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GLOSSARY

ACTIVE FILTER

A frequency-selective circuit consisting of active devices such as transistors or

op-amps combined with reactive (RC) circuits.

ADMITTANCE (Y)

A measure of the ability of a reactive circuit to permit current; the reciprocal of

impedance with a unit, siemens (S)

ALPHA ()

The ratio of collector current to emitter current in a bipolar junction transistor.

ALTERNATING CURRENT

Current that reverses direction in response to a change in source voltage

polarity.

A standardization based on wire diameter.

AMMETER

An electrical instrument used to measure current.

AMPERE

The unit of electrical current.

AMPERE-HOUR RATING

A number given in ampere-hours determined by multiplying the current in amps

(A) times the length of time in hours (h) a battery can deliver that current to a

load.

AMPERE-TURN

The unit of magnetomotive force (mmf).

AMPLIFICATION

The process of producing a larger voltage, current or power using a smaller

input signal as a pattern.

AMPLIFIER

An electronic circuit having the capability of amplification and designed

specifically for that purpose.

AMPLITUDE

The maximum value of a voltage or current.

17-2 Glossary

ANODE

The most positive terminal of a diode or other electronic device.

The product of the voltage times the current, expressed in volt-amperes (VA).

In a purely resistive circuit, it is the same as the true power.

The method of rating transformers in which the power capability is expressed in

volt-amperes (VA).

ATOM

The smallest particle of an element possessing the unique characteristics of

that element.

ATOMIC NUMBER

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

ATOMIC WEIGHT

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

ATTENUATION

A gain less than unity.

AUTOTRANSFORMER

A transformer in which the primary and secondary windings are in a single

winding.

AVERAGE VALUE

The average of a sine wave over one half-cycle. It is 0.637 times the peak

value.

BAND-PASS FILTER

A filter that passes a range of frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies

and rejects frequencies above and below the range.

BAND-STOP FILTER

A filter that rejects a range of frequencies lying between two cutoff frequencies

and passes frequencies above and below the range.

BANDWIDTH (BW)

The characteristic of a certain electronic circuits that specifies the usable range

of frequencies for which signals pass from input to output without significant

reduction in amplitude.

BARRIER POTENTIAL

The inherent voltage across the depletion region of a pn junction.

Glossary 17- 3

BASE

One of the semiconducting regions in a bipolar junction transistor.

BASELINE

The normal level of a pulse waveform; the voltage level in the absence of a

pulse.

BATTERY

An energy source that uses a chemical reaction to convert chemical energy into

electrical energy.

BETA ()

The ratio of collector current to base current in a bipolar junction transistor.

BIAS

The application of a dc voltage to a diode or other electronic device to produce

a desired mode of operation.

BLEEDER CURRENT

The current left after the total load current is subtracted from the total current

into the circuit.

BRANCH

One current path in a parallel circuit.

CAPACITANCE

The ability of a capacitor to store electrical charge.

CAPACITIVE REACTANCE

The opposition of a capacitor to sinusoidal current. The unit is the ohm ().

The ability of a capacitor to permit current; the reciprocal of capacitive

reactance. The unit is the siemens(S).

CAPACITOR

An electrical device consisting of two conductive plates separated by an

insulating material and possessing the property of capacitance.

CATHODE

The more negative terminal of a diode or other electronic devices.

A vacuum tube device containing an electron gun that emits a narrow focused

beam of electrons onto a phosphor-coated screen.

A connection at the midpoint of the secondary winding of a transformer.

Macro Integrated Training and Review Center ElЄcҐrøniX

17-4 Glossary

CHARGE

An electrical property of matter that exists because of an excess or a deficiency

of electrons. Charge can be either positive or negative.

CHOKE

The term is used more commonly concerning inductors used to block or choke

off high frequencies.

CIRCUIT

An interconnection of electrical components designed to produce a desired

result. A basic circuit consists of a source, a load, and an interconnecting

current path.

CIRCUIT BREAKER

A resettable protective device used for interrupting excessive current in an

electric circuit.

CIRCUIT GROUND

A method of grounding whereby the metal chassis that houses the assembly or

a large conductive area on a printed circuit board is used as the common or

reference point; also called chassis ground.

The unit of the cross-sectional area of a wire.

CLAMPER

A circuit that adds a dc level to an ac signal; a dc restorer.

CLASS A

A category of amplifier circuit that conducts for the entire input cycle and

produces an output signal that is a replica of the input signal in terms of its

wave shape.

CLASS B

A category of amplifier circuit that conducts for half of the input cycle.

CLASS C

A category of amplifier that conducts for a very small portion of the input cycle.

CLOSED CIRCUIT

A circuit with a complete current path.

CLOSED LOOP

An op-amp configuration in which the output is connected back to the input.

The overall voltage gain of an op-amp with feedback.

Glossary 17- 5

a constant associated with transformers that is the ratio of secondary magnetic

flux to primary magnetic flux. The ideal value of 1 indicates that all the flux in

the primary winding is coupled into the secondary winding.

COIL

A common term for an inductor.

COLLECTOR

One of the semiconducting regions in a BJT.

A BJT amplifier configuration in which the base is the common (grounded)

terminal.

COMMON-COLLECTOR (CC)

A BJT amplifier configuration in which the collector is the common (grounded)

terminal.

COMMON-EMITTER (CE)

A BJT amplifier configuration in which the emitter is the common (grounded)

terminal.

COMMON-MODE SIGNALS

Signals that appear the same on both inputs of an op-amp.

COMPARATOR

A circuit which compares two input voltages and produces an output in either of

two states indicating the greater or less than relationship of the inputs.

CONDUCTANCE (G)

The ability of a circuit to allow current; the reciprocal of resistance. The unit is

the siemens (S).

CONDUCTOR

A material in which electrical current is established with relative case. An

example is copper.

COULOMB (C)

The unit of electrical charge.

COULOMB’S LAW

A physical law that states a force exists between two charged bodies that is

directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely

proportional to the square of the distance between them.

17-6 Glossary

COVALENT

Related to the bonding of two or more atoms by the interaction of their valence

electrons.

CRYSTAL

The pattern or arrangement of atoms forming a solid material.

CURRENT

The rate of flow of charge (electrons).

CURRENT GAIN

The ratio of output current to input current.

CUTOFF

The nonconducting state of a transistor.

The frequency at which the output voltage of a filter is 70.7% of the maximum

output voltage.

CYCLE

One repetition of a periodic waveform.

DARLINGTON PAIR

A two-transistor arrangement that produces a multiplication of current gain.

DC COMPONENT

The average value of a pulse waveform.

DECADE

A tenfold change in the value of a quantity. When a quantity becomes ten

times less or ten times greater, it has changed a decade.

DECIBEL (dB)

The unit of logarithmic expression of a ratio, such as power ratio or a voltage

ratio.

DEGREE

The unit of angular measure corresponding to 1/360 of a complete revolution.

DERIVATIVE

The instantaneous rate of change of a function determined mathematically.

DIAD

A semiconductive device that can conduct current in other of two directions

when properly activated.

DIELECTRIC

The insulating material between the plates of a capacitor.

Glossary 17- 7

DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

A measure of the ability of a dielectric material to establish an electric field.

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH

A measure of the ability of a dielectric material to withstand voltage without

breaking down.

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

An amplifier that produces an output proportional to the difference of two inputs.

DIFFERENTIATOR

A circuit that produces an output that approaches the mathematical derivative

of the input, which is the rate of change.

DIODE

An electronic device that permits current in only one direction.

DISCRETE DEVICE

An individual electrical or electronic component that must be used in

combination with other components to form a complete functional circuit.

DOPING

The process of imparting impurities to an intrinsic semiconductive material in

order to control its conduction characteristics.

DRAIN

One of the three terminals of a field-effect transistor.

DUTY CYCLE

A characteristic of a pulse waveform that indicates the percentage of time that a

pulse is present during a cycle, the ratio of pulse width to period.

EFFECTIVE VALUE

A measure of the heating effect of a sine wave; also known as the rms (root

mean square) value.

EFFICIENCY

The ratio of the output power to the input power, expressed as a ratio.

ELECTRICAL

Related to the use of electrical voltage and current to achieve desired results.

ELECTRICAL ISOLATION

The condition that exists which two coils are magnetically linked but have no

electrical connection between them.

17-8 Glossary

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

A formation of a group of magnetic lines of force surrounding a conductor

created by electrical current in the conductor.

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

The phenomenon or process by which a voltage is produced in a conductor

when there is relative motion between the conductor and a magnetic or

electromagnetic field.

ELECTRON

The basic particle of electrical charge in matter.

It possesses negative charge.

ELECTRONIC

Related to the movement and control of free electrons in semiconductors or

vacuum devices.

EMITTER

One of the three semiconducting regions in a BJT.

EMITTER-FOLLOWER

A popular term for a common-collector amplifier.

ENERGY

The fundamental ability to do work. The unit is the joule (J).

FALLING EDGE

The negative-going transition of a pulse.

FALL TIME

The time interval required for a pulse to change from 90% to 10 % of its full

amplitude.

FARAD (F)

The unit of capacitance.

FARADAY’S LAW

A law stating that the voltage induced across a coil of wire equals the number

of turns in the coil times the rate of change of the magnetic flux.

FEEDBACK

The process of returning a portion of a circuit’s output signal to the input in such

a way as to create certain specified operating conditions.

A type of transistor that uses an induced electric field within its structure to

control current.

Glossary 17- 9

FILTER

A type of circuit that passes certain frequencies and rejects all others.

FREE ELECTRON

A valence electron that has broken away from its parent atom and is free to

move from atom to atom within the atomic structure of a material.

FREQUENCY

A measure of the rate of change of a periodic function, the number of cycles

completed in 1 s. The unit of frequency is the hertz.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE

In electrical circuits, the variation in the output voltage (or current) over a

specified range of frequencies.

FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER

A circuit that converts an alternating sine wave into a pulsating dc consisting of

both halves of a sine wave for each input cycle.

FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY

The repetition rate of a waveform.

FUSE

A protective device that burns open when there is excessive current in a circuit.

GAIN

The amount by which an electrical signal is increased or decreased; the ratio of

output to input; the amount of amplification.

GATE

One of the three terminals of an FET.

GENERATOR

An energy source that produces electrical signals.

GERMANIUM

A semiconductive material.

GROUND

In electronic circuits, the common or reference point.

17-10 Glossary

HALF-POWER FREQUENCY

The frequency at which the output of a filter is 70.7% of maximum.

HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER

A circuit that converts an alternating sine wave into a pulsating dc consisting of

one-half of a sine wave for each input cycle.

HARMONICS

The frequencies contained in a composite waveform, which are integer

multiples of the repetition frequency (fundamental).

HENRY (H)

The unit of inductance.

HERTZ (Hz)

The unit of frequency and hence 1Hz equals one cycle per second.

HIGH-PASS FILTER

A certain type of filter whereby higher frequencies are passed and lower

frequencies are rejected.

HOLE

The absence of an electron in the valence band of an atom.

HYSTERESIS

A characteristic of a magnetic material whereby a change in magnetization lags

the application of a magnetic force.

IMPEDANCE (Z)

The total opposition to sinusoidal current expressed in ohms.

IMPEDANCE MATCHING

A technique used to match a load resistance to an internal source resistance in

order to achieve a maximum transfer of power.

INDUCED VOLTAGE

Voltage produced as a result of a changing magnetic field.

INDUCTANCE (L)

The property of an inductor that produces an opposition to any change in

current.

The opposition of an inductor to sinusoidal current. The unit is the ohm.

The reciprocal of inductive reactance and the unit is siemens

Glossary 17- 11

INDUCTOR

An electrical device formed by a wire wound in a coil around a core having the

property of inductance and the capability to store energy in its electromagnetic

field; also known as a coil or a choke.

INSTANTANEOUS VALUE

The voltage or current value of a waveform at a given instant in time.

INSULATOR

A material that does not allow current under normal conditions.

INTEGRATOR

A circuit that produces an output that approaches the mathematical integral of

the input.

INTERFACE

To make the output of one type of circuit compatible with the input of another so

that they can operate properly together.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

A pure semiconductive material with relatively few free electrons.

ION

An atom that has gained or lost a valence electron resulting in a net positive or

negative charge.

IONIZATION

The removal or addition of an electron from or to a neutral atom so that the

resulting atom (called an ion) has a net positive or negative charge.

JOULE (J)

The unit of energy.

JUNCTION

A point at which two or more components are connected.

A type of FET that operates with a reverse-biased junction to control current in

a channel.

KILOWATT-HOUR (kWh)

A common unit of energy used mainly by utility companies.

A law stating that the total current into a junction equals the total current out of

the junction.

17-12 Glossary

A law stating that (1) the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop equals

the source voltage or (2) the sum of all the voltages (drops and sources)

around a closed loop is zero.

LAG

Describes a condition of the phase or time relationship of waveforms in which

one waveform is behind the other in phase or time.

LEAD

Describes a condition of the phase or time relationship of waveforms in which

one waveform is ahead of the other in phase or time; also, a wire or cable

connection to a device or instrument.

LEADING EDGE

The fist step or transition of a pulse.

LENZ’S LAW

A physical law that states when the current through a coil changes, an induced

voltage is created in a direction to oppose the change in current. The current

cannot change instantaneously.

A type of diode that emits light when there is forward current.

LIMITER

A circuit that removes part of a waveform above or below a specified level; a

clipper.

LINEAR

Characterized by a straight-line relationship.

LINE REGULATION

The percent change in output voltage for a given change in line (input) voltage.

LOAD

An element (resistor or other components) connected across the output

terminals of a circuit that draws current from the circuit.

LOAD REGULATION

The percent change in output voltage for a given change in load current.

LOW-PASS FILTER

A certain type of filter in which lower frequencies are passed and higher

frequencies are rejected.

Glossary 17- 13

MAGNETIC COUPLING

The magnetic connection between two coils as a result of the changing

magnetic flux lines of one coil cutting through the second coil.

MAGNETIC FLUX

The lines of force between the north and south poles of a permanent magnet or

an electromagnet.

The number of lines of force per unit area perpendicular to a magnetic field.

MAGNETIZING FORCE

The amount of mmf per unit length of magnetic material.

MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE

The force that produces a magnetic field.

MAGNITUDE

The value of a quantity, such as the number of volts of voltage or the number of

amperes of current.

A theorem that states the maximum power is transferred from a source to a

load when the load resistance equals the internal source resistance.

MOSFET

Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor.

MULTIMETER

An instrument that measures voltage, current and resistance.

The inductance beteen two separate coils, such as transformers.

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

The return of a portion of the output signal to the input such that it is out of

phase with the input signal.

NEUTRON

An atomic particle having no electrical charge.

OHM ()

The unit of resistance.

OHMMETER

An instrument for measuring resistance.

17-14 Glossary

OHM’S LAW

A law stating that current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely

proportional to resistance.

OPEN CIRCUIT

A circuit in which there is not a complete current path.

The internal voltage gain of an op-amp without feedback.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

A special type of amplifier exhibiting very high open-loop gain, very high input

impedance, very low output impedance, and good rejection of common-mode

signals.

OSCILLATOR

An electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and a phase-shift network

connected in a positive feedback loop that produces a time-varying output

signal using positive feedback.

OSCILLOSCOPE

A measurement instrument that displays signal waveforms on a screen.

PARALLEL

The relationship in electric circuits in which two or more current paths are

connected between the same two points.

PARALLEL RESONANCE

In a parallel RLC circuit, the condition where the impedance is maximum and

the reactance are equal.

The maximum value of reverse voltage which occurs at the peak of the input

cycle when the diode is reversed-biased.

PEAK VALUE

The voltage or current value of a waveform at its maximum positive or negative

points.

PEAK-TO-PEAK VALUE

The voltage or current value of a waveform measured from its minimum to its

maximum points.

PERIOD (T)

The time interval of one complete cycle of a given sine wave or any periodic

waveform.

Glossary 17- 15

PERIODIC

Characterized by a repetition at fixed time intervals.

PERMEABILITY

The measure of ease with which a magnetic field can be established in a

material.

PHASE

The relative displacement of a time-varying waveform in terms of its occurrence

with respect to a reference.

PHASOR

A representation of a sine wave in terms of both magnitude and phase angle.

PHOTOCONDUCTIVE CELL

A type of variable resistor that is light-sensitive.

PHOTODIODE

A diode whose reverse resistance changes with incident light.

PINCH-OFF VOLTAGE

The value of the drain-to-source voltage of an FET at which the drain current

becomes constant when the gate-to-source voltage is zero.

PN JUNCTION

The boundary between n-type and p-type semiconductive materials.

POLE

In practical terms, a single RC circuit in a filter or amplifier that causes the

response to change at a 20 dB per decade rate above or below a certain

frequency.

POSITIVE FEEDBACK

The return of a portion of the output signal to the input such that it is in phase

with the input signal.

POTENTIOMETER

A three-terminal variable resistor.

POWER

The rate of energy usage.

POWER FACTOR

The relationship between volt-amperes and true power or watts. Volt-amperes

multiplied by the power factor equals true power.

17-16 Glossary

POWER GAIN

The ratio of output power to input power; the product of voltage gain and

current gain.

POWER RATING

The maximum amount of power that a resistor can dissipate without being

damaged by excessive heat buildup.

POWER SUPPLY

An electronic instrument that produces voltage, current and power from the ac

power line or batteries in a form suitable for use in powering electronic

equipment.

PRIMARY WINDING

The input winding of a transformer; also called primary.

PROTON

A positively charged atomic particle.

PULSE

A type of waveform that consists of two equal and opposite steps in voltage or

current separated by a time interval.

PULSE RESPONSE

The reaction of a circuit to a given input.

PUSH-PULL

A type of class B amplifier in which one output transistor conducts for one half-

cycle and the other conducts for the other half-cycle.

Q-POINT

The dc operating (bias) point of an amplifier.

The ratio of reactive power to true power in a coil or a resonant circuit.

RAMP

A type of waveform characterized by a linear increase or decrease in voltage or

current.

REACTIVE POWER

The rate at which energy is stored and alternately returned to the source by a

capacitor or inductor. The unit is the VAR.

RECOMBINATION

The process of a free electron falling into a hole in the valence band of an

atom.

ElЄcҐrøniX Macro Integrated Training and Review Center

Glossary 17- 17

RECTIFIER

An electronic circuit that converts ac into pulsating dc; one part of a power

supply.

REFLECTED LOAD

The load as it appears to the source in the primary of a transformer.

REFLECTED RESISTANCE

The resistance in the secondary circuit reflected into the primary circuit.

REGULATOR

An electronic circuit that maintains an essentially constant output voltage with a

changing input voltage or load.

RELAY

An electromagnetically controlled mechanical device in which electrical

contacts are open or closed by a magnetizing current.

RELUCTANCE

The opposition to the establishment of a magnetic field in a material.

RESISTANCE

Opposition to current and its unit is ohm.

RESISTOR

An electrical component designed specifically to provide resistance.

RESOLUTION

The smallest increment of a quantity that a meter can measure.

RESONANT FREQUENCY

The frequency at which a resonant condition occurs in a series or parallel RLC

circuit.

RETENTIVITY

The ability of a material, once magnetized, to maintain a magnetized state

without the presence of a magnetizing force.

REVERSE BREAKDOWN

The condition of a diode in which excessive reverse-bias voltage causes a

rapid buildup of reverse current.

RHEOSTAT

A two terminal variable resistor.

RIPPLE VOLTAGE

The small variation in the dc voltage on the output of a filtered rectifier caused

by the slight charging and discharging action of the filter capacitor.

17-18 Glossary

RISE TIME

The time interval required for a pulse to change from 10% to 90% of its

amplitude.

RISING EDGE

The positive-going transition of a pulse.

ROLL-OFF

The decrease in the response of a filter below or above a critical frequency.

The value of a sine wave that indicates its heating effect, also known as the

effective value. It is equal to 0.707 times the peak value.

SATURATION

The state of a BJT in which the collector current has reached a maximum and

is independent of the base current.

SAWTOOTH WAVEFORM

A type of electrical waveform composed of ramps; a special case of a triangular

waveform in which one ramp is much shorter than the other.

SCHEMATIC

A symbolized diagram of an electrical or electronic circuit.

SECONDARY WINDING

The output winding of a transformer; also called secondary.

SELECTIVITY

A measure of how effectively a filter passes certain frequencies and rejects

others. The narrower the bandwidth, the greater the selectivity.

SEMICONDUCTOR

A material that has a conductance value between that of a conductor and that

of an insulator. Silicon and germanium are examples.

SENSITIVITY FACTOR

The ohms-per-volt rating of a voltmeter.

SERIES

In an electrical circuit, a relationship of components in which the components

are connected such as they provide a single current path between two points.

SERIES RESONANCE

In a series RLC circuit, the condition where the impedance is minimum and the

reactances are equal.

SHELL

An energy band in which electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.

Glossary 17- 19

SHORT CIRCUIT

A zero or abnormally low resistance between two points; usually an inadvertent

condition.

SILICON

a SEMICONDUCTIVE MATERIAL USED IN DIODES AND TRANSISTORS.

A device that can be triggered on to conduct current in one direction.

SOLENOID

An electromagnetically controlled device in which the mechanical movement of

a shaft or plunger is activated by a magnetizing current.

SOURCE

Any device that produces energy, one of the three terminals of FET.

STEADY STATE

The equilibrium condition of a circuit that occurs after an initial transient time.

STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER

A transformer in which the secondary voltage is less than the primary voltage.

A transformer in which the secondary voltage is greater than the primary

voltage.

STOPBAND

The range of frequencies between the upper and lower cutoff points.

SUPERPOSITION

Amethod for analyzing circuits with two or more sources by examining the

effects of each source by itself and then combining the effects.

SWITCH

An electrical or electronic device for opening and closing a current path.

TANK CIRCUIT

A parallel resonant circuit.

TAPERED

Nonlinear, such as tapered potentiometer.

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT

A constant specifying the amount of change in the value of a quantity for a

given change in temperature.

17-20 Glossary

TERMINAL

An external contact point on an electronic device.

TERMINAL EQUIVALENCY

A condition that occurs when two circuits produce the same load voltage and

load current where the same value of load resistance is connected to either

circuit.

TESLA

The unit of flux density.

THERMISTOR

A type of variable resistor that is temperature-sensitive.

THEVENIN’S THEOREM

A circuit theorem that provides for reducing any resistive circuit to a single

equivalent voltage source in series with an equivalent resistance.

THYRISTOR

A class of four-layer semiconductive devices.

TRAILING EDGE

The second step or transition of a pulse.

TRANSFORMER

A device formed by two or more windings and are magnetically coupled to each

other and providing a transfer of power electromagnetically from one winding to

another.

TRANSIENT

A temporary passing conductor in a circuit; a sudden or temporary change in

circuit conditions.

TRANSISTOR

A semiconductive device used for amplification and switching applications in

electronic circuits.

TRIANGULAR WAVE

A type of electrical waveform that consists of two ramps.

TRIGGER

The activating mechanism of some electronic devices or instruments.

TRIMMER

Small variable capacitor.

TURNS RATIO

The ratio of turns in the secondary winding to turns in the primary winding.

Glossary 17- 21

A type of transistor consisting of an emitter and two bases.

UNITY GAIN

A gain of 1.

VALENCE

Related to the outer shell or orbit of an atom.

VALENCE ELCTRON

An electron that is present in the outermost shell of an atom.

VARACTOR

A diode that is used as a voltage-variable capacitor.

VOLT

The unit of voltage or electromotive force.

VOLTAGE

The amount of energy available to move a certain number of electrons from

one point to another in an electric circuit.

VOLTAGE DROP

The potential difference in voltage between two points when there is a drop in

energy level due to resistance.

VOLTAGE GAIN

The ratio of output voltage to input voltage.

VOLTAGE REGULATION

The process of maintaining an essentially constant output voltage over

variations in input voltage or load.

The unit of reactive power.

VOLTMETER

An instrument used to measure voltage.

WATT (W)

The unit of power.

WATT’S LAW

A law that states the relationship of power to current, voltage, and resistance.

WAVEFORM

The pattern of variations of a voltage or current showing how the quantity

changes with time.

17-22 Glossary

WEBER

The unit of magnetic flux.

WINDING

The loops or turns of wire in an inductor.

WIPER

The sliding contact in a potentiometer.

ZENER DIODE

A type of diode that operates in reverse breakdown (called zener breakdown) to

provide voltage regulation.

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