the table, make pink or red flowers.
one's intentions known. carni-val /'ka:nivl/ n [C,U] pub-
card-board /'ka:db3:d/ n [U] lic celebrations.
thick, stiff kind of paper. car-ni-vore /^kaniivD:(r)/ n [C]
cardiac /'ka:diaek/ adj of the flesh-eating animal, car-ni-
heart. vor-ous /ka:'mv3r3s/ adj
cardi-gan /'kardigan/ n [C] knit- carol /'kseral/ n [C] song of joy or
ted woollen jacket. praise, esp a Christmas hynm. a
cardi-nai^ /*ka:dml/ adj most vt (-II-) singjoyfully.
important. '^ number, any carp' /kap/ n [C] (pi '^) fresh-
number eg 2, 5, (contrasted with water fish.
second, fifth, etc). carp^ /k(i:p/ vi make unnecessary
cardinal /'ka:dml/ n 1 [C] complaints.
member of the Sacred College of carpen-ter /'kapmt9(r)/ n [C]
the RC Church, which elects workman who makes and re-
Popes. 2 [U] bright red colour. pairs structures of wood, car-
care' /ke3(r)/ n 1 [U] serious at- pen-try, work of a carpenter.
tention or thought: take '>- over carpet /'karpit/ n [C] thick
your work, take '^ of, {infor- covering for floors, d vt cover
mal) deal with. 2 [U] protection: with a carpet.
The child was left in its sister 's '^. carriage /'kaends/ n 1 [C] ve-
3 (usually pi) cause of sorrow hicle for carrying people. 2 (C)
and anxiety: the ^^s of a large car for passengers on a railway
family, '^free adj without train. 3 [U] (cost oO carrying of
care (3). ''^ taker, person in goods. 4 [U] manner of walking.
charge of a building, 'x/ful adj ''>i'vway, (part of a) road used by
(a) (of a person) cautious; vehicles. (> dual.
carrier/ cassette 54

carrier /'kaen3(r)/ n [C] 1 person carvmg-knife. (b) person who

or company that carries goods. carves, carv-ing, something
2 person, animal, etc that trans- carved (in wood, etc).
mits a disease without himself cas-cade /kae'skeid/ n [C] water-
suffering from it. 3 vehicle, ship, fall, o vifall like a cascade.

etc used to transport troops, etc: case^ /keis/ n [C] 1 instance or

an'aircrafl-'^. example; circumstances: / can't
car-rot /'kaerat/ n [C] (plant with make an exception in your '-^. It's
an) orange root used as a vege- a ~ of cheating. (Just) in ^. I

table. because of a possibility: In '^ I

carry /'kaeri/{pi.pp -ied) 1
vt/i forget, please remind me. in 'any
move from place to place; take a '>^. whatever happens, in *that

person, a message, etc from one '^, if that happens, has hap-
place to another: ->- a box. 2 pened. 2 person suffering from a
have with one: '>- an umbrella. 3 disease. 3 (legal) question to be
supports These pillars the ~ decided in a law court; the argu-
weight of (he roof. 4 win; F>er- ments, etc used, make out a ^
suade: The motion was carried. 5 (fori against), give argu-
walk, stand, in a particular way: ments in favour of/against. 4
He carries himself like a soldier. (gram) form of a noun or pro-
6 (of missiles, sounds, etc) reach noun that shows its relation to
a distance; go to: Their voices another word. ,'V'-'history, re-
carried many miles. 8 be car- cord of the history of a person's
ried away, lose self-control, 'v. health, etc.
off, win. ->.. on, (a) conduct; case^ /keis/ n [C] box, bag,
manage: '^ on
a business, (b) covering: a ^pillow-^. alsoO
talk loudly; behave strangely. '>^ suitcase, bookcase, o vr enclose
on (with), (a) continue: C-^ in a case.
on (with your work), (b) (with case-ment /'keismsnt/ n [C]
disapproval) have a love affair window that opens like a door.
with. '^ out, complete some- cash /kaej/ n [U] 1 money in
thing: 'x, out a plan. '^ coins or notes. 2 money in any
through, (a) help: Their cour- form: be short of '^. o vtji 1 give
age will --^ them through, (b) or get cash for: ~
a cheque. 2 '^^
complete something. in on, make a profit from. ''>^
cart /ka:t/ n [C] vehicle pulled by crop, crop to be sold for cash.
a horse, put the '>^ before the '>/ register, machine for re-
horse, do things in the wrong cording and storing cash
order, a vt ^ carry in a cart. 2 received.
(informal) carry: 'x. parcels ca-shew /'kaeju:/ n [C] (tropical
around, ''v.-horse, strong horse tree with a) small kidney-shaped
for heavy work. nut (*'\^-nut).
car-ti-lage /'ka:tilid3/ n [C,U] cash-ier /kaE'Ji3(r)/ n [C] person
tough, white tissue attached to who receives and pays out
the joints in animal bodies. money in a bank, store, etc.
car-ton /'ka:tn/ n [C] cardboard cash-mere /'kaejmi3(r)/ n [UJ
or plastic box. fine soft wool.
car-toon /ka:'tu:n/ n [C] 1 draw- ca-sino /ka'siinau/ n [C] (pi '^s)
ing dealing with contemporary building, room for music, danc-
events, in an amusing way. 2 ing, and for gambling.
(also animated ~) film made by cask /ka:sk/ n [C] 1 barrel for
photographing a series of draw- liquids. 2 amount that a cask
ings. '>.'ist, person who draws holds.
cartoons (1 ). cas-ket /'kaskit/ n [C] 1 small
cartridge /'kaitnds/ n [C] 1 box to hold letters, jewels, etc. 2
case containing explosive with a (US) = coffin.
bullet or shot (for firing from a cas-sava /ka'sarva/ n [C,U]
rifie or shotgun). 2 part of a (tropical plant with) starchy
record-player that holds the root eaten as food.
stylus. 3 large cassette. cas-ser-ole /'kaesaraul/ n [C] 1
carve /'ka:v/ vt/i 1 make by cut- covered dish in which food is
ting a piece of wood or stone: ~ cooked. 2 food so cooked.
a statue. 2 cut up (cooked meat) cas-sette /ka'set/ n [C] (US =
into pieces or slices, carver, (a) cartridge) sealed container for
55 cassock /categorical

magnetic tape or film. covered animal often kept as a

cas-sock /'kaesak/ n [C] long pet. 2 any animal of the group
outer garment, worn by some that includes cats, tigers, lions,
priests. etc.''>^ burglar, one who enters

cast' /ka:st/ n [C] 1 act of throw- a building by climbing up walls,

ing (eg a net). 2 thing made by etc. ''>^-nap, short sleep.
casting(2) or pressing soft cata-combs /'k£t3ku:mz/ n pi
material into a mould: a plaster underground rooms for the
~. 3 mould for a casting. 4 set of burial of the dead.
actors in a play. 5 (of the eyes) catalogue (US = -log)
slight squint. /'kaetolog/ n [C] list of names,
cast^ /ka:st/ vt/i {pt.pp '^) 1 places, etc in a special order, a vt
throw; allow to fall: ~ a net. -^ make, put a catalogue.
one's eye over 5th. look at it. cat-a-pult /'kaetapAlt/ n [C] 1 Y-
2 pour (liquid metal) into a shaped stick with a piece of elas-
mould; make in this way: a fi- tic, for shooting stones, etc. 2 (in

gure ~
in bronze. 3 give (an ac- ancient times) machine for
tor) a part in a play. 4 '^ sbl throwing large stones, d vt shoot
sth aside, abandon. -^^ off. (as) from a catapult.
(a) unloose (a boat), (b) {fig) cata-ract /'kaetaraekt/ n [C] 1
throw away as unwanted. ^'^ large, steep waterfall. 2 disease
iron n [U] iron made in moulds. of the eye causing bhndness.
Hence, I'^-'iron adj (a) made ca-tarrh /k3'ta:(r)/ n [U] inflam-
of cast iron, (b) (fig) hard; mation in the nose and throat,
strong: a '^iron excuse. i'>^ing causing fiow of liquid.
'vote, one given to decide a ca-tas-trophe /ko'taestrofi/ n [CJ
question when votes on each event causing great suffering
side are equal. and destruction (eg a fiood).
cas-ta-nets /ikaesta'nets/ n pi cata-strophic /ikaeta'strofik/
hollow shells attached to the adJ
fingers to make clicking sounds. catch' /kastj/ n [C\ 1 act of
cast-away /'ka:st3wei/ n [C] catching (esp a ball). 2 that
shipwrecked person. which is caught: a good '^ offish.
caste /ka:st/ n [C] one of the 3 something intended to trick:
Hindu social classes. There's a ~in it somewhere. 4
cas-ti-gate /'kaestigeit/ vt pun- device for securing a door. etc.
ish severely; criticize, cas- catch^ /kaetj/ vt/i (pt.pp caught
ti'gationrt[C,U] /kD:t/) 1 stop and hold (some-
cast-ing /'ka:stii]/ n [C] thing thing in motion) (eg with the
made by being poured into a hands): ~ a ball. 2 capture;
mould. Ocast2(2). seize: -^ a thief. 3 surprise a per-
castle /'ka:sl/ n [C] 1 large build- son doing something (wrong).
ing fortified against attack. 2 ^ sb out. detect an error,
piece in the game of chess. fault. 4 be in time for: ~
a train.
cas-tor, cas-ter /'ka:st3(r)/ n 5 --w on, (a) understand, (b)
[C] 1 wheel fixed to the legs of a become popular. -^ sb up/up
chair. 2 small bottle for salt, with sb. come up to a person
sugar, etc. ''>^ sugar, very fine, going in the same direction. 6
white sugar. (cause to) be trapped: / caught
cas-tor oil /jkaistsr bil/ n [U] my fingers in the door. 7 under-
thick palm-oil, used as a medi- stand (the meaning oQ; hear
cine. (sound). '^ sb's eye. attract
cas-trate /kae'streit/ vt make (a his attention, -v, sight of. C>

male animal) useless for breed- sight(2). 8 become infected

ing; remove the testicles of with: ~ a cold.'^ fire, begin to
cas'trationw[C,U] burn. ''^.'Vv/ord, word, phrase,
cas-ual /'kae3U3l/ adJ 1 happen- used to draw attention (eg in ad-
ing by chance: a -^ meeting. 2 in- vertising).
formal: -^ clothes. 3 not per- catch-ing /'kietjir)/ adj (esp of
manent: labourers, 'x^ly adv
'^.^ diseases) infectious.
casu-alty 'ks303lti/ n [C] (pi catchy /'kstji/ adj (-ier, -iest)
-ies) person killed or injured in (of a tune) easily remembered.
war or an accident. cat-egori-cai /|k<eti'gDrikl adj
cat /kaet/ n [C] 1 small, fur- (of a statement) unconditional;
categorize /cement 56

absolute. '>.'lyai/v seback.

cat-egor-ize /'kxtigaraiz/ vt cave /keiv/ n [C] hollow place in
place in a category. the side of a cliff or hill, or under
cat-egory /'kstigan/ n [C] (pi the ground, a vt/i '>^ 'in. (cause
-ies) class in a complete system. to) fall in: the roof '^d in.
ca-ter /'keit3(r)/ vi 1 provide cav-ern /'kaevDn/ n [C] (///) large
food. 2 supply amusement, etc: cave.
TV programmes -v. for all tastes. caviar, cavi-are /'k2evia:(r)/ n
'^er, person who provides [U] pickled roe (eggs) of the
meals, etc to clubs, etc. sturgeon (a fish).
cat-er-pil-iar /'kaet3pil3{r)/ n [C] cav-ity /'kaevsti/ n [C] (pi -ies)
1 larva of a butterfly or moth. 2 small hole in a solid body: a'^in
endless belt passing over tooth- a tooth.
ed wheels on tanks, etc. cay-enne /kei'en/ n [U] (also ^
cat-gut /'kaetgAt/ n [U] material pepper) hot kind of red pepper.
used for the strings of violins, cease /si:s/ vtjistop (the usual
tennis rackets, etc. word): C-n. fire! '>^less adj
ca-the-dral /k3'ei:dr3l/ n [C] never ending. '>^less-ly a</v
chief church in a diocese. cedar /'si:d3(r)/nl [C] evergreen
cath-ode /'kaeGaod/ n [C] nega- tree with hard, sweet-smelling
tive electrode in a battery, etc. wood. 2 [U] the wood.
cath-olic /'kaeOahk/ adj^ gener- ceil-ing /'si:liq/ n [C] 1 upper
al; including many things: a man surface of a room. 2 maximum
with '^ tastes. 2 C'^, = Roman height or level: price I wage ^.
Catholic, a n C^, = Roman cel-ebrate /'selibreit/ vt 1 do
Catholic. something to show that a day or
Ca-tholi-cism /ks'Golssizsm/ n an event is important: ~ a birth-
[U] teaching, beliefs, etc of the day. 2 honour, cele-brated adi
Church of Rome. famous, cel-e'bra-tion n [C,UJ
catty /'kaeti/ adj (-ier. -iest) (esp) cp-ieb-rity /si'lebrati/ n (pi -ies)
sly and spiteful. 1 [U] fame and honour. 2 [C]
cattle /'kaetl/ «/?/ bulls, cows. famous person: television cele-
caught /koit/ pt.pp of catch'. brities.
caul-dron /'koildran/ n [C] large cel-ery /'sebri/ n [U] plant whose
pot in which things are boiled. white stems are eaten raw.
cauli-flower /'kDliflau3(r)/ n ce-les-tial /si'lestisl/ adj of the
[C,U] (vegetable with a) large, sky; of heaven: Stars are bo-~
white flower-head. dies.
cause /kD:z/ n 1 [C,U] that which celi-bate /'selibat/ adj. n [C] (of
produces an effect: The of the ~ an) unmarried person (esp for
fire. 2 [U] reason: '^ for com- religious reasons), celi-bacy n
plaint. 3
[C] purpose for which [U] state of living unmarried.
efforts are made: fight in the -^ cell /sel/ n [C] 1 small room (esp
of justice. D v/ be the cause of: in a prison or a monastery). 2
What ^d his death? unit of an apparatus for produc-
causeway /'kDzwei/ n [C] ing electric current by chemical
raised road or path. action. 3 microscopic unit of liv-
caus-tic /'koistik/ adj 1 able to ing matter. 4 small group of
burn by chemical action: -^^ ^o- people (in a secret organiza-
da. 2 (Jig) sarcastic, ^ally /-kh/ tion): terrorist '^s.
adv cel-lar /'sel3(r)/ n [C] under-
cau-tion /'kD:Jn/ n 1 [U] taking ground room for storing coal,
care; paying attention. 2 [C] wine, etc.
warning words; give him a •^, ceMist /'tjelist/ n [C] person who
warn him. a vt give a warning to. plays a cello.
'>-ary /'-ri/ adj giving advice or cello /'tjebu/ n [C] (pi '^s) large
warning. violin held between the knees.
cau-tious /'korjas/ at^ having or cel-lu-lar /'seljul3(r)/ a<^ consist-
showing caution. '>^ly adv ing of cells(3).
cav-ai-cade /,kaEvl'keid/ n [C] Cel-sius /'selsias/ n = centi-
procession of persons on horse- grade.
back or in carriages. ce-ment /si'ment/ n [U] 1 grey
cav-airy /'kaevlri/ n {sing or pi, powder which, when wet be-
-ies) soldiers who fight on hor- comes hard like stone and is
57 cemetery/chaff

used for building, etc. C> con- of special interest, etc: a 'shop-
crete. 2 soft substance that sets ping'^; the 'v^ of attraction, a vt;i
firm, used for filling holes (eg in place in the centre. on. con- ^
the teeth), or for joining things. centrate: '^ one's attention on an
D vt put in, join with, cement. idea.
cem-etery /'sematri/ n [C] {pi cen-trifu-gal /sen'trifjugl/ adj
-ies) land used for burials. moving away from the centre: '^
ceno-taph /'senataf/ n [C] mo- force .

nument to a person buried else- cen-tury /'sent Jan/ n [C] {pi -ies)
where. 1 100 years. 2 100 runs in crick-
cen-sor /'sens3(r)/ n [C] (esp) of- et.
ficial with authority to examine ce-ramic /si'rasmik/ adj of the
books, films, etc and to remove art of pottery, ce-ramics, (a)
anything he considered harmful. (with a sing verb) art of making
D vt examine, cut out, parts of (a and decorating pottery, (b)
book, etc). ''>^ship, office, (with a pi verb) articles made of
work, etc of a censor. porcelain, clay, etc.
cen-sure /'senj3(r)/ vt {formal) cer-eal /'siarial/ n [C] (usually pi)
criticizeunfavourably, a n [C,U] grain used for food.
rebuke; disapproval. cer-emo-nial /isen'maonisl/ adj
cen-sus /'sensas/ n [C] {pi ~es) as used for ceremonies: a -^ car-
official counting of the popula- riage, a n [C.U] special order of
tion, traffic, etc. ceremony; formality, --^^ly adv
cent /sent/ n [C] the 100th part of ceremoni-ous /iseri'maunias/
a dollar or other currency; coin adj fond of, marked by, formal-
of this value, per '^, {" ^) for ity. '^\y adv
every 100: a 10 per ^ increase. cer-emony /'serimsni/ n [C] {pi
cen-taur /'sentD:(r)/ n [C] (Greek -ies) 1 [C] special act(s), reli-
myth) creature, half man and gious service, etc on a special oc-
halfhorse. casion. 2 [U] formal behaviour.
cen-ten-ar-ian /jsenti'nearian/ n cer-tain /'sartn/ adj 1 settled; of
[C], fljy (person) (more than) 100 which there is no doubt. 2 con-
years old. vinced; having no doubt, make
cen-ten-ary /isen'timan/ adj. n '^, do something to be sure: I'll
[C] {pi -ies) of a 100th anniver- make ~
he comes 3 sure to hap-
sary. pen: a ~
cure. 4 not named on ^^
cen-ten-niai /sen'temal/ adj. n conditions. 5 some, but not
= centenary, ^ly adv much: There was a '^ coldness in
cen-ter /'sent3(r)//7(L'5) = cen- her attitude, '^ly adv (a) with-
tre. out doubt: He will ^ly die. (b)
cen-ti-grade 'sentigreid/ adj'm (in answer to questions) yes.
or of the temperature scale that cer-tain-ty /'saitanti/ n 1 [C] {pi
has 100 degrees between the -ies) thing that is certain. 2 [U]
freezing-point and the boiling- state of being sure.
point of water. cer-tifi-cate /ss'tifikai/ n [C]
centimetre {US = -meter) written statement, that may be
/'sentimi:t3(r)/ n [C] the 100th used as proof: a 'birth ~.
part of a metre. cer-tify /'saitifai/ vt/i(pt.pp-\e<i)
cen-ti-pede /'sentipi:d/ n [C] declare (usually by giving a cer-
small, crawling creature with tificate) that one is certain, that
many feet. something is true: ^ him dead/
cen-tral /'sentral/ a^// 1 of, at, the insane.
centre.2 most important. ,'>- cess-pit /'sespit/, cesspool
'heating, system of heating a /'sespu:l/ n [C] underground
building from a central source tank into which drains empty.
through radiators, etc. 'X/ly adv chafe /tjeif/ vtii 1 make (the
cen-tral-ize /'sentralaiz/ vtji 1 skin) rough or sore by rubbing.
bring to the centre. 2 bring un- 2 feel irritation: ~ at the delay, a
der central (esp government) n [C] sore place on the skin.
control, cen-tral-i'z-ation n chaff /tja:f/ n [U] 1 outer cover-
[U] ing {husks) of grain, removed
centre {US = center) before the grain is used as food.
'sent3(r)/ n [C] 1 middle part or 2 hay or straw cut up as food for
point. 2 place of great activity, cattle.

chagrin/chant 58

chagrin /'Jaegrin/ n [U] disap- cham-pion 'tjaempian/ n [C] 1

pointment or annoyance. person who speaks in
fights or
chain /tjein/ n [C] 1 line of con- support of another or of a cause.
nected links or rings. 2 connect- 2 person, team taking the first
ed things, events, etc: a of ^ place in a competition, a vt sup-
mountains, a vi make secure port; defend, -^ship, (a) [Ul
with a chain: He was ~
ed to the act of championing, (b) [C] con-
wall. '~ reaction, chemical test to find a champion(2).
change forming products that chance^ /tjcrns/ n 1 [U] the hap-
cause further changes. '«>>'- pening of events without any
smoker, person who smokes cause that can be seen; fortune
cigarettes one after the other. or luck, by '^, unexpectedly. 2
''>^-store, one of many shops [C,U] possibility: no •^ of win-
owned by the same company. ning. 3 [C] opportunity: the of ~
chair /tJeD(r) n [C] 1 separate a lifetime, d adj happening by
movable seat for one person. 2 chance(l). chancy adj (-ier,
seat, office, of a person who pre- -iest) (informal) risky
sides at a meeting. 3 position of chance^ /tja:ns/ vt/i 1 happen
a professor, a v7 1 lift and carry by chance: / ~c/ to be there. 2
(a person who wins a race). 2 ~ take a risk.
a meeting, act as chairman. chan-cel /'tjarnsl/ n [C] eastern
''>^man, person controlling a part of a church.
meeting. chan-cel-lor /'tja:ns3l3(r)/ n [C]
chalet /'Jaelei; n [C] 1 Swiss 1 important government minis-
mountain hut built of wood. 2 ter: the C~ of the Exchequer. 2
summer coyage in the same (of some universities) honorary
style. head. 3 (in eg Germany) chief
chalk /tJo:k/ n 1 [U] soft, white minister of state.
substance used for making lime. chan-de-lier /JaEnd3'li3(r)/ n [C]
2 [C,U] this material made into branched support, hanging
sticks for writing, d vt write. from a ceiling, for a number of
whiten, with chalk, chalky adj lights.
of, containing, like, chalk. change^ /tjemds/ n 1 [C] chang-
chaMenge /'tjaehnds/ n [C] invi- ed condition(s); thing used in
tation or call to play a game, place of another: a ~
of clothes.
have a fight, etc. a vt give, be, a 2 [U] money in coins; money
challenge to; ask for facts (to that is the difference between the
support a statement, etc): a ~ price and the sum offered in
person's right to do something. payment. 3 [C,U] alteration.
chal-lenger, person who chal- for a ~, for the sake of variety.
lenges. change^ /tjemd3/ V7//1 leave one
cham-ber /'tjeimbe(r)/ n 1 (old place and go to another: ad- ~
use)room. 2 (hall used by a) dress. 2 take something off and
law-making assembly. 3 group put something else on: to '^
of persons organized for trade: a clothes. 3 give and receive in re-
C~ of Commerce. 4 space in a turn: ~ a traveller's cheque. 4
gun that holds a cartridge. make or become dilTerent. ->/
''>^maid, maid who keeps bed- one's mind, decide on a new
rooms in order in hotels. ''>- plan, etc. ^able /-M/ adj likely
music, music for a small num- to alter; able to be changed.
ber of players. chan-nel /'tjaenl/ n [C] 1 stretch
cha-meleon /kaimiilian/ n [C] of water joining two seas: The
small lizard whose colour English C~. 2 passage along
changes according to its back- which a liquid may flow. 3 (fig)
ground. any way by which news, ideas,
cham-ois /'Jaemwa:/ n [C] small etcmay travel, through the
animal like a goat. 2 soft leather usual '^s, by the usual means
from the skin of goats. of communication. 4 band of
champ /tjaemp/ vt/i^ (of horses) radio or TV frequencies, a vt (
bite noisily. 2 {fig) show impa- II-, 6^5 also-!-) 1 form a channel
tience. in. 2 cause to go through chan-^
cham-pagne /Jaem'pem/ n [C, nels: ~ water into fields; one's ~
U] white, sparkling French efforts into hard work.
wine. chant /tja:nt/ n [C] 1 tune for
chaos /chaste

psalms. 2 several words sung on services. 4 amount of powder

one note, a vt/i sing a chant: causing an explosion; energy in
'^ing football crowds. an electrical battery, etc. 5 [C,U]
chaos 'keiDs/ n [U] complete responsibility: Mary was in -^ of
absence of order; confusion. the baby, take ^^ of, be re-
cha-otic /kei'otik/ adj in a state sponsible for; take control of.
of chaos; confused, cha-oti- charge^ /tja:d3/ vt;i 1 accuse:
callyadv He was ^d with murder. 2 rush
chap^ /tjaep/ n [C] (informal) forward (and attack). 3 ask in
man. payment. 4 load (a gun); put a
chap^ /tJaep/ vt'i (-pp-) (of the charge (4) into. 5 --^ with, give
skin) (cause to) become rough, as a task.
cracked, a n [C] crack, esp in the charge d'affaires /Ja:3ei
skin. d«'fe3(r) n [C] (p/ charges d'af-
chapel /'tjaepl/ n [C] 1 place used faires) deputy ambassador.
for Christian worship, eg in a char-iot 'tjaenaf n [C] horse-
school. 2 small place within a drawn vehicle with two wheels,
church with an altar. used in ancient times in fighting.
chap-lain /'tjaeplm/ n [C] priest, "•^eer ,'|tjaeri3'ti9(r)/ n [C] driver
esp in the armed forces. of a chariot.
chap-ter ''tjaept9(r)/ n [C] 1 chari-table /'tjaeritsbl/ adj
(usually numbered) division of a showing, having, for, charity.
book. 2 (general meeting of the) chari-tably /-sbli/ adv
canons of a cathedral church. char-itv/'tj2er3ti/rj(p/-ies)1 [U]
char^ /tj"a:(r)/ vt/i (-rr-) make money, food, given to the p>oor 2
black by burning. [C] organization for helping the
chaH /tj'a:(r)/ vi (-rr-) clean of- poor. 3 [U] kindness to other
fices, houses, etc. o n [C] = persons.
charwoman. '-^woman, char-la-tan /'Jaibtan/ n [C] per-
woman who earns money by son who claims to have more
charring. skill, etc than he has.
char-ac-ter /'kaersktsir)/ n 1 [U] charm /tja:m/ n 1 [U] attractive-
(of a person, etc) mental or mor- ness; power to give pleasure. 2
al qualities that make one per- [C] pleasing quality. 3 [C] thing
son different from others, out believed to have magic power: a
of -^, unlike a person's known lucky ^. n vt/i 1 attract; give
character. 2 [U] moral strength: pleasure to. 2 use magic on.
a man of '^. 3 [U] nature, qual- '>-'ing «(// delightful.
ity, of a thing: the -^ of the de- chart /tjart/ n[C] 1 map used by
sert. 4 [C] person who is well sailors.2 sheet of paper with in-
known; person in a novel, play, formation, in the form of dia-
etc. 5 [CJ letter, sign used in writ- grams, etc: a weather ^. n vt

ing or printing: Chinese ^s. make a chart of

'x/less adj ordinary; not char-ter "tj"a:t3(r)/ n [C] 1
special. (statement oQ rights, permis-
char-ac-teristic /ikaerak- sion, esp from a ruler or govern-
ta'nstik/ a^' typical: his 'n. angry ment. 2 hiring (of an aircraft, a
reply a n [CJ special mark or ship, etc): a '^flight, n vt 1 give
quahty. ^ally l-kei/'adv a charter to. 2 hire a ship, an air-
char-ac-ter-ize /'kaersktsraiz, craft, etc for an agreed purpose.
vt show or mark in a special char-woman /'tjaiwumsn/ n C>
way. char^.
cha-rade /Ja'rard/ n [C] 1 game chase /tjeis/ vt/i run after in
in which a word guessed by
is order to capture, kill or drive
the onlookers after each syllable away, n n [Cj act of chasing.
of it has been acted 2 pointless chasm /'kaezam/ n [C] 1 deep
action. opening in the ground. 2 (fig)
char-coal /'tjaikaul/ n [U] black wide difference (of interests).
substance, of burnt wood, used chas-sis "Jaesi/ n [C] (pi ~) 1
as fuel, for drawing, etc. framework of a motor-vehicle. 2
charge^ /tjaids/ n [C] 1 accusa- landing-gear of an aircraft.
tion of (a crime). 2 violent at- chaste /tjeist/ adj 1 virtuous. 2
tack at high speed (by soldiers, (esp) avoiding sexual activity 3
etc). 3 price asked for goods or (of style, taste) simple.
chasten /chest 60

chasten /'tjeisn/ vt correct by struct and defeat (a person, his

punishment. plans). D /J [C] 1 complete de-
chas-tise /tjac'staiz/ vi punish feat. 2 trapping of an op-
severely. ~ment n [U] punish- ponent's kmg in chess.
ment. cheek /tji:k/ n [C] 1 either side of
chas-tity /'tjacstoti/ n [U] state the face below the eye. 2 [U] im-
ofbeingchaste(1,2). pudence. D vt be impudent lo
chat tjaet/ n [C] friendly, infor- cheeky adj (-ier, -lest) im-
mal talk. D vtji (-tt-) have a chat. pudent, '^ily adv
'>^tv adj (-ier, -iest) fond of cheer^ /tjio(r)/ n 1 [U] state of
chatting. hope, gladness. 2 [C] shout of
cha-teau /'Jaetau/ n [C] (pi ~x joy or encouragement, -^^ful adj
/-tauz/) castle or large country (a) bringing happiness: a -^
house in France. day. (b) happy and contented.
chat-ter/'tJaetaCr)/ v/1 (of a per- '>-ifully adv. '^^less adj without
son) talk quickly or foolishly. 2 comfort; gloomy.
(of a person's teeth) strike cheeH /tji3(r)/ vt/i 1 make
together from cold or fear d n happy: The good news '^ed me
flJ] 1 foolish talk. 2 excited, in- (up). 2 take comfort, become
distinct noise. ''>-box, person happy. 3 give shouts of joy, ap-
whochatters(1 ). proval or encouragement.
chauf-feur n [C] per-
/'J3uf9(r)/ '>^ingn[\J],adj
son paid to drive a private car. cheerio /,t|iori'3u/ ini (informal)
chau-vin-ism /'Jauvmizam/ n goodbye.
[U] excessive enthusiasm for cheery /'tjiari/ adj (-ier,-iest)
one's country, sexual superior- merry, cheerily adv
ity, etc.'chau-vin-ist, person cheese /tj"i:z/ n [C,U] solid food
with such enthusiasm: a male ~. made from milk curds. ''>^-
chau-vi'nistic adj cloth, thick, cotton cloth.
cheap /tji:p/ adj (-er, -est) 1 chee-tah /'tji:t3/ n [C] kind of
costing little money. 2 of poor leopard.
quality: ~ and nasty. 3 shallow: chef /Jef/ n [C] (pi ~s) head cook
~ emotion, ^ly adv. '>^ness n in a hotel, restaurant etc.
[U]. ^en vtji make or become chemi-cal /'kemikl/ adj of,
cheap. made by, chemistry, a n [C] sub-
cheat /tji:t/ vtji act in a dis- stance used in chemistry, -x/ly
honest way: ~ a person out of his /-kh/ adv
money: ~ in an examination, a n chem-ist /'kemist/ n [C] 1 expert
[C] person who cheats; dis- inchemistry. 2 person who pre-
honest trick. pares and sells medical goods,
check^ /tjek/ n [U] 1 control; toilet articles, etc.
person or thing that controls or chem-is-try /'kemistri/ n [U]
restrains: a '^ on his progress. 2 branch of science that deals with
examination to make certain of how substances are made up
accuracy. 3 receipt given tem- and how they combine.
porarily for something handed cheque /tJek/ n [C] (US =
over, '-^up, (esp a medical) ex- check) written order to a bank
amination. to pay money. ''>^-book, num-
check^ /tJek/ vt/i 1 examine in ber of cheques fastened to-
order to learn whether some- gether.
thing is correct: a students~ cherish /'tjenj/ vt 1 care for
answer. 2 hold back; cause to go tenderly. 2 keep alive (hope,
slow or stop: He couldn't his ~ etc): '^ the memory of.
anger. 3 threaten an opponent's cherry /'tjeri/ n [C] (pi -ies) (tree
king in chess. 4 '^ in. register at with) small, red fruit, with a
a hotel, etc. 'y^ out. pay one's stone,a adj bright red.
bill and leave, '-^--out, (esp) cherub /'tjerab/ n [C] 1 (pi ~s)
place (eg in a supermarket) small beautiful child; (in art)
where one pays the bill. such a child with wings. 2 (pi
check" /tJek/ n [U] pattern of ~im/-bim/) angel.
crossed lines forming squares. chess /tjes/ n [U] board game
check-mate /'tjekmeit/ vt 1 for two players.
make a move chess that traps
in chest n [C] 1 strong box.
the opponent's king. 2 (fig) ob- 2 upper front part of the body.
61 chestnut/choice

,'>^ of 'drawers, piece of furni- ''>^pot, pipe fitted to the top of

ture with drawers. a chimney. ''>-stack, group of
chest-nut /'tJesnAt/ n 1 [C,U] chimneys. '^v/-sweep(er),
tree with smooth, bright man who sweeps soot from
reddish-brown nut. 2 colour of chimneys.
the nut. aaJ/ reddish-brown. chim-pan-zee /itjimpaen'zi:/ n
chew /tju:/ vt/i move (food, etc) [C] African ape.
about between the teeth in order chin /'tjm/ n \C\ part of the face
to crush it. d n [C] act of chew- below the mouth.
ing; thing to chew. ''>>^ing-gum, china /'tjaina/ n [U] 1 baked and
sweet, sticky substance for glazed fine white clay. 2 articles
chewing. (eg cups, plates) made from this.
chic /Ji:k/ n [U] superior chink^ /tj"ir)k n [C] narrow
style;elegance d adj styVish.
chick /tjik/ n [C] young bird, esp chink^ /tjigk/ vtji. n [C] (make

a young chicken. the) sound of coins, glasses, etc

chicken /'tjikm/ n 1 [C] young striking together.
bird, esp a young hen. (Don't) chip tjip/ n [C] 1 small piece cut

count your '^s before they or broken off (from wood,

are hatched, (Don't) be too stone, china, etc), have a -^ on
hopeful of your chances of suc- one 's shoulder, feel that one
cess, etc. 2 [U] flesh of a young has been unfairly treated. 2 strip
hen as food, n adj (informal) cut from a potato, etc: fish and
lacking in courage, ''x/pox, dis- '^s. 3 place (in china) from
ease producing red spots on the which a chip has come, a vtji (-
skin. pp-) 1 cut or break (a piece ofT
chic-ory /'tjikari/ n [U] 1 plant or from). 2 (of things) be broken
used as a vegetable. 2 the root at the edge. 3 -^^ '//», (informal)
roasted and made into a powder (a) interrupt, (b) contribute
(used with coffee). money.
chief /tji:f/ n [C] 1 leader or rul- chi-rop-ody /ki'ropadi/ n [U]
er. 2 head of a department, d adj treatment of troubles of the feet.
1 principal; most important. 2 chi'-rop-odist/i[C]
first in rank, -in-'chief, sup- chirp /tj3:p/ vtli. n [C] (make)
reme: the Commander-in-'^. short, sharp sounds (as of small
'>^ly adv mostly; mainly. birds).
chief-tain /'tjirftan/ n [C] chief chirpy /'tjarpi/ adj (-ier,-iest)
ofa clan or tribe. lively, happy.
child /tjaild/ n [C] (pi children chisel /'tjizl/ n [C] steel tool used
Z'tjildran/) 1 young human be- for shaping wood, etc. d vt (-II-)
ing. 2 son or daughter. cut or shape with a chisel.
''>-hood, state, time, of being a chit /tjit/ n [C] note of a sum of
child, ''^ish adj (of adults) be- money owed.
having Uke, a child, ^-v/less adj chiv-alry /'Jivlri/ n [U] 1 laws
having no child(ren). ''>^like adj and customs of the knights in
simple, innocent. the Middle Ages. 2 kindness,
chill /tjil/ n 1 (sing only) un- courtesy, esp to the weak and
pleasant feeling of coldness. 2 women, chiv-al-rous adj
(sing only) (fig) depressed feel- chloro-form /"klorsfDim/ n [U]
ing: The bad news cast a over ~ liquid to make a person uncon-
the meeting. 3 [C] illness caused scious during a surgical opera-
by cold and damp, a adj un- tion. D vt use chloroform.
pleasantly cold, a vtji make or choc-olate /'tjokbt/ n 1 [U]
become cold, chilly adj (-ier, substance made from cocoa. 2
-lest) (a) rather cold, (b) (fig) [C] drink or sweet(l) made
unfriendly. from this, a at^dark brown.
chilli /'tjih/ n [C,U] dried pod of choice /'tjDis/ n 1 [C] act of
red pepper, tasting very hot. choosing. 2 lU] possibility of
chime /tjaim/ n [Cj (sound ofa) choosing: / had no -^ but to
tuned set of bells, a v/// (of bells, leave.3 [C] variety from which
a clock) (make) ring. to choose: a large -^ of bags. 4
chim-ney /'tjimm/ n [C] (pi ~s) [C] person or thing chosen: This
structure through which smoke, is my ~. a adj unusually good:
from a fire is carried away. '^ fruit.

choir/chunk 6

choir /'kwai3(r) n [C] 1 com- baptism. ''>^ing n [C]

pany of persons trained to sing Christendom /'knsndam/nall
together, esp in church. 2 part of Christian people
a church for the choir. Christian 'kristjan^ adj of Je-
choke' lJ"3ok vi i 1 be unable sus and the religion based on his
to breathe because of something teaching d n person believing in
m the windpipe, or because of the religion of Christ. '-^^ name,
emotion. 2 stop the breathing first name.
of. 3 fill a passage that is usually Chris-ti-an-ity ikristi'aenati/ n
clear: a drain '\^d{un) with dirt. [U] the Christian religion.
choke^ tjauk n (C] valve in a Christ-mas 'krismas n [C] {pi
petrol engine to control the in- ' (also1^ ^Day) yearly cele-
take of air. bration of the birth of Jesus
chol-era 'kobra r\ [U] infec- Christ. 25 December.
tious and often fatal disease, chrome kraum n [U] yellow
common in hot countries. colouring matter used in paints,
choose tju:z vii (pt chose etc.
/tjauz', pp chosen 'tjauzn ) 1 chro-mium 'kraumiam/ n [U]
select from a great number. 2 element (symbol Cr) used to
decide: He ^ to become a doctor. prevent rust on other metals.
chop' tjop n [C] 1 chopping chro-mo-some 'kraumasaum/
blow. 2 thick slice of meat with n [C] tiny thread in every nucleus
the bone in it. in animal and plant cells, carry-
chop* tjop vti (-PP-) cut into ing genes.
pieces with an axe, etc. chronic 'kronik adj (of a dis-
chop-per ''tjop^r)' n [C] 1 ease) lasting for a long time. O
heavy tool for chopping meat, acute(2). '>^ally -hei' aJv
wood, etc. 2 {informal) heli- chron-icle 'kronikl' n [C] re-
copter. cord of events in order of time, a
choppy 'tjopi adj (-ier, -iest) 1 \7 make, a chronicle.
(of the sea) moving in short, ir- chrono-logi-cal ,kron3-
regular waves. 2 (of the wind) 'lodsikl adj in order of time.
continually changing. '^\^fadv
chop-sticks 'tjopstiks n pi chron-ol-ogy kra'noladsi n {pi
pair of sticks used by Chinese -ies) 1 [U] science of fixing
and Japanese for lifting food to dates. 2 [C] arrangement of
the mouth. events with dates.
choral 'koiral/ adj of, for, sung chron-ometer ''kr3'nDmit3(r)
by, a choir. n [C] very accurate clock.
chord koid n [C] 1 straight line chrysa-lis /'knsalis n [C] {pi
that joins two points on the cir- ~es) shell-like form taken by an
cumference of a circle. 2 combi- insect just before it Hies as a
nation of musical notes in har- moth, butterfiy, etc.
mony. chry-san-the-mum kn'saen-
chore /tjD:(r)/ n [C] 1 ordinary Gamam' n [C] {pi ~s) (fiower cf
everyday task. 2 small un- a) garden plant blooming in
pleasant duty. autumn and early winter.
choreography ikori'Dgrafi/ /i chubby /'tjAbi/ adj (-ier, -iest)
[U] art of designing dances. fat, round.
chore'ographer, n [C] chuck' /tjAk/ vt {informal) 1
chor-is-ter 'kDrist3(r)' n [C] throw. 2 give up (in disgust): '>^

person who sings in a choir. inone's job.

chorus 'ko:r9s/ n [C] {pi ~es) 1 chuck* tjAk/ n [C] 1 part of a
(music for a) group of singers. 2 lathe which grips the object to be
(part of a) song for all to sing. 3 worked on. 2 part which grips
something said by many people the bit on a drill.
together: a ~
o/ approval, n vt chuckle /'tjaekl/ n [C] low, quiet
sing, speak, in chorus. laugh, a vt laugh in this way.
chose, chosen c> choose. chum /tjAm/ n [C] {dated) close
Christ /kraist/ n title given to Je- friend (esp among boys). '>^my
sus, now used as His name. adj (-ier, -iest) friendly.
christen /'knsn/ vt receive (an chump /tjAmp/ n [C] 1 thick
infant) into the Christian church piece of, eg meat. 2 {si) fool.
by baptism; give a name to at the chunk /tjArjk' n [C] thick piece
63 church/city

or lump, chunky adj (-ier, place to place freely. 2 cause to

-iest) short and thick. circulate, cir-cu'la-tion n (a)
church /tj"3:tj[/ n [C] building for [U] circulating, esp the move-
pubHc Christian worship, enter ment of the blood, (b) [U] state
the C'-N-, become a minister of of being circulated: put coins in-
reUgion. '-"^^yard, burial ground to ~. (c) [C] number of copies
round a church. of a newspaper sold.
churn /tJ3:n/ n [C] 1 tub in which cir-cum-cise /'s3:k9msaiz/ vt re-
cream is shaken to make butter. move the skin at the end of the
2 very large can in which milk is penis, circum-cision /-'si3n/
carried, a vtji 1 make (butter) in n[C,V]
a churn. 2 stir about violently. circumference /s3:'kAm-
chute /J"u:t/ n [C] 1 long, narrow, farsns; n [C] 1 Ime that marks
steep slope down which things out a circle. 2 distance round:
may slide. 2 smooth fall of water the earth's ^.
over a slope. cir-cum-f lex /'s3:k9mfleks/ n [C]
chut-ney /'tjAtni/ n [U] hot- mark placed over a vowel (as in
tasting mixture of fruit, spices. French role).
cider /'said9(r)/ n [U] fermented circumnavi-gate /,S3:k9m-
applejuice. 'naevigeit/ vt sail round (esp the
cigar /si'ga:(r)/ n [C] tight roll of world), circumnavi'ga-tion
tobacco leaves for smoking. « [C,U]
ciga-rette /iSiga'ret/ n [C] roll of cir-cumstance /'S3:k9mst9ns/
shredded tobacco in thin paper n [C] 1 (usually pf) conditions,
for smoking. connected with an event or per-
cin-der /'smd3(r)/ n [C] small son, in/under the '^s, such
piece of coal, etc partly burned. being the state of affairs. 2 fact:
cin-ema /'smama/' n 1 [C] place His death is an unfortunate '^. 3
where films are shown. 2 [U] ip{) financial condition.
moving pictures as an art or in- circum-stan-tial /|S3:k9m-
dustry. 'staenjl/adj 1 (of a description)
cin-na-mon /'smaman/ n [U] 1 giving full details. 2 (of
brown spice used in cooking. 2 evidence) based on details that
its colour, yellowish brown. suggest strongly but do not pro-
cipher, cypher /'saif9(r)/ n [C] vide proof.
1 the symbol 0, representing circus /'s3:k9s/ n [C] (pi ~es) 1
nought. 2 {fig) person or thing a show of performing animals,
of no importance. 3 secret writ- acrobats, etc. 2 (esp in proper
ing. names) open space where streets
circa prep (Latin) (abbr
/'saika/ meet: Piccadilly C-^.
= ca) about (with dates):
c, cis-tern /'sistgn/ n [C] water
horn ~ 150 BC. tank, eg as above of a lavatory.
circle /'s3:kl/ n [C] 1 space en- cite /sait/ vt 1 give as an example
closed by a curved line, every (esp by quoting from a book). 2
point on which is the same dis- (legal) summon to appear in
tance from the centre. 2 ring. 3 court, ci-ta-tion /sai'teijn/ n
seats between the gallery and the [C,U]
floor of a theatre. 4 group of citi-zen /'sitizn/ n [C] 1 person
persons: a ~
o/ friends, a vtji who lives in a town. 2 person
move in a circle; go round. who has full rights in a State.
circuit /'saikit/ n [C] 1 journey ''>^ship, being, rights and du-
in a circle. 2 closed path for an ties of, a citizen.
electrical current. C> short- cit-ric /'sitrik/ adj ~
acid, acid
circuit. 3 connected group of from such fruits as lemons and
places, events: the tennis ~. limes.
'>^ous /S3:'kju:it3s/ adj going a cit-rous /'sitrgs/ adj of the citrus
long way round: a '^ous route. fruits.
cir-cu-lar /'s3:kjub(r)/ at^' round cit-rus /'sitras/ n [C\ (pi ~es)
in shape; moving round, a n [C] kinds of tree including the le-
printed letter, advertisement, etc mon, orange and grapefruit, a
of which many copies are distri- a<^' of these trees: ^^ fruit.
buted. city /'siti/ n [C] (pi -ies) 1 large
circu-late /'s3:kjuleit/ vt/i 1 go and important town; town given
round continuously; move from special rights in self-

government. 2 the C'-^, finan- tightly by means of a screw, o

cial centre of London 3 people 17// 1 put a clamp on 2 -\^
living in a city. </otvn (on), (informal) sup-
civic /'sivik/ at// of the affairs of a press; stop: -^^ down on drunken
town or a citizen. drivers. Hence,'^-down n [C]
civil /'sivl/ adj 1 of human so- clan klaenn [C] large family
ciety: ~ rights. 2 not of the arm- group, esp in Scotland.
ed forces. O military 3 politely clandes-tine klaen'deslm/ adj
helpful. 1^ ,engi'neering, the secret: ->^ organizations.
design and building of roads, clang klaer)/ vtji. n [C] (make a)
bridges, docks, etc |~ 'rights, loud ringing sound.
rights of a citizen to political, so- clap klaep/ vtji (-pp-) 1 show
cial freedom or equality, ,'v. approval, by striking the hands
'servant, official in the Civil together; do this as a signal. 2
Service the |C'>^ 'Service, all strike lightly with the hand: -^
government departments, -^--ly somebody on the back. 3 put
adv politely. '>-itv si'vibti n quickly: ~f J in prison. -^ eyes
(a) [U] politeness, (b) (pi) pol- on sb, (informal) catch sight of
ite acts. a n ^ loud explosive noise (of
ci-vil-ian si'vilian' n [C], adj thunder). 2 sound of the hands
(person) not serving with the brought tbgether.
armed forces. claret "klaerst n [U] 1 red wine
civilization iSivalai'zeiJn n 1 from Bordeaux. 2 its colour, d
[U] civilizing or being civilized; adj dark red.
state of being civilized. 2 [C] clar-ify 'klaenfai/ vtli (pt.pp
system, stage of, social develop- -led) 1 make or become clear or
ment: Greek ^. 3 [U] civilized intelligible. 2 make (a liquid,
States collectively. etc) free from impurities, clari-
civi-lize "sivalaiz/ vt 1 bring out fi'Ca-tion /,klaenfi'keijn/ n [U]
of a savage or ignorant state (by being clarified.
education, etc). 2 improve and clari-net /(klaeri'net/ n [C] music-
educate. al woodwind instrument.
claim^ kleim' n 1 [C] act of '>^tist, person who plays the
claiming: a - for more pay. 2 clarinet.
[C] sum of money demanded, eg clar-ity /'klaerati/ n [U] clearness.
under an insurance agreement. clash /klaej/ vt/i 1make a loud
3 [U] right to ask for. 4 [C] noise (as when metal objects
something claimed; piece of strike together). 2 meet in con-
land given to a gold-miner. flict. 3 (of events) interfere with
claim^ /kleim/ vt/i 1 demand re- each other; happen at the same
cognition of a fact: to he the~ time. 4 be in disagreement, n n
owner. 2 say that something is a [C] 1 clashing noise. 2 disagree-
fact: He ~5 to be English. 3 (of ment; confiict.
things) deserve: matters that -^ clasp /kla:sp/ n [C] 1 device with
attention, ^s^ant n [C] p>erson two parts that fasten. 2 firm
who makes a claim, esp in law. hold. D vt/i 1 hold tightly. 2 fas-
clairvoy-ance /klea'vDians/ n ten with a clasp(1 ).
[U] power of seeing in the mind class klars/ n [C] 1 group hav-
what is happening or exists be- ing qualities of the same kind. 2
yond the normal range of the [UJ system of ranks in society. 3
senses, clairvoy-ant person group of persons taught to-
with such power. gether. 4 grade won in an exami-
clam /klaem/ n [C] large shellfish. nation. S (informal) excellence;
clam-ber /'klaemb3(r)/ vi climb style: a top ~
tennis player, d vt
with difficulty, a n [C] awkward place in a class(1 ). room,
climb. room used for teaching.
clammy /'klaemi/ adj (-ier, -iest) clas-sic /'klaesik/ adj 1 of the
damp and sticky. highest quality; having a recog-
clamour (US = clamor) nized value. 2 famous because
/'klaem3(r)/ n [C,U] loud, con- of a long history, a « [C] 1 writ-
fused noise, a vi '^ for, demand er, artist, book, etc of the highest
noisily. class. 2 ancient Greek or Latin
clamp /klaemp/ n [C] apphance writer. 3 (pi) the -^s, (literature
for holding things together oO ancient Greece and Rome. 4
65 classical/client

university course in the clas- make oneself '>^, make

sics(3). oneself understood. 5 free from
clas-si-cal /'klaesikl/ adjt in. of, obstacles. 6 certain: / am not '^
the best (esp ancient Greek and as to what to do. a n [U] in the
Roman) art and literature. 2 of ->.', free from suspicion, et*j. ,'x/-

proved value: '^ mu^ic, eg of 'headed, able to think well.

Mozart. '>^ly«^/v cleaH /kli3(r)/ adv 1 distinctly: /
clas-sify /'klaesifai/ vt (pt.pp can hear you loud and'^. 2 com-
-ied) arrange in classes; put into pletely: The prisoner got '>^
a class(1). clas-si-fi-ca-tion away. 3 without touching: He
/.klaesifi'keifn/ n [C,U]. clas-si- jumped '^ of the bar. keep/
fied adj (a) arranged in stand '^. keep away. '>^ness n
classes(1 (b) officially secret.
). [U] state of being clear.
ciat-ter n [U] loud
/'kla;t3(r)/ clear* /kli3(r)/ v/// 1 remove, get
noise (as of plates or tins fal- rid of. 2 get past or over without
ling). D vt/i make a clatter. touching: '^ a wall. 3 become
clause /kb:z/ n [C] 1 (gram) part bright: The sky soon '^ed 4 'n^ .

of a sentence, with its own sub- away, take away; go away. '>^
ject and predicate. 2 (legaf) com- off. (of unwanted persons) go
plete paragraph in an agree- away: C-*- off! '>^ out. (a)
ment, etc. empty, (b) go away. ^
up. be-
claus-trO'pho-bia /,kb:str3- come clear, c/ear sth up. (a)
'faubia/ n [U] fear of confined make tidy, (b) solve (a mystery,
places. etc^.
claw /kb:/ n [C] 1 hooked nail clearance n [C] 1
on the foot of an animal or bird. clearing up. 2 [C.U] clear space
2 pincers of a shellfish. 3 device between: -^ under a bridge. 3 [U]
like a claw (eg on a machine for permission (eg for a ship to leave
lifting things), a vt get hold of, port).
scratch, with claws. clearing /'kliariq/ n [C] open
clay /klei/ n [U] stifT, sticky earth space in a forest.
from which bricks, pots, etc are clear-ly /'kliali/ adv 1 distinctly.
made. 2 (in answers) defintely.
clean^ /kli:n/ adj (-er, -est) 1 free cleave /kli:v/ vt/i (pt clove
from dirt. 2 not yet used: a '^ /kbuv/, cleft /kleft/; pp cleft or
sheet of paper. 3 pure; innocent: cloven /'kbuvn/) cut into two
a 'N. joke. 4 even; regular: a ^ (with an axe, etc).
cut. a ac/v completely: I '^forgot clef /kief/ n [C] musical symbol
it. come make a full confes-
'^. to show the pitch of the notes.
sion. D n [U] (witha) cleaning. cleft /kleft/ C> cleave.
,/-^.'cut adj sharply outlined. clem-ency /'klem?nsi/ n [U] 1
,'>>'-'shaven adj with the hair of mercy. 2 mildness (of weather).
the face shaved off. clem-ent adj
clean^ /kli:n/ vtji^ make clean. 2 clench /klentj/ vt press or clasp
'^ sb out, win or take all his firmly together: a '^edfist.
money. '^ sth out. clean the clergy /'kl3:d3i/ n pi persons or-
inside of. '^ up. make clean or dained as priests, '-wman, or-
tidy. '>-' sth up. (a) end crime, dained minister.
etc in: The police must '^ up the cleri-cal /'klerikl/ adj 1 of the
city, (b) {informal) win or take clergy. 2 of. for, a clerk.
all the money. «wer n [C] person clerk /kla:k/ n [C] person em-
or machine that cleans: a ployed in a bank, office, etc to
^vacuum-'^. keep accounts, copy letters, etc.
clean-ly^ /'klenh/ adj (-ier, -lest) clever /'klev3(r)/ adj (-er, -est) 1
having clean habits, clean-li- quick to learn. 2 done with abil-
nessAi[U] ity and skill. '>^ly adv. 'V/ness n
clean-ly^ /'kli:nli/ adv exactly;
neatly: Cut in '>^ into two pieces. cliche /'kli:Jei/ n [C] idea or ex-
cleanse /klenz/ vt make pure. pression that has been used too
clear^ /kli3(r)/ adj (-er, -est) 1 much.
easy to see (through): '>^ glass. 2 click /khk/ vi. n [C] (make a)

free from guilt: a -v, conscience. 3 short, light sound (like a key
(of sounds, etc) easily heard; turning in a lock).
pure. 4 easy to understand. cli-ent /'klaiant/ n [C] 1 person
clientele/cloth 66

who gets advice from

a lawyer, record the time of (eg the arrival
etc. 2 customer (at a shop). and departure of workers).
cli-en-tele /,kli:dn'tel/ n cus- ''^^A/ise adv turning in the same
tomers. direction to that taken by the
cliff /kUf/ n (C) steep face of hands of a clock.
rock, esp by the sea. clod /klod/ n [C] lump (of earth,
cli-mac-tic /,klai'msktik/ adj etc).
forming a climax. clog' /klog/ n [C] wooden shoe.
cli-mate /'klaimit/ n [C] 1 clog' /klog/ vt/i (-gg-) (cause to)
weather conditions of a place. 2 be or become blocked.
current condition: the political clois-ter /'kbist3(r)/ n [C] 1
'^.cli-matic /,klai'maetik/ adj. covered walk, in a courtyard. 2
cli-max /'klaimaeks/ n [C] (pi (life in a) convent or monastery,
'v^s) point of greatest interest a vt put, live in, a cloister(2).
or intensity (eg in a story), a vt/i '>^ed, sheltered; secluded.
come to a climax. close' /klaos/ adj (-r, -st) 1 near

climb /klaim/ vt/i 1 go up or (in space or time). 2 severe; thor-

down (a tree, mountain, etc). 2 ough: under '\^ arrest, on '^r ex-
(of aircraft) go higher 3 rise m amination, keep a -^ \^atch
social rank, position, etc. a n [C] on, watch carefully. 3 intimate:
instance or place of climbing. a '^ friend. 4 won by a small
'^er, (a) person who climbs, amount: a '^ race. 5 (of the
(b) climbing plant. weather) hot and damp, d adv in
clinch /klmtj / vili 1 settle (a bar- a close manner; near together:
gain, an argument) conclusively. stand '>^ against the wall, i'n^-
2 hold with the arms; embrace. 'fitting adj fitting tight (to the
Dn[C] embrace. body, etc). ''>^-up, close view on
cling /kliq/ vi {pt.pp clung a photograph or film. '>^ly adv
/kUq/) hold light. in a close manner, "^o/ness n [U]
clinic /'klmik/ n [C] (part of a) close^ kbus/ n [C] 1 grounds of

hospital or institution where a cathedral. 2 = cul-de-sac.

medical advice and treatment close^ kbuz' vt'i 1 shut: ~the
are given, an ,ante-^natal'^. '>^al door. '>- one's eyes to, ig-
adj (a) of clinics or their treat- nore. 2 be not open: This road
ment, (b) (fig) cold; without is '^d. 3 bring or come to an end:
feelings: a '^al statement of the ^ a discussion. 4 bring together.
facts. 5 ->- down, (a) (of a factory,
clink /kUgk/ vt/in[C] (make the) business, etc) shut completely,
sound of small bits of glass, etc (b) (of a broadcasting station)
knocking together. stop transmitting. Hence, ''>^-
clip^ /klip/ n [C] (esp) wire or down n. -^ in. The days are
metal device for holding eg pap- closing in, getting shorter. '^ in
ers together, d vt (-pp-) keep on/ upon, (a) envelop: Dark-
together with a clip. ness '^d in on us. (b) come near-
clip^ khp/ vt (-PP-) 1 cut short (er) and attack. ,'>^d 'shop, fac-
or neat. 2 (si) hit sharply, a n [C] tory or trade where only mem-
1 instance of clipping. 2 sharp bers of a trade union may work.
blow. '>^pers n pi (also a pair of close* /kbuz/ n [U] 1 end (of a
'^pers) instrument for clipping. period of time): at '^ of day. 2
'>^ping, (esp) article cut from a conclusion (of an activity, etc).
newspaper, etc. closet /'klozit/ n [C] (now chief-
clique /kli:k/ n [C] closely united ly US) small room for storing
group of persons. things. c> cupboard.
cloak /kbuk/ n [C] 1 loose outer clo-sure /'kbu33(r)/ n [C] act of
garment, without sleeves. 2 (fig) closing (down): the '^ of a fac-
something used to hide: a '^ of tory.
secrecy,a vt hide (thoughts, pur- clot /klot/ n [C] 1 lump formed
poses, etc), '-^room, place from liquid, esp blood. 2 (si)
where coats, etc may be left. fool, a vt/i (-tt-) form into
clock /kick/ n [C] instrument for clots(l).
measuring and showing the cloth /kloG/ n {pi ~s kloes) 1
time, a vt/i measure the time [U] material made by weaving
speed of somebody: He -y^eJ W (cotton, wool, etc). 2 [C] piece of
seconds for the race. ->- in /out. this material: a tables.
67 clothe /cob

clothe /klaud/ vt wear clothes; ice in eg a motor-car for con-

supply clothes for. necting the engine to the gear-
clothes /kbudz/ n p! coverings box.
for a person's body; dress. ciut-ter /'klAt3(r)/ vt make un-
'bed'^^, sheets, blankets, etc. tidy, a /i [U] disorder.
cloth-ing /'klaudirj/ n [U] (co/- coach' /ksutj/ n [C] 1 bus for
/ec//ve) clothes. long-distance travel. 2 (US =
cloud /klaud/ n 1 [C,U] (mass car) railway carriage. 3 carriage
00 water vapour floating
visible pulled by horses.
in the sky. 2 [C] similar mass of coach^ /kautj/ n [C] 1 teacher,
smoke, insects, etc. 3 [C] cause esp one who gives private les-
of sadness, fear: the '-^s of war. 4 sons. 2 person who trains ath-
under a '^. under suspicion, a letes for contests, a vt/i teach or
vtU become, make, unclear, (as) train.
through cloud: her eyes '^ed co-agu-late /(ksu'sgjuleit/ vt/i
over with tears, cloudy
adj (of liquids) become thick; clot,
(-ier, -lest) (a) covered with as blood does in air. co-
clouds, (b) (esp of liquids) not agulation /i[U]
clear. coal /kaul/ n [C,U] (piece oQ
clove^ /klauv/p/ of cleave black mineral that bums.
clove^ /kbuv/ n [C] flower-bud •'x.f ace, exposed surface of coal
of a tropical tree, used as a spice. in a mine. '>'field, district
clove^ /kbuv/ n [C] section of where coal is mined, ''^/-gas,
some bulbs: a -«-' of garlic. gases made from coal, '-^^mine,
clo-ver /'kbuv3(r)/ n [U] low- mine from which coal is dug.
growing plant with (usually) '<>i'miner, man who works ia a
three leaves on each stalk. coalmine.
clown /klaun/ n [C] 1 person in co-alesce /,k303'les/ vi come
a circus performing foolish together and unite.
tricks, etc. 2 person acting like a co-ali-tion /.ksua'UJn/ n 1 [U]
clown. D vi behave like a clown. uniting. 2 [Cj union of political
club' /kUb/ n [C] 1 heavy stick parties for a sp>ecial purpose.
used as a weapon. 2 stick with a coarse /kD:s/ adj (-r, -si) 1 not
curved head for playing golf. 3 fine and small; rough, lumpy. 2
playing-card with black leaf-like (of language, etc) vulgar, -v^ly
designs. 4 society of persons adv. <-vness n [U]
who meet for sport, social enter- coarsen /'kosn/ v/// make or be-
tainment, 6 building(s) used
etc. come coarse.
by such a society, o vt/i (-bb-) coast' /kaust/ n [C] seashore and
hit witha club(1). -^ to- land near it. ''>^guard, (officer
gether, join (together) They : of)body of men on police duty
'\^bed together to buy a house. on the coast. ''X'line, line of the
cluck /kkk/ VI, n [C] (make the) coast. '>^al adj
noise made by a hen. coast^ /kaust/ vt/i 1 go in a ship
clue /klu:/ n [C] fact that suggests along the coast. 2 ride (a bicycle,
a possible answer to a problem. etc) down a hill without using
'N/less adj (informal) stupid. pKDwer.
clump' /klMnp/ n [C] group (of coat /kaut/ n [C] 1 outer garment
trees, shrubs). with sleeves, buttoned in the
clump^ /kUmp/ vi tread heavily: front. 2 covering, eg an animal's
'^^ about the room. hair. 3 layer of, eg paint put on a
clumsy /'kl\mzi/ adj (-ier, -lest) surface, a vt cover with a layer
1 ungraceful in movement or (eg of paint). ,'X/ of 'arms, de-
construction. 2 tactless; unskil- sign used by a noble family,
ful: a ^
remark, clum^sily adv. town, etc. ''>^-hanger, device
clum-si-ness n [U] on which clothes are hung in
clung /klAq/p/.pp of cling. wardrobes, etc.
clus-ter /'klASt3(r)/ n [C] group coat-ing /'kautu)/ n [C] thin lay-
of things close together, a vi er or covering.
form a close group round. coax /kauks/ vt/i 1 persuade a
clutch /kUtJ/ take
vt/i (try to) person to act, by kindness or
hold of tightly with the hand(s). patience: / '^ed her into coming
a n [C] 1 act of clutching. 2(pl) with me. 2 get by coaxing.
control: He's in her />^es. 3 dev- cob /kob/ n [C] 1 short-legged
cobble/coin 68

horse. 2 (also ^corn--^) inner rules and principles: a of be- ^

part of an ear of maize: corn on haviour. 2 system of signs, secret
ihe'^. 3 male swan. writing to ensure secrecy.
cobble' /'kobl/ n [C] (also i^- break a ->-, discover how to in-
sione) round, smooth stone used terpret a code(2). a vt (also
for paving, d vi pave with these en'^ /en'kaud/) put into a
stones. code(2).
cobble' /'kobl/ vt (dated) mend co-ed /kao 'ed/ n [C] (informal)
(esp shoes), cobbler n [C] (dat- (student at a) co-educational
ed) = shoe-repairer. school.
co-bra /'kaubra/ n [C] poisonous co-educa-tion /,kau ,ed3u-
snake of Asia and Africa. 'keijn/ n [U] education of boys
cob-web /'kobweb/ n [C] spid- and girls together, -^al adj
er's web. co-erce /,kau'3:s/ vt use force to
co-caine /kau'kem/ n [U] drug make (a person) do something,
used as a local anaesthetic. etc. co-ercion/keu'3:Jn/ n [U]
cock' /kok/ n [CJ male bird, esp use of force to make a person do
adult male chicken. something. co-ercive
cock' /kok/ n [C] 1 tap and spout /keo'3:siv/ adj of, using, co-
for controlling the flow of a ercion.
liquid or a gas. 2 lever in a gun. co-exist Aikauig'zist/ vi exist at
cock' /kok/ V1 1 turn upwards : the same time, "wence n [U]
The horse '^ed its ears. 2 raise (esp) peaceful existence of
the cock of (a gun) ready for fir- states.
ing. cof -f ee
/'kofi/ n 1 [U] bush with
cocka-too /(koka'tu:/ n [C] par- beans used for making a drink;
rot with a crest (1 ). the beans; [C,U] drink made
cock-erel /'koksral/ n [C] young from coffee. 2 light-brown col-
cockV our.
cock-eyed 'kokaid/ adj (si) 1 cof-.fer /'kDfa(r)/ n [C] (esp)
twisted; crooked. 2 badly organ- large, strong box, esp for hold-
ised. ing money.
cockle /'kokl/ n [C] edible shell- cof-fin /'kofin/ n [C] box for a
fish; (also ^'^-shelf) its shell. dead person to be buried in.
cock-ney /'kokni/ adJ, n [C] cog /kog/ n [C] one of the teeth
(characteristic of a) native, esp on a wheel which move the teeth
working-class, of London. of a similar wheel.
cock-pit /'kokpit/ n [C] com- cognac /'konjaek/ n [U] fine
partment in a small aircraft for French brandy.
the pilot. co-habit /,kau'haEbit/ vj (of an
cock-roach /'kokrautj/ n [C] unmarried couple) live together
large, dark-brown insect. as husband and wife. '>^a-tion
cocks-comb /'kokskaum/ n [C] /,kauhaebi'teifn/rt[U]
(esp) red crest of a cockV co-here /,kao'hia(r)/ vi 1 stick
cock-tail/'kDkteil/n[C]1 mixed together; be or remain united. 2
alcoholic drink. 2 mixture of (of arguments, etc) be consis-
fruit, shellfish, etc: fruit '^. tent.
co-coa /'kaukau/ n [U] powder co-her-ent /,kau'hiarant/ adj 1
of crushed cocoa seeds; hot sticking together. 2 (of speech,
dnnk made from this. argument) well-organized;
coco-nut /'kaukanAt/ n [C,U] clear. '^lyai/v
large seed (of the ^^-palm) filled co-he-sion /,kau'hi:3n/ n [U]
with milky juice and with a solid (force, act of) sticking together.
white lining and a hard shell. co-he-sive /-siv/ adj
cocoon /ka'kurn/ n [C] silky coil /koil/ vtji wind into a conti-
covering made by a caterpillar nuous circular shape, a /i [C] 1
to protect itself while it is a something coiled; a single turn
chrysalis. of something coiled. 2 spiral of
cod /kod/ n^ [C](pl ^) (also wire to conduct electric current.
''^fish) large sea-fish. coin /koin/ n [C,U] (piece oQ
coddle /'kodl/ v/ 1 treat with metal money, a v/ 1 make
great care. 2 cook, eg eggs, in (metal) into coins. 2 invent (esp
water just below boiling-point. a new word). '>^age /'komids/ n
code /kaud/ n [C] 1 system of (a) [U] making coins, (b) [C]
69 coincide/colonize

system of coins in use: a decimal animal, d vt seize (roughly) by

'v. (c) [C] newly invented word. the collar, ''x/bone, bone join-
co-incide /(kaum'said/ vi 1 (of ing the shoulder and the breast
objects) be the same in area and bone.
outline. 2 (of events) happen at col-league /'kDli:g/ n [C] person
the same time. 3 (of ideas, etc) working with others.
be in agreement. col-lect /ko'lekt/ vt/i 1 bring
co-inci-dence /ikau'msidans/ n together; get from a number of
[U] the condition of coinciding; persons or places. 2 save
[C] event happening by chance: (stamps, etc), eg as a hobby. 3
Our meeting was a pure '^. co- come together: a crowd '^ed. 4
inci-den-tal /,k3u,msi'dentl/ fetch: -^ a child from school. 5 re-
flf^' happening by chance. cover control of: ^ one's
coke /kauk/ n [U] substance that thoughts, '^ed adj (esp of a per-
remains when gas is taken out of son) calm; not distracted.
coal, used as a fuel, a vt turn col'lec-tion n (a) [U] collect-
(coal) into coke. ing; [C] instance of this, (b)
col-an-der, cul-len-der group of objects that have been
/'kAl3nd9(r)/ n [C] vessel with collected, (c) [C] money collect-
many small holes, used to drain ed (at a meeting, a Church ser-
water from vegetables. vice, etc), 'x.i ve adj of a group or
cold' /kauld/ adj (-er, -est) 1 of society as a whole. '>^ive noun,
low temperature, have '>^ feet, (gram) one that is singular in
feel afraid or reluctant, throw form but stands for many indi-
'V. water on sth, discourage viduals, as cattle, crowd, '^or n
it. 2 unkind; unfriendly: a
(fig) [C] person who collects.
-v. welcome. ,'>^-'blooded adj col-lege /'kolids/ n [C] 1 school
(a) having blood that varies for higher education; part of a
with the temperature (eg rep- university. 2 union of persons
tiles), (b) (%) (of persons, their with common purposes: the C-^
actions) without emotion, j*^- of Surgeons.
'hearted adj without col-lide /kd'laid/ vi 1 come
sympathy, give sb the '>^- together violently; crash. 2 be
shoulder. ignore him. ^'^ opposed: The two politicians '^d
'war, struggle for superiority over the new law.
using propaganda, etc without col-lier /'kDli3(r)/ n [C] 1 coal-
fighting. '>^ness n [U] miner. 2 ship that carries coal.
cold' /kauld/ n 1 [U] low temper- col-liery /'koliari/ n [C] (/?/ -ies)
ature (esp in the atmosphere). coalmine.
(be left) out in the ^, (Jig) col-li-sion /ka'lisn/ n [C,U] 1
(be) ignored. 2 [C,U] illness colliding; crash. 2 opposition;
{catarrh) of the nose or throat: clash.
carc/i(a)~. col-loquial /ks'bukwisl/ adj(o(
col-lab-or-ate /ks'lsbareit/ vi 1 words, style) suitable for ordi-
work in partnership. 2 '^ with, nary conversation; not formal
co-operate, esp with the enemy. or literary. '>^ly adv. '>^ism, col-
coMab-or'ation n [U]. col- loquial word or phrase.
lab-orator, person who col- col-lu-sion /k9'lu:3n/ n [U] se-
laborates. cret agreement for a deceitful
col-lage /'kDla:3/ n [C] picture purpose: be in '^.
made by combination of bits of co-Ion' /'kaubn/ n [C] lower part
paper, photographs, etc. of the large intestine.
coMapse /ka'laeps/ vt/i 1 fall co-Ion' /'kaubn/ n [C] punctua-
down The building '^d in the
: tion mark (:).
earthquake. 2 lose physical co-lonel /'k3:nl/ n [C] army offic-
strength, mental powers, ey^ 3 er above a major.
(of eg a chair) fold up. a n[C] co-lo-nial /ka'bunial/ adj of a
collapsing. col-laps-ible, colony or colonies, a n [C] in-
-able /-abl/ adj that can be col- habitant of a colony (1 ). -^^ism,
lapsed (3) (for packing, etc). policy of having colonies(l).
col-lar /'kDl9(r)/ n [C] 1 part of a 'N^ist, supporter of colonialism.
garment that fits round the col-on-ist /'kobnist/ n [C]
neck. 2 band of leather, etc put pioneer settler in a colony ( 1 )
round the neck of a dog or other col-on-ize /'kobnaiz/ vt begin a
colonnade /come 70

colony, col-on-iz'ation n [U] ly. 3 -x/ out. (fig) take out (un-

col-on-nade /jkob'neid/ n [C] wanted things, persons) from a

rowofcolumns(1 ). group.
col-ony /'kobni/ n (C) (pi -ies) 1 com-bat /'kombat/ n [C], vt/i
country settled by people from fight; struggle.
another country, and controlled com-bat-ant /'kombatant/ adj
by it; group of people who settle fighting. D n [C] person who
2 group of people with the same fights.
nationality or occupation, living com-bi-na-tion /(kombi'neijn/
together. n 1 [U] state of being joined:
color (^'S^ = colour. work in ~
with. 2 [C] number of
co-lossal /ka'losl/ adj very persons or things that are
large joined. 3 numbers needed to
co-los-sus /ka'losas/ n [C] (pi -si open the lock of a safe, etc.
/-sai/, '>^s) 1 very large statue com-bine^ /kam'bam/ vt/i
(esp of a man). 2 very large per- (cause to) join together.
son. com-bine^ /'kombatin/ n [C]
col-ourUUS = color) /'kAl3(r)/ group of persons, companies,
n 1 [C,U] sensation produced in etc joined for a purjwse. ,'n/-

the eye by rays of light of differ- 'harvester, machine that both

ent wavelengths: Red. blue and cutsand threshes (grain).
yellow are ^.s. 2 [U] redness of com-bust-ible /kam'bAStabl/
the face, be I feel/ look off '^, adj . n [C] (substance) that
{informal) be/look unwell. 3 (pi) catches fire and bums easily.
materials used by artists; paint. com-bus-tion /kam'bAStJan/ n
4 [U] (of events, descriptions) [U] process of burning.
interest; lively detail. 5 (pi) flag come /kAm/ v/ (pt canrie /keun/;
(of a ship), with flying '^s. pp ~) 1 move towards the
with great success. 6 race other speaker; arrive where the speak-
than European. ''>^-bar, social er is. 2 reach (a particular level,
distinction between white and point): Your bill ^^s to £20. -v. to
coloured races. '<-w-blind adj an agreement, agree. -^^ to
unable to distinguish between light, be revealed. 3 ^ fo sb.
certain colours. '>^f ul adj full of occur to: The idea came to him in
colour; exciting. his bath. 4 begin: -^ to realize
oo\0'Ur'(US =
color) /'kAl3(r)/ something. 5 occur; be found:
vtji1 give colour to. 2 blush. 3 May ~5 between April and June.
change or misrepresent in some 6 be; become: The handle has "^
way: News is often '^ed. '^ed loose, -v. true, (of wishes,
adj (b) having the colour speci- dreams) be realized. 7 be in the
fied: ^cream-'^ed. (b) (of per- future: in years to '^. S '>^
sons) not wholly of European about, happen. -^ across
descent, '^'ing, (esp) (a) colour (sb/sth), find or meet by
of the skin (showing health). chance. '^ along, (a) (impera-
colt /kault/ n [C] young male tive) try harder; hurry up. (c)
horse. c> filly, '-x^ish adj like a progress: The garden is coming
colt; frisky. along nicely, (d) arrive. '>^
col-umn /'kobm/ n [C] 1 tall apart, fall to pieces. '^ back,
pillar supporting part of a build- return. '^ back (to one), re-
ing, or standing alone. 2 some- turn to the memory. Hence
thing shaped like a column. 3 ''>'back n return to power,
vertical division of a printed fame. ^ before sb, be dealt
page. 4 numbers arranged under with by: 'v- before a judge, 'v, be-
one another; soldiers, ships, one tween, interfere with, -v, by
behind the other. sth, obtain. '^ down, (a) col-
coma /'kauma/ n [C] unnatural lapse, (b) (of rain, prices, etc)
deep sleep usually from injury or fall, 'x/ down in the world,
illness. lose social position. Hence, ^"^
comb /kaum/ n[C] 1 piece of down n. ^ down in favour
metal, plastic, etc with teeth for of sb/sth, decide to support.
making the hair tidy. 2 part of a '^ down to, (a) reach to. (b)
machine hke a comb. 3 = can be reduced to: Your choices
honeycomb, a vt/i 1 use a comb '>- down to these, (c) (of tradi-
on (the hair). 2 search thorough- tions, etc) be handed down. -x.
71 comedian /commend
/r, (a) (of the tide) rise, (b) be- a person who is suffering: words
come fashionable, (c) be of '^. 3 [C] person or thing that
received as income, etc. 'v. into, brings relief or help, a vt give
inherit. '>^ of. be the result of: comfort to. '>^able /'kAmftabl/
Nothing will ^ of it. '>^ of age, adj (a) giving comfort to the
C> age^l). ^ off (sth), be- body: a ~
chair j bed. (b) having
come separated (from): A button comfort: a '^ life, (c) free from
has '^ off my coat. '^ off. (a) pain, anxiety, etc. 'X/ably adv in
take place: Did your holiday ever a comfortable manner.
'^ off? (b) (of plans) succeed: comic /'komik/ adJ 1 causing
The experiment did not '^ off. -^ people to laugh. 2 of comedy, d
on, (a) follow, (b) (as a chal- n [C] 1 magazine with comic
lenge): C^ on! (c) develop; im- strips. 2 comedian. '>^ strip,
prove: Your singing is coming on. series of drawings telling an
(d) (of rain, night, illness, etc) amusing story. '>^al adJ
begin. '>^ out. (a) appear; be- com-ing /'kAmiq/ n [C] arrival:
come visible, (b) become the ^of winter, a adj future: the
known; be published: When will '^ months.
your book '^out? (c) (of work- comma /'kDma/ n [C] punctua-
men) strike, (d) (of details, etc tion mark (,). c> inverted com-
in a photograph) appear, (e) (of mas.
stains, etc) be removed. '>^ out com-mand^ /k9'ma:nd/ n 1 [C]
in, be (partly) covered in (spots, order. 2 [U] authority; power (to
etc). -^ over sb. (of feelings) control): Who's in ^here? 3 [C]
take possession of: What has ~ part of an army, air force, etc
over you? -v. round, (a) come under separate command: Bom-
by an indirect route, (b) visit, ber C^. 4 [U] possession and
(c) occur again: My
birthday skill: '^ of the English language.
will soon '^ round, (d) change com-mand^ /ka'mornd/ vt/i 1
one's views, etc. (e) regain con- order. 2 have authority over: ^
sciousness, 'v/ through, (a) re- an army. 3 be in a position to
cover from a serious illness or use: He ^s great sums of money.
injury, (b) arrive (by telephone, 4 deserve and get: ~
respect. 5
radio, etc). '>^ 'fo, = come (of a place) overlook. 'N^ing adj
round (e). '^ under sth. (a) com-man-dant /ikomsn'dsnt/
be in (a certain category, etc), n [C] ofTicer in command of a
(b) be subjected to: ~
under her military establishment.
influence. '^ up. (a) (of seed, com-man-deer /|kDm3n'di3(r)/
etc) show above the ground, (b) vt seize (provisions etc) for mili-
arise; be put forward: The ques- tary purposes.
tion hasn't '^ up yet. -^ up com-man-der /k3'ma:nd3(r)/ n
against, meet op-
(difficulties, [C] person in command.
position). ^ up (to), reach: com-mand-ment /k9'ma:nd-
The water came up to my waist. msnt/ n [C] divine command.
'>^up with, produce; find: '^ com-mando /ka'mamdau/ n [C]
up with a solution. "^^ upon, at- {pi ~s or ~es) (member of a)
tack by surprise; arrive at sud- body of troops specially trained
denly. for carrying out raids.
com-edian /k3'mi:di3n/ n [C] 1 com-mem-orate /ks'mem-
comic actor. 2 person who be- areit/ vt honour the memory of
haves in a comic way. (a person, event), com-mem-
com-edienne /k9,mi:di'en/ n [C] or-ation /-'reijn/ n (a) [U] act
female comedian. of commemorating, (b) [C]
com-edy /'komadi/ n (pi -ies) 1 (part of a) service in memory of
[U] drama that deals with hu- a person or event, com-mem-
morous events. 2 [C] amusing or-ative /ka'memrativ/ adj.
play. 3 [C,U] amusing incident com-mence /ks'mens/ vtji {for-
in real life. mal) begin; start. '>^ment, be-
comet /'komit/ n [C] heavenly ginning.
body with a bright centre and corn-mend /ko'mend/ vt {for-
tail that moves round the sun. mat) 1 praise: ~ his brave ac-
corn-fort /'kAmfat/ n 1 [U] state tions. 2 -^ sth to. give for
of being free from suffering, an- safekeeping to. '>^able /-abl/ adj
xiety, pain, etc. 2 [U] kindness to worthy of praise.

com-mensurate /ks'men- attend to special business.

Jurat/ adj equal to; suitable for: commod-ity /ka'modati/ n [C]
pay '^ with the work done. {pi -ies) useful thing, esp an ar-
com-ment /'koment/ n [C.U] of trade.
brief opinion; criticism, a v/ give com-mon^ /'koman/ adj (-er,
opinions. -est) 1 belonging to many per-
coni>men-tary /'komdntn/ n sons or all members of a group..
[C] (pi -ies) 1 collection of com- 2 usual and ordinary. 3 (of per-
ments, eg on a book. 2 descrip- sons, their possessions) inferior;
tion of an event as it happens a vulgar. ,^ 'ground, (Jig)
'K, on a football match. agreed basis for discussion, etc.
commentate /'komantcit/ vi ,'>^ 'knowledge, what is gener-

give a commeniary(2) (on). ally known. I'x/ 'law, (in En-

comrnenta-tor, person who gland) unwritten law based on
gives a radio or TV commentary customs and earlier legal deci-
on, eg a horse-race. sions. ''-Noplaceadj ordinary.
com-merce 'komars/ n [U] 1 />^.room, sitting-room for
trade (esp between countries). 2 teachers or students in a college,
the exchange and distribution of school, etc. |'>^ 'sense, practic-
goods. al good sense based on ex-
com-mer-cial ka'maijl/ adj of perience. '>-ly adv (a) usually,
commerce, n n [C] advertise- (b) inacommon(3) way.
ment on TV or radio. '>^ com-mon^ /'koman/ n 1 [C] area
'radio/'television, financed of unfenced grassland for all to
by advertising. '>^ 'traveller, use. 2 in '^. for or by all (of a
person who travels around sel- group), haye in '^ (with),
ling goods. '>^'vehicle, van, share (with).
lorry, etc for the transport of com-moner /'komanaCr)/ n [C]
goods. 's^Xy adv not one of the nobility.
com-miser-ate /ka'mizareit/ Commons /'komanz/ n pi the
nji express sympathy for: '^ '^, (usually the ^House of ''>-) as-
with him after he had lost the sembly of the British Parliament
fight, commise'ration n [C, elected by the people.
ul com-mon-wealth /'koman-
commission /ka'nujn/ n 1 wel0/ n [C] 1 people of a nation.
[C,U] the giving of authority to 2 association of States (eg the
a person to act for another. 2 [U] C~ of Australia). 3 the C'^. as-
payment for selling goods, made sociation of independent states
to a salesman, agent. 3 [C] offi- (formerly colonies of GB).
cial paper appointing an officer com-mo-tion /ka'maujn/ n (C,
in the armed services. 4 [C] body U] noisy confusion.
of persons appointed to make com-mu-nal /'komjonl/at^'l of
an inquiry, a vt give a commis- or for a community. 2 for com-
sion to. mon use.
com-mis-sion-aire /ksimijo- com-mune^ /'komjum/ n [C] 1
'ne3(r)/ n [C] uniformed porter (in France) smallest administra-
at the entrance to a hotel, etc. 2 group of people
tive district.
com-mis-sioner /k3'mij3n3(r)/ living together and sharing
n [C] 1 member of a commis- property and responsibilities.
sion (4). 2 government rep- com-mune^ /ka'mju:n/ vi feel in
resentative: the British High C~ close touch with.
in Accra. com-muni-cate /ka'mju:nikeit/
com-mit /ka'rait/ vt (-tt-) 1 per- vtji 1pass on (news, an illness,
form 2 hand over
(a crime, etc). 2 share or exchange (news,
to, forguarding or treatment: ~ etc):~ by telephone. 3 (of
a patient to a mental hospital. 3 rooms, etc) be connected.
^ oneself (to...), make com-muni'cation n (a) [U]
oneself responsible: He has ^ted the act of communicating, (b)
himself to supporting his [C] piece of news; letter, (c) [C,
brother's children, o^ment n [C] U] means of communicating.
(esp) something to which one is com-municat-ive /ka'mju:-
commitied(3). nikativ/ adj willing to give infor-
com-mit-tee /ka'miti/ n [C] mation.
group of persons appointed to com-mu-nion /ka'mjurnian, n 1
73 communique/compile
[U] sharing of thought and feel- comparison kam'paerisn n 1
ings. Holy '^. (in the Christian [U] by /in(with), when
Church) celebration of the compared 2 [C] act of
Lord's Supper. comparing. 3 [U] equality of
com-munique ks'mjuinikei/ n value: there is no -^ between
[C] official announcement. them.
com-mu-nism /'kDmjjjnizam n compartment k3m'pa:t-
[U] (belief in a) social system in mant n [C] section; separate di-
which means of production are vision, eg in a railway carriage.
owned by the community. com-pass 'kAmpss, n [C] {pi
com-mu-nist n [C] supporter -^es) 1 device with a needle that
of communism, d adj of points to magnetic north. 2 {pD
communism. (also a pair of-^es) V-shaped in-
com-mun-ity /ks'mjuinali/ n [C] strument used for drawing
{pi -ies) 1 [CJ the '^, all the circles, etc. 3 extent; range: out-
people living in one place. 2 [C] side the -^^ of her voice.
group of persons with common com-pas-sion /kam'paejn/ n [U]
interests. 3 [U] condition of pity; feeling for the sutTerings of
sharing, having things in com- others, --wate -JanM ac// show-
mon: ^ of interests. ing or feeling compassion.
com-mute ;k3'mju:t' vtU 1 ex- com-pat-ibie kam'piEtsbl, adj
change one thing (esp one kind (of ideas, people, principles, etc)
of payment) for another. 2 re- able to exist together with.
duce the severity of a punish- compatiblyac^v
ment. 3 travel regularly between com-pa-triot kam'paetriat/ n
one's work and one's home. [C] person of the same country
corn-muter, person who com- as another.
mutes(3). com-pel kom'pel, vt (-II-) force
corn-pact^ kam'paekt' adj (a person to do something).
closely packed together; neatly compen-sate 'kompenseit
fitted, -^ly adv. --wness n [U] vr make a suitable payment,

corn-pact^ /'kompaekt/ n [C] give something, to make up (for

small, fiat container for face- loss, injury, etc), com-pen'sa-
powder. tion n fC.U] compensating;
com-pan-ion /kam'paenian; n something given to compensate.
[C] person who works with, or is com-pere 'kDmpe3(r) n [C] or-
often with, another. '>^ship, ganizer of an entertainment who
state of being companions. introduces the performers, etc. a
com-pany /'kAmpani/ n {pi -ies) vt act as compere for.
1 [U] being together with an- com-pete ksm'pirt/ vi take part

other or others: Old people are in a race, contest, etc: to ^

bored without ~. 2 [U] group of against with others.
persons; guests. 3 [U] persons com-petence /'kDmpitgns, n 1
with whom one spends one's [U] being competent: ability. 2
lime: That boy keeps very bad^. (of a court, etc) legal power.
4 [C] business organization. 5 com-pet-ent adj having abil-
[C] number of persons working ity, authority, knowledge, etc
together: a theatrical '^. 6 [C] (to do what is needed), com-
section of an infantry battalion. petent-ly a(2^v
com-par-able /'komprabl adj com-pe-ti-tion ikompa'tijn/ n
that can be compared. 1 [U] competing; rivalry. 2 [C]
comparative /kam'paerativ instance of competing; contest.
adj 1 of a comparison or com- com-peti-tive /kom'petativ/
paring. 2 measured by compar- adj
ing: living in ^
comfort. 3 {gram) com-peti-tor k3m'petit9(r)/ n ,

form of adjectives and adverbs [C] person who competes.

expressing 'more', a n [C] com- com-pi-la-tion /(kompi'leiju/ n
parative form: 'Better' is the ~ [U] compiling: [C] thing that is
of 'good', '-wly adv compiled.
com-pare /kam'peaCr); v7//1 ex- com-pile kam'pail' vt collect
amine, judge to what extent per- (information) and arrange (in a
sons or things are similar. 2 book, list, etc), com-piler, per-
point out the similarity of. 3 ->- son who compiles 'a dicticnay,
with, be able to be compared. etc).

complacence /compress 74

complacence kam'pleisns, n adj helping to form (a complete

[U] feeling of personal content- thing), a n [C] part of a larger or
ment, satisfaction com-pla- more complex objecticar '^s.
cency n [U] complacent adj com-pose kam'paJz/ vt/i 1
com-plain ksin'plcin say vi make by putting things to-
that one is not satisfied, that gether.2 put together (words,
something is wrong: '^ about the music, etc): -^ a poem,
food. symphony. 3 {printing) set up
com-plaint kam'plemt' n 1 [C] (type) to form pages, etc. 4 get
statement of dissatisfaction. 2 under control: ~ one's thoughts.
illness; disease. composed adj calm, com-
com-ple-ment 'komplimant/ n poser n [C] (esp) person who
[C] 1 which makes some-
that composes music.
thing complete: Wine is the per- com-pos-ite 'kompazit/ adj
fect '^ toa meal. 2 total number: made up of different parts or
A ship's -^ of men. 3 (gram) materials.
word(s) used after verbs such as com-po-si-tion ikompa'zijn/ n
be and become, a vi complete; be 1 [U] act or art of composing. 2
the complement to. -«wary [C] that which is composed. 3
-'mentri aaj. [C] (esp) exercise in writing; es-
com-plete^ kam'pliu/ adj 1 say. 4 [U] theparts of which
having all its parts; whole. 2 fin- something is made up.
ished; ended. 3 thorough; in com-posi-tor k3m'pDZit3(r)/ n
every way a ~
surprise. '>-ly adv [C] person who composes type
in every way. ^ness n [U] for printing.
com-piete^ kam'plirt vt finish; com-post /'kompost/ n [U] mix-
bring to an end; make perfect: ~ ture, esp of rotted food, etc for
a course in English a painting. use as a fertiliser.
com-pletion^>[U] com-po-sure /kam'pausafr)/ n
com-plex^ 'kompleks/ ac//made [U] calmness; control of one's
up of many different parts; diffi- feelings: lose i regain one 5 'n..
cult to understand or explain. com-pound^ /'kompaund; n,
^ity kam'plekssti n [C,U] ' made up of two
adj 1 [C] (thing)
com-plex^ 'kompleks, n [C] 1 or more combined parts. 2
number of closely related parts: {gram) word made up of two or
a building ^. 2 mental state of more words, eg safety-pin. j-^
obsessive concern or fear. 'interest, interest on capital
com-plexion /k^m'plekjn/ n [C] and accumulated interest.
1 natural colour of the skin: a com-pound^ /kam'paund/ vtji
dark /fair ^. 2 gfmeral character {formal) 1 mix together: '^
(of affairs, etc). several chemicals. 2 complicate
compliance ksm'plaians/ n (an offence or injury).
[V] action of complying: with ~ com-pound^ 'kompaund/ n [C]
the rules, com
-p i -ant adj obe- enclosed area with buildings,
dient. etc.
com-pli-cate 'komplikeit, vt com-pre-hend ikompn'hend/
make complex, complicated vt {formal) 1 understand fully. 2
adj m^dc up of many parts; diffi- include; consist of
cult to do. icompli'cation n com«pre-hension ikompri-
[C] 'henjn n 1 [U] the mind's power
com-plic-ity kam'plisati/ n [U]
of understanding. 2 [C,U] exer-
taking part with another person: cise to improve one's under-
prove his -^ in the crime. standing, comprehen-sible
com-pli-ment /'koraplmisnt/ n /-'hensabl/ adj that can be un-
[C] 1 expression of admiration, derstood fully, com-pre-hen-
approval, etc. 2 (pi) greetings, a sive adj including much a -»^

vt /'komphment/ express admi- description. ^com-pre'hen-

ration, etc. ^ary /-'mentri/ adj sive (school), that provides
(a) expressing admiration, (b) all types of secondary educa-
free of charge: -^^ary tickets. tion, com-pre-hensive-ly adv
com-ply /kam'plai/ vi (pt,pp com-press^ /ksm'pres/ vt 1
-ied) '^ (with), agree (to do); press, get into a small(er) space.
obey (a command, wish, etc). 2 put (ideas, etc) into fewer
com-ponent /kam'paunant/ words.
75 compress / concord
corn-press^ /'kompres/ n [C] ed: lose one's '>^. '>^ camp, place
pad or cloth pressed on to part where civilian political prisoners,
of the body (to stop bleeding, are brought together.
etc). '>^ion /kam'prejan/ n [U] con-cen-tric /kan'sentrik/ adj
compressing; being compressed. (of circles) having a common
com-prise /kara'praiz/ vt be centre.
composed of; have as parts. con-cept /'konsept/ n [C] gen-
com-pro-mise /'kompramaiz/ n eral idea of something
[C,U] settlement of a dispute by con-cep-tion /kan'sepjn/ n 1
which each side gives up some- [U] conceiving of an idea; [C]
thing it has asked for. d vtii 1 idea. 2conceiving(2).
make a compromise. 2 put in a con-cern^ /kan'sarn/ vt 1 affect;
'dangerous or embarrassing pos- be of importance to: So I As far
ition. as I'm -^ed. 2 be busy with, in-
. .

com-pul-sion /kam'pAlJn/ n 1 terest oneself in. 3 worry: '^ed

[U] act of compelling. 2 [C] for/aboul her safety, ^^-'ing prep
strong desire, urge, com-pul- = about2(3).
sive adj caused by an irrational con-cern^ /kan's3:n/ n 1 [C]
desire: a compulsive desire to kill. something of interest or impor-
com-pul-sory /ksm'pAlsari/ adj tance. 2 [C] business or under-
that must be done; required. taking: a profitable ^. 3 [U] an-
com-pulsor-ily /-sarali/ adv xiety: a cau^e /or ~.
com-punc-tion /k9m'pAt)kJn/ n con-cert /'konsat/ n 1 [C] music-
[U] uneasiness of conscience; al entertainment. 2 [U] agree-
doubt: kill him without ^. ment; harmony.
com-pu-ter /k9m'pju:t3(r)/ n [C] con-certed /kan's3:tid/ adj
electronic device 'which stores, planned, performed (together):
analyses and produces informa- make a ~ effort.
tion as required, '^^ize /-raiz/ vt con-cer-tina /ikonsa'tiina/ n [C]
store (information) with or in a (pi '^s)musical wind instrument
computer. held in the hands.
com-rade /'komreid/ n [C] 1 con-certo /kan'tjeatau/ n [C] (pi
trusted companion; loyal friend. ~s) musical composition for a
2 fellow member of a trade solo instrument supported by an
union, a (left-wing) political orchestra.
party, etc. '>^ship n [U] con-ces-sion /kan'sejn/ n [U]
con /icon/ vt (-nn-j (informal) conceding; [C] that which is con-
deceive, trick, a n [C] trick. ceded: make'^s to the enemy.
con-cave /'korjkeiv/ adj curved con-cili-ate /kan'silieit/ vr win
inwards. the goodwill of; calm the anger
con-ceal /ksn'siil/ vt hide; keep of. con-cili'ation n [U]. con-
secret. 'x/ment«[U] cili-atory /kan'siliaian/ adj
con-cede /kan'sird/ v7 admit (de- wishing or likely to conciliate.
feat); grant; allow (a right). con-cise /kan'sais/ adj giving
con-ceit /kan'sirt/ n [U] too high much information in few words:
opinion of oneself, '^ed adj. a ^N^ report, -v-ly adv. '>i'ness n
'^ed-lyadv [U]
con-ceive /kan'siiv/ vt/i 1 form con-elude /kan'klu:d/ vtji 1
(an idea) in the mind. 2 (of a come or bring to an end. 2 ar-
woman) become pregnant. range : ~ an agreement. 3 arrive
con-ceiv-able /-sbl/ adj that at a belief: The jury that the ^d
can be believed, con-ceiv-ably man was not guilty, con-elu-
adv sion /kan'klu:3n/ /» [C] (a) end.
con-cen-trate /'konsntreit/ vt/i (b) decision; settlement.
1 bring or come together at one con-clus-ive /kan'klursiv/ adj
point. 2 keep one's attention on: (of evidence, etc) convincing.
-N. on one's work. 3 increase the '>^\yadv
strength of (a solution) by re- con-coct /kan'kDkt/ vt 1 pre-
ducing its volume, a n [C] pro- pare by mixing together. 2 in-
duct made by concentrating(3) vent (a story, etc), con'coc-
con-cen-tra-tion /(konsn- tion n [U] mixing; [C] mixture.
'treijn / n 1 [C] that which is con- con-cord /'kDr)ka:d/ n [C,U]
centrated: troop ^5. 2 [U] con- agreement or harmony (be-
centrating or being concentrat- tween persons or things).
concourse/confession 76

con-course 'korikois n [C] 1 [C] (usually pf) expression of

coming or moving together. 2 sympathy.
place where crowds come con-done kan'daun' vt over-
together. look or forgive (an offence).
concrete 'koQkrirt at/yl exist- con-duc-ive ksn'djuisiv/ adj
ing in material form. 2 definite: helping to produce: ^
lo health.
'^ evidence a n [U] building con-duct^ 'kondAkt/ n (U) 1
material made by mixmg cement behaviour. 2 manner of manag-
with sand, gravel, etc. a vt cover ing affairs.
with concrete. conduct' kan'dAkt w// 1 lead
concur k3n'k3:(r)/ vi {-rr-) (for- or guide; -^ tourists round a city.
mal) 1 agree. 2 (of circum- 2 control; manage. 3 direct (an
stance-j. etc) happen together orchestra). 4 behave. 5 (of sub-
^s^rence kan'kArans n fu) ag- stances) allow (heat, electric cur-
reement. '>-rent adj. 's-rent-ly rent) to pass along or through.
adxdi the same lime. con'duction -Jn n [U] trans-
con-cuss kon'kAS vrfnjurefthe mission, eg of electric current
bram) by a hard blow, con- along wires, -^^ive adj able to
'cussion/j(C,U] transmit (heat. etc), '^or n [C]
con-demn kan'dem/ vt 1 say (a) person who conducts an or-
that a person has done wrong. 2 chestra, (b) person who collects
(legal) give judgement against: fares on a bus. (c) substance
'^ed to death. 3 force (to do that conducts heat or electric
something unwelcome). 4 de- current. ~ress n [C] woman
clare (buildings) unfit for conductor(b).
use.'>>'a-tion .kDndam'neifn/ n cone kaun, n [C] 1 solid body
lU] which narrows to a point from a
con-densa-tion (konden- round, flat base. 2 something of
'seijnn 1 [U] condensing or be- this shap>e: an ice-cream ^. 3
ing condensed. 2 [C.U] drops fruit of certain evergreen trees.
formed when vapour condenses. con-fec-t!on ksn'fekjan; n
con-dense kan'dens' v// 1 (of (formaf) [C] mixture of sweet
a liquid) (cause to) increase in things; sweet cake. '>^er, person
density or strength; ^ed milk. 2 who makes and sells pastry,
(of a gas or vapour) (cause to) pies, cakes, etc. ^^.ery n (a) [0]
change to a liquid. 3 put into sweets, chocolates, cakes, etc.
fewer words: ^ a speech. (b) [C] (pi -ies) confectioner's
con-den-ser k3n'dens3(r)'/i[C] shop.
1 apparatus for condensing vap- con-feder-acy /kan'fedarasi/ n
our to liquid. 2 apparatus for ac- [C] (pi -ies) union of states, par-
cumulating static electricity. ties or persons.
con-de-scend ikondi'send' v/1 con-fed-er-ate^ kan'fedarat
(agree to) do something below adj joined together by an agree-
one's position, rank: The ment or treaty, a « [C] 1 person
manager ^^ed to talk to the work- or State joined with another. 2
ers. 2 behave as if one is superi- accomplice (in a plot. elc).
or. '>-ing adj con-fed-er-ate^ kar'fedoreit
con-di-ment 'kondimant n Mii bring or come into alliance.
[C.{J]( forma f) = seasoning. con-fed-e ration n [C] al-
con-di-tion' kan'dijn n 1 [C] liance; league of states.
something on which another con-fer k3n'f3:(r)/ vt'i (-rr-) 1
thing depends, on -v. that, onb '^ sth on/upon, give or grant
if; provided that. 2 [U] the (a degree; title, favour). 2 con-
present slate of things: a car in sult or discuss.
good's.. 3 (p/) circumstances. con-fer-ence 'konfarans/ n [C,
con-di-tion^ kan'dijn; v7 1 de- U] (meeting for) discussion; ex-
termine; govern. 2 train: a dog change of views.
-^ed touhey. . con-fess kau'fes' vt i 1 say or
con-di-tional ksn'dijanl udj admit (that one has done
depending on. containing, a wrong). 2 (RC Church) tell
condition. '^ clause, (gram) one's sins to a priest.
one beginning wjth 'il" or 'un- con-fes-sion kan'fejn // [C.l jj

less", '^ly adv 1 admission of guilt. 2 tolling t f

con-dol-ence kon'doulons n one's sins, '^-al -Janl n [C]
77 confetti /conjugate

place where a priest hears con- the '^ between the police and the
fessions. demonstrators.
con-fetti /kan'feti/ n [U] small con-fuse /kan'fjuiz- v/l put into
bits of coloured paper thrown at disorder; mix up in the mind. 2
weddings, etc. mistake one thing for another.
con-fi-dant /ikonfi'daent/ n [C] confusionA;[Ul
person who is trusted with pri- con-geal ,k3n'd3i:l/ vtn become
vate affairs or secrets. solid (esp by cooling).
con-fide /kan'faid/ vt'i 1 a tell con-gen-ial /k3n'd3i:ni3] adj 1
secret. 2 ~ in. have trust or (of persons) having a similar
faith in. nature, etc. 2 (of occupations,
con-fi-dence n 1
'konfidans; etc) in agreement with one's
[U] (act oQ confiding in or to. in tastes. '>^ly adv
strict '^. expecting something con-geni-tal /kan'dsenitl adj
to be kept secret. 2 [C] secret, (of diseases, etc) present from or
confidential information. 3 [U] before birth.
belief in oneself or others, con- con-gested kan'dsestid, adj
fident adj very sure, confi- too full; overcrowded, con-
dently <7c/v gestion ^([U]
con-fi-den-tial /jkonfi'denjl con-glomerate^ k^n'glom-
adj 1 (to be kept) secret. 2 hav- aratadj. n [C] (made up of a)
ing the confidence of others. number of things put together.
con-fine /kan'fam vt 1 keep con-glomerate^ kan'glom-
withm limits: We '^d the illness oreit 17;/ collect into a mass.
to one village. 2 keep shut up: con-glome'ration n [C,U]
'^d to bed with a cold, con- con-gratu-late kan'grietjuleit
fined (of space) limited; res-
«i// 1/ express pleasure at a person's
tricted, -anient n (a) [U] being success, good fortune, etc: ^
confined, (b) [C.U] giving birth him on his victory, con-
to a child. gratu'lations /; [C] words
con-fines /'konfainz, «/?/ limits; that congratulate.
borders. con-gre-gate 'korigrigeit vt i

con-firm /kan'faim/ vt 1 make come or bring together, con-

(power, ownership, opinions, gre'ga-tion n (a) [U] congreg-
etc) firmer or stronger; provide ating; [C] gathering of people,
proof. 2 agree to (an appoint- (esp) in a church service, con-
ment, etc). 3 admit to member- gre'gationah/t//
ship of the Christian Church. con-gress 'korigres n 1 [C]
'N^ed adj (esp) unlikely to meeting of representati\es for
change. -^a-tion ikonfa- discussion. 2 C^^, lavi -making
meiJan/^tCU] body of US. '^v/man/woman,
con-fis-cate ./'konfiskeit vt member of Congress. '>^ional
seize officially (private kon'grejanf c/c/y

property) without compensa- con-gru-ent 'korigruant adj 1

tion,con-f is'ca-tion n [C,U] suitable; agreeing (with). 2 hav-
con-flict^'konfiikt «[C]1 fight; ing the same size and shape: -^
struggle 2 (of opinions, etc) op- triangles.
position; difference, a kan'flikt con-gru-ous /'korjgroas adj
v/ be opposition.
in suitable; proper (with).
con-form k3n'fD:m/ v// be in coni-cal 'konik adj cone-
agreement with, comply with- shaped.
(rules, regulations) ^
to the law. coni-fer 'kDnif.-)(r) « [C.U] tree
'vist n [C] person who con- (eg pine, fir) that bears cones.
forms. '>^ity n [U] (a) action. ~ous ko'niforos adj
behaviour, in agreement with con-jec-ture kon'd3ektJo(r)
what is usual, accepted, (b) ag- vt i (formal) guess, a /; fC.U]
reement. (formal) guess; guessing, con-
con-found kon'faond vt 1 fill jee turah/r//
with confusion. 2 mi.x up. con- con-ju-gal 'koiid-ogl adi {inr-
fuse (idca;s. etc). mal) of mar.'iage and ucddcd
con-front /kon'fr,\nt/ vi come life; of husb.ind and vMfe.
face to face with; oppose, •-^^a- con-ju-gate /'knnd-)ugcii \i,i
tion |konfi,\n'teiJ"<-jn n [C.m {gram) 1 gi\e ihc Ummis ol a sert^
(instance oD hostile opposition: (lor number, tense. e?c). 2 tola
conjunction/considering 78

verb) have these forms con- after an accuient.

ju'ga-tion n (a) ICU) system con-script kan'skript vt com-
of verb forms, (b) [C] class of pel by law to serve in the armed
verbs conjugated alike. forces. O draft v (2) o /;

con-junc-tion kan'dj-MjkJn/ n 'konskript [C] person who is

1 [C](firam) word that joms conscripted. con'scrip-tion
other words, clauses, etc. eg ami, ,-Jn .j[U]
hut or. 2 [U] joming. in -^ con-se-crate 'konsikreit v/ set

with, together with. 3 [C] com- apart as sacred; make sacred: ~

bination (of events, etc). a church, con-se'cra-tion /;
con-jure 'kAnd33(r), Mido 1 (C.U) (instance oO being consec-
clever tricks which appear mag- rated.
ical. 2 up. (a) cause to ap-
-N^ con-secu-tive kon'sekjutiv
pear as if from nothing, (b) fli// coming one after the other in
compel (a ghost or spirit) to ap- regular order. '>-ly adv
pear conjurer, conjuror, con-sen-sus kan'sepsas/ n [C]
person who performs conjur- (/7/~es) general agreement.
ing(1 ) tricks. con-sent /kan'sent/ vi give per-
connect ka'nekt/ vi/i 1 fasten; mission: ~
to a marraige. a n [U]
link: ~ ihc two ixires together. 2 agreement; permission.
relaie(things)in the mind. con-se-quence /'konsikwans, n
con-nec-tion ka'nekjn, m1 (C. 1 [C] result: the '>^s of his action.
U] connecting; point where two 2 [U] importance: a man of'^.
things are connected, thing con-se-quent 'konsikwant/ a<//
which connects. 2 [C] train air- (formal) following as a conse-
craft, that takes passengers on quence. '>-'ly adv therefore.
the next stage of their journey. 3 con-se-quen-tial /(konsi-
[C] person one knows in busi- 'kwenjl adj {formal) 1 = con-
ness. 4 in -s^ with, concerning. sequent. 2 (of a person) self-
con-nexjon ka'nekjan/ = con- important. ~ly aJv
nection con-ser-va-tion ikonsa'veijn/
con-nive k^'naiv/ vi -w at, lake n [U] preservation (of buildings,
no notice of (what is wrong) the countryside, etc); prevention
connivance/7[U] of loss, waste, etc.
con-nois-seur ,kDn3's3:(r)' n con-serva-tive /kan's3:vativ/
[C] expert (on food, art, etc). adj 1 opposed to change; cau-
connotation ikons'teijn n tious 2 the C'->^ Party, one of
[C] extra meaning suggested by the main political parlies in
a word: Slang words usually have Great Britain, a n [CJ 1 conser-
obscene '^s. vative(l) person. 2 C'-«^, mem-
con-quer /'koijkDfr) vt 1 defeat ber, supporter, of the Conserva-
or overcome enemies. 2 take tive Party, -^^ly adv. con-
possession of by force: a city. ^ serva-tism/7(U]
'>^or, person who conquers. con-serva-tory /kan's3:vatri/ n
con-quest 'kDijkwast/ n 1 [U] [C] (pi -ies) 1 building with glass
act of conquering (eg a country walls and roof in which plants
and its people). 2 [Cfsomething are grown. 2 school of music or
got by conquering. dramatic art.
con-science /'konjans/ n [C,U] con-serve kan'ssrv/ v.' keep
1 sense of right and wrong. 2 from change, loss or destruc-
feeling of guilt, (have sth/sbj tion.D n (usually pi) jam; fruit
on one's '^, (feel) troubled preserved by cooking.
about something one has done. con-sider /kan'sida(r)/ vt 1
con-scien-tious /ikonji'enjss think about. 2 take into ac-
adj 1 guided by one's sense of count: '>^ the feelings of others. 3
duty. 2 (of actions) done care- think that: ~
him in fool.
fully and honestly. ^w,|y adv. considerable /kan'sidarabl/
--^^nessrtfU] adjgrcdl: important.
con-scious /'konjas/ adJ 1 con-sider-ate kan'sidarat/ adj
awake; aware. 2 deliberate He thoughtful (of the needs of
spoke with '^ superiority. ^^^ of, others). '>-'ly adv. con-side'r-
aware of: He was ^
of his mis- ationA7[C,U]
takes, -^ly adv. ^ness
n [U] consider-ing kan'sidariq/
being conscious: regain '^ness prep in view of: He's very well ~
79 consign/consume

his age. con-stei-la-tion /jkonsta'leijn/

con-sign /kan'sain/ vt 1 send n [C] named group of stars.
(goods, etc) for delivery. 2 hand con-ster-nation /.kDnsta-
over: ~^/jf boy to his brother's 'neijn/ n [U] surprise and dis-
care. '>-'ment n [U] consigning; may.
[C] goods consigned. consti-pation /ikonsti'peijn/
con-sist /kan'sist/ vi 1 '^ of, be n [U] difficult emptying of the
made up of. 2 v in, have as the bowels, con-sti-pate /'konsti-
chief element. peit/ vr cause constipation.
con-sist-ency /kan'sistansi/ n con-stitu-ency kan'stitjoansi
ipl -ies) 1 [U] the state of always n [C] {pi -ies) (voters living in a)
behaving in the same way. 2 [C. town or district that sends a rep-
U] degree of thickness (e$p of a resentative to Parliament.
liquid), con-sist-ent adj (a) con-stitu-ent /kan'stitjuant/
not ctianging. (b) in agreement. adj 1 having the power or right
con-sist-ently adv to alter a political constitution: a
con-so-la-tion /ikonsa'leijn/ « ^ assembly. 2 helping to make a
[U] consolin^i 2 [C] person or whole, a n [C] ^ member of a
thing that consoles. constituency. 2 necessary part.
con-sole^ /kan'sa jl/ vt give com- con-sti-tute /'kDnslitju:t/ vt 1
fort or sympathy to. establish. 2 make up (a whole).
con-sole^ /'konsaul/ n [C] panel con-sti-tu-tion /ikonsti'tju.-Jn;
for the controls of electronic /; [C] 1 laws and principles ac-
equipment. cording to which a state is
con-soli-date /kan'solideit/ vt/i governed. 2 person's physical
1 make or become stronger. 2 structure and condition. 3
unite or combine into one. general structure of something.
con-soli'da-tion n [C.U] '>^alcjiy/ of a constitution (1,2).
con-somme /kan'somei/ n [U] con-strain /kan'strein/ vt use
(Fr) clear, meat soup. force or strong persuasion: I felt
con-son-ant /'konsanant/ n [C] -^^ed to obey, con-straint
speech sound produced by /k9n'streint/«[U]
(partly) stopping the breath; let- con-strict /kan'stnkt; vt make
ter of the alphabet for such a tight or smaller; inhibit.
sound(6,c, J, etc.) con'stric-tion -Jn/ n (a) [U]
con-sort^ /'konsDU/ n [C] hus- tightening, (b) [C] feeling of be-
band or wife, esp of a ruler. ing constricted.
con-sort^ /kan'soit/ vi-^ with, con-stric-tor /k3n'stnkt3(r)/ n
spend time in the company of. [C] 1 muscle that tightens or
con-sort-ium /kan'sDitiam/ n narrows. 2 c> boa.
[C] {pi -tia /-tia/) association of con-struct /ksn'strAkt/ vt build.
businesses, banks, etc. --N^or, personwho builds things.
con-spicu-ous /kan'spikjuas/ con-struc-tion /kan'strAkJn/ n
adj easily seen; attracting atten- 1 [U] act or manner of con-
tion. '>^\y adv structing. 2 [C] structure; build-
con-spir-acy /kan'spirasi/ n (pi ing. 3 [C] meaning; interpeta-
-ies) 1 [U] act of conspiring. 2 tion: Do not put a wrong -^ on his
[C] plan made by conspiring. action, ' adj of, involving,
con-spira-tor /ksn'spirataCr)/ construction.
n [C] person who conspires. constructive /ksn'strAktiv/
con-spire /k3n'spai9(r)/ vt/i 1 adj helping to construct; giving
make secret plans (with others): helpful suggestions. '>^ly adv
'^ to kill the king. 2 (of events) con-sul /'konsl/ n [C] represen-
act together; combine. tative of a State in a foreign
con-stable /'kAnstabl/ n [C] country, '^ar /'kDnsjul3(r)/ adj
{dated) policeman, chief '>-', se- of a consul or his work. '>^ate
nior police officer, con-stabu- /'konsjubt/ n [C] consul's posi-
lary /kan'staebjubn/ n [C] {pi tion or office.
-ies) police force. con-suit /kan'sAlt/ vtjigo to a
con-stant /'konstsnt/ adj 1 go- person, a book, etc for informa-
ing on all the time: ^
noise. 2 tion, advice, etc. '>^ant n [C]
{formal) firm; faithful: a ~ person who gives expert advice.
friend, -^ly adv continuously. '^a-tion /-'teijn/ n [C,U]
con-stancy/i[U] con-sume /kDn'sju:m/ vt/i {for-
consumer /contort 80

maf)^ eat or drink 2 use up: A/v contend kan'tend w /I strug-

car '^s a hi of petrol 3 destroN gle; be competition. 2 argue,
(by fire) consum-ing adj do- assert (that...), -^er. competi-
minating: a consuming ambition. tor, rival.
con-sumer k3n'sju:m3(r) n [C] con-tent^ kan'tent adj satis-
person who uses (manufac- fied; happy: -^ to stay at home, a
tured) goods. O producer(l) n [U] the condition of being sat-
con-sum-mate 'konsameit \t isfied, a v7 satisfy. '>-ed aJ/ sat-
1 (formal) make perfect 2 make isfied '>-'ed-ly adv '>^ment n
complete lesp marriage by sexu- [L] state of being content.
al intercourse) con-sum'ma- con-tent* 'kontent .i1 (yj^lhat
tion«[C.U] which is contained: the ~5 for
consumption kan'sAmpJn n her bag. 2 (nf) list of chapters in a
[U] 1 using up. consuming (of book 3 (Cj text (of a book).
food, energy, etc); the quantity con-ten-tion kan'tenjn «1 [U]
consumed. 2 (popular name for) quarrelling or arguing. 2 [C] ar-
tuberculosis, con-sump-tive n gument; point of view, con-
[C], adj (person) suffermg from ten-tious adj quarrelsome;
consumption (2). causing argument.
con-tact 'kontaekt n 1 [U] con-test^ 'kontest n [C] fight;
touching or communication: competition. '>^ant kan'tes-
Come into -^ 2 [C] (meeting
with. tant person who competes,

with a) person: business -^5. 3 fights, etc.

[C] connection (for electric cur- con-test* /kan'test vt'i^ argue;
rent), a \t get in touch with. debate. 2 = contend(l).
con-ta-gion kan'teidsan n 1 con-text 'kontekst n [C,U] 1
[U] the spreading of disease. 2 sentence, phrase etc m which a
[C] disease that can be spread by word appears 2 circumstances
contact. 3 (fig) the spreading of in which an event happens.
ideas, false rumours, etc. con- o^ual kan'tekstjual adj ac-
tagious adj. cording to the context (1 ).
contain ksn'tem/ vt 1 have or con-ti-nent 'kontmant n [C] 1
hold within itself: This bottle -^5 one of the main land masses
two litres of milk. 2 keep feel- (Europe. Asia, Africa, etc). 2
ings, enemy forces, etc under the C-w, the mainland of
control Europe, -^al '-'nentl adj (a)
con-tainer k3n'tem3<r) « [C] 1 belonging to, typical of. a con-
bottle, box. etc designed to con- tinent, (b) of the mainland of
tam something. 2 large metal Europe.
box. etc for transport of goods. con-tin-gency kan'tind3ansi/ n
contaminate ksn'taemmeit [C] (pi -ies) possibility; event
vt make dirty or diseased: -^d that happens by chance: pre-
food, con-tami'na-tion n (a) pared for every '^.
[U] contaminating, (b) [C] that con-tin-gent kan'tmd33nt/ ,j
which contaminates. [C] 1 part of a larger force of
con-tem-plate 'kontempleit troops, ships. 2 part of a larger
vt 1 look at; think about. 2 con- group of persons.
sider doing something, con- con-tin-uai kan'tmjual/ adj
tem*pla-tion n [U] contem- repeated; very frequent. '>^ly
plating; deep thought, con- adv again and again; without
tem-pla-tive kan'tempbtiv slopping.
adj (format) thoughtful. con-tin ue /kan'tmju:/ vtli 1 go
contemporary kan'tem- farther; go on (being or doing).
prsri' adj 1 belonging to the 2 start again after stopping.
same time. 2 of the present time; con-,tinu'ation n [C,U]
modern, a n [C] (pi -ies) person con-ti-nu-ity ,kDnti'nju:ati/ n
of the same age. belonging to the [U] the state of being continu-
same period. ous.
con-tempt kan'tempf « [U] 1 continuous kan'tinjuas/ adj ,

despising or being despised. 2 going on without a break: a 'v

disregard or disrespect: in of ~ line supply offood, 'v/ly adv
the rules, 's^ible adj deserving con-tort kan'tD-.t v7 force or
conteinnt. "^u-ous -tjoss adj twist out of the usual shape.
showing contempt. con'tor-tion -Jn n [C.U] '
81 contour/convent

con>tour /'kDntu3{r)/ n [C] out- ence which is clearly seen

line (of a coast, a human figure, con-tra-vene /ikontra'vim/ vt
etc). D vt mark with contour oppose, break (a law, a custom).
lines. line, line (on a map)
''>^ con-traven-tion /kontra-
joining points at the same-height 'venjn, a3[C.U]
above sea-level. con-trib-ute /kan'tnbjuit/ v///1
contra-band 'kDntrabaend; n join with others in giving help,
[U] (trade in) goods brought in- money, ideas, etc. 2 help to
to or taken out of a country ille- cause: ~
to his success. 3 write
gally. (articles, etc) for a periodical.
contra-ception /,kDntr9- ,con-tri'bution n [C,U]. con-
'sepjn/ n [U] method of prevent- tribu-tor, p>erson who contri-
ing the conception of children. butes, contributory adj.
contraceptive n'[C] device con-trive /kan'traiv/ vt'i invent;
or drug intended to prevent con- find a way of doing (something):
ception (2). D adj preventing He ^d to escape punishment.
conception. con-triv-ance n (a) [U] act of
con-tract^ /'kontraekt/ n [C,U] contriving,(b) [C] something
formal agreement (between per- invented.
sons, groups, states), 'x.ual con-trol /ksn'traul/ n 1 [U]
/ksn'trasktjual/ adj of (the na- power to direct, order, or res-
ture oO a contract. train, be/get out of '^, in a
con-tract^ /ksn'traskt/ vt/i 1 be state where authority, etc is lost.
bound, bind, by agreement. 2 2 [C] means of regulating, re-
become liable (for debts). 3 straining: ^5 on pollution. C>
catch (an illness), -^or, person, birth-control. 3 [C] standard of
business firm, that enters into comparison for results of an ex-
contracts. periment. 4 (usually p[) means
con-tract^ /kan'traekt/ vt'i make by which a machine, etc is oper-
or become smaller: metal ~5 ated or regulated, a vt (-II-) 1
when it con'trac-tion
cools, have control of 2 regulate
/-Jn/ n (a) [U] process of becom- (prices, etc). 3 restrain: one's ^
ing smaller, (b) (C] something temper, 'x^ler n [C] person who
contracted. controls a department of a large
con-tra-dict /,kontr3'dikt/ vt 1 organization.
say that a person's opinion is contro-versy /'kDntr3V3:si,
wrong: Don 't ~
your mother. 2 kan'trovasi/ n [C,U.] {pi -ies)
(of facts, statements, etc) be prolonged argument, con-tro-
contrary to (others), con-tra- ver-siai /ikontra'vaijl/ aJ/ caus-
diction /-Jn/ n [C,U]. '^ory adj ing controversy.
contradicting. con-va-lesce /(konva'les/ vi re-
con-tralto /kan'traeltau/ n [C] gain health and strength after an
ipl -^s) lowest female singing illness. con*va-lescence n [U]
voice. (period oO recovery from ill-
con-trap-tion /ksn'traepjn/ n ness, con-va-lescent n [C], adj
[C] {informal) strange apparatus (person who is) recovering from
or device. illness.
con-trary^ /'kontran/ adj 1 -^^ con-vene /ksn'virn/ vt/i 1 call
to, opposite; totally different: (persons) together. 2 come
'^ to what you believe. 2 (of the together (for a meeting, etc).
wind and weather) unfavour- con-vener, person who con-
able (for sailing). 3 {informal) venes meetings.
obstinate; unreasonable, con- convenience /ksn'viinisns/ «
trari-ness /'kontrsrms/ n [C] 1 [U] quality of being conve-
being obstinate. nient. 2 [C] tool, device, etc tnat
con-trary^ /'kontrari/ n [C] {pi is useful or convenient.

-ies) opposite, on the ^, con- con-veni-ent /k3n'vi:ni3nt/ adj

tradicting what has been said. suitable; serving to avoid
to the ^, to the opposite effect. trouble or dilTiculty: a place ^
con-trast /kan'traist/ vtii 1 to stay, 'v/ly adv
compare so that differences are con-vent /'konvsnt; n [C] 1 so-
made clear. 2 show a difference: ciety of nuns. c> monastery. 2
His paintings '^ favourably with building(s) in which they live
yours, n /'kontrarst/ n [C] differ- and work.
convention/copper 82

conven-tion /kan'venjn/ n 1 ships, troops, etc). 3 [C] ship(s),

(C) conference of members of a supplies under escort, a vt (esp
society, political party, etc. 2 [C] of a warship) escort (other
agreement between States, rul- ships) to protect (them).
ers, etc. 3 [C] practice or custom: con-vulse /kan'vAls/ vt cause
The ~5 of writing letters. 'X/al violent movements or distur-
adj based on convention(3); bances, con'vul-sion n [C].
traditional. '^\y adv con-vuls-ive adj
con-verge k3n'v3:d3/ vt/i (of coo 'ku:/ vti. n [C] (make a) soft,
lines, movmg objects) come to- murmurmg sound (as of doves).
wards each other and meet at a cook /kuk/ vtii 1 prepare (food)
point. con-ver-gencen[U] by heating. 2 be cooked. 3 make
conversation ,kDnv3'seiJ"n false: ~the accountsjbooks. a n
Aj[U] talkmg; [C] talk, -^al adj [C] person who cooks food.
(of words, etc) used in talk. '>-er n [C] oven, stove, for cook-
con-verse^ /kan'vsis/ vi (formal) ing food, -^ery n [U] art and
talk. practice of cooking. '>-'ing n [U]
con-verse^ "konva-.s/ n [U with coor /ku:l/ adj (-er, -est) 1 be-
the] adj (statement which is) op- tween warm and cold. 2 calm;
posite (to another). '>^ly adv unexcited. Hence, ,cool-
con-ver-sion /k3n'v3:j"n/ n 1 [U] 'headed adj. play it '^. deal
converting. 2 [C] instance of calmly with a situation. 3 im-
this. pudent in a calm way. 4 (of be-
con-vert' /'konvait/ n [C] person haviour) not showing interest or
converted, esp to a different reli- enthusiasm. D /I [U with the] cool
gion. air or place; coolness. '>-'ly adv.
con-vert' /kan'vact/ vt 1 change '%^ness«[U]
(from one form, use, etc into an- cool' /ku:l/ vt!i make or become
other): to -^ pounds into francs. 2 cool. -^ down/off. (Jig) be-
cause (a person) to change his come calm; less excited.
beliefs, etc. ^ible /-abl/ adJthzLt coop /ku:p/ n [C] cage, esp for
can be con verted. hens, a vt '^ up, put in a coop;
con-vex /'konveks/ adj curved confine (a person).
outwards. co-op-er-ate /kau'opareit/ vi
con-vey /ksn'vei/ vt 1 take, work or act together to achieve
carry. 2 make known ideas, feel- something, co-op-e'r-ation n
ings, etc to another person. [U]. co-op-er-ative ac^y willing
'>-'er-belt, (eg in a factory) to co-operate, a n [C] business
band moving over wheels for owned by the people who work
carrying packages, etc. '^^ance there.
n [C,Uj (a) act of conveying, co-opt /kau 'opt/ vt (of a com-
(b) vehicle. mittee) add (a person) as a mem-
con-vict' /'konvikt/ n [C] person ber by the votes of those already
convicted of crime and sent to members.
prison. co-or-di-nate^ / ,k3oh:din3t/ adj
con-vict' /ksn'vikt/ vt prove or equal in importance, a n [C] co-
declare that (a person) is guilty ordinate thing or person.
of a crime. co-or-di-nate' /jkau'Didaneit/ vt
con-vic-tion /kan'vikjn/ n 1 [C, make co-ordinate; make (ac-
U] the convicting of a person for tions, limbs, etc) work together.
a crime. 2 (C,U] firm belief. ,co-or-di'na-tion n [C,\j]
con-vince /kan'vms/ vt make (a coot /ku:t/ n [C] swimming and
person) feel certain; cause (a diving bird.
person) to realize: / -^d him that cop /kop/ n [C] (si) = police-
I was right, con-vinc-ing adj man.
that convinces, con-vin-cing- cope /kaup/ vi deal with success-
lyadv fully: She couldn't ~ with all her
con-vo-ca-tion /(kDnva'kairn/ n work.
1 [U] calling together. 2 [C] as- copi-ous /'kaupias/ adj (formal)
sembly of officials of the plentiful: a ~supply, -wly adv
Church. cop-per' /'kop9{r)/ n 1 [U] com-
con-voy /'konvoi/ n 1 [U] con- mon reddish-brown metal
voving; protection: sail under ^. (symbol Cu). 2 [C] coin made of
2 [C] protecting force (of war- copper. 3 [C] large vessel made
83 copper/correct

of metal. O [U]
boiler. 4 cor-nea /'koinia/ n [C] (pi ~s)
reddish-brown colour, d adj tough transparent covering of
reddish'-brown. '-^-plate n [U] the eyeball.
copper plate on which designs cor-ner /'kD:n3(r)/ n [C] 1 (posi-
are engraved. tion of the) angle where two
cop-per^ /'kDp3(r)/ r. [C] (si) lines or surfaces meet, a tight
= policeman. '>^,a difficult situation. 2 hid-
copse /kops/ n [C] small area of den, secret, place. 3 region: from
shrubs and small trees. all~5 of the world, a vtji 1 trap:
copu-late /'kopjuleit/ (esp of vi put into a difficult position. 2
animals) unite in sexual inter- turn a corner (on a road, etc).
course, copu'la-tion n [C,U] cor-net /'kornit/ n [C] 1 small
copy^ /'kopi/ n [C] {pi -ies) 1 musical instrument Hke a trum-
thing made to be like another; pet. 2 piece of biscuit like a cone,
reproduction of a letter, picture, to hold ice-cream, etc.
etc. 2 one example of a book, cor-nice /'kDinis/ n [C] project-
newspaper, etc ing part or ornament around a
copy^ /'kopi/ vt/i {pt,pp -ied) 1 ceiling or the top of a column.
make a copy of. 2 do, try to do. cor-on-ary /'koranri/ adj of ar-
the same as. 3 cheat (by copying teries supplying blood to the
in an exam, etc). heart, d n [C] {pi -ies) (also '^
copy-right /'kopirait/ n [U] thrombosis) blockage of an
right held by the author to print, artery in the heart.
publish, sell his work, n vt cor-on-ation /ikors'neijn/ n [C]
protect in this way. ceremony of crowning a king or
coral /'koral/ n [U] hard, red, queen.
pink or white substance built on cor-oner /'kDr3n3(r)/ n [C] offi-
the seabed by small creatures, a cialwho investigates the cause
r«^ made of coral. of any accidental or suspicious
cord /kD:d/ n 1 [C,U] (length oQ death.
twisted strands, thicker than cor-onet /'kDrsnet/ n [C] small
string. 2 [C] part of the body like crown (worn by a peer).
a cord: ihe vocal '^s. cor-porar /'korparal/ adj of the
cor-dial /'k3:di3l/ adj warm and human body: ^ punishment, eg
sincere (in feeling, behaviour). beating.
'X/ly adv corporal^ /'kDiparol/ n [C] non-
cor-don /'kDidn/ n [C] ring of commissioned ofTicer below
persons acting as guards, a vt ^ sergeant m the army.
off, protect with a cordon: The cor-por-ate /'koiparat/ adj 1 of
army -^ed off the area. or belonging to a corpora-
cor-du-roy /'koidorDri/ n [U] tion(2). 2 of. shared by. mem-
thick, cotton cloth with raised bers of a group: ^
lines on it. cor-por-ation /ikDrpa'reiJn/ //
core /kD:(r)/n [C] 1 (usually [C] 1 group of persons elected to
hard) centre of such fruits as the govern a town. 2 group of per-
apple and pear. 2 central or sons authorized to act as an in-
most important part of any- dividual, eg m business.
thing, to the '^, thoroughly, n corps /kD:(r)/ n [C] {pi -^ jky.zl) 1
vt take out the core of. one of the technical branches of
cork /ko:k/ n 1 [U] the bark of an army: the Medical C~. 2 mi-
the tree called the ^cork-oak. 2 litary force of two or more divi-
[C] round piece of this material sions.
used as a stopper for a bottle, a corpse /kD:ps/' n [C] dead body
vt stop (a bottle) with a cork. (esp of a human being).
'-s^screw, tool for pulling cor-puscle /'kD:pAsl/ n [C] one
corks from bottles. of the red or white cells in the
corn' /kD:n/ n 1 [U] (seed cO blood.
various grain plant^ 2 [C] single cor-ral ka'ra:!/ n [C] enclosure
grain (of wheat, pepper, etc). for horses and cattle, d vt (-II-)
'--w-cob, part of an ear of maize. drive (cattle, etc) into, shut up
'•^^flour, flour made from in, a corral.
maize. cor-rect' yko'rekt' adj 1 true;
corn^ /kD:n/ n [C] small area of right: the -^ answer. 2 (of man-
hardened skin on the foot. ners, dress, etc) proper; decent.
correct/ counsel 8

'>^ly adv 'y^ness n (U] = astronaut

cor-rect' ka'rckt; vi 1 make cosmopolitan ,kozm3-
right, take out mistakes from. 2 'politan; adj 1 of or from all
point out the faults of; punish. parts of the world. 2 free from
cor'rec-tion -Jn/ n (a) [U] national prejudices.' o n (C) cos-
correcting, (b) [C] change that mopolitan(2) person.
corrects something: ^j are urii- cosmos 'kozmos/ n the '>^,

ttn in red ink. -wive ^. adj. the universe.

corre-late 'koraleit/ \tii have, cost' kost n 1 ICU) price paid
show, a close relation: try to -n- for a thing. 2 that which is need-
rwo sets of facts cor-re'la-tion ed to obtain something: the of ~
n (C) close relationship. victory to one's '>", to one's
cor-re-spond ,kori'spDnd/ vi loss or disadvantage, at all '^s.
agree with; be the same as. 2 -^ whatever the cost may be. 3 {pi)
to. be equal (to), be similar (in {legal) expense of having an ac-
position, etc) (to). 3 exchange tion settled in a law court.
letters, -s^ing adj that corre- cost kost viipt.pp ~) 1 have at
spond(s)(2) 's^ing-ly a^v the price of: Shoes -^ £20 a pair.
correspondence ikori- 2 result in the loss of: many ~
'spondans 1 (C,U] agreement:
/j lives, a vt {pt.pp ~ed) estimate
similarity. 2 [U] letter-writing, the cost of an article.
letters, correspondent n [C] cost-ly /'kostli/ adj (-ier, -iest)
(a) person with whom one ex- of great value; costing much.
changes letters, (b) person who cos-tume 'kostjurm n 1 [U]
writes articles for a newspaper. styleof dress. 2 [C] clothes worn
cor-ri-dor 'koridorfr) n [CJ long by actors on stage.
narrow passage from which cosy' 'kauzi adj (-ier, -iest)
doors open into rooms. warm and comfortable, cosily
cor-rob-or-ate /ka'robsreit v/ adw cosi-ness n [U]
give support to (a statement, be- cosy^ 'kauzi, n [C] covering for
lief, etc). a teapot.
cor-rode ks'raud/ vtji wear cot /kot/ n [C] bed for a young
away by chemical action or dis- child.
ease; be worn away. cot-tage /'kotids/ n [C] small
cor-rosion ka'rau^n/ n [U] 1 house, esp in the country.
process of corroding. 2 sub- cot-ton 'kotn, n [U] 1 soft,
stance (eg rust) produced by white substance, used for mak-
corrodmg: There 's a lot of corro- ing thread, cloth, etc. 2 thread,
sion on my car. cor-ros-ive cloth,made from cotton, j-^-
/ka'rausiv n [C], a^y (substance) 'wool, absorbent cotton used
that corrodes. for padding, bandages, etc.
corru-gate 'korsgeit' \t i couch' kautj n [C] long seat
make into folds or furrows. like a bed.
corru'gation n [C,U] couch^ /kautJ/ vt express: A
cor-rupt adj (of per-
ka'r.Apt reply '^ed in formal terms.
sons, actions) immoral;
their cou-gar ''ku:g3(r); n [C] large
dishonest (esp through taking wild cat, also called a. puma.
bribes), d v/,/ make or become cough kof n [C] 1 act or sound

corrupt, cor-rup-tion jAni n of coughing. 2 illness that causes

[U] a person to cough, d v7 / send
cor-set ''kD:sit/ n [C] close- out air from the lungs violently
fitting undergarment shaping and noisily.
thewaist and hips. could kud weak form kad/ aux
cortege, cortege kor'teis/ n verb:pto( can.
[C] procession, eg at a funeral. coun-cil 'kaunsl'rt [C] group of
cosh /koj/ n. n [C] (GBsl) (strike persons appointed or elected to
with) a flexible rubber tubing give advice, manage affairs, etc,
filledwith metal, etc. esp of government. ''>^-house,
cos-metic /koz'metik/ adj. n [C] house built by a city council, to
(substance) designed to make be rented, --^^lor ( US = -cilor ) n
the skin or hair beautiful. [C] member of a council.
cos-mic /'kozmik' adj of the coun-sel 'kaonsl, n 1 [Ul ad-
w hole universe or cosmos. vice; consultation. 2 [C] {pi -w)
cos-mo-naut ''kozmanD.-t n [C] barrister giving advice in a law
85 count/courage

case, a vi (-II-, US also -I-) (for- (coins, handwriting, etc) in ord-

mal) advise, '^lor (US =- er to deceive.
selor);7[C] adviser. coun-ter-foil /'kauntafDil/ n [C]
count^ /kaont/ n [C\ 1 act of section of a cheque, receipt, etc
counting; number got by count- kept by the sender as a record.
ing: There were 50. at the last ~. countermand /,kaunt3-
make a '^ of. 2 {legal) accusa- 'ma:nd/ v7 cancel a command al-
tion; charge: guilty on all ~5. ready given.
count^ /kaunt/ vtji 1 say or coun-ter-part /'kauntspart/ n
name numbers in order: Has [C] person or thing exactly like,
John learned to -^ yet at school? or closely corresponding to, an-
2 find the total of. 3 include: ten other.
people, '^ing John. 4 consider to coun-ter-sign /'kauntasam/ vt
be: -^ oneself lucky. 5 be impor- add another signature to (a
tant: every minute ~5. 6 'v^ document) to give it authority.
(sth) against sb. be to the count-ess /'kauntis/ n [C] wife
disadvantage of. -^ on/upon, ofa count or earl.
expect with confidence; rely on. count-less /'kauntlis/ adJ that
'V. out. (a) count things (slow- cannot be counted (because too
ly), one by one. (b) not include: numerous).
C-^ me out. I'm not going, -n^ up, coun-try /'kAntri/ n {pi -ies) 1
find the total of. [C] land occupied by a nation. 2
count^ /kaunt/ n [C] title of no- [Cj land of a person's birth or ci-
bility in Europe. tizenship. 3 the ->-, the people
count-able /'kauntabl/ adj that of a country (1 ). go to the '^,
can be counted. general election. 4 the -v/,
call a
coun-ten-ance^ /'kauntmans/ n land used for farming. 5 (as an
{format) 1 [C] face; its appear- ai//)ofor in the country (4).
ance and expression. 2 [U] sup- coun-try-man /'kAntrimsn/,
port; approval. coun-try- woman /'kAntri-
coun-ten-ance^ /'kaontmans woman/ [C]n {pi -men,-
vt {formal) give support or ap- -women) person living in the
proval to: I cannot'-^ violence. country (4). 2 person of the
coun-ter^ /''kaunt3(r)/ n [C] same country (1 ).
table on which goods are shown coun-try-side /'kAntrisaid/ n
in a shop or bank. [U] rural area(s) (contrasted
COun-teH /'kaont9(r)/ n [C] 1 with town).
small piece of plastic for count- county /'kaonti/ n {pi -ies) [C]
ing in games, etc. 2 device for major division of a country or
counting (in machinery, etc). state.
COun-teH /'kaont3(r) adv^ to, coup /ku:/ n [C] {pi '^s /ku:z/) 1
in theopposite direction (to); in sudden action taken to get
opposition (to). power. 2 (also -^ d'etat)
coun-ter* /'kaunt3(r)/ vt/i op- violent or illegal change in
pose; reply to (an attack, etc): ^ government.
his arguments. couple^ /'IcApl/ n [C] 1 two per-
coun-ter- /,kaunt3(r)-/ prefix 1 sons or things, seen together or
opposite in direction: i-^- associated. 2 a man and woman,
pro'ductive. 2 made in answer to: esp a man and his wife.
^-^-attack 3 corresponding: couple^ /'kApl/ vtji 1 fasten, join
*'>^part. (two things) together: two ^
coun-ter-act /|ko:onto'rskt/ vt railway carriages. 2 (of animals)
act against and make (action, unite sexually; (of things) come
force, poison) of less effect: ~a together; unite.
poison. coup-let /'kAplit/ n [C]suc- two
coun-ter-baiance /'kaonts- cessive lines of verse, equal in
baebns/ n [C] weight, force, length and with rhyme.
equal to another and balancing coup-ling /'kApIir)/ n [C] link,
it. D VI ikaunta'biEbns/ act as a etc that joins two parts, esp rail-
counterbalance to. way coaches.
coun-ter-feit ''kauntsfit/ n [C], cou-pon /'ku:pDn/ n [C] ticket
aJJ (something) made in imita- which gives the holder the right
tion of another thing in order to to receive or do something.
deceive: ^
banknotes, a vt copy cour-age ;'kArid3/ n [U] quality

courgette/coy 86

that enables a person to control under separate ^, in a separ-

fear in the face of danger, pain, ate parcel or envelope. 4 (U]
etc. '>^ous k:>'reid33s/
, adj place or area giving shelter.
brave; fearless. '>^ous-lv adv take '^. place oneself where
courgette /kua'set/ n (C) (US one is concealed or protected. 5
= zucchini) small green mar- (U] under -w of. protected by:
row(2). under ^ of friendship /darkness.
courier 'kuri3(r)/ n [C] 1 per- 6 [U] force of aircraft protecting
son who attends to details of a land or sea operation. 7 insur-
travel and (sometimes) accom- ance against loss, damage, etc.
panies travellers. 2 messenger cover^ /'kAVo(r), vt 1 place (one
carrying news or important thing) over or in front of (an-
government papers. other); hide or protect (some-
course^ /kD:s/ n 1 [C] direction thing) in this way: ^
a chair/
taken by something: the 'v, of u one's face. -^ up. put a cover (1
river/rocket, (as) a matter of over. 2 be '^ed with, (a) have
'^. that which one would expect a great number or amount of:
to be or happ>en. of '^. natural- hills ^ed with snow, (b) have as
ly; certainly. 2 [C] ground for a natural coat. 3 travel (a certain
races, sport. 3 [C] series of lec- distance). 4 keep a gun aimed at
tures, treatments, etc. 4 [C] one a person. 5 (of money) be
of the several parts of a meal, in enough for: write a cheque to 'v
due '^, at the proper time, in e.xpenses. 6 include: His resear-
f/ie'>^ of, during. ches ^ed a wide field. 7 (of a
course^ /kD:s; v/// 1 (of liquids) journalist) report (an event).
move quickly. 2 hunt with dogs. '>^agc n [U] covering of events,
court^ /koit/ n 1 [C] place where etc. C> cover^(7).
legal cases are held; the judges, cov-ert' /'kAvat/ «r// (of glances,
magistrates in a court. 2 the '^, threats, etc) half-hidden; dis-
(residence of a) great ruler, his guised.»^lyaJv
family and officials, etc. 3 [C] cov-ert^ /'kAvot/ n [C] area of
space marked out for certain thick undergrowth in which ani-
games: a tennis ~. '-"wyard, un- mals hide.
roofed space with walls round it. cow^ /kao/ n [C] 1 fully grown ,

court^ ;kD:t/ vtji 1 try to win the female of the ox family. 2 female
affections of, with a view to elephant, rhinoceros, whale, etc.
marriage: He '^ed Mary for two ''^boy, man who looks after '

years. 2 risk (something disag- cattle in the western parts of the :

reeable): ~
disaster. US. ''>^hand, '-v^herd, person i

cour-teous ;'k3:ti3s/ adj having who looks after grazing cattle.

good manners; polite and kind ''>-hide, leather made from a \
(to). '^{y adv cow's skin.
cour-tesy /'kaitasi/ n {pi -ies) 1 cow^ /kau/ vt frighten (a person)
[C,U] courteous behaviour. 2 into submission.
by^-'Of, with the favour or per- cow-ard /'kauad/ n [C] 1 person
mission of. unable to control his fear. 2 per-
court-ier /'kD:ti3(r)/ n [C] mem- son who runs away from re-
ber of a sovereign's court. danger. '>^ly adj
sponsibility, '<

court-mar-tial 'ma:Jl/ n
/,ko:t (a) not brave, (b) like a co-
[C] {pi ~s-martial) court for try- ward, cow-ardice /-dis/ n [U]
ing offences against military cower /'kau3(r)/ vi lower the \

law; such a trial, a vt (-II-) try (a body, move back, from cold, 1

person) in a court of this kind. fear.

court-ship /'ko:tjip/ n [C,U] cowl /kaol/ n [C] 1 long gown
(period of) courting(1 ). with a hood; the hood. 2 metal
cousin /'kAzn/ n fc]: {first) ~, cap for a chimney.
child of one's uncle or aunt; sec- cox /koks/ n [C] {informal) (abbr
ond ~, child of one's parent's oO cpxswain. a vtji act as cox-
first cousin. swain.
cove /kauv/ n [C] small bay^. cox-swain /'koksn/ n [C] person,
cover' /'kAV3(r)/ n 1 [Cj thing who steers a rowing-boat, esp in
that covers: a chair -%.. 2 [Cj races.
binding of a book, magazine, coy /ko:i/ adj (-er, -est) (esp of a
etc. 3 [C] wrapper or envelope. girl) (pretending to be) shy.
87 coyote/crawl

modest, 'v/ly adv narrow space; restrict: a ^ed

coY'Ote /'koiaut/ n [CJ small wolf room. 2 cause to have crampV 3
Qf western N America. fiisten withacramp^.
crab /kraeb/ n [C] ten-legged cramp^ /kraemp/ n [C] tool with
shellfish; [U] its meal as food. a moveable part which can be
crack^ /kraek/ n [C] 1 line where screwed up to hold things.
something is broken, but not in- cram-pon /'kriEmpDn/ n [C] iron
to parts. 2 sudden,
separate plate with spikes, worn on shoes
sharp noise: the -^ of a whip,' for climbing on ice.
rifle. 3 sharp blow: a '^ on the cran-berry /'krasnbari/ n [C] {pi
head, a adj first-rate: He's a '^ -ies) small, red berry, used for
shot. making jelly and sauce.
crack^ /kraek/ vt/i 1 get or make crane^ /krein/ n [C] 1 large wad-
a crack or cracks(1 ) in: ->- a ing bird with long legs and neck.
plate. 2 make a crack or 2 machine with a long arm, used
cracks (2). 3 (of the voice) be- for lifting heavy weights.
come harsh; (of a boy's voice) crane^ /krem/ vt/i stretch (the
become deeper. 4 solve (a code, neck) (eg to see better).
problem). 5 '^ dow/n on (sbl cran-ium /'kremiam/ n [C] (anat)
sth). take disciplinary action bony part of the head enclosing
against. -^ up. lose strength (in the brain, cran-ial adj
old age); suffer a mental col- crank^ /kraeqk/ n [C] L-shaped
lapse. '>^ a joke, make one. get handle for turning things, d vt
'>^/'/i</, get busy. move by turning a crank.
cracker /'kraek3(r)/ n [C] 1 thin '--^shaft, shaft that turns or is
biscuit (as eaten with cheese). 2 turned by a crank.
firework that makes cracking crank^ /krasr)k/ n [C] person with
noises. C> also nutcrackers. fixed (and often strange) ideas.
crackers /'kraekaz/ adj {si) mad; cranky adj (-ier, -iest) (of
crazy. people) odd; eccentric.
crackle /'kraekl/ vi make a series crash^ /kraej"/ n [C] 1 (noise
of small cracking sounds, as made by a) violent fall. 2 ac-
when dry sticks burn, a n [U] cident: a plane rear ^. 3 ruin;
small cracking sounds. collapse (eg in trade, finance), d
crack-pot /'kraekpot/ adj. n [C] adv with a crash. ''>--course/
eccentric, mad: a '^ idea. programme, one to achieve
cradle /'kreidl/ n [C] 1 small bed quick results, '-^-heimet, hel-
for a baby. 2 (fig) place where met worn, eg by'a motor-cyclist,
something begins: the of Wes- ~ to protect the head, (--s^-'lancl
tern culture. 3 framework like a v//i (of aircraft) land out of con-
cradle, d vt place, hold, in or as trol. Hence. ,'v.-'landing n [C,
in a cradle. U]
craft /kra:ft/ n 1 [C] skill with crash^ /kraej/ vtji 1 fall or strike
the hands; occupation needing suddenly and noisily (esp of
such 2 [C] (pi ~) boat(s),
skill. things that break). 2 cause to
ship(s). 3 [U] cunning; skill in crash: '^ a car. 3 force or break
deceiving, crafts-man n [C] {pi through violently. 4 (of a com-
-men) skilled workman who pany, etc) be ruined.
practises a craft, crafty adj (- crass /krass/ adj (of eg ignor-
ier, -iest) cunning; showing skill ance, stupidity) very great.
in trickery, --wily adv. '^i-ness crate /kreit/ n [C] large wooden
container for goods, a vt put in a
crag /kraeg/ n [C] steep mass of crate.
rock. '>^gy adj (-ier, -iest) hav- cra-ter /'kreit3(r)/ n [C] 1 mouth
ing many crags. of a volcano. 2 hole made by a
cram /krsm/ v/// (-mm-) 1 ^ bomb.
into/ with, make too full: 'v. cra-vat /kra'vaet/ n [C] piece of
clothes into a suitcase. 2 fill the cloth worn as a tie.
head with facts (for an examina- crave /kreiv/ vr// desire strongly.
tion). era v-ing n [C] strong desire.
cramp^ /kraemp/ n [U] sudden crawl /krorl/ vi 1 move slowly,
and painful tightening of the along the ground or on the
muscles. hands and knees. 2 go very slow-
cramp^ /kraemp/ vt 1 keep in a ly: traffic ~5 into London every

crayfish/ crescendo 88

morning. 3 be of things thai

crawl: ^ing wiih ants. 4 (of the credit' /'kredit, n 1 [U] belief of
flesh) feel as if covered with others that a person, company,
crawling things C>creep(5) an etc can pay debts. 2 [U] money
1 [U] crawling movement. 2 the owned b> a person, company,
'>^, high-speed swimming etc in a bank account. 3 [Cj sum
stroke. of money advanced or loaned
cray-fish 'kreifij n [C] fresh- (by a bank. etc). 4 (ace) record
water shellfish like a lobster of pa>menis received. 5 get/
crayon 'kreian n (Cj pencil of take '^ (for sth). receive re-
soft,coloured chalk, wax. o v7 cognition, etc. % be a '\^ to sbl
draw with crayons sth. add to the good name of. f
craze kreiz v/ make wildly ex- [U] belief; trust: give ~
to his
cited or mad. d n [C] enthusiastic story. *'>^ card, one issued by a

interest that lasts for a short business firm allowing the hol-
time. O rage(3). der to obtain goods on cred-
crazy 'kreizi adj (-ier, -iesi) 1 it (1 ). ''v<-worthy, adj (accept-

wildly excited or enthusiastic: ->- ed as being) safe to offer credit

about football 2 suffering from to.
mental disorder; foolish, craz- credit' /'kredit/ vt 1 believe. 2
ily adv crazi-ness n [U] enter on the credit side of an ac-
creak kri:k' n [C]. vi (make a)
, count. '>^able /-abl' adj that
sound like a badly oiled hinge. brings credit(5,6,7j. 'x^ably
creaky adj (-ier, -iest) making adv
creaking sounds. creditor /'kreditd(r)/ n [C] per-
cream kri:m, n [V] 1 fatty part son to whom one owes money.
of milk which rises to the sur- cre-du-lity ,kr3'dju:l3ti n [U]
face. 2 substance like cream: too great a readiness to believe
^furniture -^ 3 best part: the ~ things, 'credu-ious adj
of society. 4 yellowish-white col- creed ;kri:d n [C] (system oO be-
our. D adj yellowish-white, a v/ liefs,esp on religious doctrine.
take cream from (milk); add creek kri:k//7[C]1 ((75) narrow
cream to. 2 take the best part. inlet of water on the coast or in a
creamy adj (-ier, -iest) hke river-bank. 2 {N America) small
cream; containing cream. river.
crease /kri:s n [C] 1 line made creep /krirp/ vi {pt.pp crept
(on cloth, paper, etc) by crush- /krept;) 1 move along with the
ing, folding or pressing. 2 white body close to the ground. 2
line on -a cricket pitch. vti move slowly or quietly. 3 (of
make, get, a crease (1 ) in. time, age, etc) move gradually. 4
cre-ate /kn'eit; vt 1 cause some- (of plants, etc) grow over the
thing to exist; make (something surface of (a wall, etc). 5 (of the
original). 2 produce: prob- ~ flesh) feel as if covered with
lems. crawling things. C> crawl(4).
cre-ation /kn'eijn/ n 1 [U] the creeper /'kri:p3(r)/ n [C] plant
act of creating (eg the world). 2 that grows along the ground,
[U] all created things, the C'>^, over rocks, walls, etc.
the world or universe as created creepy /'kriipi, adj (-ier, -iest)
by God. causing fear.
cre-ative ,/kn'eitiv/ adj having cre-mate /kri'meit/ vt burn (a
power to create; of creation. corpse) to ashes, cre'ma-tion n
-^ly adv. [CU] (instance oQ cremating.
cre-ator /kri'eit3(r)/ n [C] person cre-ma-tor-ium ;,krem3-
who creates, the C-^, God. 'toiriam/ n [C] (pi ~s) furnace,
crea-ture n [C] living
/'kri:tj3{r)/ place, for the cremating of corp-
animal, person. ses.
creche /'kreij/ n [C] (GB) public crepe, crepe /kreip/ n [U] kinds
nursery for babies. of wrinkled cloth or paper: ^
cre-den-tials /kn'denjlz/ n pi paper I rubber.
letters or papers showing that a crept /krept/ />r,/7yp of creep.
person is what he claims to be. cres-cendo /kri'Jendao/ n [Cj,
cred-ible /'kredabl, adj that can adj (pi ~s) 1 (music played)
be believed, cred-ibly adv in a \yith, of, increasing loudness. 2
credible manner, credi-'bil-ity (fig) progress towards a climax.
89 crescent/crooked

cres-cent n [C] 1
/'kresnt/ cripple n [C] person un-
(something shaped hke) the able to move properly, through
curve of the new moon. 2 row of injury or weakness, a vt make a
houses in the form of a crescent. cripple of; damage or weaken
cress kres/ n [U] plant with seriously.
hot-tasting leaves. cri-sis 'kraisisn [C] {pi crises
crest /krest; n [C] 1 tuft of feath- -si:z ) 1 turning-point in illness,
ers on a bird's head. 2 decora- life. 2 time of difficulty or dan-
tion on the top of a helmet. 3 de- ger.
sign over the shield of a coat of crisp krisp, adj (-er, -est) 1 (esp

arms. 4 top of a hill; white top of of food) hard, dry and easily
a large wave, d vt reach the crest broken. 2 (of the weather)
of a hill, a wave, '-^^-fallen, (fig) frosty, cold. 3 (of style, man-
very disappointed. ners) quick, precise: his way of~
cre-tin /'kretm/ n [C] 1 mentally speaking, a n [C] (usually/?/) thm
undeveloped person. 2 {infor- slice of potato, fried and dried
ma^ stupid person. (sold in packets), a vt/i make or
cre-vasse /kri'vaes/ n [C] deep. become crisp, -^ly adv. 'v^ness
open crack, esp in ice. n[C]
crev-ice /'krevis; n [C] narrow criss-cross 'kriskros/ adj with
opening or crack (in a rock, crossed lines, a vt/i mark with
wall, etc). lines that cross.
crew /kru:/ n [C] 1 persons cri-terion krai'tisrian/ n [C] {pi
working a ship or aircraft (ex- -ria ,-n3/) standard of judge-
cept the officers). 2 group of ment.
persons working together; gang: critic /'kritik n [C] 1 person who
a camera ~
a v/ act as crew ( 1 )
. forms and gives judgements, esp
crib^ /krib/ n [C] 1 wooden about literature, art. music, etc.
framework from which animals 2 person who finds fault, '-v^a!
can pull out food. 2 small bed adj (a) of or at a crisis, (b) of
for a baby. the work of a critic, (c) fault-
crib^ /krib/ n [C] 1 something co- finding, ^wally adv in a critic-
pied dishonestly from the work al (a) manner.
'Of another. 2 word-for-word criti-cism /'kritisizam n 1 [U]
translation of a foreign text, a the work of a critic. 2 [C] opin-
vt/i (-bb-) 1 use a crib(2). 2 ion on literature, art, etc. 3 [C]
copy (a persons work) dis- remark, etc that finds fault.
honestly. criti-cize /'kntisaiz/ v/// form
cricket' /'krikit/ n [C] small, and give a judgement on; find
brown jumping insect which fault with.
makes a shrill noise. croak /kraok; n [C] deep, hoarse
cricket"^ /'knkit/ n [U] ball game sound (as made by frogs), d vt/i
i^^-match) played on a field by 1 make
this kind of sound. 2 say
two teams of eleven players ina croaking voice.
each, with bats and wickets. crock /krok, n [C] 1 pot made of
'>^er, cricket player. baked earth. 2 old vehicle in
cried /kraid, pt.pp o[cry^. poor condition.
cries /kraiz/ pres tense of cry^; pi crock-ery /'krokari/ n [U] pots,
of cry plates, cups etc (made of baked
crime /krami/ n [C,U] offence(s) clay).
for which there is severe punish- croco-dile /'krokadail/ n [C] 1
ment by law. large river reptile with a long
crimi-nal /'krimml/a<i/ of crime. body and tail. 2 {informal) line
a n [C] person who commits a of school children two by two.
crime or crimes. '>^ly adv ''>^ tears, insincere sorrow.

ciim-son /'krimzn/ adj. n [U] cro-cus /'krsukas, n [C] (/?/~es)

deep red (colour). small plant with white or yellow
cringe /knnds/ vi 1 move (the flowers.
body) back or down in fear. 2 crook /kruk/ n [C] 1 stick with a
behave too humbly (towards a rounded hook at one end, esp
superior). used by a shepherd. 2 {informal)
crinkle /'knijkl/ n [C] small, nar- criminal, a \ti bend into the
row wrinkle (in paper), a vi i shape of a crook.
make or get crinkles in. crooked /'krukid/ adj 1 not
crop/crowd 90

straight. 2 dishonest, '^-^lyadv one or both eyeballs turned to-

crop^ krnp/ n [C] 1 yearly (or wards the nose.
season's) produce of grain, cross-fire 'krDsfai3(r) n [U]
grass, fruit, etc. 2 (pi) agricultu- firing of guns from two or more
ral plants in the fields. 3 group opposite points,
of persons or things: a new of ~ cross-ing 'krosiq n [C] 1 the
problems. act of going acro^^. esp by sea: a
crop^ krop 17/ (-PP-) 1 (of ani- stormy ^ of the Atlantic. 2 place
mals) bite off the tops of (grass, where two roads, railways, etc
plants, etc); graze. 2 cut short (a cross O level crossing
person's hair, a horse's tail). 3 '>^ cross-legged .kros 'legd/ adv
up. appear or arise (esp unex- (of a person sitting) with one leg
pectedly): A new problem has placed across the other.
^pedup. cross-pur-poses jkros 'pa:-
cro-quet 'kraukei n [U] game pasiz n pi be at '^. (of two per-

played on grass with wooden sons or groups) misunderstand

balls which are knocked one another.
through hoops. cross-reference ikros
cross^ kros adj 1 (informal) 'refrons n [C] reference from
bad-tempered. 2 (of winds) one part of a book, etc to an-
blowing from one side. other.
cross^ kros /? [C] 1 mark made crossroads 'krosraudz/ n {pi,
by drawing one line across an- with a sing verb) place where two
other. 2 stake with another piece or more roads meet.
of wood across it. esp the C'v., cross-sec-tion /ikros 'sekjn/ n
that on which Christ died; sign [C] 1 (drawing of a) piece or slice
of across. 3 (//;?) suffering. 4 off- made by cutting across. 2 (Jig)
spring of animals or plants of representative sample of the
different breeds. whole: a ~
of society.
cross^ kros vtii 1 go across; cross-word /'krosward/ n [C]
pass from one side to the other (also '-^ puzzle) puzzle in which
side of. 'V. one's mind, (of words have to be written in
ideas, etc) occur to one. 2 draw a spaces on a chequered square.
line or lines across or through: crotch krntj' n [C] 1 place
'^ out a word. 3 put or place where a branch joins a tree. 2
across or over, keep one's place where a pair of trousers or
fingers '^ed. (fig) hope for the a person's legs join.
best. 4 ~
oneself, make the crouch kraotj, vi lower the
sign of the cross. 5
oppose or ob- body with the limbs together:
struct (somebody, his plans, The tiger '^ed ready to attack, a
etc). 6 produce a cross(4) by n [C] crouching position.
mixing breeds. crou-pier /'krurpiei/ n [C] person
cross-bow 'krosbao, n [C] who collects money at a gam-
bow^(1) placed across a bling table.
grooved wooden support, used crow^ krao/ n [C] (kinds oQ
for shooting arrows, etc. large, black bird with a harsh
cross-bred 'krosbred a^y pro- cry. as the ^'^ flies, in a
duced by crossing breeds. straight line: It's ten miles away,
cross-breed 'krosbriid/ n [C] as the -^ flies. '~'s feet n pi
animal, plant, etc produced by lines on the skin near the corners
crossing breeds. of the eyes, '-s^'s-nest, look-
cross-check /kros 'tjek/ vtn out platform on the mast of a
test, eg a method, calculation, ship.
by using a different method, etc. crow^ krau/ vi 1 (of a cock)
a rtlC] test of this sort. make a loud, shrill cry. 2 (of per-
cross-country /,krDs'kAntri/ sons) express triumph; boast, a
adj, adv across the country or A? [C] crowing sound.
fields: a^ race. crow-bar /'kr3uba:(r)/ n [Cl
cross-exam-ine /jkros ig'zae- straight, iron bar, used as a lever
mm/ vt question closely, esp to for moving heavy obiects.
test answers already given, as in crowd /kraud n [C] 1 large
law court. cross-exami- number of people together. 2
'nation/7[C] (informal) groups of persons as-
cross-eyed 'krosaid adj with sociated in some way: the golf
91 crown /crystal
'^. a vtii 1 come together in a crush, be crushed, noisily, a n
crowd. 2 (cause to) move [C] 1 act of. noise made by,
through, etc in a crowd; fill with. crunching. 2 the '^, (informal)
-^-ed ailj having large numbers crisis: when the '^ comes.
of people, things. cru-sade n [C] 1 mili-
crown^ kraun/ n [C] 1 or- tary expedition made by the
namental head-dress of a king Christian rulers durmg the Mid-
or queen; royal power. 2 top of dle Ages against the Muslims. 2
the head or of a hat. struggle or movement: a for ~
crown^ kraon v/l put a crown human rights, a vi take part in a
on (a king or queen). 2 give crusade, cru-sader n [C]
honour to; reward: '^ed with crush^ kr.\J" n [U] crowd of
success. 3 have at the top: a hill people pressed together.
-^cd with trees. 4 finish; com- crush^ krAj vr /I press so that
plete, to -^ (it) all, to complete there is breaking or injury. 2
good or bad fortune, -^^ing adj (cause to) become full of creases.
completing; makmg perfect. 3 defeat completely. 4 press or
cru-cial 'kru:Jl adj decisive; push in: crowds ^ed into the
critical, '^ly adv theatre. '>>/ing adj overwhelm-
cru-ci-fix 'krursifiks n [C] ing: a ^ing defeat,
'x^ing-ly adv
model of the Cross with the fi- crust krASt/«1 [C,U] hard sur-
gure of Jesus on it. '>^ion face of a loaf, pie or tart. 2 [C.U]
/ikru:si'fikjn a; [C,U] putting to hard surface.
deathonacross(2). crus-ta-cean 'krA'steifn, n [C]
cru*cify /'kru:sifai/ vt {pt.pp shellfish.
-ied) put to death by nailing to a crusty "krASti/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1
cross. having a crust; hard like a crust.
crude /kru:d/ adj (-r, -st) 1 (of 2 (of persons, their behaviour)
materials) in a natural state; not quick to show irritation, etc.
refined: ~
oil. 2 without taste or crutch krAtJ n [C] 1 stick used
refinement; vulgar. 3 badly pre- as a support under the arm to
pared: -^ methods. '^\\ adv help a lame person to walk. 2
crud-ity 'krurditi/ n [U] being {fig) moral support. 3 =
crude; [Cj {pi -ies) crude (2) act. crotch(2).
remark, etc. crux krAks/ n [C] {pi '^es) part
cruel /kru:9l/ adj (-er, -est) 1 (of (of a problem) that is the most
persons) taking pleasure in the difficult to solve.
suffering of others. 2 causing cry' n [C] {pi cues) 1 loud
pain or suffering: a ~
attack. sound of pain, grief, etc: a of ^
'^\\adv. ^ty/ n [C,U] (pi -\es). pain for help, a far "^ from,

cruet ''kru:it/ n [C] small stand very different from. 2 fit of

for vinegar and oil, or salt and weeping.
pepper, on a table. cry^ krai' vt/i {pt.pp cried) 1 (of
cruise 'kru:z; vi 1 sail about for persons, animals) make sounds
pleasure, or, m war, looking for that express feelings (eg pain,
enemy ships. 2 (of cars, aircraft) fear). 2 (of persons) weep. 3 call
travel at the most economical out loudly. ^
off, cancel (an
speed. D n [C] cruising voyage. appointment, etc).

If cruisers [C] fast warship. crypt kript n [C] underground

crumb /krAm/ n [C] 1 very small room, esp of a church.
piece of dry food, eg bread. 2 cryp-tic /'kriptik/ adj secret;
{fig) small amount: not a of ~ with a hidden meaning.
proof. crys-tal 'kristl/ n 1 [U] trans-
crumble /'krAmbl/ vt/i 1 break, parent, natural substance like
rub or fall into very small pieces. quartz; [C] niece of this as an or-
2 (Jig) be destroyed, decay. nament. 2 [U] glassware of best
crum-bly adj (-ier, -iest) easily quality. 3 [CJ regular shape
crumbled. taken naturally by certain sub-
crumple /'krAmpl vt/i 1 press stances: salt ^s. '^line adj
or crush into creases. 2 become made of crystal(s); like crystal;

1 full of creases. 3 ^ up, crush; very clear. '>^lize vtii (a) form
collapse. into crystals(3). (b) cover
crunch krAntJ/ vt/i^ crush noi- (fruit, etc) with sugar-crystals,
sily with the teeth when eating. 2 (c) {fig) (of ideas, plans) be-
cub /curd
come clear und definite. person or practice.
cub 'k\b n (C) young lion. bear, cul-ti-vate /'kAltiveit/ vt 1 pre-
fox, tiger. pare (land) for crops by plough-
cubby-hole 'kAbi haol/ n [C] ing, etc; help (crops) to grow. 2
small, enclosed space give care, time, etc in order to
cube kju:b n [C] 1 solid body develop something. cul-ti-
having SIX equal square sides. 2 vated adj (of a person) having
(maths) product of a number good manners and education.
multiplied by itself twice, n vt iCulti'vationn[C]
multiply a number by itself cul-ture 'kAltj"D(r) n 1 [Li] ad-
twice: 3 '^d is 27. cu-bic vanced development of ihe hu-
/'ju:bik/ adj having the shape of man powers; development of the
a cube; of a cube: one '^ metre. body. mind. 2 [C] all the arts, be-
cu-bicle 'kju:bikl, n [C] small liefs, social institutions, etc of a
division of a larger room. community, race, etc: Chinese
cuckoo 'koku:, n [C] bird ~. 4 [U] cultivating (of crops,
whose call is like its name, and etc). 5 [C] growth of bacteria.
which lays its eggs in the nests of Cul-tural adj having to do with
other birds. culture, cul-tured adj (of per-
cu-cum-ber 'kju:kAmb3(r)/ n sons) cultivated.
[C,U] (creeping plant with a) cul-vert /'kAlvat/' n [C] drain that
long, green fleshy fruit crosses under a road or railway.
cud kAd n [U] food which oxen,
, cumbersome 'kAmbasom/
etc bring back from the first sto- adj heavy and awkward to carry.
mach and chew again, chew cumu-lat-ive 'kju:mjubliv/ adj
the '^, (Jig) think about. increasing in amount by one ad-
cuddle 'kAdl/ vtii 1 hold close
, dition after another.
and lovingly in one's arms. 2 lie cun-ning 'kAniq/ adj clever at
close and comfortably: The dog deceiving, a n [U] quality of be-
'-^d close to the fire, a n [C] act of ing cunning. '^\y adv
cuddling, hug. cud-dly adJ in- cup^ /kAp/ n [C] 1 small porce-
vitingcuddling. lain bowl, with a handle, for tea,
cud-gel /'kAdsDl/ vt. n [C] (-1I-) coffee etc; contents of a cup.
(hit with a) short, thick stick. not my ^ of tea, (informat)
cue^ /kju:/ n [C] 1 the last words not what I like. 2 gold or silver
of an actor's speech which show vessel given as a prize in compet-
v/hen somebody else is to do or itions. ''>^ful n [C] as much as a
say something. 2 hint about how cup will hold.
to behave, what to do, etc. cup^ /kAp/ (-PP-) put into the
cue^ /kju:/ n [C] billiard-player's shape of a cup: ~
one 's hands.
long rod, for striking the ball. cup-board /'kAbod/ n [C] set of
cuff ^ /k\[/
n [C] end of a sleeve at shelves with doors.
the wrist, off the -^, (of a cur /k3:(r)/ n [C] 1 bad-tempered
speech) done without prepara- or worthless dog. 2 cowardly or
tion. ''>^-link, jewellery used for badly-behaved man.
fastening a cufT. cur-able /'kjuarabl/ adj that can
cuff^ /kAf/ vt, n [C] (give a) hght be cured.
blow with the open hand. curate /'kjuarat/ n [C] clergy-
cui-sine /kwi'zim/ n [U] (Fr) man who helps a parish priest.
style of cooking; cooking. cura-tive /'kjuarstiv/ adj help-
cul--de-sac /'kAl da sack/ n [C] ing to cure: the ~ power of a
street with an opening at one medicine.
end only. cu-ra-tor /kju'reit3(r)/ n [C] (Offi-
cul•len•der/'kAl9nd^(r)/^/[C] = cial in charge (esp) of a museum
colander. or art gallery.
cul-mi-nate /'kAlmineit/ vt ^ curb /k3:b/ n [C] 1 strap passing
in, (of efforts, hopes, careers, under a horse's jaw, used to con-
etc) reach the highest point. trol it. 2 (Jig) something that
culmi'nation rx [C] highest holds one back: a -^ on price in-
point. creases. 3 ^ kerb, d v/ 1 control
cul-prit /'kAlpnt/ n [C] person (a horse) with a curb. 2 keep
who has done wrong. (feelings, etc) under control.
cult /kAlt/ n [C] 1 system of reli- purd /k3:d/ n 1 [C] (often pi)
gious worship. 2 devotion to a thick, soft substance formed
93 curdle/cut

when milk turns sour. 2 [U] (in ling for punishment, injury or
compounds) substance resem- destruction. 2 cause of misfor-
bling curd: Jemon-^'^. tune or ruin: Alcohol was his '>^.
curdle /'kardl/ vt/i form into 3 offensive or vulgar word or
curds. words.
cure /kju3(r)/ vt/i 1 bring (a per- curse" /ksrs/ vt/i 1 use a curse
son) back to health; get rid of against; use violent language
(an evil). 2 treat meat, fish, etc in against. 2 be ^d
with, suffer
order to perserve it. d n [C] cur- misfortune because of. cursed
ing(1); something that -t, '-id/ adj (a) hateful, (b) {in-
cures (1 ). formal) very bad.
cur-few /'k3:fju:/ n [C] time or curt /k3:t/ adj (of a speaker) ab-
signal for people to remain in- rupt; brief. '>^ly adv. ^'s^ness n
doors. [ul
curi-os-ity 'ikjuan'osatt/ n {pi cur-tail /k3:'teil/ vr make short;
-ies) 1 [U] being curious(1 ,2) 2 . limit.'>^ment n [C,U] act or re-
[C] strange or rare object. sultof curtailing.
curi-ous 'kjoari^s; adj 1 eager cur-tain 'k3:tn/ n [C] 1 piece of
(to learn, know). 2 having too cloth, etc as hung up at a win-
much interest in the affairs of dow. 2 sheet of heavy material
others. 3 strange; unusual. across the front of the stage in a
curl /k3:l/n [C] something like theatre. 3 cover or protection: A
the thread of a screw, esp a lock '^ of mist, a vt furnish or cover
of hair of this shape, a vt/i make with curtains.
into curls; twist; grow in curls. curtsey, curtsy /'k3:tsi/ n [C]
curly /'k3:li/ adJ (-ier, -lest) hav- {pi '^s, -ies) formal gesture of
ing curis; arranged in curls. respect (bending the knees)
currant /'kArant/ n [C] 1 small. made by women, n vi {pt.pp
dried grape used in cakes etc. 2 -^ed, -ied) make this gesture.
(bush with) small black, red or curve /k3:v/ n [C] line of which
white fruit. no part is straight, d vtji have
currency /'kAransi/ n {pi -Ies) 1 the form of a curve.
[U] the state of being in general cushion /'kujn/ n [C] 1 small
use. 2 [C,U] money in use in a bag with soft material, to
country. make a seat more comfortable,
cur-rent^ /'kArant/ adj 1 in or to kneel on, etc. 2 something
general use; generally accepted. like a cushion: a ~
of air. u vt 1
2 now passing; of the present supply with cushions. 2 protect
time: '^ newslaffairs. '--w ac- from shock or harm.
count, (with a bank) one from cus-tard /'kAStad/ n [C,U] mix-
which money may be drawn ture of eggs and milk, sweetened
without previous notice. ,'>^ af- and flavoured.
'fairs, current(2) news. '>^\s cus-tod-ian /ka'staudian/ n [C]
adv 1 person who has custody of
cur-rent^ /'kArant/ n [C] 1 something or somebody. 2 care-
stream of water, air, gas, elec- taker of a public building.
tricity, etc. 2 course or move- cus-tody 'kAStadi/ n [U]l (duty
ment (of events, opinions, etc). oO caring for, guarding: give her
curricu-lum /ka'rikjubm/ n [C] ~ of the child. 2 imprisonment.
{pi ~s or -la /-b/) course of (be) in ~, (be) in prison.
study in a school, college, etc. '^ cus-tom /'kAStam/ n 1 [U] usual
'vitae /'vi:tai/ {Latin) brief writ- behaviour among members of a
ten account of one's past history social group. 2 [C] particular
(eg education, employment). way of behaving. 3 [U] regular
curry^ /'kAn/ n [C,U] {pi -ies) support given to a tradesman by
(dish oO meat, fish, eggs, etc customers. 4 {pi) import duties;
cooked with hot-tasting spices. department of government {the
D vr {pt. pp. -ied) cook with C'^s) that collects such duties.
curry. --^-built, made to order, ^v^ary
curry^ /'kAn/ vt {pt. pp -ied) -^ fliZ/according to custom (1 ,2).
favour (with sb), try to win cus-tomer /'kASt3m3(r) n [C]
favour or approval (by using person who buys things in a
flattery, etc). shop.
curse^ /ksis/ n [C] 1 words cal- cut' /kAt/ n [C] 1 act of cutting;

cut, czar 94

blow wiih a knile, eic. opening cut-let 'kAtht «lCj slice of mea;
made b> a knife, eic. 2 reduc- or fish.
tion: '^ in laxas 3 part that is
a cut-ter n [C] 1 persor
cut off: a -^ of ht-ef. 4 style in or thing that cuts. 2 sailing-
which clothes, hair, etc are cut. vessel with one mast.
cut^ k.\t vi I ipi.pp ~) (-tt-) 1 cut-throat 'kAtOrsot n [C
make an opening, wound, etc murderer, a acsf/ murderous: (/;f i

with something sharp 2 (a) (of -^- competition between shops

a sharp tool, instrument, etc) be cut-ting' 'kAtir) adj 1 sharp

suitable to use. (b) (of a piercing. 2 sarcastic. ->^ remark >

material) be capable of being about the singer s performance.

cut. 3 sta> away from. -^ a class. cut-ting^ 'kAtiq n [C] 1 un-
4 (of lines) cross. 5 -s^ (off) a roofed passage dug through the
corner, go across, not round it. ground for a road, railway, etc.
-^ corners, (jig) do something 2 something cut from a news-
quickl) but not perfectly. -^ paper, etc. 3 short piece of the
one's losses, abandon a stem of a plant, used for grow-
scheme before one loses loo ing a new plant.
much mone>. 6 ->- s6 dead. cuttle-fish 'kAtlfiJ n [C] sea-
pretend not to have seen some- animal with long arms which
body. '>^ sth open, make an sends out a black liquid when at-
opening or split in. ^ sth tacked.
short, make shorter. 7 |-w and cy-an-ide 'saianaid, n [U]
^dried. (of opinions, etc) form- strong poison.
ed and unlikely to be changed. 8 cycle n [C] 1 series of
->- across sth. lake a shorter events in a regularly repeated
route across (a field, etc). sth ^ order: the ->- of the seasons. 2
back, (a) (of shrubs, etc) cut (abbr for) bicycle, d vi ride a
close to the stem, (b) reduce: ^ bicycle, cyc-lic(al) adjhappcn-
back the number of workers. ing in cycles(l). cyc-iist, per-
Hence, 'cut-back n [C]. ^ son who cycles.
sth/sb down, (a) cause to fall cyc-lone 'saikbon/iIC] violent
by culling, (b) killor injure, (c) wind rotating round a calm cen-
reduce (expenses, etc), (d) per- tral area, cyc-lonic sai'klonik
suade (a person) to reduce a adj
price. ^
down on, reduce cyg-net 'signit n [C] young
one's consumption of. ^ in, in- swan.
terrupt (a conversation, etc). -^^ cyl-in-der 'silind3(r) n [C] 1
sb/sth off (from), (a) re- solid or hollow body shaped like
move by cutting, (b) interrupt: a log. 2 chamber (in an engine)
-^ off the gas. (c) isolate: towns in which gas or steam works a
~ o// by floods. '^ out, stop cy-lin-dri-cal
piston, si'lin-
functioning, -c- sth out, (a) re- drikl cylinder-shaped.
move by cutting, (b) make. cym-bal 'simbl n [CJ one of a
shape, by cutting, (c) {informal) pair of round brass plates struck
leave out. (d) (informal) stop together to make (flanging
doing or using: -n, out cigarettes. sounds.
(not) be ^
out for, (not) cynic 'smik n [C] person who
have the abilities needed for. -^ sees good in anything and
sth/sb up, (a) cut into pieces, who shows this by being sarcas-
(b) (informal) make unhappy, '>^ism
tic. 'smisizam n [U]
i'^ 'price, (esp) reduced in cynic's opinions or attitude.
price, i-^-'rate adj at a reduced '>^al adj like a cynic, '^aiiy adv
price. cy-pher /'saif3(r) n [C] = ciph-
cute kju:t; adj (-r, -st) (infor- er.
mal) (of a girl) attractive. cy-press /'saipras, n [C] (kinds
cu-ticle 'kju:tikl n [C] layer of oO evergreen tree with dark
hard skin at the base of a finger- leaves and hard wood.
nail or toe-nail. cyst sist n [C] hollow organ in
cut-lass 'kAtbs n [C] (sailor's)
the body containing liquid.
short, one-edged sword. czar za:(r) /i (also tsar) emper-
cut-lery 'kAtbri n [U] imple- or (of Russia before 1917).
ments used at table (knives, ^ina zor'riina n Russian em-
forks). press.
95 D/dank
from a person causing loss or in-
jury, a v7 cause damage (1 ) to.
dame deim/ n [C] 1 (title of a)
woman awarded an honour
(equal to knight).
damn daem \t 1 (of God) con-
demn to everlasting punish-

Dd ment. 2 condemn, nn not (be)

wforth a '^. (be) worthless.
'^able 'daemnsbl adj (a) hate-

ful; deserving to be damned, (b)

D, d 'di: (/>/ D's, d's /di:z/) 1 the {informal) very bad. '>^a-tion
fourth letter of the Enghsh al- /daem'neijn' n [U] being damn-
phabet. 2 Roman numeral 500. ed; ruin. D int Curse it, you. etc.
dab /daeb/ vtii (-bb-) touch, put '>^ed adj (a) the '>^ed, souls in
on, lightly and gently, a ^ [C] 1 hell, (b) {informal) deserving to
small quantity (of paint, etc) be damned, d adv {informal) ex-
dabbed on. 2 slight tap. tremely: '^ed lucky.
dabble 'dacbl vtH 1 splash (the
' damp^ daemp adj {-ex. -est)
hands, feet, etc) about in water. havmg some moisture (in or on):
2 (in art, politics, etc) do. study, a -^ room, a n [U] state of being
as a hobby, not professionally. damp. -wness/i[U]
dachs-hund 'daekshund/ n [C\ damp^ daemp, vti 1 make
breed of dog with short legs. damp. 2 (also 'dampen) make
dad /daed/ n [C] {informal) = sad or dull: ^ his enthusiasm. 3
father. '^ down, make (a fire) burn
daddy n [C] {pi -ies)
/'daedi/ more slowly.
child's word
for 'father'. dampen 'dasmpan; vtIi =
daf-fo-dil "daefsdil n [C] yellow ' damp^(2).
flower, growing from a bulb. damper n [C] 1
daft /da:ft/ adj {-ex. -est) {infor- metal plate that controls the
wa/) silly. '>^\y adv flow of air into a fire. 2 person
dag-ger /'daeg9(r)/ n [C] short or thing that ruins: put a '^ on
knife used as a weapon, look the party.
->^s at, look at with hatred. dam-son /'daemzn/ n [C] (tree
daily 'deiliadv happening,
adj. producing) small dark-purple
appearing, every day. n n [C] {pi plum.
-les) newspaper published every dance dams/ n [C] 1 (series oO
day. movements and steps in time
dainty "demti/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 with music; music for such
(of persons) pretty and neat. 2 movements and steps. 2 social
(of things) pretty: delicate(2): a gathering for dancing, a vt'i 1
^ flower. dain-tily adv move in rhythmical steps, usual-
daintiness/}[U] ly with music. 2 perform (a
dairy 'dean, n [C] {pi -ies) 1 named dance). 3 move in a lively
shop where milk, butter, eggs, way. dancer, person who
etc. are sold. 2 (part of a) build- dances, danc-ing adj, n [U]
mg where butter, cheese, etc are dan-de-lion /'daendilaian/ n [C]
made. '->- cattle, cows raised to small wild plant with bright yel-
produce milk. low fiowers.
dais 'Mens/ n fC] {pi ~es -siz/) dan-druff /'dsndrAf/ n [U] dead
platform (esp at the end of a skin in small pieces in the hair.
hall). dan-ger 'demd33(r) n 1 [U]
daisy 'deizi/ n [C] {pi -ies) small possibility of suffering injury or
white flower with a yellow cen- loss, in 'V-, likely to be injured,
tre. hurt, out of '>^. safe again. 2 [C]
dale deil Ai [C] = valley. something or somebody that
dam .'daem' n [C] barrier built to may cause danger. '^»^ous
keep back water, a vt (-mm-) 1 "demd33r3s adj likely to cause
make a dam across. 2 {fig) hold danger, ^ously at/v
back: -^- the flood of criticism. dangle 'daerigl/ \'t!i hang or-
dam-age "daemid3 n 1 [l] swing loosely.
harm; loss: The fire caused great dank dasrik adj {-ex, -est) cold
'^. 2 {ph {legal) money claimed and damp.
dare/dead 96

dare^ /de3<r)/ aux (3rd person -fashioned to '^. so far; until

sing is dare, not dares) have the now. (be/bring) up to '^.
courage, impudence, to: How ~ (make) modern. 3 (informal)
he say rude things about me! appointment. 4 (informal) F>er-
dare^ de3(r)/ vt/i 1 be brave son of the other sex with whom
enough to: / '^n 7 do that. 2 chal- dates(3) arc arranged.
lenge to do something: / -^ you date^ /deit/ vtH 1 have or put a
(to say that again)! o n (only in) date(1 ) on. 2 ->- from/back
do sih for a ^. do because
it to. have existed since. 3 become
one is dared (2). '~-devil, per- out of date. 4 make a date(3)
son who is foolishly bold. with, dated aJ/ out of fashion.
daring 'desrii]/ n [\J] adventu- date^ /deit/ n [C] fruit of the '>^-
rous courage, d adjho\ii and ad- palm.
venturous. '>^lyadv daub /dorb/ vtji 1 put (paint,
dark^ /da;k/ adj (-er, -est) 1 with plaster, etc) roughly on a sur-
no or very little light: a '^ face. 2 paint (pictures) without
colour jroom. 2 (of colour) near- skill. 3 make dirty, a n [C,U]
er black than white. 3 (of the (covering oQ soft, sticky
skin) not fair. 4 {fig) hidden, material, eg clay.
mysterious: a ~
secret, a '^ daugh-ter n [C] one's
horse, (Jig) person about female child, '-^-in-law (pi
whom little is known. 5 hope- ~s-in-law) wife of one's son.
less; sad: the ^
days of war. 'X/ly daunt /dD:nt/ vi discourage.
adv. '>^ness/i[U] '>^less adj not discouraged.
dark^ /da:k/ n [U] 1 absence of dawdle /'docdl/ vtji be slow;
light; night time. 2 (fig) ignor- waste time.
ance: he I keep him in the^. dawn /doin/ n [C] 1 first light of
dar-ling /'da:lir)/ n [C] person or day; daybreak. 2 (fig) begin-
object very much loved. ning; birth: the ~
of civilisation.
darn /da:n/ xtji mend eg a hole D vi 1 begin to grow light. 2 -x/
by weavmg thread, a n [C] place on, grow clear (to the mind): //
mended by darning. '^edon her that she was wrong.
dart^ /da:t/ n [C] 1 sudden move- day /dei/ n 1 [U] time between
ment. 2 small, sharp-pointed sunrise and sunset. 2 [C] period
missile, thrown at a target in the of twenty-four hours (from mid-
gameofc/arr.v. night). '^ in. "w out, continu-
dart^ /da:t/ v/// (cause to) move ously, one '^, on a day (past or
suddenly. future), the other '^, a few
dash' n 1 [C] sudden rush;
/dffij/ days ago. 3 [C] the hours of the
violent movement. 2 [C] (sound day given to work, call it a '^.
oQ liquid striking something: stop working. 4 [CJ (often pi)
the ^of waves on the rocks. 3 [C] time; period, makesb's >^,
small amount of something ad make him very happy, the
ded: a ~
of pepper. 4 [C] written present •>-•, the time we are
or printed mark (-). 5 short race. now living in. 5 his/her. etc
6 [U] energy: a man with great '^, lifetime; period of success,
'V-. *^board, instrument panel etc. '^'s^break, dawn. *'>^dream
of a motor-vehicle. vi, n [C] (have) idle and pleasant

dash^ /daej/ vtji 1 send or throw thoughts. <'>^light n [U] (a)

violently; move violently: a ^ light of day. (b) dawn.
glass against the wall. 2 sb's^ daze /deiz/ vt make (a person)
hopes, destroy, discourage, unable to think clearly, an in a
them. '>^ing adj impetuous; full '^, unable to think.
of energy. dazzle /'daezl/ vt make (a person)
data /'delta/ n pi ^ facts; things unable to see clearly because of
certainly known. 2 information too much light, etc.
prepared for a computer pro- dead /ded/ adj. n [U] 1 (plants,
gramme. ''^ bank, store of animals, persons) no longer liv-
data. 1'^ 'processing, the per- ing. 2 without movement or ac-
forming of operations on data. tivity: The town is -^ after 10
date' /deit/ n [C] 1 statement of o'clock. 3 (of languages, cus-
the day, month, year, of an toms, etc) no longer used. 4 (of
event. 2 (be/go) out of ^, the hands, etc) numbed, eg by
(be) no longer used; old- cold. 5 complete; abrupt: a ~
97 deaden /decease

stop. .6 no longer be
that can -^ly adv (a) very much, (b) at
used: The telephone went ~. 7 great cost.
(of sound) dull, heavy. 8 (of col- dearth d3:0' n [U] shortage,
ours) lacking brilliance, a adv lack.
completely; absolutely: ^ death deG n [C.U] 1 dying;
certain! accurate. '>^ centre, ex- ending of life, sick/bored to
act centre. 'end, cul-de-sac.
,'>-' '^ of, extremely tired, bored
''>^line, fixed date for finishing with. 2 put to '^. kill. 3 state of
(doing) something. -^ loss, being dead. 4 (fig) destruction.
failure. '-^^-duties, taxes paid on a per-
deaden 'dedn vt make less son's property after death, '--w-
loud, strong, bright, etc. trap, place, circumstances, etc
dead-lock 'dedlok; n [C.U] to- likely to cause death, '^v^-
tal failure toreach agreement. warrant, official order for an
dead-ly adj (-ier, -lest) 1
/'dedli/ execution, -^ly adj. adv like
likely to cause death: a poison. ^ death.
2 filled with hate: '^ enemies, a de-base di'beis/ vt make lower
m/v like death. in value. ~ment«[U]
deaf def, adJ (-er, -est) 1 unable de-bate n [C.U] formal
to hear. 2 unwilling to listen. discussion, in public meeting, in
turn a -s^ ear to. refuse to lis- Parliament, a vt i have a debate
ten to. '~-aid, small device that about; think about, de-bat-
helps a deaf person to hear, (--w able -obi; adj do iibiful. open to
'mute, person who is deaf and question.
dumb. '>^ness/7[U] de-bauch di'bD:tj/ vt cause a
deafen 'defn' vr make so much person to act immorally, d n [C]
noise that hearing is dilTicult or occasion of excessive drinking,
impossible. immoral behaviour, -s^ery n
deaP /di:l n [U] a good/ great [C.U] (j)l -ies) excessive drink-
^, large quantity: a good of ^ ing, etc.
money, a adv very much, often: / de-bili-tate di'biliteit vt make
^ce him a great ^. (a person) weak, de-bil-ity
deaP 'dirl n [CJ 1 (in games) dis- di'bibti n [U] weakness (of
tribution of playing-cards. 2 health, purpose).
business transaction. debit 'debit n [C] entry (in an
deaP di:l, vtji {pt.pp ~t delt ) 1 account) of a sum owing, a vt
give out to a number of persons: put on the debit side of an ac-
^ cards. 2 ^
in sth, stock; sell: count.
shops ^ing in cheap goods. 3 de- de-bris 'deibri: n [U] scattered
liver: ^ him a blow on the nose. 4 broken pieces; wreckage.
'^ with, (a) have relations debt det n [C.U] payment
with, (b) (of affairs) manage; which must be paid to some-
attend to: ~
with an emergency. body; obligation. '>>'Or, person
(c) be about: a book -^mg with who is in debt to another.
Africa, '^er n [C] (a) person debut, debut "deibju:/ n [C] (of
who deals out playing-cards. an actor, musician, etc) first
(b) trader. ~ing n (a) [U] dis- public appearance.
tributing of somethmg; behavi- dec-ade /'dekeid/ n [C] period of
our towards others, (b) (/>/) bu- ten years.
siness relations. deca-dence 'dekad^ns n [U]
dealt /delt/ /7/.0/? of deaP. falling to a lower level (in mor-
dean n [C] 1 clergyman at
/di:n/ als, art. etc), deca-dent adJ
the head of a cathedral chapter. de-cant /di'kasnt vt pour (wine,

2 head of a university depart- etc) from a bottle into another

ment. vessel. '>^er, vessel into which
dear /di9(r)/ adj (-er, -est) 1 wine is decanted.
loved; lovable. 2 (at the begin- decapi-tate Mi'kspiteit/ vt cut
ning of letters): D~
MadamjSir. the head off.
3 high in price. 4 precious (to); de-cay /di'kei/ vi go bad; lose
greatly valued, a adv at a high power, health, a « [U] decaying:
cost. D « [C] 1 lovable person. 2 tooth '^.
(used to address a person): Yes. de-cease 'di'si:s/ vi die. a n
->-'. a int (to express surprise,
(legal) death, the -^^d. person
dismay, etc): Oh ~.' D'^ me! who has recently died.
deceit/ dedicate 98

de-ceit n 1 (U] trickery;

/di'si:t/ known formally; announce, 's^
dishonesty. 2 [C] lie; dishonest »var (on/against), announce
trick, 'v-ful aJj (a) in the habit that a state of war exists. 2 say
of deceiving, (b) intended to de- solemnly. 3 tell (customs offi-
ceive. ~fully /-fall; adv. 'v/ful- cials) of goods brought into a
nessAj[U] country: Have you anything to
de-ceive ,di'si:v/ vi cause a per- ^>
son to believe something that is de-cline' di'klam/ n [C] reduc-
false. de-ceiverA?[C] tion, weakening: a ;/; ~
De-cem-ber /di'semb3(r), n strength exports.
twelfth month of the year. de-cline^ di'klain/ vt 1 sa> i

de-cent /dirsnt adj ^ right and 'No" (to). 2 become smaller.

suitable; respectful: wear '^ weaker, lower: His strength is
clothes to the party. 2 modest; declining.
respectable: '>- language/ de-clutch /,di:'klAtJ/ vi discon-
behaviour. 3 imformat) likeable. nect the clutch (of a motor-
'>^ly adv in a decent(1 ,2) man- vehicle) in order to change gear.
ner. de-cencv/j[U] de-code ,di:'k3(id' vt decipher
de-cep-tion di'sepjn/ n 1 [U] (a message code).
deceiving. 2 [C] trick intended to de-com-pose ,,di:k3m'p3uz/
deceive. vt;i 1 separate (a substance) into
de-cep-tive /di'septiv/ adj mis- its parts. 2 (cause to) become
leading: a ~ appearance. '>^lv rotten; decay, decom-po-si-
adv tion /'-ps'zijn, n [U]
deci-bel n [C] unit to
'desibel/ de-cor 'deikD:(r) n [C] appear-
measure the loudness of sounds. ance, decoration, eg of a room.
de-cide vti 1 settle (a
di'said, dec-or-ate 'dekareit, vt^ make
question or a doubt); give a (more) beautiful by placing or-
judgement. 2 make up one's naments on or in. 2 paint, plas-
mind: / ^c/ to leave. 3 cause to ter, etc the rooms or the outside
decide(2): His behaviour -^dme of (a building). 3 give (a person)
to leave, de-cided adj (a) clear; a mark of distinction (eg a me-
definite, (b) (of persons) deter- dal): '^d for bravery, dec-or-
mined, '^d-ly adv definitely. ator n [C] workman who decor-
de-cidu-ous di'sidjuss,' adj (of ates(2). ,dec-o'ra-tion n (a)
trees) losing their leaves every [U] decorating, (b) [C] thing
year. used for decorating: Christmas
deci-mai "desiml ac// of tens or '^s. (c) [C] medal, ribbon, etc.
one-tenths. '^ point, the point dec-or-ative /'dekarativ adj
in 15-61. '>..'ize ,-aiz/ vt change suitable for decorating(1 ).
to a decimal system. '>^iz-ation de-coy ,'di:k3i n [C] 1 (real or
/idesimslai'zeijn/ n [U] imitation) bird or animal used to
deci-mate ,'desimeit/ vt kill or attract others (to be killed or
destroy a large part of. caught). 2 (jig) person or thing
de-cipher /di'saif3(r)/ vt find the used to tempt somebody into a
meaning of (something written trap, a vt /di'kDi/ trick into a
in code, bad handwriting, etc). place of danger.
de-ci-sion /di'sisn/ n 1 [U] de- de-crease /di'krirs/ vtji (cause
ciding; judging; fc] settlement of to) become shorter, smaller,
a question, judgement: reach/ less: sales are decreasing, a n
come to a -^^.2 [U] ability to de- ,'di:kri:s/ [U] decreasing; [C]
cide and act; determination: a amount by which something
man of '^. de-cis-ive /di'saisiv/ decreases; a 5ma//~ in sales.
adj (a) having a definite out- de-cree /di'kri:/ n [C] 1 order
come, (b) showing decision(2). having the force of a law: by
decisivelyai^v royal ~. 2 judgement of some
deck^ /dek; n [C] 1 any of the law courts, a vt/i issue a, order
floors of a ship, a bus, etc. 2 by, decree.
pack of playing-cards, ''v.- de-crepit /di'krepit, adj made
chair, folding canvas chair. weak by old age.
deck^ dek/ v/ decorate. dedi-cate 'dedikeit, vt 1 devote

dec-lar-ation /idekb'reijn/ « [C] (one's time, energy, etc to a pur-

announcement: a -^ of war. pose). 2 devote with solemn
de-clare 'di'kle3(r)/ vtn 1 make ceremonies (to God). 3 (of an
99 deduce /deflate
author) write a person's name at 'fection /-Jn/ n [C,U]. -^or,
the beginning of a book, (to person who defects.
show gratitude or friendship to), de-fence (VS =-fense)
dedi'ca-tion /; (a) [U] dedicat- di'fens/ 1 [U] defending from
ing, (b) [C] words used in dedi- attack. 2 [C] thing used to de-
cating a book. fend or protect. 3 [C,U] (legal)
de-duce /di'dju:s/ v7 arrive at argument(s) against an accusa-
(knowledge, a theory, etc) by tion; the lawyer(s) acting for an
reasoning; reach a conclusion. accused person. '>^less adj un-
de-duct /di'dAkt/ vt take away able to defend oneself.
(an amount or part): ~ £10 from de-fend /di'fend/ vt 1 protect;
his wages. make safe. 2 speak or write in
de-duc-tion /di'dAkJn/ n 1 [U] support of: -^^ a elaim. -^^^ant n
deducting; [C] amount deduct- [C] person against whom a legal
ed. 2 [U] deducing; [C] conclu- action is brought, -^er « [C] per-
sion reached by reasoning. son who defends, de-fens-ible
deed /di:d/ n [C] 1 something /di'fensabl/ adj able to be de-
done; act. 2 (legal) signed agree- fended, de-fens-jve /di'fensiv/
ment, esp about ownership. adj used for defending, n n on
deep^ /di:p/ aJj (-er, -est) 1 go- the '^, prepared to defend
ing a long way down from the oneself, def ens-ive-ly adv
top or surface: a '^ river, a hole de-fer^ 'di'f3:(r)/ vt (-rr-) post-
two feet ~. 2 {fig) serious: a ^ pone: '>- a deeision.
thinker. 3 (of sounds) low. 4 (of de-fer^ /di'f3:(r)/ vi (-rr-) give
colours) strong; intense. 5 way to: / shall ~
to your advice.
strongly felt: ^
hatred. 6 (fig) '-^^ence /'defarans/ n [U] giving
difficult to understand. 8 (of way to the wishes of others; re-
sleep) from which orffe is not spect.
easily wakened, --o^ly adv in- de-fiance /di'faisns/ n [U] open
tensely: hurt by your re-
~/v disobedience or resistance; defy-
marks. '-V'ness n [U] ing, in -^ of, showing contempt
deep^ /di:p/ adv far down or in. of: in ~of my orders, de-f iant
i'>^-'freeze vt freeze (food) adj showing defiance; disobe-
quickly in order to preserve it dient.
for long periods, d n [C] special de-f i-ciency /di'fijnsi/ n (pl-\es)
type of refrigerator used for this 1 [C,U] shortage; lack: a -^ ofvi-
purpose. I'-v^-'rooted, (fig) not tamins. 2 [C] amount by which
easily removed: '^-rooted hat- something is short, de-ficient
red,i^-'seated, (of beliefs, etc) adj
firmly established. defi-cit /'defisit/ n [C] amount
deepen /'dirpan/ vt/i make or be- by which something, esp a sum
come deep. of money, is too small. C> sur-
deer /di3(r)/ n [C] (pi ~) fast, plus.
animal, the male of
grac'^ftil de-file /di'fail/ vt make dirty or
whi^n has horns. impure.
de-face /di'feis/ vt spoil the ap- de-fine /di'fain/ vt 1 state pre-
pearance of: ^public buildings. cisely the meaning of (eg words).
'^ment«[C,UJ 2 state or show clearly: '^ one's
de-fame /di'feim/ vt attack the potition on an issue, de-fin-able
good reputation of. defa-ma- /-abl/ ac^ that can be defined.
tion /idefs'meijn/ n [U] defi-nite /'definat/ at// clear; not
de-fault /di'fDilt/ vi fail to pay, doubtful. ,'>^ 'article, the word
perform a duty, or to appear (eg 'the', -^ly adv (a) in a definite
in a law court) when required, a manner, (b) (informal) certain-
n [C] act of defaulting. ~er, ly: He ^ly agreed to come.
person who defaults. defi-ni-tion /|defi'mjn/ n 1 [U]
de-feat /di'fiit/ vt 1 overcome; defining; [C] statement that de-
win a victory over. 2 ruin: Our fines: a^ofa word. 2 [U] clear-
hopes were ^ed. a n [U] defeat- ness of outline: the ^
of a photo-
ing; [C] instance of this. graph.
de-f ect' /'dr.fekt/ n [C] fault; im- de-f ini-tive /di'finativ/ adj fixed;
perfection. ~ive /di'fektiv/ adj decisive; without the need for
de-fect^ /di'fekt/ vi desert one's change or addition.
country, political party, etc. de- de-flate /di'fleit/ vt 1 make (a
deflect/ delirium KK)

tyre, etc) smaller by letting out lightful; pleasant: '^ i hocolates.

air or gas. 2 (fig) cause to seem del-egate^ /'deligat/ n [C] person
less important. 3 dii'fleit' re- to whom something is delegat-
duce the amount of money in ed.
circulation, de'fla-tion n IC,U] del-egate^ 'deligeit vt appoint
act ofdeflating. as a representative; entrust (du-
de-flect di'flekt, »// (cause to) ties, rights, etc), del-e'ga-tion
turn aside (from): The bullet was n (a) [U] delegating, (b) [C]
^cil hv a wall ami missed him. group of delegates.
de'f lection Jn «[C.U] de-lete ,di'li:t vt remove; erase
de-form di'foirn vt spoil the (something written or printed).
form or appearance of; put out dele-tion // [U] deleting; [C]
of shape, "^^ed adj badly something deleted.
shaped. ~itvA7[C.U] de-lib-er-ate^ di'libarat; adj 1
de-fraud di'frojd v7 trick; cheat intentional: a ~
insult. 2 slow
(a person): ->^ him of £100. and cautious (in action, speech,
de-frost idii'frost i/ remove ice etc). '^Xy adv
or frost (eg m
a refrigerator). de-lib-er-ate^ /di'lib3reit/ vtji
deft deft adj skilful (esp with (formal) consider, talk about,
the fingers). '>-'ly ai/v. carefully.
de-funct di'fAqki/ adj (of de-lib-er-ation dijlibs'reijn/ n
things, eg laws) extinct. (formal) 1 [C,U] careful discus-
de-fuse |di:'fju:z/ vt remove the sion; debate. 2 [U] slowness of
fuse of, eg a bomb. movemetit.
defy di'fai vt (pt.pp -ied) 1 re- deli-cacy /'delikosi/ n (pi -ies) 1
sist openly. 2 refuse to obey: '^ [U] quality of being delicate. 2
the law. (CJ tasty food.
de-gen-er-ate di'dsenar.-^t adj. deli-cat6 /'delikst adj^ soft; of
n [C] (person) having lost quali- fine material: the ^ wings of a
ties considered normal and de- 2 fine; exquisite:
butterfly. ^
sirable. D di'dsenareit v7 pass workmanship. 3 becoming ill

from a state of goodness to a easily: in -^ health. 4

lower state. skill: a -v- operation. 5 (of col-
de-grade di'greid i7 1 reduce ours) soft; not strong. 6 (of the
in rank or status. 2 cause to be senses, of instruments) sensi-
less moral: His dishonesty ^d tive^(3). 7 needing great care: a
him. degradation ,degr3- ~ situation. 8 (of food) pleasing
'deijn/ n [U] degrading. to the taste. '^\y adv
de-gree di'gri: n [C] 1 unit of deli-ca-tes-sen /idelika'tesn/ n
measurement (of a circle) for [C,U] (shop selling) prepared
angles. 2 unit of measurement foods ready for serving.
for temperature. 3 stage in a de-li-cious di'lijos adj giving
scale or process, by '^s, gradu- delight (esp to the taste).
ally.4 grade given by a univer- de-light' Mi'lait/ n 1 [U] great
sity toone who has passed an pleasure: take ~
in his victory. 2
examination, first ->-, most ex- fC] cause or source of great
treme stage: first -^ burns. pleasure, -^^ful adj giving
de-hy-drate /|di:hai'dreit/ vt re- pleasure. ~fully ac/v
move water from (a substance). de-light^ /di'lait/ vt!i^ give great
de-ice /,di: 'ais vt free from ice. pleasure to; please greatly. 2 be
deign /dein/ vi be kind or grac- •^ed, be greatly pleased. 3 find
ious enough to: She- didn't -^ to great pleasure: He ~5 in working
speak to me. hard.
de-ity /'deiati/ n {pi -ies) 1 [U] di- de-lin-quency /di'liQkwsnsi/ n
vine quality or nature. 2 [C] god (pi -ies) [C,U] wrong-doing;
or goddess. neglect of duty, de-lin-quentn
de-ject /di'd3ekt/ vt make sad or [CL adj (person) doing wrong,
gloomy, de'jection /-Jn/ n [U] failing to perform a duty.
dejected state. de-liri-ous /di'linos/ adj 1 suf-
de-lay /di'lei/ vtji 1 make or be fering from delirium. 2 wildly
slow or late. 2 postpone, d « 1 t\c'\ted.'^lyadv
[U] delaying. 2 [C] instance, de-lir-ium /di'linam/ n [U] 1
time, of this. mental disturbance, esp during
de-lec-table /di'lektabl/ adj de- illness. 2 (fig) wild excitement.
101 deliver/denounce

de-liver /di'liv3(r)/ vr 1 take (let- demo-crat 'demakraet, n [C] 1

ters, goods, etc) to houses, or person who favours or supports
buyer(s): ~
milk /newspapers. 2 democracy. 2 D-^, (VS) mem-
'v. from,{formal) rescue, save. ber of the Democratic Party.
3 give; pronounce:
to a lec- ^ -v.ic '-'kraetik; adj of, support-
ture. 4 help (a woman) in child- ing, democracy, --^i-callv adv
birth. 5 surrender; hand over. 6 de-mol-ish /di'mDliJ", vr 1 pull
send against: to '^ a blow, -^^er, down, eg old buildings. 2 des-
rescuer, --•wance n [U] deliver- troy, eg an argument, demo-li-
ing(2); rescue. tion/|dem9iliJn'n[C,U]
de-liv-ery /di'livari/ n (pi -ies) 1 demon, dae-mon 'diiman/ n
[C,U] delivering (of letters, [C] 1 evil spirit. 2 (informal)
goods, etc). 2 [C] birth of a child: fierce or energetic person.
The mother had an easy ~. 3 [U] demon-strate /'demanstreit/
manner of speaking (in lectures, vtji 1 show clearly by giving
etc), proof(s) or example(s). 2 take
delta "delts/ n [C] {pl^s) land in part in a demonstration ( 1 )
this shape (J) at the mouth of a dem-on-stration /(deman-
river. 'streijn/ n [CU] 1 demonstrat-
de-lude di'luid/ vt deceive; mis- ing(1 ). 2 public display of feel-
lead. ing by a group, eg of workers.
del-uge heavy
/'delju:d3/ n [C] 1 de-monstrative /di'mon-
rush of water; violent rainfall. 2 strativ/ adj (a) showing the
heavy rush of something: a '^ of feelmgs. (b) (gram): pronoun, ~
letters, n vr flood. (this, these, that, those).
de-lu-sion /di'lu:3n/ n [U] delud- demonstrator n [C] (a) per-
ing; [C] mistaken belief. son who takes part in a demon-
de luxe /di 'Uks/ ac^/ of very high stration(2). (b) person who
quality. teaches by demonstrating(1 ).
delve /delv vt/i ~ (into), in- de-moral-ize di'morslaiz/ vr
vestigate, look into. destroy the courage, confidence,
de-mand^ /di'ma.nd/ n 1 [C] act etc of. eg an army: troops '^d by
of demanding(1 ); something a surprise attack.
that is demanded(l): a ~ for de-mote /,di:'m9ut/ vr reduce in
more nay. on ->^, when demand- rank, de'mo-tion n [U]
ed. 2 [U] desire, by people ready de-mure /di'mju9(r)/ adj^ quiet
to buy, employ, etc: Our goods and serious. 2 modest; shy: a ^
are in great '^. smile, -^^ly adv
de-mand^ /di'ma:nd/ vt 1 ask for den /den/ n [C] 1 animal's hidden
as if ordering. 2 need: work '^ing living-place. 2 secret place. 3 (m-
great care. formai) private room in which a
, de-mar-cate /'di:ma:keit/ vr fix person works.
the limits of, eg a frontier, de- de-nial /di'naial/ n 1 [C,U] deny-
I mar'cation n[\J] ing; refusing a request. 2 [C]
demean-our (US =-or) statement that something is not
/di'mi:n9(r)/ n [U] way of behav- true.
denim /'denim/ n 1 [U] strong
demented /di'mentid/a<^' mad. cotton cloth. 2 (pt) (informal)
^lyadv jeans made from denim.
deme-rara /idema'reara/ n [U] de-nomi-na-tion /diinomi-
(also '^ sugar) light brown cane 'neij"n/ n [C] 1 name, esp of a reli-
sugar. gious group. 2 unit (of weight,
de-mili-tar-ized /,di:'mili- numbers, money, etc), -^al adj
taraizd adj (of a place) required of religious groups.
to have no military forces in it. de-nomi-na-tor /di'nomi-
de-mist /,di:'mist/ vr remove the neit3(r)/ n [C] number below the
mist from, eg a windscreen. line in a fraction, eg 4 in ^.

, democ-racy /di'mokrasi/ n (pi de-note /di'nsut/ vt (formal) 1

I -ies) 1 [C,U] (country with a) be the symbol of; be the name of.
government in which all citizens 2 indicate: Tears usually '^ sad-
I share through their elected rep- ness.
resentatives. 2 [C,U] (society in de-nounce /di'nauns/ vr speak
which there is) equal treatment publicly against: ~
the govern-

ofeach other by citizens. ment's actions.

dense/ derivation

dense dens adj (-r, -st) 1 (of money that is deposited (2,3) 2
liquids, vapour) not easily seen layer of matter deposited (4) 3
through: a ~ fo^. 2 (of people solid layer (in the earth) eg of
and things) crowded together. 3 tin. '^ account, money depo-
{informal) stupid. '>^lv adv sited in a bank, not to be with-
density n {pi -ies) 1
'densati drawn without notice.
[U] the quality of being de-posit' di'po/il vt 1 lay or
dense (1.2) 2 [C.U] {physics) put down. 2 put or store for
relation of weight to volume. safe-keeping. 3 make part pay-
dent dent n [C] hollow in a ment of money that is owed. 4
hard surface made by a blow or (esp of a river) leave (a layer of
pressure, a \i make or get a
i material on)
dent in. de-pot 'depao n [C] 1 store-
den-tal 'denti 6jJ/ of the teeth. house, warehouse. 2 ((75) rail-
den-tist 'dentist n [C] person way or bus station.
whose work is the care of teeth de-prave di'preiv vt corrupt.
'v/ry n[\j\ work of a dentist. de-prav-ity di'pricvati/ n [U]
de-nunciation di,nAnsi'eiJn/ n de-pre-ci-ate di'pri:fieit/ viji
[C.U] (act oO denouncing. make or become less in value.
deny di'nai vi {pt.pp-\e(i)^ sa\ depreci'ation n [U]
that (something) is not true. 2 de-press di'pres v7 1 push
refuse a request. down. 2 make sad. 3 make less
de-odor-ant ,di:'3ud3r3nt/ /7[C] active: a '^ed market for coffee.
substance that hides odours. de-pres-sion di'prejn n 1 [U]
de-part di'pu:t vi go away: being depressed (2). 2 [C] hol-
leave. low in the surface of something,
de-partment di'paitmant/ n esp the ground. 3 [C] time when
[C] one of several divisions of a business is depressed(3). 4 [C]
government, business, shop, area of low atmospheric pres-
university, etc. -^^ store, large sure.
shop where many kinds of de-prive di'praiv/ vt take away
goods are sold in different de- from; prevent from having: chil-
partments. dren -^ of loveifood. depri-va-
de-par-ture /di'pa:tj"3(r)/ n [C, tion idepn'veijn Aj[C,U]
U] (act oO going away. depth depG/ n 1 [C.U] being
de-pend /di'pend/ vi ^ on, 1 re- deep; distance from the top
ly on in order to exist or succeed. down, from the front to the
2 trust, ^able adj that may be back. 2 [C] deep learning,
relied on. thought, feeling, etc. in '^. in
de-pend-ant (also -entj detail; thorough(ly).
di'pendant/ n [C] person who depu-ta-tion idepju'teijn/ n [C]
depends on another for a home, persons given the right to act or
food. O dependent ac//.
etc. speak for others.
de-pend-ence di'pendans/ n depu-tize 'depjutaiz/ vi act as
[U] 1 being supported by others. deputy: '^for.
2 confident trust. deputy /'depjoti/ n [C] {pi -ies)
de-pend-ent di'pendani/ n [C] person to whom work, author-
— dependant, n ac/y depending. ity, etc is given.
de-pict di'pikt vt show in a pic- de-rail /di'reil/ vt cause (a train,
ture; describe in words. etc) to leave the rails. '>^ment «
de-plete ;di'pli:t/ vt use up, [C,U]
empty until little remains: Our de-range di'reinds/ put out vt
food supplies are badly '>^d. de- of working order; disturb: men-
ple-tion«[U] tally ~^, insane.
de-plore di'pb:(r)/ vt regret; der-el-ict /'deralikt/ adj left to
disapprove of: We -^ the death fall into ruin, der-el'ic-tion
of three men. de-plorable adj /-Jn/ n [C,U] (deliberate) neglect
/-rable/ ofduty.
de-port /di'port/ vt expel (an un- deri-va-tion /,deri'veij"n/ n 1 [U] y\
wanted person) from a country. deriving; origin. 2 [C] first form
nation /|di:p3:'teijn n [U] and meaning of a word, de-
de-pose /di'pauz/ vt/i remove a riva-tive /di'nvativ/ adj. « [C] [

king or president from power. (word, substance) derived from

de-posit' /di'pozit/ n [C] 1 another.
103 derive /destructive

de-rive /di'raiv/ vt/i 1 get: to ~ wished for. a vt {formal) want

pleasure from something. 2 '^ very much; wish.
(from), have as a source: words de-sist -^ (from),
/di'zist/ vi

'^dfrom Latin. (formal) stop (doing some-

de-roga-tory /di'iogatri/ adj thing).
tending to damage (one's repu- desk /desk/ n [C] piece of furni-
tation, etc). ture at which to read or write.
derrick /'derik/ n [C] 1 (also deso-late /'desabt/ adj 1 (of a
^'^-crane) large crane for mov- place) ruined; without people. 2
ing or lifting heavy weights, esp lonely and sad. a vt /'desaleit/
on a ship. 2 framework over an make desolate, desola-tion
oil-well to hold the drilling ma- /-'leiJn,«[U]
chinery, etc. des-pair /di'spe3(r)/ n [U] loss of
de-scend /di'send/ vtji 1 {for- hope, a vi be in despair. '>^ing-
mal) come or go down. 2 be ly adv
'^ed from, have as ancestors. des-patch /di'spaetj/ n.v = dis-
3 '^ on. attack suddenly. patch.
de'scend-ant n [C] person des-per-ate /'desporat/acZ/'l (of
who is descended from (the per- a person) filled with despair;
son named). ready to do anything. 2 extreme-
de-scent /di'sent/ n 1 [C,U] ly serious: a '^ situation, -^^ly
coming or going down. 2 [C] adv. desperation /-'reijn/ n
downward slope. 3 [U] family; [U]
origin: of French ~. des-pic-able /di'spikabl/ adjde-
de-scribe /di'skraib/ vt 1 say serving be despised,
to des-
what (a person or thing) is like. 2 picably a^v
draw: '^ a circle. des-pise /di'spaiz/ vt feel con-
de-scrip-tion /di'skripjn/ n [C, tempt for.
U] describing; picture in words. des-pite /di'spait/ prep in spite
descriptiveac// of: We lost ^ our efforts.
des-ecrate 'desakreit/ vt spoil de-spon-dency /di'spondansi/
or damage (a sacred thing or n [U] loss of hope, de-spon-
place). ,des-e'cra-tion n [U] dentadj
de-seg-re-gate /,di:'segrigeit/' vt des-pot /'despot/ n [C] ruler with
abolish (esp racial) segregation unlimited powers, esp one who
in. governs wrongly or cruelly. '>^ic
de-sert^ /di'z3:t/ vt/i 1 go away /di&^poUk I adj
from. 2 leave without help: ^ des-sert /di'z3:t/ n [C] course of
one's family. 3 leave (esp the fruit, etc at the end of a meal.
armed forces) without permis- '>^spoon, medium-sized
sion, '^er, person who deserts spoon.
(3).'^ion/di'z3:J'n/A?[C,U] des-ti-na-tion /(desti'neijn/ n
des-ert^ /'dezat/ n [C,U] (large [C] place to which a person or
area oQ barren land, often thing is going.
sand-covered, a adJ 1 barren. 2 des-tine /'destm/ v7 decide in ad-
uninhabited: a ~
island. vance: They were -^d never to
de-serts /di'z3:ts/ n pi what a meet again, ie by fate.
person deserves: get one 'sjust ~. des-tiny /'destmi/ n {pi -ies) [C]
de-serve /di'z3:v/ vt/i be worthy fate; the future as determined by
of: Hc^dto win. fate, etc.
de-sign /di'zam/ n 1 [C] drawing des-ti-tute /'destitjuit/ ac^ with-
from which something may be out food, clothes and other
made. 2 [U] art of making such things necessary for life, des-
drawings, etc. 3 [U] general ti'tu-tion/7[U]
planning (of a picture, building, de-stroy /di'stroi/ vt break to
machine, etc). 4 [C] pattern of pieces; make useless; put an end
lines, shapes. 5 plan; intention. to. '>^er n [C] (a) person or
D vt/i 1 prepare a design (1 ). 2 thing that destroys, (b) small,
intend: This room was '^ed for fast warship.
the children, ^^er n [C] de-struc-tion /di'strAkJn/ n [U]
de-sir-able /di'zaiarsbl/ adJ destroying; ruin.
worth having; attractive. de-struc-tive /di'strAktiv/ adj
de-sire /di'zai3(r)/ n 1 [C,U] causing destruction; fond of
strong wish. 2 [C] thing that is destroying.
detach /diagnose If

de-tach di'tdctj v.* unfasten and dev-as-tate 'devasteit v7 ruin

separate '>-'ed udj (a) (of the deva'station n [UJ
mind) not influenced b> others, de-veiop di'vebp vtn 1 (cause
(b) (of a house) not joined to to) grov\ larger, more organized
another. '>^ment n (a) [U) the 2 treat (an exposed film) so ihct'
state of being detathed(a). (b) the photograph can be seen 3
[C] group of soldiers, etc separ- use (an area of land) f(>r build
ated from a larger number ings and so increase its value
de-tair 'di:teil /; 1 [C] small, 'N^ment n (a) (U] developing
particular fact or item. 2 (C] = (b) [C] new stage, situation.
detachment(b) de-vi-ate 'di:vieit vi ^
de-tail^ 'di:ieil v7 1 describe ful- (from), turn away, leave (\^ ha:
ly. 2 appoint for special duty. IS usual, right, etc), de-vi'ation
de-tain di'tein vt keep wailing; 'J(C,U]
prevent from leaving. de-vice /di'vais, n [C] 1 plan.
de-tainee |di:lei'ni:, n [C] per- trick. 2 something made or
son who is detained (esp in pri- adapted for a special purpose 3
son). symbol used in a decoration
de-tect di'tekt' v/ discover (the devil 'devl, n [C] 1 evil spirit
existence or presence of) '^or, the D-^^, the supreme spirit oi
device for detecting, de'tec- evil, Satan. 2 unfortunate per-
tion -Jn n [U] detecting; being son: Oh. you poor -^1
discovered, -^ive n [C] person de-vi-ous 'di:vi3S/ adj 1 cun-
who finds criminals. ning, deceitful.
de-ten-tion di'tenjn' n [U] act de-vise di'vai// vt think out:
or period being detained. plan.
de-ter di't3:(r)/ vt (-rr-) -^^ de-void di'vDid' at// o/', with- ^
(from), discourage: '^red by out: A man ^ of love.
the ruin from ^oinf^ out. de-vote 'di'vr>ot/ vt give up
de-ter-gent di't3:d39nt n [C, (oneself, one's time, energy, etc)
U], a(// (substance) that removes to. de-voted adj very loving or
dirt. loyal, devo-tee idevsu'ti: n
de-terio-rate di'lianareit/ vtH [C] person who devoted to

make or become worse: His something, de'vo-tion n (a)

health '^d. deterio'ration n [U] deep, strong love, (b) (pi)
[U] prayers.
determination di|t3:mi- de-vour 'di'vao9(r)/ vt 1 eat
'neijn n [U] 1 act of determin- hungrily or greedily. 2 (fig) ab-
ing. 2 firm intention. sorb, use up, destroy: forests
de-ter-mine di'l3:mm/ vtH 1 -^ed by fire.
decide: fix: ^ one's position. 2 de-vout /di'vaut/ adj^ very reli-
calculate. gious. 2 (of prayers, wishes, etc)
de-ter-rent /di'terant/ n [C]. adj serious; sincere. '>^ly adv.
(thing) tending to, intended to, dew dju: n fU] tiny drops of
deter. moisture appearing in the morn-
de-test di'test; v/ hate strongly. ing from water vapour in the air.
de-throne /di'Graun,/ vt remove dewy adj (-ier, -lest)
(a ruler) from the throne. dex-ter-ity idek'stersti n [U]
det-on-ate 'detaneit/ v/ /(cause unusual skill, esp with the
to) explode. |det-o'n-ation n hands 'dexterous, 'dex-
[C,U] det-on-ator n [C] part of trous aJ/
abomb that causes it to explode. dia-betes |dai3'bi:tiz/ n [U] dis-
de-tour /'di:tu3(r)/ n [CJ way ease in which there is too much
round; diversion. sugar in the blood, dia-betic
de-tract di'traekt/ vi '^ idaia'betik; adj. n [C] (person)
(from), take away (from the suffering from diabetes.
credit, value, of): Nothing -^5 dia-bolic idaia'bolik (also
from the value of his work. '>^al) adj 1 of or like a devil. 2
det-ri-ment /'detrirasnt/ n [U] very cruel or wicked, --^^ally a^v
damage; harm. '>^al /-'mentl/ di-ag-nose ,dai3g'n9uz vt
adj h'dvmful. identify a disease after examin-
de-value /|di:'vslju:/ vt make ing the patient, di-ag-nosis
(the value of a currency) less. /-'nausis/ n (pi -noses) (a) [U]
de-valu'ation/i[C] diagnosing, (b) [C] (statement
105 diagonal/digest

of the) result of this, di-ag- manner of speaking and writing.

nos-tic /-'nostik/ a^;^" dic-tion-ary /'dikjanri/ n [C] {pi
di-ag-onal /dai'aeganl/ n [C], adj -ies) book dealing with the
(straight line) going across, eg words of a language arranged in
an oblong, from corner to corn- ABC order.
er. --v/ V ad'
did /did/ C> do.
dia-gram /'daiDgraem/ n [C] die' /dai/ n [C] metal block used
drawing, design or plan to ex- to stamp designs on or cut pap-
plain or illustrate something. er, coins, etc.
,'>^'matic /idaiaqra'mastik/ a^. die^ /dai/ vi {pt.pp '^&, pres part
dial /'daial/ n [Cjl marked face dying) 1 come to the end of life.
of an instrument, clock, watch, 2 have a strong wish: dying for a
etc. 2 part of a telephone, with drink. 3 ->- away, lose strength.
numbers, used to make a con- -^ down, become less: The
nection. D vt (-II-) telephone: '^ flames gradually '^d down, 'n^

a friend's number. ot/t, become extinct.

dia-lect /'daialekt/ n [C,U] form diet food which is
/'daiat/ n [C] 1
of a language used in a part of a usually eaten. 2 food to which a
country or by a class of people. person is limited, eg to lose
dia-logue (US also dialog) weight, n vi keep to a diet (2).
/'daialog/ n 1 [U] (writing in the '-v.ary adj
form of a) conversation or talk. dif fer 'dif3(r)/ vi 1 ^ (from),
2 [C] exchange of opinions. be unlike. 2 disagree.
di-am-eter /dai'aemitair)/ n [C\ dif-ference /'difrans/ n [C,U] 1
(length of a) straight line drawn the state of being unlike. 2
from side to side through the amount, degree, manner, in
centre of a circle. which things are unlike. 3
dia-metri-cally /,dai9'metrikli' make a/ no/ ^, be of some/no
<7(yv completely: ~ opposed. importance. 4 disagreement.
dia-mond /'daiamond/ n [C] 1 dif-ferent adj (a) not the
briUiant precious stone, the har- same, (b) separate: at '-^ times.
dest substance known. 2 figure differ-entiate /idifs'renfieit/
with four equal sides whose v7 see, treat as different.
angles are not right angles. 3 dif-fi-cult /'difikslt/ adj 1 not
playing-card with red shapes easy; requiring effort, skill, etc.
like diamonds. 2 (of persons) not easily pleased:
dia-phragm /'daiafraem/ n [C] 1 easily offended, dif-fi-culty n
wall of muscle between the chest {pl-\es) (a) [U] quality of being
and the abdomen. 2 thin plate or difficult, (b) [C] something hard
disc (in instruments). to do or understand.
diar-rhoea (also -rrhea) dif-fi-dence /'difidans/ n [U]
/idaia'na/ n [U] too frequent and lack of confidence; shyness, dif-
too watery emptying of the f i-dent adj dif -f i-dent-ly adv.
bowels. dif-fuse /di'fju:z/ vt/i send out,
diary /'daiari/ n [C] {pi -ies) spread (eg light) in every direc-
(book for a) daily record of tion, n /di'fju:s/ adj 1 scattered:
events, thoughts, etc. dia-rist ^, ^ light. 2 using too many
person who keeps a diary. words, dif-fu-sion /di'fju:3n/ n
dice /dais/ n pi small cubes of [U]
wood, bone, etc marked with digVdig/ C] {informal) 1 push:

spots, used in games, u vt 2 cut a ~in the ribs. 2 sarcastic re-

(food) into small cubes. mark. 3 archaeological site. 4
dic-tate /dik'teit/ v/// 1 say {p[){GB informal) lodgings.
aloud (words to be written down dig^ /dig/ vtji {pt.pp dug /dAg/)
by others). 2 give orders. (-99-) 1 break up and move
dic-ta-tion /dik'teijn/ n 1 [U] earth, with a spade, etc; make a
dictating. 2 [C] passage, etc that hole, get (something) by doing
is dictated. this. 2 {si) enjoy; understand: /
dic-ta-tor /,dik'teit3(r)/ n [C] rul- don't~ modern jazz. 3 '>^ sbl
er who has absolute authority. sth out (of sth), get out by
'>^ial /,dikt3'to:ri3l/ adj. '>^ship digging.'>^ sth up, remove
n [C,U] (country with) govern- from the ground by digging.
ment by a dictator. di-gest' /'daidsest/ n [C] short
dic-tion /'dikjn/ n [U] style or account; summary.
digest/ direct 106

di-gest' /dai'dsest; vt,i 1 (of chenette, a small kitchen.

food) change, be changed, in the dimple 'dimpl; n [C] small natu-
stomach and bowels, so that it ral hollow in the chin or cheek.
can be used in the body. 2 think din dm, n [U] loud, continuous
about and understand: •^ ihc noise a v7,/ (-nn-) make a din.
facts in a book, diges-tion dine dain v7,/ have dinner.
/di'dsestjn n [U] ability to 'dining-car, railway coach in
digest food, 'x/ive adj of diges- which meals are served.
tion (of food). din-ghy 'diqgi, n [C] {pi -ies,
digit 'did3it, n [C] 1 any one of ~s) small open boat.
the ten Arabic numerals to 9: dingy 'dind3i adj (-ier, -iest)
The number 57306 has five ~.i. 2 dirty-looking; not fresh or
finger or toe. -^^al adj of, using. cheerful, dingi-ness n [U]
digils(1 ):a'^uUloik. din-ner /'dinD(r), n [C] main
dig-ni-fied 'dignifaid, adj hav- meal of the day, at midday or in
ing or showing dignity, the evening. ''>^-jacket, black
dig-ni-tary 'dignitan n [C] (/?/ jacket worn by men in the even-
-les) person of high rank. ing for formal occasions.
dig-nity jdignoti n {pi -ies) 1 dino-saur ,'dam3s,'):(r), n [C]
[U] true worth; quality that de- large extinct reptile.
serves respect. 2 [C] high rank. dio-cese 'daiasis n [C] {pi '^s
di-gress ,dai'cjres vi (esp in -si:/i/; ) bishop's district.
speaking or writing) move away dip^ dip/ n [C] 1 act of dipping. 2
(from the main subject). '>^ion downward slope. 3 short swim
/dai'grejn /j[U] dip^ /dip/ vt i (-PP-) 1 put. low-
dike, dyke daik/ n [C] 1 ditch er, into'a liquid. 2 (cause to) go
(for carrying away water from down and then up again: to ^
land). 2 long wall of earth, etc the headlights of a car. 3 -^ into.
(tokeep back water). '^ into one's j pocket, spend
dil-api-dated di'laepideitid adj money; ~
into a book, look at it
in a state of disrepair. briefly.
di-late dai'leit/ v/;/ (cause to) diph-theria /diPOiaria, n [U]
become wider, larger: Her eyes serious disease of the throat.
^d with fear, dila-tion /-fn/ n diph-thong /'difGog/ n [C]
[U] union of two vowels, eg /ai/ in
di-lemma ydi'lems n [C] (pi ^s) pipe /paip/.
situation in which one has to di-ploma /di'plauma/ n [C] {pi
choose between two things. ~s) educational certificate of
dili-gence ,'dilid33ns n [U] proficiency.
steady effort: work with '^. dili- di-plo-macy di'pbumasi n [U]
gent adj 1 management of a country's af-
di-lute /dai'lju:t/ vt make (a fairs by ambassadors and minis-
liquid or colour) weaker, a adj ters living overseas. 2 skill in
(of acids, etc) weakened by di- dealing with people.
luting. diplo-mat /'diplomaet/ n [C] per-
dim /dim, adj (-mer, -mest) 1 son engaged in diplomacy, "^^ic
not bright: a -^ light. 2 (of the /-'maetik/ adj of, having, diplo-
eyes) not able to see clearly. 3 macy. '>^i-cally a^v
{informal) unintelligent, a vt/i dire /'dai3(r)/ adj^ terrible. 2 ex-
(-mm-) make or become dim. treme: in -^ need.
'v/ly adv di-rect^ /di'rekt/ adj 1 (going)
dime /daim/n [C] coin of US and straight. 2 with nothing in be-
Canada worth ten cents. tween: a ~
result. 3 straightfor-
di-men-sion /di'menjn/ n 1 [C] ward: a '^ way of speaking. 4 ex-
measurement of breadth, act: the ^
opposite, a adv with-
length, etc. 2 {pi) size. -~al suf- out interrupting a journey. ''^
fix: two-^al. current, electric current flow-
dim-in-ish /di'mmij/ vt/i make ing in one direction. ''^
or become less: Our chances of speech, {gram) speaker's actu-
success are '^ing. alwords. '>^ness n [U]. '^ly adv
dim-inu-tive /di'mmjutiv/ adj (a) in a direct way. (b) without
unusually small, a n [C] word delay.
formed by the use of a suffix di-rect^ /di'rekt/ vt/i 1 show how
showing smallness, eg kit- to do something or get some-
107 direction /disconnect

\\here: Could you ~ me to the '

dis-array idisa'rei/ n [U], vt (put
station? 2 manage; control. 3 into) disorder.
aim: ~ criticism at an opponent. dis-as-ter /di'za:st3(r)/ n [C,U]
di-rec-tion di'rekjn/ n 1 [jC] great or sudden misfortune;
point towards which a person or terrible accident, dis-as-trous
thing moves or looks. 2 [C] (of- di'za:str3S adj
ten pi) information or instruc- dis-barrd dis'baend' v/// (of or-
tions. 3 [U] management; con- ,
ganized groups) break up.
trol, di-rec-tive n [C] instruc- dis-be-lieve |disbi'li:v/ v//? re-
tions given to staff. fuse, be unable, to believe in.
di-rec-tor di'rekt3(r)/ n [C] 1 dis-be-lief ',disbi'li:f /t[U]
person who directs the affairs of disc, (also disk) /disk, n [C] 1
a business company. 2 person thin. flat, round plate, eg a
who controls the production of gramophone record. 2 layer of
plays" and films. '>>'Ship, posi- cartilage in the spine: a slipped
tion of a company director. ~. '~ jockey, person who
di-rec-tory /di'rektan/ n [C] {pi plays records of popular music
-ies) (book with a) list of per- on the radio.
sons, firms, etc in a district: a dis-card /di'ska:d/ vt {formal)
telephone'^. throw away; give up.
dirt /d3:t/ n [U] 1 unclean matter. dis-cern di'sarn/ vt (format) see
2 loose earth or soil: a road. ~ clearly. '>^ing adj able to see and
dirty adj (-ier, -iest) (a) not understand well.
clean, (b) obscene: a '^y joke. dis-charge dis'tja:d3/ vr//1 un-
(c) (informal) cruel; unfair: a '^ load (cargo from) a ship. 2 send
trick, a vt/i {pt.pp -ied) make out (liquid, gas. etc). 3 fire (a
dirty, dirt-ilya^v gun. etc). 4 send (a person)
dis-abil-ity /,diS9'bibti/ n {pi away; allow (a person) to leave.
-ies) 1 [U] state of being disabl- 5 pay (a debt); perform (a duty).
ed. 2 [C] something that disables D n [C] 1 act of discharging. 2
a person. something discharged.
dis-able /dis'eibl/ vt take away dis-ciple di'saipl/ n [C] follower
the power to use, esp a part of of any religious, etc leader, csp
the body. '>^ment n [U] Jesus Christ.
dis-advantage /idissd- dis-ci-pline^ /'disiplm/ n 1 [U]
'va:ntid3 " 1 fC] unfavourable training to produce self-control,
condition. 2 [U] loss; injury. obedience, etc. 2 [U] the result of
'>>'Ous '|dis,aedv3n'teid33S/aJ/' such training. 3 [C] set rules for
dis-agree idiss'gri:' vr -^ conduct. 4 [U] punishment. 5
(with), 1 take a different view. [C] branch of knowledge.
2 (of food, climate) have bad ef- dis-ci-pline^ 'disiplm/ vr apply
fects on. '>^abie /-abl/ adj un- discipline(1 ) to; train and con-
pleasant, ^ably adv. 'V/tnent n trol; punish.
[C.U] difference of opinion. dis-claim /dis'kleim; vt say that
dis-ap-pear /|dis3'pi9(r)/ vi go one has no connection with: ~
out of sight; be used no more. respons ib ility for
'>^ance«[C.U]. dis-close /dis'kboz/ vr make
dis-ap-point /idisa'pomt/ vt fail known: ~ one's identity, dis-
to do what is hoped for. '>^ed clos-ure/-33(r)/>j[C,U]'
adj sad at not getting what was dis-co /'diskau/ n [C] = dis-
hoped for. --^ing adj. '>^ment n cotheque.
[C,U] state of being disappoint- dis-coiour (VS = -color)
ed;something causing this. /dis'kAb(r) vr// change, spoil,
dis-ap-prove ,diS9'pru:v/ vt/i'^ the colour of. '^^ation
(of), have, express, an unfav- /di,kAbireij3n//i[C,U]
ourable opinion. dis-ap- dis-com-fort /dis'lcAmfat/ n [C,
provalA?[U] U] (cause oO lack of comfort:
dis-arm /dis'a:m/ vt/i 1 take the ^s of travelling.
away weapons from. 2 (of na- dis-con-cert /,disk3n's3:t/ vr up-
tions) reduce, get rid of, armed set the calmness of: / was '^ed to
forces. 3 make it difficult for a learn that he didn 't like me.
person to feel anger, etc: '^ed by dis-con-nect /,disk3'nekt, vt de-
his kindness, -^a'tnent n [U] tach from; take (two things)
process of disarmmg(2). apart, -^^ed adj (of speech or

disconsolate /disinherit

writing) having the ideas, etc talk about (a subject). '>^ion

badly ordered. /di'skAjn//7[C,U]
disconsolate /dis'konsdbt/ dis-dain /dis'dein/ {formal
u<^ without hope or comfort. look on with contempt, d n (I ']

dis-con-tent /(disksn'tent/ n contempt; scorn. '>-f ul adj

[C.U] (cause of) dissatisfaction. dis-ease /di'zi:z/ n [C,U] illnes:,
'^ed adj no{ satisfied. dis-eased adj having a disease
dis-con-tinue /,diskdn'tinju:/ dis-em-bark /,disim'ba:k/ \i t

vtii {formal) stop; bring to an put, go, on shore. '>^a-tion

end. /,disemba:'keiJn//7[C,U]
dis-cord 'disko:d n 1 (C,U] dis- dis-cngage /,disin'geid3/ vt i

agreement; quarrelhng. 2 (C,U] separate, detach (oneself or

lack of harmony between something).
sounds. '^atWadj dis-en-tangle ',dism'tser)ql/ vtn
dis-co-theqge 'diskotek/ n [C] (become) free from compli-
club where people dance to pop cations, tangles or confusion.
music. dis-fig-ure ,'dis'rig3(r)/ vi spoil
dis-count' /'diskaont/ n [C] the appearance or shape of: his
amount of money taken off the face was ^d in the accident
price ~ment/7[C,U]
dis-count^ dis'kaunt; vt (esp) dis-grace /dis'greis/ n 1 [U] loss
refuse to believe a piece of of respect, favour. [C] thing, per-
(news, etc); consider unimpor- son, that causes shame, d vi
tant. bring disgrace on. '>^f ul adj
dis-cour-age /di'skAridz/ v^ 1 dis-gruntled /dis'grAntld/ adj
take away the courage or con- discontented; in a bad mood.
fidence of: He isn 7 '^dby his fai- dis-guise /dis'gaiz/ vt 1 change
lure. 2 persuade a person not to the appearance, etc of, in order
do something, '^ment n [C,U] to deceive. 2 conceal: one's ~
dis-course /'diskD:s/ n [C\ anger, a n [C,\J\ dress, actions,
speech; lecture. etc used for disguising.
dis-courteous /dis'ka.tias/ adj dis-gust /dis'gASt/ n [U] strong
impolite. dis-courtesy dislike, a vt cause disgust in.
/dis'kartosi/ n [C,U] rudeness. '>^ing at// causing disgust.
dis-cover /di'skAV3(r)/ vt find; dish /dij"/ n [C] 1 shallow vessel
get knowledge of. '^er, person from which food is served at
who has made a discovery, dis- table. 2 the '^es. all the plates,
covery n (pi -ies) [C,U] act of etc used for a meal. 3 meal- vt
finding; something found. '>^ (up), 1 put on a dish. 2
dis-credit^ /dis'kredit/ vt cause present, eg arguments. /^ isth
the truth, value of to seem out. distribute it. ''>>'Cloth,
doubtful. cloth for washing dishes, etc.
dis-credit^ /dis'kredit/ n [U] loss dis-hearten /dis'ha:tn/ vt cause
of credit or reputation. to lose courage or confidence.
dis-creet /di'skri:t/ adj careful, dishevelled (US =-eled) (

tactful: a -^ inquiry. 'X/ly adv /di'Jevld/ adj (of the hair and
dis-crep-ancy /di'skrepansi/ n clothes) untidy. '

[C,U] (pi -ies) (of statements dis-hon-est /dis'onist/ adj not \

and accounts) difference. honest. dis-hon-estyAi[C,U]

dis-cre-tion /di'skrejn/ n [U] 1 dishonour (US =^ -honor) '

being discreet. 2 freedom to act /dis'onaCr)/ n [C] 1 loss of ho- ,

according to one's own judge- nour and self-respect. 2 person

ment. or thing th^t brings disgrace, d
dis-crimi-nate /di'sknmineit/ vt 1 bring shame. 2 (of a bank):
vt/i 1 make a difference be- ~ a cheque, etc, refuse to pay \

tween: -^ good books from bad money on it. '>-able /-rabl/ adj i

ones. 2 '^ (against), treat un- dis-il-lu-sion /,disi'lu:3n/ vt set ^

fairly, dis-crimi-nat-ing adj free from pleasant but mistaken

able to discriminate(1 ). dis- beliefs. ~ment n [C] freedom
crimi'nationn[U] from illusions.
dis-cus /'diskas/ n [C] (pi ~es) dis-in-fect /(disin'fekt/ vt make
heavy, round plate for throwing free from '^ant adj, n
as a sport. [C,U] disinfecting (chemical).
dis-cuss /di'skAs/ vt examine. dis-in-herit /,disin'herit/ vt take
109 disintegrate/dispute

away the right to inherit. dis-pas-sion-ate /di'spaejanat,

disin-te-grate /dis'mtigreit/ adj free from emotion or influ-
vt t (cause to) break up into ence, '^ly adv
small parts, dis-in-te'gra-tion dis-patch despatch
n[V] /di'spaetf / vt 1 send off: to ^ let-
dis-in-ter /|disin't3:(r)/ vt (-rr-) ters. 2 finish business, etc. 3 kill
dig up (a body) from a grave. quickly, d n (a) [U] dispatching,
-^ment/iJQU] (b) [C] thing dispatched (1 ).
dis-in-ter-ested /dis'mtrastid/ dis-pel /di'spel/ vt (-II-)send
adj not influenced by personal away; remove: ~ rumours/
feelings or interests: a judge- ^ doubts.
ment. dis-pen-sa-tion /,dispen'seijn/
dis-jointed /dis'dpintid/ adj (eg n 1 [U] the act of dispensing (1 ).

of speech and writing) not 2 [C,U] permission to do some-

connected; incoherent. '>^ly adv thing usually forbidden.
disk /disk/ n i;> disc. dis-pense /di'spens/ vt/i 1 deal
dis-like /dis'laik/ vt not like, n n out; distribute. 2 prepare, give
[C] feel
: ^
for somebody. out (medicines). 3 ^
with, do
dis-lo-cate /'disbkeit/ vt 1 put without: Let's ~
with formali-
(esp a bone) out of position. 2 dis-pens-ary n [C](pl-\es)

put, eg traffic, out of order. place where medicines are given

dis-lo'ca-tion n [C,U] out.
dis-lodge /dis'lods/ vt force out dis-perse /di'spars/ vt/i (cause
of place: ^
a tooth/enemy sol- to) go in difierent directions.
diers. dis-persaiA2[U]
dis-loyal /dis'laial/ adj not loyal dis-pirited /di'spiritid/ adj dis-
(to), ^ly adv. ^ty n [C,U] couraged; disheartened.
dis-mal /'dizmal/ adj sad; dis-place /dis'pleis/ vt 1 put out
gloomy./>^ly adv of the right position. 2 take the
dis-mantle /dis'maentl/ vt take place of. '-•^ment n [U] (a) dis-
to pieces. placing. 2 amount of water dis-
dis-may /dis'mei/ n [U] feeling of placed by a ship.
fear and discouragement, d vt dis-play /di'splei/ vt show; ex-
fillwith dismay. hibit, a n lC,U] exhibition;
dis<mem-ber /dis'memb3(r)/ vt show.
1 tear or cut the limbs from. 2 dis-please /dis'pli:z/ vt annoy;
(fig) divide up (a country, etc). offend. dis-pleasure
dis-miss /dis'mis/ vt 1 send dis'ple33(r); n [U] anger; anno-
away^rom one's employment). yance.
2 allow to go: -^ a class. 3 stop dis-pos-able /di'spauzabl/ adj^
thinking about: ^
all thoughts of that can be thrown away: ~ nap-
revenge, '^al n[C.\J] pies.2 that can be used: ^ in-
dis-mount /jdis'maunt/ vt/i get come.
down (from a horse, bike etc). dis-pose /di'spauz/ vt/i -s^ of,
dis-obedi-ence /jdisa'birdians/ finish with; get rid of. dis-
n [U] failure or refusal to obey. posal n [U] (a) the act of dis-
disobedi*enta<i/ posing, (b) at one's -s^, to be
dis-obey /,diS3'bei/ vt not obey a used as one wishes.
person, a law, etc. dis-po-si-tion /idispa'zijn/ n [C]
dis-order /dis'D:d3(r)/ n 1 [U] 1 person's natural character: a
absence of order; confusion. 2 cheerful ~. 2 arrangement in
[C] rioting. 3 [C,U] disturbance order: the -v, of troops.
of the body or mind, n vt put in- dis-pos-sess /(dispa'zes/ vt take
to disorder, '^ly adj (property) away from.
dis-organ-ize /jdisbrganaiz/ vt dis-pro-portion-ate
throw into confusion. /idispra'pDiJanat/ adj too large or
dis-own /dis'aun/ vt say that one small, etc. -^^lydi/v
does not know, has no connec- dis-prove /|dis'pru:v/ vt prove to
tion with (a person or thing). be wrong or false.
dis-par-ate /'disparat/ adj that dis-pute /di'spju:t/ vt/i^ debate,
cannot be compared; very dif- quarrel. 2 question the truth or
ferent, dis-par-ity /dir'spaereti/ validity of: to -^ a decision, a
n [C.U] (pi -ies) inequality; dif- /'di:spju:t/ n 1 [C] controversy;
ference. argument, in '^, being argued
disqualify/distribute II

about, dis-put-abie /-sbl/ adj against doing, dis-sua-sion

that can be doubted. /-3n/«(U]
dis-qual-ify dis'kwDlifai/ vi dis-tance 'distDns/ n [C,U]
{pt.pp -led) take away permis- measure of space between two
sion: disquulifii'd from driving. points, places, etc. in the ~, far
disqualif ication /-fi'keij'n away.
«(C,U] dis-tant /'distant/ adj^ far away
dis-quiet dis'kwaiat/ v/ {for- in space or time. 2 not closely. 3
mal) make troubled, anxious, a reserved; not friendly. 'X/ly adv:
«[U] anxiety, -^mqadj '^lly related.
dis-re-gard |disri'gu:d vt pay dis-taste /dis'teist/ n [U] dislike.
no attention to; show no
respect '>^ful adj unpleasant. '>>/fuliy
for: Don t ~ my msiruclions. u n adv
[U] lack of care; indifference. dis-tend /di'stend/ vr// (cause to)
dis-re-pair ,disri'pe9(r)/ n [U] swell out.
the state of needing repair. dis-til (US =-till) /di'stil/ vt/i (-
dis-repu-table /dis'repjotabl II-) 1 change (a liquid) to vapour

adj hav ing a bad reputation. by heating and collect the drops
dis-re-pute ,disri'pju:t/ n [U] of liquid that condense from the
fall into '^. no longer have a vapour. 2 make (whisky, etc) by
good reputation. distilling. '>^'la-tion /-ei|n/ n
dis-re-spect ,disri'spekt/ n [U] [CUj. --^^lery, place where
rudeness '>^f ul adj. ^s^f ully adv liquids (eg gin, whisky) are
dis-rupt idis'rApt/ vt break up, distilled.
cause chaos: ~ traffkj dis-tinct /di'stiqkt/ adj 1 easily
negotiations. '>-ion /dis'rApJan/ heard, seen, understood. 2 dif-
n[\J]. '^'wieadj ferent; separate. '>^ly adv
dis-sat-isfy /di'saetisfai/ vt dis-tinc-tion /di'stirikln/^l [U]
{pt.pp -led) fail to satisfy; make act of distinguishing. 2 [C] point
discontented, dis-sat-is-fac- of difference: see a ^
between. 3 !

tion/-'fi£kJn/>7[U] [U] quality of being superior, ex-

dis-sect di'sekt/ vrcut up (parts cellent. 4 [C] mark of honour;
of an animal, plant, etc) to study title, dis-tinc-tive at// showing >

its structure. dis-section a difference; special. '>^ly adv

/-'sekjn «[C,U] dis-tin-guish /di'stiqgwij/ v///l I

disseminate /di'semineit/ ^t see, hear, recognize, the differ-

distribute or spread ideas, etc. ence. 2 observe by looking, lis-
dissemi'nation n [U] tening, etc. 3 be a difference:
dis-sent di'sent, vi 1 '^ Speech ~e5 men from animals. 4
(from), have a different opin- bring credit to oneself, --^able
ion (from). 2 (esp) refuse to ac- /-abl/ adj. '^ed adj famous.
cept a religious doctrine, a n [U] dis-tort /di'stoit/ vt 1 pull, twist,
disagreement. ~er, person who out of the usual shape. 2 give a
dissents, dis-sen-sion /-Jn/ n false account of: ~
the facts.
[C,U] angry quarrelling. dis'tortion /-Jan/ n [C,U]
dis-ser-ta-tion /.disa'teijn/ n [C] dis-tract /di'straekt/ vt take
long written or spoken account. away a person's attention, con-
dis-si-dent /'disidant/ a^//' disag- centration, etc. dis'traction
reeing. D n [C] person who disag- /-Jn/ n (a) [U] distracting, (b)
rees; dissenter. [C] something (annoying) that
dis-simi-lar ;di'sim3b(r)/ adj distracts.
not similar, dissimilarity dis-traught /di'stroit/ adj ex-
/-'laEriti/«[C,U](/7/-ies) tremely upset.
dis-so-ciate /di'saujieit/ vt sep- dis-tress n [U] 1
arate (in thought, feeling); not (cause oO great pain or sorrow.
associate with, dis-soci'a-tion 2 serious danger: a ~
signal, a vt
«[U] cause distress(l) to. '^ing adj
dis-solve /di'zolv/ 17,/ 1 make a causing distress(1 ).
solid become liquid. 2 (of a sol- dis-trib-ute /di'stribju:t/ vt 1
id) become liquid. 3 bring to, give or send out: ~
come to, an end: ~ a marriage/ books. 2 spread out (over a larg-
Parliament, dis-so'l-ution n er area). distribution
[C,U] /,distri'bju:Jn/ n [C,U]. dis-tri-
dis-suade /di'sweid 1/ advise bu-tor n [C] (a) person who
1 district/do

distributes, (b) part of the en- future events by guessing, di-

gine that sends electricity to the viner n [C] person who can find
sparking plugs. water underground.
dis-trict /'distnkt/ n [C] part of a di-vin-ity /di'vmati/ n 1 [U] the
country. quality of being divine(1 ). 2 [U]
des-trust /dis'trASt/ n [U] doubt the study of theology.
or suspicion, a vt have no trust di-viS'ible /di'vizabl/ adj that
in. --N^f ul adj. ~f ully adv can be divided exactly.
dis-turb /di'st3:b/ vt break the div-ision /di'vi3n/ n 1 [U] pro-
peace or order of. -^ance n [C, cess of dividing. 2 [C] one of the
U] disturbing; disorder (esp in a parts into which something is di-
public place). vided. 3 [C] (mil) unit of two or
dis-use /dis'juis/ n [U] state of no more brigades. 4 [C] line that di-
longer being used: fall into ~. vides. 5 [C] disagreement.
dis-used /dis'ju:zd adj ' di-vorce /di'vD:s/ n 1 [C,U] legal
ditch /ditj/ n [C] narrow channel ending of a marriage. 2 [C] end-
dug to carry off water, n vtji 1 ing of a connection or relation-
send or throw into a ditch. 2 ship. D v7 1 end a marrriage by
(Jig) abandon. 3 {informal) law. 2 (fig) separate, di-vor-cee
crash (an aircraft) into the sea. /di|VD:'si:/ divorced person.
dither 'did3(r)/ v/ (informal) di-vulge /dai'vAld3/ vt make
hesitate about what to do. known (a secret),.
ditto /'ditau/ n [C] (jjI ~s) the dizzy /'dizi/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 (of
same. a peason) feeling as if everything
ditty /"diti/ n [C] (j)l -ies) short, were turning round; mentally
simple song. confused. 2 (of places, condi-
di-van /di'van/ n [C] low seat or tions) causing such a feeling.
bed without a back. dizzily adv. dizziness n [Uf
dive /daiv; vi 1 go head first into do^ /da strong form: duj aux verb
water; go under water. 2 go (3rd pers pres tense does; pt did
quickly to a lower level. 3 move pp done /dAn/) 1 (with the
quickly: ~ through a window, a n main verb) (a) for negative sen-
[C] act of diving into water, div- tences: He didn't go. (b) for
er, person who dives or works questions: Does he want it? (c)
under water. (for emphasis): That's exactly
di-verge /dai'v3:d3/ vi (of lines, what he 'did say. 2 (a) (in com-
opinions, etc) get farther apart; parisons): She runs faster than I
turn away from. do. (b) (in question phrases): He
di-verse /dai'v3:s/ adj of differ- lives in London, doesn't he? (c)
ent kinds. '>^ly adv. di-ver sity (in answers): 'Who broke the
n [U] difference; different things. window?'— I did!'
di-ver-sify /,dai'v3:sifai/ vt do^ /du:/ vt/i 1 perform, carry out
(pt.pp -led) make diverse. (an action): What are you ^ing
di-ver-sion /dai'v3:J"n/ n 1 [C,U] now? 2 (a) produce; make: /
diverting: the '^ of a stream. 2 have done six copies, (b) work
[C] something which diverts the at: She's '-^ing her knitting, (c)
attention. 3 detour: traffic ~5. perform: D^ your duty, (d)
'^^ary adj study: Are you '^ing science at
di-vert /|dai'v3:t/ turn in an-
vt school? (e) find the answer to: /
other direction: -^ a stream/his can 't ~this sum. (f ) deal with,
attention. attend to: / have a lot of corre-
di-vide /di'vaid/ vt/i 1 separate, spondence to '^. 3 (as a pp) fin-
be separated (into). 2 find out ish: It's done. 4 -^ (for), be sat-
how often one number is con- isfactory: These shoes won't do
tained in another. 3 disagree, a n for mountain-climbing. 5 (a)
[C] something that divides. '>^rs progress: He's ^ing well at
n pi compasses for dividing school, (b) (esp of health) make
angles, measuring lines, etc. progress. How -»^ you ^?
divi-dend /'dividand/ n [C] share (words used to greet people). 6
of profit paid to shareholders. travel (a distance); go (at a cer-
di-vine^ /di'vam/ adj^ of or like tain speed). 7 cook: How would
God. 2 (informal) excellent. '>^ly you like your steak done? S have
adv to '^ with, be connected with.
di-vine^ /di'vam/ vt/i learn about 9 ^away with, (a) abolish.
docile /dominate 11

get rid of. (b) kill. •^ for. {infor- male of this animal. O
bitch. <yo
maf) (a) manage: How will you to the '^s. be ruined, let
->- for water in the desert"^ (b) steeping '^s '//e. leave some-
ruin: destroy; kill: The country's thing alone, lead a '^ 's life, be
done for. '^ sb in. {si) kill him. always very unhappy '--s^-

~ sth out. sweep or clean out. collar, (informal) clergyman's

^ sth up. (a) restore, repair, collar, '--^^-eared, (of a book)
(b) fasten or wrap up. '^^ with. having the corners of the pages
(with can. could) need: You could turned down with use. be in
'^ with a good night s sleep. ~ the ''^house. (sf) in disgrace.
without, manage without. 'dogs-body, overworked per-
doc-ile 'dausail; adj easily son.
tramed or controlled. dog^ /dog/ vt (-gg-) 1 keep close
dock^ dok n [C] place where behind. 2 (fig) follow: '^ged by
ships are (un)loaded or repaired. misfortune.
'>^er, dockyard labourer. dog-ged 'dogid' adj stubborn.
''>^yard, enclosure with docks. -»^ly adv. '>^ness n [U]
dock^ /dok/ vt/i 1 put in or enter dogma 'dogma n (pi ~s) [C,Ul

a dock. 2 join together (two or beliefs put forward by eg the

more spacecraft) in space. Church to be accepted as true
dock^ dok' n [C] enclosure in a without question. '^tic
court for the prisoner. dog'maetik/ adj (a) put forward
dock* dok/ vt (esp) make wages, as dogmas, (b) (of a person)
supplies, less. giving opinions as if they were
doc-tor 'dDkt3(r)/ n [C] 1 per- dogmas. '>-tism n [U] (the qual-
son who has received the highest ity oO being dogmatic.
university degree. 2 person who dol-drums /'doldramz/ n pi in
has been trained in medicine. C> the '-^. (fig) depressed; un-
physician, surgeon, n v7 1 (in- happy.
formal) give medical treatment dole daul/ vt distribute food,
to: '^ a coldia child. 2 make (esp money, etc in small amounts. D n
food) inferior by adding some- [C] 1 something distributed. 2
thing. 3 (fig) falsify accounts, (informal) weekly payment from
evidence, ^ate /'doktsrat n [C] the State to an unemployed
doctor's (1 ) degree. worker, ^o^ful adj depressed.
doc-tri-naire /|dDktri'ne9(r)/ -^^fully a(/v
at^ theoretical; dogmatic. doll /dol/ n [C] model of a baby
doc-trine 'doktrm/ n [C,U] be- or person as a toy. d vtji (infor-
liefs and teachings of a church, mal) "^ oneself up, dress up
political party, etc. smartly.
docu-ment 'dokjumsnt, n [C] doMar /'dDl3(r)/ n [C] unit of
something written or printed, money (symbol I).
used as a record or m evidence, a dol-phin /'dolfin/ n [C] sea-
vt prove by, supply with, docu- animal like a porpoise.
ments. '>^a-tion /(dokjumen- do-main dau'mein/ n [C] (for-
'teijn/ n [\J] documents, '^ary mal) 1 lands under the rule of a
/idokju'mentri adi consisting of government, ruler. 2 (fig) area
documents, n n [Cj (pi -\es) (also of knowledge, activity.
^aryfilm) film giving factual in- dome daum n [C] rounded roof

formation. with a circular base; something

dodge dods, n [C] 1 quick shaped dome.
like a
movement to avoid something. do-mes-tic /da'mestik adj 1 of
2 (informal) trick, a vt|l^ move the home, family, household. 2
quickly to avoid something. 2 not foreign: ~
news. 3 (of ani-
avoid (difficulties) by trickery. mals, etc) kept by man. C> wild.
dodger, cunning person. n [C] person who is employed
dodgy adj (-ier, -iest) (infor- in household work. '>-ate vt (a)
'mal) involving risk or loss. make able to do household
doe /dau/ n [C] female deer, rab- work, (b) tame (animals).
bit. domi-nant /'dominant/ a<^ hav-
does /dAZ/, doesn't /'dAzant ing control or authoritv; domi-
Odo. nating. domi-nancert[U]
dog^ dog n [C] common domes- domi-nate 'dommeit vtji 1
tic animal of the wolf family; have control, authority or influ-
113 domineer/down
ence. 2 overlook: The hill '^s the cise moment, a vt (-tt-) mark
city, domi'na-tion n [U] with a dot. '>^ted about, scat*
domi-neer /|dDmi'ni3(r)/ vi act, tered here and there.
speak, in a dominating manner. do-tage /'dautids/ n [U] weak-
^ing adj ness of mind caused by old age:
do-min-ion /da'mmian/ n 1 [U] old men in their '^.
authority to rule. 2 [C] territory dote /daut/ vi '^(on). show
of a sovereign government. 3 [C] much or too much fondness: -^-^

country of the British Common- on a child.

wealth. double^ /'dAbl/ adj 1 twice as
dom-ino /'dommao/ n [C] ipl much, big, etc. 2 having two like
~es or ~s) 1 small, oblong things or parts: a ~ chin. 3 made
piece of wood, marked with for two persons or things: a ~
spots. 2 (pi) game played with 28 bed. (--w-'bass, largest instru-
of these. ment of the violin family. ,'>^-
do-nate /dsu'neit/ vt give (eg 'breasted adj (of a coat) made
money, to a charity, etc). to overlap across the front of the
do'na-tionnfCU] body. |'>^-'cross vt (informal)
done/dAn/O do. cheat or betray, n n betrayal.
don-key /'doqki/ n [C] {pi ^s) ,'>^-'dealer, person who says
ass. one thing and means another.
do-nor /'d3un9(r)/ n [C] person Hence, ,'>^-'dealing n, adj. |'>^-
who gives: a blood-^. 'decker, (esp) bus with two
don't /daunt/ = do not. [> do. decks.
doom /du:m/ n [U] ruin; death, a double^ /'dAbl/ adv 1 twice as
vt condemn; sentence to death much: cost ~. 2 in twos, see '>^.
or ruin. Dooms-day n end of seetwo things when there is only
the world. one.
door /dD:(r)/ n [C] 1 that which double^ /'dAbl/ n [C] 1 twice the
closes the entrance to a building, quantity. 2 person or thing that
room, etc. 2 entrance to a room, looks exactly like another. 3 {pi)
building. 3 opportunity: the ^ game with two players on each
to success, next '^. (in, to) the side.
next house, out of ^s, in the double* /'dAbl/ vr//1 make twice
open air. ''>^step, step in front bend or fold in two. 3
as great. 2
of a door. ''>^way, opening into '^(back). return along the
which a door fits. same path. '^ up, bend the
dope /dsup/ n [U] {informal) body with pain or in laughter;
harmful drug (eg opium), n vt doubly /'dAbli/ adv twice as: be
give dope to. dopey, dopy adj ~ careful.
(.s7) (a) half asleep, (b) (as if) doubt /daut/ n [C,U] feeling of
drugged, (c) stupid. uncertainty, no 'v-. very pro-
dormant /'dormant/ adj not ac- bably. D vtji feel doubt about.
tive: a ~volcano. -^^ful adj. '>^less adv without
dor-mi-tory /'do:rmtri/ n [C] (pi doubt.
-\es) room for sleeping, with dough /dau/ /; [U] 1 mixture of
several beds. '
flour, water, etc (for making
dormouse /'dD:maus/ n [C] {pi bread, etc). 2 (si) money.
dormice /'dormais/) small ani- '"^nut, sweetened dough
mal (like a mouse) that sleeps cooked in deep fat.
during winter. douse, dowse /daus/ vt put in-
dos-age /'dausids/ n [C] quan- to water; throw water over.
tity of a single dose. dove /dAv/ n [C] 1 kind of
dose /daus/ n [C] amount (of pigeon. 2 (informal) member of
medicine) to be taken at one a group promoting peace. C*
time, a vt give dose(s) to. hawk(2). ''>^-cotersmall shelt-
doss /dos/ vi {GB si) 'v. down, er for doves.
sleep in a temporary bed. '->-- dove-tail /'dAVteil/ n [C] joint for
house, cheap lodging-house. two pieces of wood, a vr// 1 join
dos-sier /'dosiei/ n [C] set of together with these joints. 2 (fig)
papers giving information fit (together).
about a person or event. down^ /daun/ n [UJ 1 soft feath-
dot /dot/zi [C] small round mark. ers of young birds. 2 soft hair, eg
on the '^, (informal) at the pre- on some fruit.

down /draper II

down^ daun, ad\ 1 (a) to a of something to be done: a -^ n/

low(er) level: The sun went ~ a tetter. 2 written order for pa> -

(b) to horizontal position:

a ment of money by a bank 3
knocked -^ by a bus. 2 to a less group of men selected to ser\ e 1 1

I'mportant place: IVe went -^ to the armed forces, d i7 1 make ,,

Brighton (eg from London) 3 draft(1 ) of. 2 select (a mani tor

(to show reduction): The tem- the armed forces, drafts-man
perature has gone ~. 4 (used n [C] (a) person who draus
with reference to writing): wrtic plans(1,2).
something -^ D-^ with. Let us drafty 'dra:fti adj (LS)
be rid of. get ^
to sth. start = draughty.
work :n earnest. ,'^-to-'earth, drag drsg vt i (-gg-) 1 pul!
practical. along (esp with effort). 2 mo\e
down^ daun prep 1 from a slowly and with effort. 3 use
high(er) to a low(er) level: run ^ nets, tools, etc to search the bot-
a hill. 2 did lower partof: farther tom of a river, lake. etc. 4 go too
^ the river. 3 along: walking '^ slowly, be boring, a « 1 [Cj
the street. something that is dragged. 2 [C ]

down* daun vt (informal) put. (informal) person or thing that is

knock, down: ~
a beer, drink it. boring.
down-cast 'daunkarst adj 1 dragon 'draegsn/ n [C] 1 fiction-
(of a person) depressed: 2 (of al creature with wings and
eyes) looking downwards. claws, able to breathe fire. 2 el-
down-fall 'daunfo:! n [C] 1 derly, strict woman.
heavy fall (of rain, etc). 2 (fig) drain^ /drein n [C] 1 pipe, chan-
ruin: His -^ was drink. nel, etc for carrying away un-
down-grade |daun'greid v7 re- wanted 2 something
duce to a lower grade or rank. that uses up time, money, etc. O
downhearted /|daun'ha:tid brain drain, '-^pipe, pipje used
fli^ depressed. in a system of drains.
down-hill daun'hil/ adv in a drain^ drein/ vtii 1 ~ away I

downward direction, go '^, off, (of liquid) (cause to) run or

(Jig) become worse; fail. fiow away. 2 (of land, crockery
down-pour 'daunp3:(r)/ n [C] etc) make, become dry. 3 (Jig)
heavy fall of rain. (cause to) lose (strength, wealth,
down-right 'daunrait/ adj 1 etc)gradually: ~
the energy
honest. 2 complete: a ~ lie. d from a battery, '-wing-board,
o^v thoroughly. board at the side of a sink, on
downs daunz n pi expanse of which dishes, etc drain, -^^age n
low hills. [U] (a) act of draining, (b) that
down-stairs /jdaun'steaz/ ad\ which is drained away.
to,on. a lower floor. drake dreik/«[C] male duck.
dovxA-stream /daun'strirm, drama ;'dra:m3/ n 1 [C] play for
adv in the same direction as the the theatre, radio or TV; [L]
current of a river. writing and performance of
down-town /'dauntaun/ adj. such plays. 2 [C,U] series of e.x-
adv (esp US) towards or in the citing or disturbing events.
centre of a town. -^^tic dra'maetik adj (a) ofdra-
down-trod-den idaun'trodn ma(1). (b) sudden or exciting.
aJy treated badly: ^ workers. '^ti-cally adv. -^t-ics, (a) dra-
down-ward 'daunwad a<^ to- matic works or performances,
wards a lower position. (b) (informal) hysterical, excit-
down-wards 'daunwadz/ adv ed behaviour. -^-^tist
towards a lower position. /'draemstist' n [C] writer of
dowry 'dauari/ n [C] (pi -ies) plays, '-v/tize /'draemataiz vt
property, money, brought by a (a) put a story, etc into the form
bride to her husband. of a drama, (b) (informal) exag-
dowse daus/ vi douse.O gerate, esp to cause excitement.
doze dauz/ vi sleep lightly, n n drank draer)k,77/ofdrink.
[C] light sleep. drape hang (cloth) in
/dreip/ vt 1
dozen 'dAzn n (pi ^) twelve. folds.2 '^ with, cover with.
drab /draeb/ adj (fig) dull; unin- dra-per /'dreip3(r)/ n (GB) shop-
teresting, ^ness n [U] keeper who sells cloth, linen, etc.
draft /dra:ft/ n [C] 1 first outline dra-pery, goods sold by a
115 drastic/dribble

draper. dread 'dred n [U] (or with a)

dras-tic 'draestik/ adj having a great fear and anxiety, n i7//fear
strong or violent effect, --v/ally greatly, '-s-ful adj (a) causing
aciv an.xiety. (b) {informal) very un-
draught (L'-S = draft) dra:l't /? pleasant, -^^fully adv (esp) (/>»-
1 [C,U] current of air in a room. /orwaOe.xtremelv.
2 [U] depth of water needed to dream dri:m n [C] 1 something
float a ship. 3 [U] drawing of which one seems to see during
liquid from a container: -^ hcer. sleep. 2 mental picture(s) of the
4 [C] amount drunk at one time. future: ~5 of wealth. 3 some-
5 (pf) {US = checkers) board thing very beautiful, n \t i{pt.pp
game for two players using ~ed or ~t drempt ) 1 have
twenty-four round pieces, n vr dreams; see in a dream. 2 sth ^
= draft, draughtsman, (a) up. (informal) think up (a plan,
= draftsman, (b) piece in etc), -^--er, (a) person who
draughts, draughty adj (-ier. dreams, (b) person with im-
-lest) with draughts (1 ). practical ideas, etc. dreamy
dra>A/^ drD: n iC] 1 the act of 'drirmi adj (-ier, -iest). (a) (of
drawing: The game ended in a ^ persons) as if not fully awake,
2 person or thing that attracts (b) {informal) beautiful. '>^ily
attention. O draw^(4). adv. '>^\\Weadj
draw^ drD: vi i {pt drew dru: . dreary 'driari adj (-ier, -iest)
pp '^n /droin ) 1 move by pul- dull; boring, drear-ily adv
ling. 2 take or remove by pul- dredge dred3 n [C] apparatus
Img: '^ a cork a gun. 3 obtain for brmging up mud, etc from
! from a source: water from a~ the beds of rivers, etc. d vt i
I . well/ one's salary. ^ a blank. bring up. clear with a dredge.
find nothing. 4 attract: a ~ dredger, boat carrying a
crowd. 5 take in: -^^ a deep dredge.
breath. 6 (cause to) move: The dregs dregz' n pH
solid matter
ships drew near. 7 make with a which sinks to the bottom of
pen, pencil, etc: '^ a picture. ^ liquid. 2 {fig) worst or useless

the line (at), refuse to do: ^ part: the ~
of society.
the line at robbery. 8 end (a drench drentj vt make very
game, etc) without either win- wet: He were ^^edin the rain.
t ning or losing. 9 (usually in pp) dress^ dres n 1 [C] one-piece
pull out of shape: a face ~/j with outer garment worn by a
pain. 10 -^^ back, move away woman. 2 [U] clothing in gener-
I from. ^
in. (of daylight) be- al. C> evening dress. ''>^

come shorter. -^ out. (a) (of rehearsal, final rehearsal of a

days) become longer, (b) per- pla\.
suade (a person) to talk, (c) dress^ dres vt;i 1 put on
(cause to) become longer: a (clothes). ^ up. put on special
long-'^-out discussion. up. ^ clothes. 2 put on evening dress:
(a) write out. (b) come near to: ~ 3 make read\ to
for dinner.
his car drew up outside, (c) '^ use: to ~a salad. dress-O
oneself up. stand up straight. ing(3). 4
clean and bandage a
draw-back /'droibaek/ n [Cj dis- wound, etc. 5 make cheerful and
advantage; obstacle. attractive: to ^
a shop-window.
drawer drD:(r)/ n [C] sliding dresser 'dres3(r) n [C] piece of
compartment in a piece of furni- kitchen furniture with shelves
ture, etc. O
chest of drawers. and cupboards below
draw-ing ''drD:ir)/ n [U] the art dress-ing 'dresiq n 1 [U] pro-
of representing objects, scenes, cess of dressmg. 2 [C,U] some-
etc by lines; [C] sketch, picture, thing for dressing wounds. 3
plan, etc. ''>--pin, short flat- [C,U] sauce for salads. ''>^-
headed pin. gown, loose gown worn over
drawing-room MrDiir) rum, n pyjamas, etc. '-^^-table, one
[C] room in which guests are with a mirror in a bedroom.
received. drew dru: pt of draw^.
drawl /drD:l/ vr// speak in a slow, dribble /'dnbL vf,/! (of liquids)
lazy manner.D n [U] slow way of fiow slowly (esp from the
sfjeaking. mouth). 2 (in football) take (the
drawn drD:n p/jof draw^. ball) forward by means of short
dried/ drug II

kicks. who drives vehicles or animals.

dried /draid/ pt.pp o[ dry. driven /'drivn/p/7 of drive'.
drier ;'drai3(r), adj O
dry. anO drizzle /'drizl/ vt rain (in fine
dryer drops), a n [U] fine rain.
drift /drift, n 1 [U] drifting drone draun/ n 1 [C] male bee. 2
movement. 2 [C] something [U] low, humming sound. 3 [C]
caused by drifting: -^5 of snow. 3 monotonous speech, a v^//make
[U] general meanmg: ihc '^ of his adrone(2,3).
arguments. 4 [U] the way in droop /dru:p/ vtii 1 bend or
which events, etc tend to move. hang downwards. 2 let (the
a vi/i 1 be carried along by (a head) move down, d n [C] bend-
current of air or water). 2 (fig) ing position.
(of persons) live without aim or drop^ /drop/ n 1 [C] very small
purpose, -s^er, p>erson who quantity of liquid. 2 (pf) liquid
drifts(2). medicine taken in drops. 3
driir dril/ n [C] instrument that movement to a lower level, esp
turns quickly for making holes. distance of a fall: a ~
in temper-
D vt/i make a hole with a drill. ature.
drill' dril/ n [C,U] 1 army train- drop' /drop/ vt/i (-pp-) 1 (allow
ing in marching, etc. 2 thorough to) fall. 3 (allow to) become
training by repetition. 3 routine weaker or lower: The wind
procedure to be followed, eg in '\.ped. 3 say or write casually: -^
an emergency, a vt/i train by her a short note. 4 stop associat-
means of drills. ing with: 'v- one's girlfriend. 5
drily "draili/ adv dry. O give up: ~a bad habit. 6 no
drink /drir)k vtU (pt drank longer discuss: ~
the subject. 7
/draeqk,, pp drunk drAqk/) 1 -^ back/behind, be behind
take (liquid) into the mouth and (someone) because moving
swallow. 2 take alcoholic liqu- slower. -^ in (on sb): '^ by.
ors. 3 absorb large amounts of pay a casual visit to. '>^ off, (a)
liauid: My car •^s petrol, a n [C, fall asleep, (b) become less:
U] 1 liquid for drinking. 2 alco- Sales have '^ped off. -^ out. (of
holic liquor. '>^able /-abl/ adj. persons doing something) not
~er, (esp) person who take part. Hence, 'drop-out
drinks(2) too much. person who leaves (eg univer-
drip /drip vt/i (-pp-) (of a sity)before completing a course.
liquid) fall in drops, i'^ing drought /draut/ n [C,U] conti-
'wet, very wet. a n [C] (sound nuous (period oO dry weather.
oO drops of liquid falling, i-^^*- drove^ /drsnv / pt of drive'.
'dry adj (of clothes) that dry drove' /drauv n [C] large num-
when hung up to drip. ber of animals being moved
drip-ping 'dripig/ n [U] (esp) fat
, together, drover, man who
from roasted meat. drives cattle, etc.
drive^ /draiv/ n 1 [C] journey (in drown /draun/ (cause a
vt/i 1
a car). 2 [C] private road to a person, to) die in water because
house. 3 [C] (in ball games) hard of lack of air. 2 (of sound) be
stroke or blow. 4 [U] energy. 5 loud enough to prevent another
[C] campaign; effort: the 'export sound from being heard, ^ing
drive' /draiv/ vt/i (pt drove drowse /draoz/ vt/i be half as-
/drauv/; pp '^n /'drivn/) 1 cause leep. D n drowsy adj (-ier,
(animals) to move in some direc- -iest).drows-ilyad'v
tion. 2 operate a motor-vehicle. drudge drAds/ n [C] person who
3 go, carry (a person) in a car: works hard and long at un-
He drove me home. 4 (of steam, pleasant tasks. D vi work as a
electricity) be the power to oper- drudge does, '^ry /'drAd33ri/
ate. 5 (of wind) send (things) in hard, uninteresting work.
some direction. 6 hit with force. drug /drAg/ n [C] 1 substance
7 force (a person) to be (in a cer- used for medical purposes. 2
tain state): You'll ~
me mad. -^ substance inducing sleep, happi-
a hard bargain, not give way ness, etc: a '~ addict. vt (-gg-)
another person in a bu-
easily to 1 add harmful drugs to (food
siness deal8 be driving at. and drink). 2 give drugs to.
mean, mtend. '^r n [C] person ''^store, (US) place where
117 drum/dump
drugs and other articles are sold. duct /dAkt/ n [C] 1 tube through
drum /drAm/ n [C] 1 musical in- which liquid in the body flows. 2
strument made of a hollow metal tube and outlet for air.
cylinder with parchment dud /dAd/ n [C], adj {si) (thing oi
stretched over it; sound of a person) of no use: a cheque. ~
drum. 2 thing shaped like a due^ /dju:/ adj 1 owing; to be
drum: an oil-^. O eardrum. paid: The gas bill is ~. 2 right;
VI i (-mm-) 1 play a drum. 2 tap proper. 3 expected: The train is
continuously^ o'n something. 3 ^ {in) at 1.30. 4 '^ to, because
^ sth into sb. cause a person of: His success is ~
to hard work
to remembec' something by us- D adv (of points of the compass)
ing repetition, -^mer, person exactly: ^ east.
who plays d drum. ''>^stick, due^ /dju:/ n 1 {sing only) that
stick for beating a drum. which is right or owing: give the
drunk /drAqk/ adj {pp of drink) man his '^. 2 {pi) sums of money
overcome by drinking alcoholic to be paid, eg for membership of
liquor, a n [C] person who is a club.
drunk. '>^en adj. '^^en-ness n duel /'dju:?l/ n [C] 1 (illegal) fight
dry /drai/ adj (-ier, -lest) 1 not (usually with swords or pistols)
wet; t'ree from moisture. 2 not agreed between two persons. 2
supplying water: a ~well. 3 (of any two-sided contest, a vi (-II-,
wine) not sweet. 4 uninteresting; US also -I-) fight a duel, -^list n
dull: a -^ speech, a vtji {pt,pp [C]
dried) 1 make or become dry. 2 duet /dju:'et//; [C] piece of music
'^ up. (Jig) come to an end. for two voices or players.
^*^er, drier n [C] thing that dries duffle (also duf-fel) /'dAfi/ n
or on which clothes dry. |'>^- [U] coarse thick woollen cloth: a
'clean vt clean (clothes, etc) by '^-coat.
using spirits (eg petrol) instead dug /d\gl pt.pp o[ dig.
of water. Hence I'-^^-'cleaners, dug-out /'dAQ aot/ n [C] 1 rough
(O^-'cleaning. j-x. dock, one covered shelter made by dig-
from which water can be purhp- ging. 2 canoe made by hollow-
ed out. ,'>^ 'rot, decay of wood ing a tree trunk.
(causing it to crumble), drily duke /dju:k/ n [C] nobleman of
/'draili/ adv. '>^ness n [U] high rank, '^dom, (a) rank,
dual /'dju:3l/ adj of two; double. lands, of a duke, (b) (= duchy)
(--v/ 'carriageway, road divid- land ruled by a duke.
ed down the centre, by grass, eic. dull i'd\\i adj (-er, -est) 1 not
dub /d\bi vt (-bb-) 1 make (a clear or bright. 2 slow to under-
person) a knight by touching stand. 3 not exciting. 4 not
him on the shoulder with a sharp: a ~
knife, d vt/i make or
sword. 2 give (a person) a pet become dull. '>^ness n [U]
name. 3 replace the sound of a duly /'dju:li/ adv in a suitable
film with a different language. manner; at the right time.
du-bi-ous /'dju:bi3s/ ac^' causing dumb /d\ml adj (-er, -est) ^ un-
or feeling doubt, -v/ly adv. able to speak. 2 temporarily
duch-ess "dAtJis/ n [C] wife or silent: struck ^^ by the hews. 3
widow of a duke; woman whose {informal) stupid; dull. '>-ly adv.
rank is equal to a duke. •^^ness^lU]
duchy /'dAtJr/ n [C] {pi -ies) (also dumb-found {US also dum-
dukedom) land ruled by a duke found) /dAm'faund/ vt aston-
or duchess. ish; make dumb with surprise.
duck^ /d\kj n 1 [C] common dummy /'dAmi/ n [C] {pi -ies)
water-bird; female of this, c> object made to look, like the real
drake; [U] its flesh as food. 2 person or thing: a tailor's ^.
score of nought, 0. in cricket. model of a person for fitting
duck^ /dAk/ vtH 1 move quickly clothes; a baby's ~, sucked like
down (to avoid being seen or the nipple of a mother's breast,
hit). 2 push (a person) under i'^ 'run, practice shoot, perfor-
water for a short time, d n [C] mance, etc.
quick downward movement; dump /dAmp/ n [C] 1 place
quick dip below water. where rubbish, etc may be left;
duck-ling /MAklir)/ n [C] young heap of rubbish, etc. 2 store of
duck. military supplies. 3 {st) dirty or
dumpling /dynasty II

ugly place down in the ^s. employed to empty dustbins

unhappy, a v7 1 put on a ''>^pan, pan into which dust is
dump(1 throw down careless-
); swept.
ly. 2 (commerce) sell go6ds duty ''dju:ti n (pi -les) 1 {('A I

abroad at low prices. something one is obliged to dn

dump-ling 'd.\mplir) /i (C] ball on /off '^. engaged not cn-
of cooked dough eaten with f;aged in one's regular work 2
meat or fruit. C,U] tax on goods exported or
dumpy 'dAmpi adj (-ier, -lest) imported (\w;ioms duties) |~-
short and fat. 'f ree, (of goods) allowed to ent-

dunce dAnsn [C] slow learner; er without the payment of cus-

stupid person. toms duties, duti-ful ac//' shoe-
dune dju:n n [C] low stretch of ing respect and obedience.
sand formed by the wind. duti-fully a^v
dung d\x] n fU] waste matter duvet n [C] bed quilt
dropped by animals. used in place of blankets.
dunga-rees ;,dAng3'ri:z/ n pi dwarf 'dwD:f n [C] (pi ~s) per-
overalls or trousers of coarse son, animal or plant much be-
cotton. low the usual size, d \t cause to
dun-geon "dAndsan n [C] dark '

appear small: houses '^ed by the

underground prison. surrounding mountains.
dupe dju:p \t cheat; make a dwell dwel vt (pt dwelt
fool of. D n [C] person who is /dwelt ) 1 have as one's home 2
duped. '>^on, think, speak or write at
du-pli-cate^ 'dju:plik3t/ adj 1 length about. '>^ler, (in com-
exactly the same. 2 with two cor- pounds) inhabitant: 'city-^ers
fesponding parts, d n [C] thing '>^ing, home.
that is exactly like another, in dwindle /'dwindl/ vi become
^. (of documents, etc) with a lessor smaller by degrees.
copy. dye ;dai/ vtii (3rd person sing
du-pli-cate^ /'djurplikeit vt pres ~s, pt,pp ~d, pres pan
make an exact copy of (a letter, ~ing) colour by dipping in a
etc); produce copies of. du- liquid. D n [C,U] substance used
pli'cation n [C,U]. duplica- for dyeing cloth; colour given by
tor, machine that copies some- dyeing, dyer, person who dyes
thing written or typed. cloth.
dur-able 'djusrabl' adj lasting dying C> die^.
for a long time, a n pi goods ex- dyke/7 = dike.
pected to last a long time. dy-namic dai'naemik/ adj 1 of
dur-ation dju'reijn n [U] time power and forces producing
during which something lasts. motion. c> static. 2 (of a per-
dur-ess (also -esse) /dju'res n son) having great energy, d n (pi)
[U] threats, force: act under ^. (with a sing verb) branch of ,

dur-ing /'djusrii)/ prep 1 physics dealing with matter in

throughout: Don't smoke -^ the motion, "^./allyaf/v i

concert. 2 at some point of time: dyna-mite 'damamait/ n [U]

He died the night. powerful explosive, d vt blow up '

dusk /'dAsk' n [U] time just be- with dynamite.

fore night. dy-namo 'damamau n [C] (pi
dusky /yAski/ adj t-ier, -iest) ~s) machine for changing
rather dark; dark-coloured. raoyement into electrical ^

dust /dASt' n [U] dry earth or energy.

other matter in the form of fine dyn-asty /'dmasti/ n [C] (pi -\es)
powder, bite the ^, (informal) succession of rulers belonging to
die, be killed, a vt 1 remove dust one family.
(by wiping, etc). 2 sprinkle with
powder, ^^er. cloth for remov-
ing dust from furniture, dusty
adj (-ier, -iest). ''^bin, recep-
tacle household rubbish.
'o^-bowl, area that has no
vegetation because of drought,
etc. ''>^-jacket, paper cover to
protect a book. ''>^man, man
119 E/ebb
/'3:9kweik/ n [C] sudden, violent
movements of the earth's sur-
face, '-^^worm, worm that lives
in the soil. '>^ly adj (a) of this
world, not heaven, (b) (infor-
mal) possible: no ^ly use.

Ee earthy adj (-ier, -iest) (a) of or

like soil, (b) (fig) unrefined;
strong and healthy.
earthen-ware /'3:0nwe9(r)/ n
E, e /i:/ {pi E's, e's /i:z/) the fifth [U] dishes, etc made of baked
letterof the Enghsh alphabet. clay.
each adj (of two or more)
/i:tj"/ ear-wig /'lawig/ n [C] small in-
every one, thing, etc taken sep- sect with pincers at the tail.
arately: on -^ side of him. a pron ease /i:z/ give relief from
vt/i 1
1 every thing, person, group, pain, discomfort, anxiety. 2
etc: ~
of the boys. 2 to every one: make looser; lessen speed, ef-
He gave the boys 50p ~ forts: ~ off a bit (
= slow down).
eager /'i:g9(r)/ adj full of strong 3 move slowly and carefully: '^
desire. '>-ly adv. '-v/ness n [U] the injured man out of the car.
eagle /'i:gl/ n [C] large, strong [U] freedom from work, discom-
bird of prey. fort, trouble, do sth with '^,
ear' /i3(r)/ n [C] 1 organ of hear- without difficulty.
ing, be all -^s, listen eagerly. 2 easel /'i:zl/ n [C] wooden frame
sense of hearing: a good -^ for to support a picture (while the
music, (play sth) by '^, (a) is working at it).
(play music) without printed easily /'i:z3li/ adv 1 with ease. 2
music, (b) (fig) do something without doubt: ~
the best.
without planning. ''>^ache, east /'i:st/ n 1 the '^, point of
pain in the inner ear. '-^^drum, the horizon where the sun rises.
thin membrane (in the inner ear) 2 part of a country, the world,
which vibrates when sound etc in this direction. 2 an '^
waves strike it. ''>^mark vt (fig) wind, from the east, a adv to-
keep for a sp>ecial purpose: wards the east. C> also the Far,
'\^mark money for research, ''v/- Middle East, the E-^, Asia.
ring, ornament worn in the ear. '>^er-ly adj.adv towards, in, the
''>^shot, hearing distance. east; (of wind) from the east.
ear^ /i3(r)/ n [C] seed-bearing "^^ern adj of, living in, the east
part of corn, barley, etc. part of the world, ''^^ward adj
earl /3:1/ n [C] title of a British towards the east, '^ward(s)
nobleman of high rank. adv
early /'3:li/ (-ier, -iest) adj. advl Easter /'i:st9(r)/ n anniversary of
near to the beginning: '^ morn- the Resurrection of Christ.
ing. 2 sooner than usual or than easy /4:zi/ (-ier, -iest) adj 1 not
others: arrive too '^. earlier difficult. 2 free from pain, an-
on, at an earlier time, i'^- xiety, trouble, etc. a adv in an
'warning adj (of radar) giving easy manner, take it /things
early indication of the approach '^, don't work too hard, go '^
of enemy aircraft, missiles, etc. on. (informal) not use too much
earn /3:n/ vt 1 get in return for of:Go '^ on the beer. i'>-''going,
work: ~
a salary. 2 deserve: -^ (of persons) pleasant; tolerant;
our praise, ^x/ings n pi money casual.
earned. eat /i:t/ vtji (pt ate /eit/; pp ^eT\
ear-nest /'arnist/ adj serious; de- /'i:tn/) 1 take (food) into the
termined. D n in 'v., in a deter- mouth and swallow it. 2 destroy
mined manner; serious(ly). '>^ly as if by eating: Acid has ~e« into
adv. ''^^ness n [U] the metal. '^ one s words, ad-
earth n 1 this world. 2 [U]
/3:6/ mit that one is wrong. <-v/able
land contrasted with the sky. 3 adj that can be eaten
[U] soil. 4 [C] home of a fox, etc. eaves /i:vz/ n pi overhanging
5 [C,U] (means oQ electrical edges of a roof, '-^^drop vi
contact with the ground, a vt (-pp-) listen secretly to a
connect (an apparatus, etc) with conversation.
the earth (5). ^x/quake ebb /eb/ vi 1 (of the tide) flow
ebony / effrontery
back from the land to the sea. 2 border, edgy adj (-ier, -lesi)
(Jig)grow less: His strength was nervous. »

'^ing. D n [C] 1 the flowing out ed-ible /'edibl/ adj that ma> be
of the tide. 2 Ijig) low state. eaten.
eb-ony /'ebani/ n [U] hard, black edit /'edit/ vt 1 prepare (another
wood. D adj made of, black as, person's writing) for publica-
ebony. tion. 2 control the publication
ec-cen-tric /ik'sentnk/ adi^ (of of a newspaper, book, etc. 3 pre-
a person) odd; not normal. 2 (of pare a film, tape recording, etc
circles) not havmg phe same cen- by putting together parts.
tre, a n [C] (esp) eccentric per- edi-tion /I'dijn/ n [C] 1 form in
son. '>^ity /-'trisati/ n [C,U] {pi which a book is published: a
-ies)(C.U) paperback ~. 2 total number of
echo /'ekoo/ /; (pi -es) fCU] copies (of a book, etc) issued at
sound reflected or repeated, a one time.
vtji 1 be sent back as an echo: edi-tor /'edit3(r) n [C] person
His voire '^ed round the erripty who edits a newspaper, book,
room. 2 repeat a person's words. etc. ~-ial /-'tDinal/ adj of an edi
eclair /ei'kle3(r)/ n [C] pastry tor. a n [C] article in a news-
iced on top and filled with paper written by the editor.
cream. edu-cate /'edsukeit/ vt give in-
eclipse n [C] cutting off
/I'klips/ tellectual and moral training to.
of the of the sun (by the
light edu-ca-tion /ledsu'keiJan/A? [U]
moon), o-- of the light of the 1 training and instruction. 2
moon (by the earth's shadow), a knowledge, character, resulting
vr cause an eclipse. from such training, '^al adj
ecol-ogy /it'koladsi/ n [U] study eel ./i:l/ n [C] long fish like a
of the relations of living things snake.
to their environment, eco- eerie, eery /'isri/ adj (-ler, -iest)
logi-cat /-'iDdsikl/ adj. causing fear; strange, eerily
econ-omic/iiiks'nomik/af^l of adv
economics (C> below). 2 design- ef-fect /I'fekt/ n 1 [C,U] result;
ed to give a profit: '>^ level of pro- outcome of an action, take ~.
duction. 3 (informaf) cheap, '^.^al (a) produce the result intended.
adj careful in the spending of (b) come into force: The law
money. '^aWy adv takes ~
today 2 [C] impression

econ-omics iirka'nomiks/ n [U]

produced: sound '^s. 3 (pf)
science of the production, distri- goods; property, a vt bring
bution of goods, wealth, econ- about; cause, --v/ive adj (a) hav-
omist /i:'kDn3mist/ n [C] ex- ing the result intended, (b) actu-
pert in economics. al our '^ive profit. '>^ive-ly adv.

econ-om-ize /ir'konamaiz/ vt/i ^ive-ness n [U]. '>.'ual adj

use or spend less than before. (format) bringing about the re-
econ-omy /ii'konami/ n (pi -ies) sult required: an -^ual remedy.
1 [C,U] (instance oQ careful use ef-femi-nate /I'feminat/ adj (of
of money, strength. 2 [C,U] con- a man) like a woman. ,

trol and management of money, ef-fer-vesce /,ef3'ves/ vi 1 give

goods and other resources. off bubbles of gas. 2 (fig) (of
ec-stasy /'ekstasi/ n [C,U] (pi persons) be lively and excited.
-ies) (feeling oQ great joy and ef -f er-vescent adj
emotion, ec-static /ik'staetik/ ef-f i-cient /I'fijnt/ adj 1 able to
adj. perform duties well. 2 produc-
eddy /'edi/ n [C] (pi -ies) (of ing a desired result, '^ly adv.
wind, smoke, water) circular or ef f i-ciency n /-nsi/ [U]
spiral movement, u vi (pt.pp ef-figy /'efidsi/ n [C] (pl-'\es) rep-
-ied) move in small circles. resentation of a person (in
edge /eds/ n [C] 1 cutting part of wood, stone, etc).
a knife, etc. be on '^. be ner- ef-fort /'efat/ n 1 [C,U] use of
vous or worried. 2 (line marking great strenght: tired after the ~.
the) outer limit or boundary : 2 attempt: Make an 'n. to escape.
the -^ of a table, p vtji 1 supply 3 [C] result of effort. ~less,
with, form, a border. 2 (cause done without effort.
to) move slowly: He '^d along ef-front-ery /I'frAntarj/ n (pi
the cliff, edg-ing n [C] narrow -ies) [C,U] impudence: bold-
121 egg /electron

elas-tic /I'laestik/ adj tending to

egg^ /eg/ n 1 [C] embryo en- go back to the normal shape
closed in a shell, eg of a hen, after being pulled or pressed: an
used as food; [U] piece of an egg. '^ band a n [U] material made
2 [C] female reproductive cell. n [U]
elastic. '>^ity /,elae'stiS3ti/
''^-cup, small cup to hold a elated /I'leitid/ adj very happy,
boiled egg. '"^^-head, intellectu- pleased, etc. ela-tion n [U]
al person. el-bow /'elbau/ n [C] joint be-
©99^ /eg/ vi '^ sb on. encourage tween the two parts of the arm;
him this part of a sleeve (in a jacket,
egg-plant /'egpla:nt/ n [C] plant etc), a vt push (one's way
with a large purple fruit, used as through). '^ grease, (infor-

food. mal) hard, physical work.''^^-

ego /'egao/ n [C] self; person's room, space to move freely.
capacity to think and feel. el-der^ /'eld3(r)/ a^^y (of members
ego-cen-tric /icgau'sentrik/ adj of a family) senior: my '^
interested chiefly in oneself. brother. C> old. a « [C] 1 (pt) per-
ego-ism /'egsoizam/ n [U] 1 sons of greater age. 2 official in
theory that our actions are al- some Christian churches. 3 ol-
ways caused by the desire to der of two persons, ^v/ly adj
benefit ourselves. 2 selfishness. rather old. el-dest adj first-
ego-ist n [C] believer in egoism. born or oldest.
ego-tism /'egatizm/ n [U] prac- el-der^ /'eld3(r)/ n [C] small tree
tice of talking too much about with red or black berries.
oneself; selfishness, ego-tist n elect /I'lekt/ vt 1 choose by vote.
[C] selfish person. 2 decide: they '^ed to stay, o adj-
eider-down /'aidadaun/ n [C] chosen but not yet in office:
(bed-covering filled with) soft President-^, ^^or n [C] person
feathers of the eider duck. having the right to elect, 'x/oral
eight /eit/ adj, n [C] (oQ 8. adj. '>^or-ate /-rat/, whole body
eighth /eitG/ adj, n [C] (abbr of electors.
8th) (oO one of 8 parts or the elec-tion /I'lekjn/ n [C,U]
next after 7. choosing or selection (of candi-
eight-een /.ei'tiin/ adj, n [C] dates) by vote.
(o018. eight-eenth adj, n [C] elec-tric /I'lektrik/ adj of, work-
(abbr 18th) (oO one of 18 parts ed by, producing electricity: an
or the next after 17. '-^ fire /generator. '^a\ adj

eighty /'eiti/ adj, n [C] (oO 80. elec-tri-cian /i,lek'trijn/ n [C]

eight-ieth adjn [C] (abbr 80th) expert in working with electrical
(of) one of 80 parts or the next apparatus.
after 79. elec-tric-jty /i,lek'triS3ti/ n [U] 1
either /'aid3(r)/ adj, pron 1 one (energy associated with) a fiow
or the other (of): Take ~
half. 2 of electrons. 2 supply of electric
one and the other: a chair at ~ current (for heating, lighting,
end of the table, a adv, conj 1 (in etc).
statements after not): I don 't like elec-trify /I'lektrifai/ vt (pt,pp
the red one. and I don 't like the -led) 1 charge with electricity.
pink one. '^. C> neither. 2 (to an electrified fence. 2 (fig) excite,
show alternatives): He is ^ mad shock: '^ the audience with one's
or drunk. performance.
eject /I'dsekt/ vt/i^ expel. 2 send elec-tro-cute /i'lektr3kju:t/ vt
out (liquid, etc), ejec-tion /-Jn/ kill by passing an electrical cur-
n [C,U]. -^or-seat, one in an rent through, elec-tro'cu-tion
aircraft for ejecting a pilot in an n [C,U]
emergency. elec-trode /I'lektraud/ n [C]
eke /i:k/ vt -^^ out, make (sup- conductor by which an electric
plies) just enough for one"s current enters or leaves a bat-
needs. anode, cathode.
tery, etc. c>
eiab-or-ate adj com-
/I'laebarat/ elec-tron /I'lektron/ n [C] par-
plicated; great detail, a vt
in ticleof matter, smaller than an
I'laebareit/ work out, describe, atom, having a negative electric
in detail. elab-or-ation charge, elec-tronic adj (a) of
-'reiJn/«[C,U] electrons, (b) operated by,
elapse /I'laeps/ vi (of time) pass. based on, electrons: -^ic music.

electronics /embroider

eiec-tronics n (U) the science you'll be late. '>^where

of electrons and electronic /-'we3(r)/ adv in, at, to some
devices. other place.
el-egant /'eligsnt/ adj showing elude /I'lurd/ vt (formal) avoid
good taste; graceful. '>^ly adv. capture, elu-sive /i'lu:siv/ adj
eleganceAi[U] difficult lo catch or remember
el-ement /'elimant/ n [C] 1 em-aci-ate /I'meijieit/ vt (for-
(science) substance which has mal) make thin: children ^d hy
not been split up into a simpler emaci'ation n [U]
form. 2 in /out of one's '^. eman-ci-pate /I'maensipeit/ vt

in/not in suitable surroundings. set free (slaves etc), eman-

3 the 'N-s, the forces of nature, ci'pationn[U]
the weather, etc. 4 (p/) begin- em-balm /im'ba:m/ vt preserve
nings of a subject of study. 5 (a dead body) with chemicals.
characteristic feature: Hard em-bank-ment /im'baeqkmant,
work is an important •^ in his life. n [C] wall or mound to hold
6 suggestion, trace: There 's an '^ back water or support a road or
of truth in his statement. 7 resis- railway.
tance wire in a heater, -^^al em-bargo /im'bargau/ n [C] (pi
/-'mentl/ adj of the elements(3) ~es) order that forbids trade, a
ele-men-tary /,eli'ment3n/ adj vt (pt.pp ~ed) put an embargo
of the early stage(s); simple. on.
el-eph-ant /'elifant/ n [C] largest em-bark /im'bark/ vt/i 1 go on
animal now living, with tusks board a ship. 2 '>^ on/upon.
and a trunk. C> white elephant. (formal) start (a journey,
el-ev-ate /'eliveit/ vt 1 lift up. 2 project, etc), ^v^ation /-'keij'an
(Jig) (the mind) improve. «[C,U]
el-ev-ation /jeli'veiln/ n 1 [C,U] em-barrass /im'baerss/ vt cause
act of elevating. 2 [C] height (esp to be ashamed or uncomfort-
above sea-level). 3 [C] plan of able: feel ^ed about
speaking in
one side of a building. c> public. '>^ment n [C,U]
plan(1). em-bassy /'embssi/ n [C] (pi
el-ev-ator /'eliveit9(r)/ n [C] 1 -ies) offices of an ambassador
machine for lifting grain, etc. 2 and his staff.
(US) = \\fX(2). em-bel-lish /im'belij"/ vt Imake
eleven /I'levn/ adj. n [C] (oO 1 1 beautiful: ~ a dress with flowers.
eleventh /I'levnG/ adj. n [C] 2 add details to: '^ a story with
(abbr 11th) (oO one of 1 1 parts comments. '>^'ment n [C,U]
or the next after 10. em-ber /'emb3(r)/ n [C] (usually
elicit /I'lisit/ vt get information, pi) ashes of a dying fire.
etc from. em-bezzle /im'bezl/ vt use (an-
eli-gible /'elidpbl/ adj '^ (for), other's money) illegally for
suitable; qualified for (a job, one's own benefit, '^ment n
etc).ehigiibilityn[U] [C,U]
elim-in-ate /I'limmeit/ vt get rid em-blem /'embbm/ n [C]
of; remove: '^mistakes/a possi- symbol that represents some- i

bilitye,lim-i'n-ation n [U] thing: a dove is the ~

of peace.
elite n [C] group in so-
/,ei'li:t/ em-body /im'bodi/ vt (pt.pp
ciety considered to be superior. -ied) (formal) give physical form
elk /elk/ n [C] one of the largest to ideas, etc. em-bodi-ment n
kinds of deer. [C]: He is the embodiment of
eMipse /I'lips/ n [C] regular oval. goodness
el'l\pt\c(ai) adj em-boss /im'bos/ vt put a raised
elm /elm/ n [C] large common de- pattern on (a surface).
ciduous tree; [U] its wood. em-brace /im'breis/ vt/i 1 take ,

elon-gate /'itloqgeit/ vt/i make arms in

(a person, etc) into one's
or become long(er) affection.2 (formal) make use
elope /I'bup/ vi run a>vay (with a of: ~
an opportunity. 3 include:
lover). 'v.ment/?[C,U] A book embracing many sub-
elo-quence /'ebkwans/ [U] n jects. D n [C] act of embrac-
skilfuland persuasive use of lan- ing(1). a
guage. elo-quenta<// em-broider /im'broid3(r)/ vtn
else /els/ a</v1 in addition: 5ome- ornament (cloth) with needle-
body ~. 2 otherwise: Run or -^ work-, em-broid-ery n [U]
123 embryo /end
em-bryo /'embriau/ n [C] (pl'^s) em-ploy /mi'pbi/ vt 1 give work
1 offspring of an animal before to forpayment. 2 {formal) make
birth. 2
(fig) early stage of deve- use of: '^new weapons in a war.
lopment. '>^nic /icmbn'onik/ '^er, person who employs
adj others, i-^^'ee, person who is
emend /I'mend/ vr take out err- employed. '>^ment n [U] (a)
ors from: '^a text. state of being employed, (b)
em-er-ald /'emarald/ n 1 [C] one's occupation.
bright green precious stone. 2 em-press /'empras/ n [C]
[U] colour of this. woman governing an empire;
emerge /I'mards/ v/ 1 come out wife of an emperor.
(from water, etc). 2 (of facts) be- empty /'empti/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1
come known, emerg-ence containing nothing. 2 worthless:
/-dsans/ n [U] appearance. ^promises.a n [C] {pi -ies)
emerg*ent /-dsant/ adj new; empty bottle, etc. n vtji {pt.pp
developing: ^«/ nations. -ied) make
or become empty.
emera-ency /I'maidsansi/ n {pi ,'>^-'handed adj carrying no-
-ies) iC] serious situation need- thing; without success: The
ing quick action. thieves left '^-handed, emp-ti-
em-ery /'emsri/ n [U] hard metal ness«[U]
used (esp in powdered form) to emu /'irmju:/ n [C] large flightless
smooth metal. Australian bird.
emi-grant /'emigrant/ n [C] per- emu-late /'emjuleit/ vt try to do
son who emigrates. as well as or better than.
emi-grate /'emigreit/ vi leave emu'la-tionn[U]
one's own country to settle in emul-sion /I'mAlJn/ n [C,U]
another. emi'gra>tion n [C,U] (kinds oQ creamy liquid in
emi-nent /'emmant/ adj {formal) which particles of oil are sus-
(of a person) distinguished. '>^ly pended.
adv to a high degree: -^/y quali- en-able /I'neibl/ vt make able (to
fied, emi-nence n [U] do something): His discovery ^^d
emir /e'mi3(r)/ n [C] Arab prince men to fly.
or governor, 'x^ate /'emarst/ n en-amel /I'naeml/ n [U] 1 sub-
[C] rank, lands, etc of an emir. stance like glass used for coating
emiS'Sion /I'mifn/ n 1 [U] send- metal, porcelain, etc. 2 hard
ing out or giving off: the of ^ covering of teeth, d vt (-II-, US
gas/ light. 2 [C] that which is sent also -I-) cover with enamel.
out or given off. en-chant /m'tfa:nt/ vt 1 delight.
emit /I'mit/ vt (-tt-) give or send 2 use magic on. '>^ing adj very
out: 'flight /a cry. pleasant, -^^ment, n [C,U]
emo-tion /I'maujn/ n 1 [U] ex- en-circle /m's3:kl/ surround.
citement of the feelings. 2 [C] en-close /m'klauz/ vt 1 put a
strong feeling, '^al adj (a) of, fence or wall round. 2 put in an
directed to, the emotions: an envelope, etc. en-clos-ure
'^al speech, (b) easily excited. /-3a(r)/;j[C,U]
'>^ally adv. en-core /'Dir)kD:(r)/ int Again! d n
emot'ive /I'mautiv/ adj tending [C] repetition (of a song, etc).
to excite the emotions. en-coun-ter /m'kaunta(r)/ vt
em-peror /'emp9r3(r)/ n [C] rul- meet (danger, etc); meet a friend
er of an empire. unexpectedly, d n [C] sudden
em-pha-sis /'emfasis/ /j [C,U] (pi (esp hostile) meeting.
^es) 1 force or stress put on en-cour-age /m'kAnds/ vt give
words. 2 special importance confidence to; support.
given to something. '>^ment, n [C,U]
em«pha-size /'emfasaiz/ vt give en-croach /m'krautj/ vi go be-
emphasis to. yond what is right: '^ on his
em-phatic /im'faetik/ adj hav- land/rights, 'x^ment n [C,U]
ing, using, emphasis. en-cy-clo-pedia (also -paedia)
em-pi re /'empai9(r)/ n [C] group /m|Saikla'pi:dia/ n [C] {pi -x/S)
of countries under a single sup- book, or books, giving informa-
reme authority. tion about every branch of
em-pi ri-cal /im'pirikl/ adj (per- knowledge, in ABC order.
son) based on observation and end /end/ n [C] 1 farthest or last
experiment, not on theory. part, make "^s 'meet, not
endanger /enough i:

spend more than one earns, at a arc '^d. 4

{formal) attract: his ~
Joose ''>^, having nothing to attention. 5 (of parts of a ma-
do. on (a) upright, (b) con-
'-s-, chine) lock together, en-gag-
tinuously: for hours on ^. put ing at// attractive. '>-ment n [C ]

an -^ to. stop; finish. 2 small (a) agreement to marry, (b) ar-

piece that remains, a cigarette rangement to meet somcbodv
->-. 3 finish, in the '^. finally. 4 (c) battle.
death. 5 purpose, aim: achieve en-gine 'end3in/ n [C] 1 ma-
or\e's'^{s). D v/'/ (cause to) come chine that converts energy into
to an end. '^ up. finish: He '^ed power or motion. 2 railway loco-
up in Spain. ~ing, last part, eg motive. ''>^-driver, person who
esp of a word. film. '>^less adj drives a railway engine.
having no end. ^^less-ly adv en-gin-eer /,end3i'ni3(r)/ n [C] 1
en-dan-ger in'deind33(r), vrput person who designs machines,
in danger. bridges, railways, etc: a civil
en-dear 'in'di3(r)/ vt cause to be electrical ^. 2 person in control
liked, '^-ment n (C,U] expres- of machinery a vtji 1 work as an
sion of affection. engineer (1). 2 (Jormaf) bring
en-deavour (US =-vor) about skilfully: ~
his defeat.
m'dev3(r)/ n [Cj (Jormaf) effort: '>^ing, the work or profession of
make an ~
to wtn. a vi try to do an engineer.
something. Eng-lish "ir)glif / n the English
endemic /en'demik/ n [C], adj language, the '>^, English
(disease) often occurring in an people, a adjl of England or the
area. Oepidemic. English language. E-^man,
en-dorse in'do:s vt 1 write E'^^woman, man/woman
one's name on the back of (a born in England.
cheque). 2 support a claim, en-grave in'greiv/ vt 1 cut
statement, etc. 3 record a mo- (lines,words, on) a hard surface.
toring offence (on a driver's 2 (fig) impress deeply (on the
licence). 'V/ment/7[C,U] mind), en-grav-ing n [C,U]
en-dow in'dau vt 1 give en-gross /in'graus/ vt take all
money, etc to provide a regular the time or attention of: '^ed in
income for (school, hospital, his book.
etc). 2 be '^ed with, be born en-gulf /in'gAlf vt swallow up:
with (qualities, etc), -anient n The village was -^edbv the flood.
[C.U] enigma I'mgrna, n [C] (pi ~s)
en-dur-ance m'djuarans/ n [U] event, person, that is a mystery.
ability to endure. '>^tic icnig'mstik adj.
en-dure ,in'djo3(r)/ vt/i^ toler- en-joy in'dsoi vt 1 get pleasure
ate pain, hardship, etc. 2 conti- from. 2 have as an advantage: ~
nue to exist; fame that will for ^ good health. 3 -^ oneself, be

fver. en-dur-ing ac// lastinjg. happy, '^able /-abl/ adj.

en-emy 'enami/ n [C] {pi -ies) 1 '>-'mentA?[C.U] ^

person who tries to harm one. 2 en-large /m'la:d3/ v7//l make or |

the '>-, (armed forces of a) na- become larger: ~ a photograph.

tion that one is fighting. 2 ^ on/upon, (formal) say or I

en-er-getic /icna'dsetik/ adj write more about, -^ment n

having, done with, energy(l). [C,U]
'^-'aWy adv en-lighten /in'laitn, vr free from '

en-ergy 'enadsi/zi (p/-ies)1 [U] ignorance or misunderstanding, j

force, strength; capacity to do '>^-mentn[\J]

things. 2 (p7) (person's) powers en-list /m'hst/ vt/i 1 take into,
available for working. 3 [U] enter, the armed forces. 2 (Jor-
power: electrical-^. mal) obtain: ~
help, -^-ment n ,

en-fold m'fsuld/ vt enclose (in [C.U] I

one's arms). enor-mity /i'nD:m3ti/ n (pi -les) j

en-force /m'fois/ vt 1 compel (formal) 1 [C,U] great wicked-

obedience to: -^ the law. 2 give ness. 2 [U] immense size.
strength to: --«- an argument. enor-mous /I'normas/ adj very
-^^mentAjfU] large. ^»^ly adv very much.
en-gage /in'geid3/ vt/i^ employ: enough /'I'nAf/ adj. n, adv as
-^ a servant. 2 '>^ in, take part in. much or as many as necessary:
3 agree to marry: Tim and Susan ~ monev to huy a ticket. D adv
125 enquire/envy

sufficiently: run fast ^

to win. suade: ~
a girl away from home.
sure '^. as expected, etc. '>,'nient«[C,U]
enquire, en-quiry O inquire, en-tire /m'tai3(r)/ adj complete.
inquiry. -s,|y adv. '^ty /-rati/ n [U]
en -rich /in'ritf/ vt improve by en-title /m'taitl/ vt 1 (of books,
adding something: soil '^ed with etc) have as a title. 2 give a right
fertilizer, ^^ment n [C,U] (to). '^mentnfU]
en-roll, en-rol /m'raul/ vtji en-tity /'entati/ n (pi -ies) [C,U]
(cause to) become a member of. existence; thing that exists.
-^mentrtlCU] en-trails /'entreilz/ n pi intes-
en-semble /a:n'sa:mbl/ n [C] 1 tines.
something considered as a en-trance^ /'entrsns/ n 1 [C]
whole. 2 (music) group of musi- opening, door, etc by which one
cians who play together. enters. 2 ICU] coming or going
en-sign /'ensan/ n [C] 1 naval in. 3 [C,U] right to enter.
flag. 2 junior naval officer. en-trance^ /m'tra:ns/ vt fill with
en-slave /m'sleiv/ vt make a pleasure: -^dwith the music.
slave of. '>^ment n [U] en-trant /'entrant/ n [C] person
en-sue /m'sju:/ v/ happen later or who enters a profession, a com-
as a result: in the ensuing battle. petition, etc.
ensure (US = in-sure) /m- en-treat /m'tri:t/ vt ask humbly
'Ju3(r)/ vt/i 1 make sure. 2 make for. en-treaty n [C,U] (pi -ies)
safe: '^ oneself against disap- serious request
pointment. en-trench /m'trentj/ vt 1
en-tail /m'teil/ vt make neces- protect with trenches. 2 estab-
sary: Your plan '^s a lot of work. lish firmly, well ^ed beliefs.
en-tangle /m'tasrjgl/ vt catch entre-pre-neur /,a:ntr3pr9-
among obstacles. '>-ment, n 'n3:(r)/ n [C] person who organ-
[C,U] izes a business or theatre perfor-
en-ter 'ent3(r)/ v///1 come or go mance.
into. 2 join: ~ university. 3 'n^ en-trust /m'trASt/ vt (formal)
into sth, begin: '^ into a give something to a person to
contract discussion. 4 '^ on/ look after.
upon, make a start on. 5 write en-try /'entri/ n [C] (pi -ies) 1
details in a book, etc. coming or going in: Britain's '%^

en-ter-prise /'entapraiz/ n 1 [C] into the war. 2 (place oQ en-

project esp one that needs cour- trance; right to enter. 3 item in a
age. 2 [U] courage and willing- list: dictionary entries.

ness to take risks. 3 [U] commer- enu-mer-ate /I'njurmareit/ vt

cial business: private 'v-. en-ter- name one by one enu-me'r-
pris-ing adj having enter- ation/i[C,U]
prise(2). enun-ci-ate /I'nAnsieit/ vt/i pro-
en-ter-tain /,ent3^tem/ vt 1 nounce (words), enun-ci'ation
receive (people) as guests. 2 n[\J]
amuse, interest. 3 be ready to en-velop /en'vebp/ vt wrap up,
consider: '^ ideas/doubts, --^^ing cover, on all sides: '^ed in fog.
adj amusing, --s^er, person who '>^mentn[\J]
entertains(2) the public. en-vel-ope /'envabup/ n [C]
--N^ment n (a) [U] entertaining paper wrapper for a letter, etc.
or being entertained (1,2). (b) en-vi-able /'enviabl/ adj causing
[C] public performance (at a envy.
theatre, etc). en-vi-ous /'envias/ adj feeling,
enthral (also esp CSen-thrall) expressing, envy. '>^ly adv
m'9ro:l/ vt (-II-) take the whole