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1

UNIT – 1

Pipe Flow, Pipe Network & Turbulent Flow


Unit-01/Lecture-01

Energy Losses in Pipes


When a fluid flows through a pipe, it experiences some resistance due to which the energy of fluid is
lost. This loss of energy may be of two types:

1. Major energy losses


These are due to friction and are calculated by Darcy-Weis a h fo ula a d Chez ’s fo ula.

a. Darcy-Weisbach formula:
Head loss due to friction is given by
hf = 4 f L V2 / d×2g
where f = coefficient of friction
m
o
= 16/Re ( for Re< 2000, viscous flow)
= 0.079 / (Re)1/4 ( for Re varying from 4000 to 106)

.c
L = length of pipe, V = mean velocity of flow, d = diameter of pipe

b. Chezy’s fo ula:
a
V = C (mi)1/2

m
Where C = (Þg/f’ 1/2 = Chez ’s o sta t

a
m = hydraulic mean depth for pipe flow = d/4
i = (hf/L)1/2 = loss of head per unit length of pipe

n
y
2. Minor energy losses
Loss of energy due to change of velocity is called the minor energy loss. It includes following
cases:
d
i.
u
Head loss due tosudden expansion

t
Consider a liquid flowing through a pipe having sudden enlargement. Let p1, p2 =

S
pressure intensity at sections 1-1 and 2-2.
V1, V2 = velocity of flow at sections 1-1 and 2-2
A1, A2 = area of pipe at sections 1-1 and 2-2
p’ = p essu e at li uid eddies o a ea A2- A1) = p1 (experimentally)
he = head loss due to sudden enlargement.
2

Now,
force acting in the control volume of liquid between 1-1 and 2-2 in the direction of flow
is given by

F = p1A1 + p’ A2-A1) – p2A2


= p1A1 + p1(A2-A1) – p2A2
= (p1-p2) A2 ………

Now,
Change of momentum of liquid/sec between the sections
= ÞA2V22 – ÞA1V12
= ÞA2 (V22 – V1V2 .……..
(since from continuity equation, A1 = A2V2/V1)

Equating (1) and (2), we get

(p1 - p2)/Þ = V22 – V1V2 ……

Now,
m
o
Appl i g Be oulli’s e uatio etwee se tio s -1 and 2-2, we get
he = (p1 – p2)/Þg + (V12 – V22)/2g

Hence, from eq. (3) we get,


.c
a
he = (V1 – V2)2 / 2g

m
a
S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1 Derive an expression for the head loss due to sudden Dec2010, June 7

n
expansion in pipe flow. 202

y
d
u
t
S
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3

Unit-01/Lecture-02

ii. Head Loss due to sudden Contraction


When liquid flows from large pipe to small pipe, the area of flow becomes minimum at
section C-C, which is called Vena-contracta.
Let Ac, Vc be the area and velocity of flow at section C-C. andhc be the head loss due to
sudden contraction, which is actually due to sudden enlargement from section C-C to
section 2-2.

m
o
.c
a
m
Hence
hc=(Vc – V2)2/ 2g = V22 [ (Vc/V2)– 1]2/2g
but Vc/V2 = A2/Ac = 1/CC a
n
hence head loss due to sudden contraction is given by-

y hc = V22 [ (1/CC)– 1]2/2g

d
or hc = k V22/ 2g

u
if CC is assumed to be 0.62, then

t
hc = 0.375 V22/ 2g

S
when Cc is not given, then the head loss due to sudden contraction is taken as
hc = 0.5 V22/ 2g
iii. Head loss at the entrance of a pipe
It occurs when a liquid enters a pipe which is connected to a large tank or reservoir. It is
similar to the head loss due to sudden contraction. It depends upon the form of
entrance. For a sharp edge entrance, it is slightly more than a rounded or bell mouthed
entrance.
hentrance= 0.5 V2/ 2g

iv. Head loss at the exit of pipe


It is due to the velocity of liquid at the outlet of the pipe which is dissipated either in
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4

the form of free jet or it is lost in the tank or reservoir.


hexit = V2/ 2g

v. Head loss due to obstruction in a pipe


It takes place due to reduction of area of the cross section of the pipe when there is
any obstruction in the pipe.

ho = V2{ − }2 /2g
�−�

Where a = Maximum area of obstruction, A = Area of pipe, V= Velocity of liquid in pipe


and Cc = Coefficient of contraction.

vi. Head loss due to bend in pipes and various pipe-fittings


When there is any bend in pipe, the velocity of flow changes due to which separation

m
of the flow from the boundary and also formation of eddies takes place.

o
hb or hp = kV2/ 2g

.c
Where k = coefficient of bend or pipe fitting.

Hydraulic Gradient Line (HGL) and Total Energy Line (TEL)


a
m
1. HGL: It isthe line which gives the sum of pressure head (p/w) and datum head (z) of a flowing

a
fluid in a pipe with respect to some reference line. It is obtained by joining the tops of all
vertical ordinates showing the pressure head of a flowing fluid in a pipe from the centre of the
pipe. n
y
d
2. TEL: It is the line which gives the sum of pressure head (p/w), datum head (z) and kinetic head

u
(V2/2g) of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect to some reference line. It is obtained by joining

t
the tops of all vertical ordinates showing the sum of pressure head and kinetic head from the

S
centre of the pipe.
5

Unit-01/Lecture-03

Syphon
It is a longbent pipe which is used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher elevation to another
reservoir at lower elevation when the two reservoirs are separated by a hill or high level ground.

m
o
.c
a
m
The point C in the syphon is known as Summit. At the summit, negative pressure is created due to

a
which liquid comes from the upper reservoir to the summit which is relatively at higher level from the

n
upper reservoir.
Syphon is used in following cases:

y
1. To take out liquid from a tank not having any outlet.

d
2. To empty a channel not provided with any outlet sluice.

u
3. To carry water from one reservoir to another reservoir separated by a hill or ridge.

t
S
Pipes in Series (compound pipes)
Pipes in series is defined as the pipes of different lengths and different diameters connected end to end
(in series) to form a pipe line (as shown in figure).

The discharge through each pipe is same. Hence,


Q = A1V1 = A2V2 = A3V3
The difference in liquid surface levels is equal to the sum of the total head loss in pipes. Hence,
H = hentrance + hf1 + hC + hf2 + he + hf3 + hexit
6

Unit-01/Lecture-04

Equivalent Pipe
It is defined as the pipe of uniform diameter having loss of head and discharge equal to the loss of head
and discharge of a compound pipe consisting of several pipes of different lengths and diameters. The
uniform diameter of the equivalent pipe is known as Equivalent Size of the pipe. The length of equivalent
pipe is equal to the sum of lengths of the compound pipe consisting of several pipes (previous figure).
Hence,
L = L 1 + L2 + L3
Total head loss in the compound pipe (neglecting the minor losses),
H = hf1 + hf2 + hf3
If f1 = f2 = f3 = f, and Q = �d12V1/4 = �d22V2/4 = �d32V3/4

m
Or V1 = 4Q/ �d12, V2 =4 Q/ �d22 and V3 = 4Q/ �d32

o
Hence,

.c
H = 4× 16fQ2[ L1/d15 + L2/d25 + L3/d35] / / �2 g …..
But head loss in equivalent pipe due to friction,
H = 4fLV2/d×2g = 4fL (4Q/ �d2)2 / d× g …..
a
m
Hence, equating (1) and (2), we get
� � � �

a

= �
+ �
+ �

n
The above equation is called Dupuit’s e uatio .

y
Pipes in parallel
d
u
The discharge through the main pipe is increased by connecting the pipes in parallel.

t
The rate of flow in the main pipe is equal to the sum of rate of flow through branch pipes. Hence,

S
Also. The head loss for each branch pipe is same.
Q = Q1 + Q2

hf1 = hf2
Flow through branched pipes
When three or more reservoirs are connected by means of pipe having one or more junctions, the
system is called branched pipes.
It is assumed that reservoirs are very large and the water surface levels are constant so that steady
conditions exist in the pipes. Also minor losses are assumed to be very small.
7

m
o
The flow from the junction D towards reservoir B will take place only when piezometric head at D (pD/w

.c
+ ZD) is more than piezometric head at B (ZB).

S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS a Year Marks


Q.1
m
Explain the term equivalent pipe. Also explain the syphon. Dec 2009 7

a
n
y
d
u
t
S
8

Unit-01/Lecture-05
Power transmission through pipes
The power transmitted depends upon (i) the weight of liquid flowing through the pipe and (ii) the total
head available at the end B of the pipe.

The power transmitted at the outlet of the pipe = weight of water flowing through the pipe per second
(W) × head available at outlet

m
Or
P = (Þg× �d2/4 × V) × (H – hf) Watts
Where area = �d2/4, velocity = V and hf= 4fLV2/2gd o
Efficiency of power transmission
.c
Ƞ = Power at outlet of the pipe/power at inlet of the pipe
Or
a
m
Ƞ = W (H – hf) / W H

aȠ = (H – hf) / H
 Condition for maximum power
n
� �
��
=0
y
d
Hence by using the value of hf and putting the value of P in above equation , we get,

u H = 3hf
 t
Maximum efficiency of transmission of power

S
Putting hf = H/3, we get
Ƞ = (H – hf)/H

Ƞ = 2/3 or 66.7 %

S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks


Q.1 Show that for maximum transmission of power by means of pipe Dec 7
under pressure, the frictional loss of head in the pipe equals one 2011
third of the total head supplied. Also prove that the maximum
power is restricted to 66.67%.
9

UNIT 1/LECTURE 6
Water hammer in pipes
Consider a valve is connected to a long pipe AB as shown in figure to regulate the flow of water. When
the valve is completely open, water flows with a velocity V in the pipe. If the valve is suddenly closed, the
momentum of the flowing water will be destroyed and a wave of high pressure will be set up.this wave
will be transmitted to along the pipe with a velocity of sound wave and may create noise called knocking.
Also it has the effect of hammering action on the walls of the pipe, and hence it is also called as Water
Hammer.

m
o
.c
a
m
a
The following cases will be considered:

n
1. Gradual closure of valve
Let t be the time in seconds to close the valve and p be the intensity of pressure wave produced.

y
Force due to pressure wave = Mass of water in pipe × Retardation of water

d pA = ÞAL × (V-0)/t

u or p = ÞLV/t

t
The above equation is valid for incompressible fluids and when pipe is rigid.

S Head of pressure, H = p/Þg = LV/gt


If t > 2L/C, the valve closure is said to be gradual.
If t < 2L/C, the valve closure is said to be sudden.
Where C = velocity of pressure wave.

2. Sudden closure of valve and pipe is rigid


Let K is the bulk modulus of water. When the valve is closed suddenly, the kinetic energy is
converted into strain energy of water if the effect of friction is neglected and pipe wall is
assumed perfectly rigid.
Hence,
10

Loss of kinetic energy = Gain of strain energy


½ × mass × V2 = ½ ×(p2/K) × Volume
½ × ÞAL × V2 = ½ × (p2/K) × (AL)
Or
p = V(KÞ)1/2
or
p = ÞV × C

3. Sudden closure of valve and pipe is elastic


Let t = thickness of the pipe wall,
E = modulus of elasticity of the pipe material,
/ = Poisso ’s atio fo pipe ate ial,
p = increase of pressure due to water hammer,
D = diameter of the pipe. m
o
Total strain energy stored in pipe material = strain energy per unit volume × total volume
= (p D /8Et ) × (� � � �) = p A DL/2Et
.c
2 2 2 2

a
Now,
Loss of kinetic energy of water = Gain of strain energy in water + Total strain energy stored in the

m
pipe material
or
a
n
½ × ÞAL × V2 = {½ × (p2/K) × (AL)} + (p2A DL/2Et)
Or
y
d
Þ
p=V[ ]1/2
u
+

t
S
11

UNIT 1/LECTURE 7
Hardy Cross Method
It is a method of successive approximations for analysis of pipe-network problems. The procedure is as
follows:
1. A trial distribution of discharges is made arbitrarily but in such a way that continuity equation is
satisfied at each junction or node.
2. With the assumed values of Q, the head loss in each pipe is calculated by following equation.
hf = rQ2 (where r = 4fL/2g × (�/4)2 × D5)
3. In any loop, the algebraic sum of head losses round each loop must be zero. It means that in
each loop, head loss due to flow in clockwise direction must be equal to the head loss due to
flow in anticlockwise direction.
4. The net head loss is calculated around each loop. If the net head loss due to assumed values of

m
Q round the loop is zero, then the assumed values of Q in that loop are correct. But if it is not

o
zero, then the assumed values of Q are corrected by introducing a correction ∆Q for the flows till

.c
the circuit is balanced. The correction factor is obtained by:
∆Q = -∑ � Q0n / ∑ ��Q0n-1
For turbulent flow, n = 2.
a
m
5. If the value of ∆Q comes out to be positive, then it should be added to the flows in the clockwise

a
direction and subtracted from the flows in the anticlockwise direction.

n
6. Some pipes may be common to two circuits (or loops), then the two corrections are applied to
these pipes.

y
7. After the corrections have been applied to each pipe in a loop, a second trial calculation is made

d
for all loops. The procedure is repeated till ∆Q becomes negligible.

u
t
S
12

UNIT 1/ LECTURE 8

Boundary Layer and Boundary Layer Theory


When a solid body is immersed in a flowing fluid, there is a narrow region of the fluid in the
neighbourhood of the solid body, where the velocity of fluid varies from zero to free stream
velocity. This narrow region is called Boundary Layer.
According to boundary layer theory, the flow of fluid in the neighbourhood of the solid
boundary can be divided into two regions:
1. A very thin layer of fluid, called the boundary layer, in the neighbourhood of the solid
boundary, where the variation of velocity from zero at the boundary to free stream
velocity in the direction normal to the boundary takes place. In this region, the
velocity gradient du/dy exists and hence the fluid exerts a shear stress on the wall in
the direction of motion.
2. The remaining fluid, which is outside the boundary layer. The velocity outside the
boundary layer is constant and equal to free stream velocity. As there is no variation of

m
velocity in this region, the velocity gradient du/dy becomes zero. Hence, the shear
stress is zero.
o
.c
Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer
The boundary layer is called laminar boundary layer if the Re old’s u e of the flow,

a
which is given by Re = U /ν, is less tha 5 × 105.
Where U = free stream velocity of flow, x = distance from leading edge and ν = kinematic

m
viscosity of fluid.

a
n
y
d
u
t
S
The length of the plate from the leading edge, up to which laminar boundary layer exists, is
called laminar zone.
If the Re old’s u e is o e tha 5 × 105 beyond the transition zone, the boundary layer is
said to be Turbulent Boundary Layer.

Laminar Sub-layer
It is the region in the turbulent boundary layer zone adjacent to the solid surface of the plate.
In this zone, velocity variation is influenced only by viscous effects. The velocity distribution is
a parabolic curve in the laminar sub-layer zone, but in view of very small thickness, it is
assumed that the velocity variation is linear. Hence, the shear stress in the laminar sub-layer
13

zone is constant and equal to boundary shear stress.

Boundary Layer Thickness (δ)


It is the distance from the boundary of the solid body measured in y-direction to the point
where the velocity of the fluid is approximately equal to 0.99 times the free stream velocity
(U) of the fluid. Following three such definitions are commonly adopted.

Displacement Thickness (δ*


It is the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary of the solid body by which the
boundary surface would have to be displaced outwards so that the total actual discharge
would be same as that of an ideal fluid past the displaced boundary or to compensate for the
reduction in flow rate on account of boundary layer formation.

δ*=∫ −� �

Mo e tu Thick ess θ
It is the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary by which the boundary should
have to be displaced to compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on
account of boundary layer formation.
m
o

θ=∫ −� �

E e gy Thick ess δ**


.c
a
It is the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary by which the boundary should
have to be displaced to compensate for the reduction in kinetic energy of the flowing fluid on

m
account of boundary layer formation.

δ ** = ∫ − �
a � �

n
Hydro-dynamically Smooth and Rough Boundaries

y
Let K is the average height of the irregularities on the surface of a boundary. If the value of K
is large, then the boundary is said to be Rough and if the value of K is small, then the

d
boundary is said to be Smooth.

u
Outside the laminar sublayer, the flow is turbulent and eddies of various sizes present in the
turbulent flow try to penetrate the laminar sublayer and reach to the surface of the boundary.
t
But due to great thickness of laminar sublayer, eddies are unable to reach the surface

S
irregularities and hence the boundary behaves as a smooth boundary. This type of boundary
is called hydro-dynamically smooth boundary. If the thi k ess of the la i a su la e δ’ is
much smaller than the average height K of the irregularities, the boundary is said to be hydro-
dynamically rough boundary.

Fo Niku adse’s e pe i e t:
1. If K/δ’ < . , the boundary is called Smooth boundary.
2. If K/ δ’ > , the boundary is called Rough boundary.
14

I te s of Re old’s u e u*K/ν
1. If u*K/ν < , the boundary is considered as Smooth.
2. If u*K/ν > , the boundary is considered as Rough.
Where
u* = Shear velocity of fluid in pipe flow = ( τ0/Þ)1/2
τ0 = Shear stress in pipe flow = (p1 – p2)d/4L
(p1 – p2) = pressure drop in pipe flow between two sections
d = diameter of pipe
L = length of pipe
ν = Kinematic viscosity of fluid m
o
.c
a
S.NO RGPV QUESTION YEAR MARKS
Q.1 What do you understand by the June 2012 7

m
terms boundary layer and
boundary layer theory.

a
Q.2 Explain the development of Dec 2010 7
boundary layer along a thin and

n
smooth plate held parallel to
uniform flow. Point out the salient
features.
y
d
Q.3 Define physically and Dec 2011, Dec 2009 7
mathematically the concept of

u
displacement, momentum and
energy thickness of a boundary

t
layer.

S
15

m
o
.c
a
m
a
n
y
d
u
t
S
16

m
o
.c
a
m
a
n
y
d
u
t
S
1

UNIT – 2

Uniform Flow in Open Channels


Lecture-01

Introduction & Definition

Open-channel flow, a branch of hydraulics, is a type of liquid flow within a conduit with a free surface,
known as a channel. The other type of flow within a conduit is pipe flow. Open-channel flow has a free
surface, whereas pipe flow does not. {Modi & Seth}

Difference between Open channel flow & Pipe flow (RGPV June 2012) {Modi & seth}

m
1.) Open channel flow must have a free surface but pipe flow does not.
o
.c
2.) Flow in open channel takes place under gravity force & pressure is atmospheric. Whereas pipe flow

a
contains hydraulic pressure only.
3.) In open channel, cross-section may be of any shape (rectangular, circular, trapezoidal etc.) but in
pipe flow, cross section is usually circular.
m
a
4.) Velocity distribution is different. In pipe flow, maximum velocity is at centre but in open channel

n
flow, maximum velocity occurs at 10-25 % depth from the top.

y
d
Types of open channel flows {R K Bansal}

u
t
1.) Steady flow & Un-steady flow:

S
If the flow characteristics such as depth, velocity, rate of flow at any point do not change wrt time,
the flow is called Steady flow. Otherwise it is Un-steady flow.

2.) Uniform flow & Non-uniform flow:

If for a given length of channel, the velocity, depth, slope of channel & cross section remains
constant, it is called uniform flow. Otherwise, it is non-uniform flow.

3.) Rapidly varied flow (RVF) & Gradually varied flow (GVF):

RVF is the flow in which depth changes abruptly over a small length of channel. When there occurs
any obstruction in the path of flow, water level rises over the obstruction & then falls & again rises
over a small length of channel. Thus depth of flow changes rapidly over a short length of the
channel.
GVF is the flow when depth of flow changes gradually over a long length of channel. This condition
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2

occurs before any large obstruction in the path of the flow.

4.) Laminar & Turbulent flow:

The flow is said to be laminar if the Reynolds number is less than 500 or 600. If the Reynolds number
(Re) is greater than 2000, the flow is said to be turbulent. Between 500-2000, the flow is in transition
state.
Re = ρVR/ µ
Where V = mean velocity of flow,
R = hydraulic mean depth or Hydraulic radius, (R = A/P)
Þ and µ= density and viscosity of water

5.) Subcritical, Critical & Supercritical flow:

Flow is subcritical if the Froude number (Fe) is less than 1.


Flow is critical if Fe = 1.
Flow is supercritical if Fe is more than 1.

m
The Froude no. is defined as Fe = V/ (√��)
Where D hydraulic depth of channel. D = A/T.

o
S.NO
Q.1
RGPV QUESTIONS
Differentiate open channel flow & pipe flow in detail. .c Year
June 2012,
Marks
7, 4

Q.2 Distinguish between subcritical flow & supercritical a Dec 2012


Dec 2014, Dec 2, 3
flow.
m 2011

a
Q.3 Differentiate between i) steady & unsteady flow, ii) June 2009 10
uniform & non-uniform flow

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y
d
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3

Unit-02/Lecture-02

Geometrical Elements of Channel Section

1.) Depth of flow (y): Vertical distance from the lowest point of the channel from the free
surface.

2.) Top width (T): Width of the top of the channel section.

3.) Wetted perimeter (P): Length of the channel section on contact with the flowing water at
any section.

4.) Wetted area (A): Area of flow section normal to the direction of flow.

m
5.) Hydraulic radius or Hydraulic mean depth (R): Ratio of wetted area to its wetted perimeter.
R = A/P

o
.c
6.) Hydraulic depth (D): Ratio of wetted area to the top width of the channel section.
D = A/T

a
7.) Section factor (Z): it is required for the computation of critical flow.
Z= (A3/T)1/2

m
a
Velocity distribution in open channel

n
 The velocity of flow at any channel section is not uniformly distributed. It is due to the
presence of a free surface & frictional resistance along the channel boundary.

y
The velocity distribution in a channel is measured either with the help of a pitot tube or a

d
current meter.
 The mean velocity of flow is computed from vertical velocity distribution curve obtained by

u
actual measurements. The velocity at 0.6 depth from the free surface is very close to the

t
mean velocity. For better approximation, average of velocities at 0.2 depth & 0.8 depth from
the free surface is taken.

 S Vmean = (V0.2 + V0.6)/2


Maximum velocity occurs at 0.1 to 0.25 depth from the free surface. The velocity at top is
around 90% of the maximum velocity.

Figure 1: Velocity distribution in Open Channel


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4

RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks


Q.1 Define hydraulic radius, wetted perimeter, gradually Dec 2009 7
varied flow and rapidly varied flow.
Q.2 Define the following: June 2012, Dec 7, 4
1. Hydraulic radius 2012
2. Hydraulic depth
3. Froude number
4. Specific Energy
Q.3 Define hydraulic radius, wetted perimeter. Dec 2014 2

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5

Unit-02/Lecture-03

Specific Energy [RGPV June 2012]


If the channel bottom is taken as datum, the total energy per unit weight of liquid will be
E = y + V2/2g
Where E is known as specific energy which is defined as energy per unit weight of liquid wrt the channel
bottom.

Specific Energy Curve: It is the curve showing the variation of specific energy with depth of flow.
E = y + V2/2g = Ep + Ek

Where Ep& Ek are Potential and Kinetic energy of flow.


Consider a rectangular channel in which steady but non-uniform flow is taking place.
Velocity of flow, V = Q/A = Q/by = q/y.
Where
Q = discharge through the channel,
b = width of channel, h = depth of flow,
m
o
q = discharge per unit width. Then q is constant.
Hence,

.c
E = y + q2/2gy2 = Ep + Ek

a
From above equation, graph between E (x-axis) and y (y-axis) is plotted, which will be the specific energy
curve.

m
a
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6

Unit-02/Lecture-04

Critical depth (yc): depth of flow of water at which the specific energy is minimum.
E = y + q2/2gy2
For E to be minimum
dE/dy = 0
it gives
y = (q2/g)1/3 = yc

Critical velocity (Vc): It is defined as the velocity of flow at the critical depth. It is obtained as following.
q = Discharge per unit width
q = Q/b = AV/b = byV/b = yV = ycVc
Putting in the expression of critical depth, we will get
yc = (q2/g)1/3 = (yc2 Vc2 / g)1/3
or
Vc = (g yc)1/2

m
Critical flow: It is defined as the flow at which the specific energy is minimum or it is the flow

o
corresponding to the critical depth.
We have

.c
Vc = (g yc)1/2
Or

a
Vc/ (g yc)1/2 = 1
Or

m
Fe = 1

a
Hence, critical flow occurs when Froude number is unity.

n
Critical depth in terms of Minimum specific energy

y
Specific energy is minimum when depth of flow is critical and hence

d Emin = yc + q2/2gyc2

u
Putting the expression for critical depth (yc) in the above, we have

t Emin = yc + yc/2 =3yc/2


Or
S yc = (Emin)

Hence, critical flow occurs when the depth of flow is 2/3rd of the specific energy.

Alternate depths & Conjugate depths

In the specific energy curve, at any other value of specific energy than the minimum value, there are two
depths of flow (y1 & y2) for which a given discharge may occur with same specific energy. They are called
Alternate Depths or Sequent depths.
7

In case of hydraulic jump (non-uniform flow condition), a considerable amount of energy is lost. In such
case Specific force analysis is done (Unit 3). In this case,, at any other value of specific force other than
the minimum value, there are two similar depths of flow at same specific force. They are called
Conjugate depths.

S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks


Q.1 What is a specific energy curve? What do you understand Dec 2009, June 10, 3
by critical depth of an open channel when the flow in it is 2015
not uniform?
Q.2 What is critical flow? Show that critical flow occurs in an Dec 2010, Dec 10, 7
open channel when (i) Froude number is unity (ii) when the 2013
depth of flow is 2/3rd of the specific energy.
Q.3 Distinguish between Alternate depth & conjugate depth. June 2009 2

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8

Unit-02/Lecture-05

Uniform flow and its computation

The computation of discharge for uniform flow is done by Chezy’s for ula [RGPV Dec 2012], which is
given by

Q = A V = A C √R S

Where V = mean velocity of flow, A = area of flow of water, R = hydraulic mean depth, S = Slope of
ha el ed a d C = Chezy’s onstant.

The value of C can be given by

1. Ma i g’s for ula: according to this,

C = (1/N) R1/6

Where N = Ma i g’s o sta t


m
2. Bazin formula (in MKS units) : according to this, o
C=
.
.c
a
. +K/√

Where K = Bazi ’s o sta t a d depe ds o the rough ess of the surface of channel
m = hydraulic mean depth
m
a
3. Ganguillet-Kutter Formula: according to this,

n
y
.
+ +
i N

d
.
+ + N/√m
i

u
Where N = Rough ess oeffi ie t hi h is alled Kutter’s o sta t,
t
i = slope of the bed,

S
m = hydraulic mean depth

Economical Sections of Channels

A channel is said to be most economical when the cost of construction of the channel is minimum. But
the cost of construction depends upon the excavation and lining. To keep the cost minimum, the wetted
perimeter, for a given discharge, should be minimum.

Most Economical Rectangular Channel

Consider a rectangular channel of width b & depth of flow is y.


Hence area of flow,
A = by
& Wetted Perimeter,
P = b + 2y
Or
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9

P = (A/y) + 2y

For most economical section,


dP
=0
dy
By substituting, we get
A = 2y2

But A = by, hence


b = 2y
Now, hydraulic mean depth, R = A/P

m
Or
R = 2y2/(2y+2y)

o
Or
R = y/2

Hence, Conditions for most economical rectangular sections:


.c
 Width is two times the depth of flow.
 Hydraulic mean radius is half the depth of flow. a
Normal slope & Critical slope m
a
n
Normal slope (in): It is the slope of channel bottom which will maintain the uniform flow at a given depth
of flow slope i the Ma i g’s for ula .

y
Critical slope (ic): It is the slope of channel bottom which is required to maintain uniform flow at critical
depth (minimum specific energy condition).

d
S.NO u RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks
Q.1
t
State the Chezy’s, Bazi , Kutter a d Ma i g’s for ula for u ifor Dec 10, 2

S
flow through a channel. What are the dimensions of constant C in 2011,
Chezy’ for ula. June
2015
Q.2 What do you mean by most economical section of the channel? Dec 3
Explain the significance of most economical channel. 2014,
Q.3 Distinguish between Normal slope & Critical slope. June 2
2009,
June
2015
10

UNIT 2/LECTURE 6
Most Economical Trapezoidal section

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11

Most Economical triangular section

Consider a triangular channel with top width AC = T. let it has slopes in 1 in z.


Hence, T = 2zy.

Now, area of flow,


A = ½ T y = ½ (2zy) y
Or
A = zy2

m
Or
y = (A/z)1/2
Wetted perimeter, P = 2y(z2+ 1)1/2 = 2 (A/z)1/2 (z2+ 1)1/2 = 2√A (z + 1/z)
o
.c
Now, for P to be minimum,
dP/dz = 0
It gives,

Now,
z=1
a
m
tan θ = zy/y = 1

a
Hence,
θ = 450

n
Hence, for most economical triangular section, the side slope should be 1 horizontal to 1 vertical. And
the vertex angle is 900 (= 450 + 450).
y
d
Hydraulic mean depth, m = A/P

u
A = y2 tan θ & P = 2y sec θ, he e = y si θ /2
Putti g the alue of θ = 0, we get

t m=

S
S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks
Q.1 Show that for a hydraulically most efficient triangular section, the June 7
hydraulic radius: 2012
R = y/2√2
Q.2 For a trapezoidal channel of most economical section, prove that Dec 7
i) Half the top width = length of side slope 2013
ii) Hydraulic mean depth = ½ depth of flow
12

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13

UNIT 2/LECTURE 7
Most Economical Circular Section
If 2Ø is the angle subtended by water surface and R is the radius of the channel.

Then, Wetted perimeter,


P = 2Rθ
And Wetted area,
si θ
A = R2 (θ - )
1. Condition for maximum velocity

θ = 128045’ = 2.24 radians


m
o
and
Depth of flow = 0.81 D

where D = diameter of circular channel.


.c
a
m
2. Condition for maximum discharge

a
θ = 1540 = 2.68 radians
And

n
Depth of flow = 0.95 D

y
d
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t
S
14

UNIT 2/LECTURE 8

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15

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16

UNIT 2/LECTURE 9

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17

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18

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1

UNIT – 3
NON-UNIFORM FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS

Lecture-01

Basic assumptions & Dynamic Equation of GVF


Assumptions:
1. Chezy’s & Ma i g’s fo ulae a e appli a le fo dete i i g the slope of the e e gy li e o
energy slope (Sf).
2. The channel bottom slope or bed slope (So) is small.
3. The flow is steady & hence the discharge is constant.
4. The channel is prismatic.
5. The energy correction factor is unity.
m
o
6. The roughness coefficient is constant for the length of the channel & it is independent of depth

.c
of flow.
7. The pressure distribution is hydrostatic (no acceleration effect).
Derivation:
a
m
a
n
y
d
u
t
S
Total energy head
E = z + y + v2/2g
�� � � � �
= � + � + � ( �)…e 1

Where
��

= -Sf (energy decreases in the direction of flow due to friction losses)

= - So



= slope of water surface wrt channel bottom or change of depth of flow in the direction of flow
� � � � � �

( �) = ( ) = −� .�
� �
Hence eq. (1) becomes
2

� � −�
= �
� −

Now
Q = q b = A V = (by) v
or
q=vy
hence

� � −�

= �


or
� −�
=

1. If = 0, i.e. depth of flow is constant, it means that the water surface is parallel to the channel
bed. (uniform flow case)
2. If > 0, then in the direction of flow, depth of flow will increase. The profile of water so
obtained is called Backwater Curve or Rising Curve.
m
o
3. If < 0, then in the direction of flow, depth of flow will decrease. The profile of water so
obtained is called Drawdown Curve or Dropdown Curve or Falling Curve.

.c
S.No.
Q.1
RGPV questions
Define GVF & RVF. Also give assumptions made in a Year
Dec 2013,
Marks
4, 2

m
gradually varied flow. June 2015
Q.2 Show that in a rectangular channel of constant Dec 2011 10

a
width the slope of the water surface with respect to

n
the bed line is given by
� � −�
=

y
� �


With usual notations.
Q.3
d
What is back water curve & drawdown curve? Explain June 2009 5

u
in details.

t
S
3

Unit-03/Lecture-02

Dynamic eqn for GVF in Wide rectangular Channels

1. According to Chezy,

� � { − }


= ��
{ − }

2. According to Manning,

� /
� � { − }

= �
� { − � }

Where yn = normal depth of flow (depth of uniform flow), y = actual depth of flow (depth of non-
uniform flow), yc = critical depth of flow.

Back water curve & Afflux

m
o
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Types of channel bottom slopes

1. Critical slope: when So = Sc & yn = yc


2. Mild slope: when So < Sc & yn > yc
3. Steep slope: when Sc < So & yn < yc
4. Horizontal slope: when So = 0, yn = infinite & channel bottom is horizontal.
5. Adverse slope: when So < , yn is negative or imaginary or non-existent & channel bottom rises
in the direction of flow.

Characteristics of surface profiles (important for GATE)


4

1. In Mild sloped channels (yn > yc)


Condition Surface Profile
y > y n > yc M1
yn > y > yc M2
yn > yc > y M3

2. In Steep sloped channels (yc > yn)


Condition Surface Profile
y > y c > yn S1
Yc > y > y n S2
yc > yn > y S3

3. In Critical sloped channels (yn = yc)


Condition Surface Profile m
y > y n = yc C1 o
yn = y c > y C3
.c
4. In Horizontal Channels (yn = infinity) a
Condition m
Surface Profile
y > yc H2
a
yc > y
n
H3

y
d
5. In Adverse sloped channels
Condition
u Surface Profile

t
y > yc A2

S yc > y A3
5

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S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1 Define the term backwater curve & afflux. Dec 2014 4
6

Unit-03/Lecture-03
Determination of length of surface profile between two sections
1. Step Method
2. Graphical method
3. Direct integration method
1. Step method
It is the simple method which is applicable for prismatic channels.
In this method, the entire length of the channel is divided into short reaches & the
computation is carried out step by step from one end to the other.

m
o
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a
m
Applyi g Be oulli’s eqn b/w 1-1 & 2-2,

a
So dx + y1 + v12/2g = y2 + v22/2g + hL

n
Where hL = energy loss due to friction = Sf dx. Hence
So dx + y1 + v12/2g = y2 + v22/2g + Sf dx
Or y
d E1 + So dx = E2 + Sf dx
Or
u
t =

S � −�

Note: The above expression can also be used for calculating the length of backwater curve (L),
where dx can be replaced by L. The value of Sf (slope of energy line) is calculated either by
Ma i g’s or Chezy’s for ula.

2. Graphical method
It is more accurate method than the previous. It is applicable for both prismatic & non-
prismatic channels. But it is complicated for large length of surface profiles.
� � −�
Dynamic eqn of GVF, = �
� −

7


� −

Let f(y) =� =� −�
, where v2/gy & Sf are functions of y. Hence

� = �
Integrating between control sections 1-1 & 2-2

∫ = ∫

A curve is plotted between & values. For different values of , corresponding


values can be computed.

3. Direct Integration Method Bresse’s ethod


It is applicable for very wide rectangular channels (b > > y). I this ethod, Chezy’s formula is
used for the evaluation of the effect of frictional resistance to the flow. The general varied flow

m
equation for this case is

o
� � { − }


= ��
{ − }

.c

Now if (y/yn) = u, then dy = yn du. Putting in above expression & then integ ati g, e get the B esse’s
solution as

a �
=

[� − { −
m }∫
− �
]+�

Where ∫

−� a
= B esse’s a ied flo fu tio & A is the o sta t of i teg atio .

These solutions are very complicated. n


y
S.No.
dRGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1
u
Describe various methods of computation of length of Dec 2011 10

t
flow profiles. State their relative merits & demerits.

S
8

Unit-03/Lecture-04
Rapidly varied flow (RVF) & Hydraulic jump (or Standing waves)
If the depth of flow in a channel changes abruptly over a small length of the channel, the flow is said to
be RVF. In RVF conditions, standing waves or eddies are formed which causes loss of energy & the flow
ha ges f o supe iti al stage to su iti al stage, it is alled stage of Hyd auli ju p i hi h ise of
water takes place.

m
o
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a
it can be defined as rise in the level of water when the water transforms its super critical form into the
sub critical one i.e. from unstable state to the stable one. This phenomenon can be observed on

m
spillways of the dam. As it's the nature of water to gain its stability after it is being unstable. The place

a
where hydraulic jump occurs, a lot of energy is dissipated in the form of heat energy. We can say that

n
hydraulic jump is dissipator of extra energy of water. This phenomenon is usually used in spillways of the

y
dam to reduce the erosive power of super critical flow. Otherwise it will affect the dam structure.

d
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S

Effect of Hydraulic Jump

It is very common in the field of hydraulics to use hydraulic jump. It is used to perform different
functions. Some of the effects of the hydraulic jump are as under:

 Actually the hydraulic jump usually acts as the energy dissipator. It clears the surplus energy of
water.
 Due to the hydraulic jump, many noticeable able disturbances are created in the flowing water
9

 Usually when the hydraulic jump takes place, the considerable amount of air is trapped in the
water. That air can be helpful in removing the wastes in the streams that are causing pollution.
 Hydraulic jump also make the work of different hydraulic structures, effective like weirs, notches
and flumes etc.

Applications of Hydraulic Jump:

1. Usually hydraulic jump reverses the flow of water. This phenomenon can be used to mix
chemicals for water purification.
2. Hydraulic jump usually maintains the high water level on the downstream side. This high water
level can be used for irrigation purposes.
3. Hydraulic jump can be used to remove the air from water supply and sewage lines to prevent
the air locking.
4. It prevents the scouring action on the downstream side of the dam structure.

Types of hydraulic jump:

m
The hydraulic jump is a phenomenon that occurs where there is an abrupt transition from supercritical
to subcritical stage of flow. The most important factor that affects the hydraulic jump is the initial
Froude number (Fr1).
o
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S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1 What do you ea y “ta di g a e ? Dec 2014 2
Q.2

Q.3
S
Define the following: (i) Weak jump, (ii) Backwater
curve, (iii) Drawdown curve, (iv) Undular jump
Define Hydraulic jump.
June 2012

Dec 2012
4

2
10

Unit-03/Lecture-05
Expression for Hydraulic jump:

Assumptions:
1. The flow is uniform & pressure distribution is hydrostatic before & after jump.
2. Frictional losses are neglected.
Derivation:
Let y1, y2 = depth of flow at sections 1-1 &2-2 respectively
m
o
v1, v2 = velocity of flow at the two sections, z1, z2 = depth of centroid of cross sectional area from the free

.c
surface for the two sections, A1, A2 = area of cross section at the sections and P1 & P2 = pressure force at

a
the sections.
Force acting on the mass of water b/w 1-1 & 2-2 = Rate of change of momentum in the flow direction

m
P2 – P1 = ρ Q (v1 – v2)

a
P1 + ρQ v1 + = P2 + ρQ v2

n
Putting v1 = Q/A1, v2 = Q/A2, P1 = ρgA1 z1 , P2 = ρgA2 z2 and dividing by ρg, we have

y
A1z1 + (Q2 / A1g) = A1z1 + (Q2 / A2g)

d
or
Az + (Q2 / Ag) = Constant, F = Specific force
u
t
 In RVF, specific force remains constant before & after the jump. It is actually force per unit weight

S
showing the non-uniform flow in open channels.
 For rectangular channels, A = by & z = y/2. Hence specific force is given by
F = (by)(y/2) + (Q2 / byg)
But discharge per unit width, q = Q/b, hence above expression becomes
F = (by2/2) + (q2b/g)(1/y)
Hence, specific force curve for rectangular channel is given by
11

 In RVF, at minimum specific force, there is only one depth of flow i.e. critical depth (yc). At any
other greater value of specific force, there will be two depths of flow, called conjugate depths (y 1
and y2).

m
y1 = pre-jumped depth (or depth before hydraulic jump),
y2 = post-jumped depth (or depth after hydraulic jump).

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UNIT 3/LECTURE 6

Relation between y1 & y2


For rectangular channels,
(by12/2) + (q2 b/g)(1/y1) = (by22/2) + (q2 b/g)(1/y2)
Or
2q2/g = (y1 + y2) y1 y2
Or
8�
y2 = {− ± √ + � }

since negative depth is not possible, hence


8�
y2 = {− + √ + � }
� �

m
now, Froude no. on the upstream side of the jump , Fe = =
√� √�

o
hence

.c
y2 = {− + √ + � }

Sequent Depth Ratio: the ratio y2/y1 in the above expression can be expressed as sequent depth
ratio. a
m
Depth of hydraulic jump: y2 – y1
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n
y
Loss of energy due to hydraulic jump (or hydraulic temperature):

d
When hydraulic jump takes place, loss of energy occurs due to formation of eddies. This loss of

u
energy is equal to the difference in specific energies b/w sections 1-1 & 2-2. Since E1>E2, Hence

t
hL = E1 – E2

S
hL = {y1 + q2/2gy12} – {y2 + q2/2gy22}
hL = q2/2g {(1/y12) – (1/y22)}
But
2q2/g = (y1 + y2) y1 y2
Hence on solving, above expression becomes

� =
13

S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks


Q.1 What do you mean by a hydraulic jump? Obtain an expression for Dec 7
depth after the hydraulic jump. 2013

Q.2 Define the sequent depth ratio. June 2


2012

Q.3 Derive an expression for loss of energy for hydraulic temperature. Dec
2009 10

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UNIT 3/LECTURE 7

Venturi flume
It is a structure in a channel which has a contracted section called throat, d/s of which follows a flared
transition section designed to restore the stream to its original width. It is an open channel counterpart
of a venturi meter , which is used for measuring discharge in an open channel. A venturi meter would
normally measure in millimetres, whereas a venturi flume measures in metres.
At the throat section there will be a drop in water surface & it may be related to the discharge. The
velocity of flow at the throat is always less than the critical velocity & hence the discharge passing
through it will be a function of the difference between the depths of flow u/s of the entrance section &
at the throat. Further since the velocity of flow at the throat is less than the critical velocity, standing
wave or hydraulic jump will not occur at any section of the venturiflume.

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Measurement of discharge with venturi flumes requires two measurements, one upstream and one at

a
the throat (narrowest cross-section), if the flow passes in a subcritical state through the flume. If the

n
flumes are designed so as to pass the flow from sub critical to supercritical state while passing through

y
the flume, a single measurement at the throat (which in this case becomes a critical section) is sufficient

d
for computation of discharge. To ensure the occurrence of critical depth at the throat, the flumes are

u
usually designed in such way as to form a hydraulic jump on the downstream side of the structure. These

t
flumes are called 'standing wave flumes’.

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15

For constant specific energy conditions b/w two sections 1-1 & 2-2,
� �
+ �
= + �

Or
� � � �
− = [ − ]= [ − ]
� �
Or

� √ −
� =
√� − �
Hence, Rate of flow
� � √ −
Q=� � =
√� −�

Introducing a coefficient of discharge Cd for the venture flume,

m
� � � √ −
Q=
√� −�

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Cd depends upon smoothness of the bed surface & sides, and on the roundness of the corners.
S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks

a
Q.1 Derive an expression for the discharge through a venturiflume. Dec 7
2014

Q.2 Explain in detail, the venturiflumes.


m Dec

a
2009, 5, 5, 3
Dec

n
2010,
June

y 2015

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UNIT 3/ LECTURE 8

Surges in open channel


A surge or surge wave is a moving wave front which brings about an abrupt change in depth
of flow. It is also referred as moving hydraulic jump & is caused by sudden increase or
decrease of flow, which occurs due to sudden opening or closing of a gate fixed in the
channel.

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Types of surges:

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1. Positive surge: It results in an increase in the depth of flow. Fig A & B shows two types

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of positive surges. Type A is a positive surge having an advancing wave front moving

S
downstream. Type B is a positive surge having an advancing wave front moving
upstream.
The positive surge of type A may occur when a gate provided at the head of the
channel is suddenly opened. And type B may occur when a gate provided at the tail
end of the channel is suddenly closed.

2. Negative surge: It results in a decrease in the depth of flow. Fig C & D shows two types
of negative surges. Type C is a negative surge having a retreating wave front moving
downstream. Type D is a negative surge having a retreating wave front moving
upstream.
17

The negative surge of type C may occur when a gate provided at the head of the
channel is suddenly closed & type D may occur when a gate provided at the tail end of
the channel is suddenly opened.

S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks


Q.1 Explain the surges in open channel. Dec 2014, Dec 2012, 3, 2, 5, 3, 5
Dec 2010, June 2009, Dec
2009

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1

UNIT – 4
FORCES ON IMMERSED BODIES

Lecture-01

Forces on immersed bodies


When a body is immersed in a real fluid, which is flowing at a uniform velocity U, the fluid will exert a
force on the body. The total force (FR) can be resolved in two components:
1. Drag (FD): Component of the total force in the direction of motion of fluid.
2. Lift (FL): Component of the total force in the perpendicular direction of the motion of fluid. It
occurs only when the axis of the body is inclined to the direction of fluid flow. If the axis of the
body is parallel to the fluid flow, lift force will be zero.
Expression for Drag & Lift
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Forces acting on the small elemental area dA are:
i.
d
Pressure force acting perpendicular to the surface i.e. p dA
ii.
u
Shear force acting along the tangential direction to the surface i.e. τ0dA

t
(a) Drag force (FD) :

S
Drag force on elemental area = p dAcosθ + τ0 dAcos(90 – θ = p dA osθ + τ0dAsinθ
Hence Total drag (or profile drag) is given by,

�� = ∫ � cos � �� + ∫ �0 sin � ��

Where
∫ � cos � �� = pressure drag or form drag, and
∫ �0 sin � �� = shear drag or friction drag or skin drag
(b) Lift force (FL) :
Lift force on the elemental area = − p dAsinθ + τ0 dA sin(90 – θ = − p dAsi θ + τ0dAcosθ
Hence, total lift is given by

�� = ∫ �0 cos � �� − ∫ p sin � ��
2

The drag & lift for a body moving in a fluid of density at a uniform velocity U are calculated
mathematically as
�2
�� = �� �

And
�2
�� = ���

Where A = projected area of the body or largest project area of the immersed body.
CD & CL = coefficient of drag & lift respectively. The equations for FD & FL are derived using
dimensional analysis.
Then the resultant force is given by

�� = √��2 + ��2

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o
Drag Coefficient (CD)

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 It is a dimensionless quantity used to quantify the drag or the resistance of an object in
a fluid environment. Lower the CD lesser will be the drag force.

a
It is not an absolute constant for a given body shape. It varies with the speed of air flow
(or more ge erally with the Rey old’s u er . e.g. a s ooth sphere has a CD that
m
a
varies from high values for laminar flow to 0.47 for turbulent flow. Although the CD
de reases with i rease i Rey old’s u er, the drag for e i reases.
Lift Coefficient (CL) n

y
It is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to

d
the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and the associated projected

u
area.

t
It is a function of angle of attack (i.e. the angle between the axis of the body and

S the dire tio of flow , Rey old’s u er of the flow a d Ma h o.

S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks


Q.1 Define total drag & Lift. June 2015, 2, 2
Dec 2012
Q.2 Define coefficient of drag & lift. Dec 2014 2
3

Unit-04/Lecture-02

Types of drag
1. Pressure drag:
 It is the drag which acts perpendicular to the surface of a body which is immersed in a
fluid.
 When a fluid flows through a bluff body whose surface is no-where parallel to the main
stream flow, the fluid starts to leave the body surface & separation of flow occurs, due
to which, a region of low pressure is developed on the downstream side of the body.
This regio is alled wake . The flow i this regio for s a series of eddies. The
pressure difference produces a drag on the body, known as pressure drag or form drag.

m
 For a sphere, the pressure drag is one third of the total drag.

o
2. Friction drag:

.c
It is the shear force acting along the tangential direction to the surface of a body
immersed in a fluid.

a
When a fluid flows through a submerged body, a layer of fluid comes in contact with

m
the surface of the body& a region of velocity gradient is formed, called boundary layer.
This layer produces a shear stress on the surface of the body tangentially, which is

a
called friction drag or shear drag or surface drag.
 n
For a sphere, the friction drag is two-third of the total drag.
3. Deformation drag:
y

d
It occurs when viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces or when

u
Rey old’s u er is less tha . .

t
Due to viscosity of fluid, deformation of fluid particles is caused and certain forces are

S necessarily developed, which offer additional resistance to the motion of fluid. The
component of the forces in the direction of the motion is called deformation drag.
 It is usually egligi le at higher rey old’s u er.

Streamlined body
 A body whose surface coincides with the streamlines, when the body is placed in a flow. E.g.
airfoil.
 Behind a streamlined body, wake formation is very less & consequently, the pressure drag will
be small. Then the total drag on the streamlined body will be due to friction drag only.
 A body may be streamlined when placed at low velocity but may not be streamlined at higher
4

velocity.

Bluff body
 A body whose surface does not coincide with the streamlines, when placed in a flow, called
bluff body or blunt body. E.g. a flat plate placed perpendicular to the direction of flow.
 Formation of large wake zone (or eddies) occurs when a fluid flows through a bluff body, due to
separation of flow.

m
Pressure drag is very large as compared to friction drag in case of bluff bodies.

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S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1 Differentiate between streamlined body & bluff body. June 2015, 2, 4

Q.2 What is streamlining? What is its effect on the a Dec 2013


Dec 2014, Dec 2, 4

m
different types of drag? 2011
Q.3 Distinguish between the friction drag & pressure drag. Dec 2013 4
Q.4
a
Define: (i) pressure drag, (ii) profile drag, (iii) Airfoil, Dec 2012 4

n
(iv) wake or eddies
Q.5 What are different types of drag? Dec 2011, 6, 5

y
June 2009
Q.6 Differentiate between form & surface drags. Dec 2011 4

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Unit-04/Lecture-03
Drag on a sphere

A ordi g to G.G. “toke, up to Rey old’s u er . , total drag o a smooth sphere is


FD = 3 π µ D U
Where µ = dynamic viscosity of fluid, D = diameter of sphere & U = velocity of flow.

m
Also, Skin friction drag is two-third of the total drag & Pressure drag is one-third of the total drag.

o
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Expressions for CD of a sphere:
1. When Re< 0.2
For sphere,
a
m
FD = 3 µDU… i

a
But
�2 � 2�
2
�� = ��� = ��
n
… ii
2 4 2

y
Equating (i) & (ii), we get
�� µ
d =
��
or u
t ��
S =
��
Above equation is known as Stoke’s law.

2. When Re is between 0.2& 5

� = ( + )
�� 6 ��

3. When Reis between 5 & 1000


CD = 0.4
6

4. When Re is between 1000 & 105


CD = 0.5
5. When Re> 105
CD = 0.2

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RGPV QUESTIONS
Prove that the value of CD for sphere for Rey old’s u er
Year Marks

d
Q.1 June 2015 7
less than 0.2 is given by CD = 24/Re.

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Q.2 Explain with neat sketch the relationship between drag Dec 2011 6
oeffi ie t &rey old’s u er for smooth spheres.

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7

Unit-04/Lecture-04

Drag on a cylinder
When a cylinder is placed in a fluid such that its length is perpendicular to the direction of flow, the drag
force (FD depe ds upo the Rey old’s u er Re) of the flow. From experiments, it has been observed
that
1. When Re < 1, FD is directly proportional to the velocity & hence CD is inversely proportional to Re.
2. With i rease of Rey old’s u er fro to , CD decreases & reaches a minimum value of
0.95 at Re = 2000.
3. With further increase of Re from 2000 to 3 × 104, CD increases & attains a maximum value of 1.2
at Re = 3 × 104.
4. When Re is increased from 3 × 104 to 3 × 105, CD further decreases. At 3 × 105, CD = 0.3.

m
5. If Re is increased beyond 3 × 106, CD increases & it becomes equal to 0.7 in the end.

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Drag on a flat plate:

t
1. When plate is placed parallel to the direction of flow

 ∫ � cos � �� =
 total drag is equal to friction drag.
8

2. When plate is placed perpendicular to the direction of flow

 ∫ �0 sin � �� =
 Total drag is equal to pressure drag.

m
3. When plate is placed at an angle with the direction of flow other than 0o& 90o
 Total drag = pressure drag + shear drag
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Unit-04/Lecture-05
Development of Lift of an airfoil
An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade(of a propeller, rotor, orturbine) or sail as seen in
cross-section. An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The
component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift.
Airfoils are the streamlined bodies which may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical in shapes. The airfoil is
characterized by its
 chord length C,
 angle of attack α (which is the angle between the direction of the fluid flowing & chord
line) &
 span L of the airfoil.

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The lift of an airfoil is developed due to negative pressure created on the upper part of the airfoil. The

S
drag force on an airfoil is always small due to the streamlined shape of it.
10

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S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS
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a
Q.1 What is an airfoil? On what factors does the total drag on an airfoil June 3
depends? 2015

m
Q.2 Define: (i) pressure drag, (ii) profile drag, (iii) Airfoil, (iv) wake or Dec 4
eddies 2012

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UNIT 04/LECTURE 06

Magnus effect
 When a cylinder is rotated in a uniform flow, a lift force is produced on the cylinder. This
phenomenon is called Magnus effect.
 This fact was investigated by a German physicist H.G. Magnus.
 Due to circulation, the flow is unsymmetrical on a cylinder as shown in the following
figure.

m
o

.c
The velocity on the upper half is increased & on the lower half is decreased. Hence pressure on

a
the upper half is decreased & on the lower half is increased. Hence, the lift force on the cylinder

m
is produced when rotated in a uniform flow field.

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S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks
Q.1 What is magnus effect? Explain clearly. Dec 2014, 3, 5

Q.2 y
Define Magnus effect.
June 2009
Dec 2012 2

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UNIT 4/ LECTURE 7

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13

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14

Q.5: A kite 0.8 m × 0.8 m weighing 0.4 kgf assumes an angle of 12o to the horizontal. The string
attached to the kite makes an angle of 45o to the horizontal. The pull on the string is 2.5 kgf when the
wind is flowing at a speed of 30 km/h. Find the corresponding coefficient of drag and lift. Density of
air is 1.25 kg/m3.
Soln
Projected area of kite, A = 0.8 × 0.8 = 0.64 m2
Weight of kite, W = 0.4 kgf = 0.4 × 9.81 = 3.924 N
Pull on the string, P = 2.5 kgf = 2.5 × 9.81 = 24.525 N
Angle made by kite with horizontal, θ1 = 12o
Angle made by stri ng with horizontal, θ2 = 45o
Speed of wind, U = 30 km/h = 8.333 m/s
Density of air, = 1.25 kg/m3

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a
Drag force, FD = Force exerted by wind in the direction of motion (X-X direction) = component of pull,
P along X-X direction = P cos45o = 24.525 cos 45o = 17.34 N

m
a
Lift force, FL = Force exerted by wind on the kite perpendicular to the direction of motion (Y-Y
direction) = component of P in vertically downward direction + Weight of kite (W) = P sin45o + W =
24.525 sin45o + 3.924 N = 21.264 N
n
y
Hence, Coefficient of drag, CD = (2 FD) / (A U2) = (2 × 17.34) / (0.64 × 1.25 × 8.3332) = 0.624

d
And
Similarly, Coefficient of lift, CL = (2 FL) / (A U2) = (2 × 21.264) / (0.64 × 1.25 × 8.3332) = 0.765

u
Assignment:
t
Q.6 A kite weighing 0.8 kgf has an effective area of 0.8 m2. It is maintained in air at an angle of 10o to

S
the horizontal. The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 45o to the horizontal and at this
position the value of CD and CL are 0.6 and 0.8 respectively. Find the speed of the wind and tension in
the string. Take density of air as 1.25 kg/m3.

Terminal Velocity of a body


It is defined as the maximum constant velocity of a falling body (such as sphere or a composite body
such as parachute together with man) with which the body will be travelling. When the body is
allowed to fall from rest in the atmosphere, the velocity of the body increases due to acceleration of
gravity. With increase of the velocity, the drag force, opposing the motion of the body, also increases.
A stage is reached when the upward drag force acting on the body will be equal to the weight of the
body. Then the net external force acting on the body will be zero and the body will be travelling at
constant speed. This constant speed is called terminal velocity of the falling body.
If the body drops in a fluid, at the instant it has acquired terminal velocity; the net force acting on the
15

body will be zero. The forces acting on the body at this state will be (1) weight of the body (W) acting
downward, (2) Drag force (FD) acting vertically upward and (3) Buoyant force (FB) acting vertically
upward.
The net force on the body should be zero, i.e. W = FD + FB

Q.7 A metallic ball of diameter 2 × 10-3 m drops in a fluid of specific gravity 0.95 and viscosity 15
poise. The density of the metallic ball is 12000 kg/m3. Find (i) the drag force exerted by the fluid on
the ball, (ii) the pressure drag and skin drag, (iii) the terminal velocity of the ball in the fluid.
Soln:
Diameter of metallic ball, D = 2 × 10-3m
Density of ball = 12000 kg/m3
Density of fluid = sp. gr. of fluid × 1000 = 0.95 × 1000 = 950 kg/m3
Viscosity of the ball, µ = 15 poise = 1.5 Ns/m2
Weight of the ball, W = density of ball × g × volume of ball = 12000 × 9.81 × ( D3)/6 = 0.000493 N
Buoyant force, FB = density of fluid × g × volume of ball = (0.95 × 1000) × 9.81 × ( D3)/6 = 0.000039 N
When metallic ball reaches the terminal velocity, W = FD + FB
Or
Drag force, FD = W – FB = 0.000493 – 0.000039 = 0.000454 N
m
(i)
(ii) Pressure drag = (1/3) FD = 0.0001513 N

(iii)
Skin drag = (2/3) FD = 0.0003028 N
o
Terminal velocity of the ball, U = FD / (3 µD) = 0.000454 / (3 × 1.5 × 2 × 10-3) = 0.016

.c
m/s
Now he ki g the Rey old’s u er, Re = ( U D)/ µ = (950 × 0.016 × 2 × 10-3) / 1.5 = 0.02

a
Hence, since Re < 0.2, then the expression FD = 3 µDU for calculating terminal velocity of
a sphere is valid.

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1

UNIT – 5
HYDRAULIC MACHINES

Lecture-01

Turbines
Hydraulic machines which convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is
used to run electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of the turbine.

Classification of turbines
1. According to the type of energy at inlet
a. Impulse turbine: In the impulse turbine, the total head of the incoming fluid is converted in

m
to a large velocity head at the exit of the supply nozzle. That is the entire available energy of
the water is converted in to kinetic energy.
o
.c
b. Reaction turbine: In this type of turbines, the rotation of runner or rotor (rotating part of
the turbine) is partly due to impulse action and partly due to change in pressure over the
runner blades; therefore, it is called as reaction turbine. a
S. No. Impulse Turbine
m Reaction Turbine
1
a
At the inlet, water possesses only At the inlet, water possesses kinetic as

n
kinetic energy well as pressure energy.

y
2 Unit is installed above the Unit is entirely submerged in water below

d
tailrace. the tailrace.
3 Flow regulation is possible It is not possible to regulate the flow

u
without loss. without loss.

t
S
4 e.g. Pelton Turbine e.g. Francis & Kaplan Turbines

2. According to the direction of flow through runner


a. Tangential flow turbine: In this type of turbines, the water strikes the runner in the
direction of tangent to the wheel. Example: Pelton wheel turbine.
b. Radial flow turbine: In this type of turbines, the water strikes in the radial direction.
accordingly, it is further classified as,
i. Inward flow turbine: The flow is inward from periphery to the centre (centripetal
type). Example: Francis turbine.
ii. Outward flow turbine: The flow is outward from the centre to periphery
(centrifugal type). Example: Fourneyron turbine.
2

c. Axial flow turbine: The flow of water is in the direction parallel to the axis of the shaft.
Example: Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine.
d. Mixed flow turbine: The water enters the runner in the radial direction and leaves in axial
direction. Example: Modern Francis turbine.

3. According to the head at inlet of the turbine:


a. Low head turbine: The net head is less than 30m and also these turbines require large
quantity of water. Example: Kaplan turbine.
b. Medium head turbine: The net head varies from 30m to 150m, and also these turbines
require moderate quantity of water. Example: Francis turbine.
c. High head turbine: In this type of turbines, the net head varies from 150m to 2000m or
even more, and these turbines require a small quantity of water. Example: Pelton wheel
turbine.

m
4. According to the specific speed of turbine: o
.c
a. Low specific speed turbine: The specific speed is less than 50. (varying from 10 to 35 for

a
single jet and up to 50 for double jet ) Example: Pelton wheel turbine.
b. Medium specific speed turbine: The specific speed is varies from 50 to 250. Example:
Francis turbine.
m
a
c. High specific speed turbine: The specific speed is more than 250. Example: Kaplan turbine.

n
y
Efficiency of a turbine
(i) Hydraulic efficiency

d
ηh = Power delivered to runner/ power supplied at inlet = R.P. / W.P.

u
(ii) Mechanical efficiency
ηm = power at the shaft/ power delivered to runner = S.P. / R.P.
(iii)
t
Volumetric efficiency
ηv = Volume of water actually striking the runner/ volume of water supplied to the turbine
(iv)
S
Overall efficiency
ηo = Power at the shaft / Power supplied at inlet = S.P. / W.P. = ηh × ηm
here W.P. i kW = gQH/

Performance of turbines
 Turbines are often required to work under varying conditions of head, speed, output and gate
opening. As such, in order to predict their behaviour, it is essential to study the performance of
the turbine under varying conditions.
 The head and output of the turbine may change. In this case, keeping the discharge constant,
the speed is adjusted so that the efficiency remains constant.
 Keeping the head and the speed constant, the output may vary by adjusting the discharge.
These are the normal operating conditions, and the curves drawn for these conditions are
called operating characteristics curves.
 Keeping the head and discharge constant, the speed may vary by adjusting the load on the
turbine. These conditions are possible only in the laboratories. The curves so obtained for such
3

 The head and speed may vary. This is common in turbines working under low heads.

S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks


Q.1 Differentiate between impulse & reaction turbine. Dec 2014 2
Q.2 What are the classification of turbines based on (i) Dec 2012 10
flow, (ii) specific speed, (iii) head (iv) energy of striking
fluid

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Unit-05/Lecture-02

Specific speed (Ns)


It is the speed of a turbine which is identical in shape, geometrical dimension, blade angles, gate
opening etc. with the actual turbine but of such a size that it will develop unit power when working
under unit head. It is used in comparing the different types of turbines as every type of turbine has
different specific speed. It plays an important role for selecting the type of the turbine & predicting the
performance of turbine.
Derivation of the specific speed
The overall efficiency of any turbine is given by
η0 = shaft po er / ater po er = Po er de eloped / gQH /
where H = head under which the turbine is working, Q = discharge through the turbine, P = power
developed or shaft power.
Now from above equation,
�� �
= �� ×

m
∝ × � ….
Now let D = dia of actual turbine, N = speed of actual turbine, u = tangential velocity of the turbine, N s=
specific speed of the turbine, V = absolute velocity of water.
o
.c
Now, u ∝ V, and V ∝ H1/2. Hence
u ∝ H1/2
But u = D N / 6 , or

Hence
u ∝ DN
a
√� ∝ ��
m
a
or
√�
�=
Now n �

y ∝ � × √�

d ∝

√�

u ∝
� /

t
Hence eq (1) becomes

S ∝
� 5/

Or
� 5/
=�

where K = constant of proportionality.
If P = 1, H = 1, then the speed N = specific speed Ns. putting this in above equation, we get
K = Ns2
Hence
� 5/
= ��

Or
� √�
�� =
� /
5

In above eqn, if P is taken in metric horse power, the specific speed is obtained in MKS units. But if P is
taken in kilowatts, the specific speed is obtained in SI units.

Unit Quantities
In order to predict the behaviour of a turbine working under varying conditions of head, speed, and
power, recourse has been made to the concept of unit. The unit quantities give the speed, discharge
and power for a particular turbine under a head of 1m assuming the same efficiency. The following are
the three important unit quantities.
1. Unit speed
2. Unit power
3. Unit discharge
1. Unit speed (Nu): The speed of the turbine, working under unit head (say 1m) is known as unit
speed of the turbine.
If H=1; then N= Nu√�
Where,
H = head of water under which the turbine is working;
N= speed of turbine under a head, H; u= tangential velocity;
Nu = speed of the turbine under a unit head.

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2. Unit Power (Pu): The power developed by a turbine, working under a unit head (say 1m) is
known as unit power of the turbine.
If H=1, then, Pu = P/H3/2
o
3. Unit discharge (Qu): The discharge of the turbine working under a unit head (say 1m) is known

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as unit discharge.
If H = 1, then Qu = Q/√�

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If a turbine is working under different heads, the behaviour of the turbine can be easily known
from the unit quantities.

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Use of unit quantities: If a turbine is working under different heads the behaviour of the turbine can be
easily known from the values of the quantities i.e. from the values of unit speed, unit discharge & unit
power.
a
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Let H1, H2 be the heads under which a turbine works, then
� �
�� = =

y √� √�

d
Hence if the speed of a turbine under a head is known, then by using above equation, the speed of the
same turbine under a different head can be obtained easily.

u
Runaway speed of a turbine (www.scribd.com)

t
 The runaway speed of a hydraulic turbine is the speed at which the turbine coupled to the

S
generator runs at the maximum possible speed due to loss of load.
 The runaway speed of the turbine is determined by the turbine designer and is influenced by
the maximum discharge of water from the penstock, the combined inertia of the turbine
runner and the generator and the flywheel. This factor can vary from 1.5 up to 3 times the
nominal speed of the turbine and is determined by the turbine designer considering all the load
parameters.

S.No. RGPV questions Year Marks


Q.1 What are unit quantities? Define the unit quantities of June 2015 2
turbine. Why they are important?
Q.2 Define specific speed & runaway speed of a hydraulic June 2015 2
turbine.
Q.3 Derive an expression for specific speed of a hydraulic June 2009 10
turbine.
6

Unit-05/Lecture-03
Pelton Turbine:
Pelton Wheel or Pelton Turbine is a Tangential Flow Impulse Turbine. This Turbine is used for High
Heads. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent of the tangent of the runner. The energy available
at the inlet of the turbine is only Kinetic Energy. The pressure at the inlet and outlet is atmospheric
pressure. The nozzle increases the kinetic energy of the water flowing through the penstock. At the
outlet of the nozzle, the water comes out in the form of a jet and strikes the buckets (vanes) of the
runner. Pelton Wheel Turbine is used for High Heads. Pelton Wheel Turbine has a Specific Speed less
than 30(S.I) for single jet and between 30 and 60 (S.I) for multi-jet.
The main parts of pelton turbine are:

1. Penstock:
It is a large sized conduit which conveys water from high level reservoir to the turbine. For the
regulation of water flow from the reservoir to the turbine, the penstock is provided with control
valves.

2. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement(spear):

m
The amount of water striking the buckets is controlled by providing a spear in the nozzle. The
spear is a conical needle operated in the axial direction depending up on the size of the unit.

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When the spear is pushed forward, the amount of water striking the runner is reduced and

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when the spear is pushed back, the amount of water striking the runner increases.

3. Runner with Buckets:

a
Runner consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which a number of buckets evenly spaced
are fixed. The space of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is

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divided into two symmetrical parts by dividing wall which is known as Splitter. The Splitter
divides the jet into two equal parts. The buckets are shaped in such a way that the jet gets

a
deflected through 160° or 170°. The buckets are made of cast iron, cast steel bronze or stainless

n
steel depending upon the head at the inlet of the turbine.

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4. Casing:
It is made of cast iron or fabricated steel plates. Its function is to prevent the splashing of water
and to discharge water to tail race. It also acts as safeguard against accidents.

5. Breaking Jet:
When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward direction, the amount
of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on revolving for
a long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of
water on the back of vanes. This jet of water is called Breaking Jet.
7

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8

Unit-05/Lecture-04
Characteristic curves of a turbine
These are curves which are characteristic of a particular turbine which helps in studying the performance
of the turbine under various conditions. These curves pertaining to any turbine are supplied by its
manufacturers based on actual tests.
The data that must be obtained in testing a turbine are the following:
1. The speed of the turbine N
2. The discharge
3. The net head H
4. The power developed P
5. The overall efficiency
6. Gate opening (this refers to the percentage of the inlet passages provided for water to enter the
turbine).
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The characteristic curves obtained are the following:

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a) Constant head curves or main characteristic curves
b) Constant speed curves or operating characteristic curves
c) Constant efficiency curves or Muschel curves
a
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Constant head curves
Maintaining a constant head, the speed of the turbine is varied by admitting different rates of flow

n
by adjusting the percentage of gate opening. The power P developed is measured mechanically.

y
From each test the unit power Pu, the unit speed Nu, the unit discharge Qu and the overall efficiency

d
o is determined. The characteristic curves drawn are unit discharge vs unit speed, unit power vs

u
unit speed & overall efficiency vs unit speed.

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S
Constant speed curves
In this case tests are conducted at a constant speed varying the head H and suitably adjusting the
discharge Q. The power developed P is measured mechanically. The overall efficiency is aimed at its
maximum value. The curves drawn are P vs Q, η0 vs Q, 0 vs Pu η0 max vs % Full load.

Constant efficiency curves


These curves are plotted from data which can be obtained from the constant head and constant
speed curves. The object of obtaining this curve is to determine the zone of constant efficiency so
that we can always run the turbine with maximum efficiency. This curve also gives a good idea about
the performance of the turbine at various efficiencies.
9

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Comparison of turbine and pump by CC
11

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RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks
Q.1
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What are the characteristic curves of a turbine? How are Dec 2015 7

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they obtained & what is their utility?

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12

Unit-05/Lecture-05
Reaction Turbines
Reaction turbine means that the water at the inlet possesses kinetic energy as well as pressure energy.
As water flows through the runner, a part of pressure energy goes on changing into kinetic energy.
In Reaction turbine major portion of the pressure loss takes place in the rotating wheel. Fluid entering
the rotor around its entire circumference is in action. So its rotor needs to be so large as compared to the
impulse turbine of same power.
In reaction turbine, water enters the wheel under pressure and flow over vanes. As the water, flowing
over the vanes, is under pressure, therefore wheel of the turbine runs full and may be submerged. The
pressure head of water, while flowing over the vanes, is converted into velocity head and is finally
reduced to the atmospheric pressure, before leaving the wheel.

Main Components of a reaction turbine

A reaction turbine has the following main components.

1. Spiral casing
2. Guide mechanism
3. Turbine runner
m
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4. Draft tube

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1. Spiral casing

a
The casing of reaction turbine is designed in such a way that it’s cross sectional area goes on reducing
uniformly around the circumference. The cross sectional area is maximum at the entrance and minimum

m
at the tip. Due to this, the casing will be of spiral shape. That is why it is called spiral casing or scroll
casing. The water from a pipeline is distributed around the guide ring in a casing.

a
The material of the casing depends upon the head of water. If head is upto 30 meter then concrete

n
should be used. If head is upto 100 meter then welded rolled steel plate should be used. If it is more

y
than 100 meter then cast steel should be used for casing.

2. Guide mechanism
d
This is the arrangement of blades and vanes which will guide the water to move towards runner.

u
The guide vanes are fixed between the two rings in the form of a wheel. This wheel is fixed in the

t
spiral casing.

S
Functions of guide vanes

 Guide vanes allow the water to enter the runner without shock. Guide vanes keep relative
velocity at inlet of the runner, tangential to the vane angle and thus results in entering of water
without shock.
 They allow the water to flow over them without forming eddies.
 They allow the required quantity of water to enter the turbine. This is done by adjusting the
vanes.

All the guide vanes can rotate about their respective pivots. Pivots are connected to the guided ring or
regulating ring. This ring is connected to the regulating shaft by means of two regulating rods. Guide
vanes may be closed or opened by rotating the regulating shaft, thus allowing required quantity of water
to flow. The regulating shaft is operated by a governor whose function is to govern the turbine. Governor
function is to keep the speed constant at varying loads.
Guide vanes are generally made of cast steel.
13

3. Turbine Runner

 The rotating wheel of the reaction turbine is known as runner. Runner consists of many curved
plates welded with circular discs. For small diameter they are casted as single units.
 The runner is keyed to a shaft, which may be vertical or horizontal. If the shaft is vertical, it is
called a vertical turbine. Similarly if shaft is horizontal, it is called as horizontal turbine.
 The surface of the runner is made very smooth to minimize frictional losses. The runner may be
cast in one piece or may be made of separate steel plates and welded together.
 For low heads, the runner may be made of cast iron. But for high heads, the runner is made of
steel or alloys. When the water is impure, special alloys are used.

4. Draft tube
The water, after passing through the runner, flows down through a tube called draft tube.
 It increases the head of water equal to the height of the runner outlet above the tail race.
 It increases efficiency of the turbine.

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S.NO RGPV QUESTIONS Year Marks
Q.1 What are reaction turbines? What are their important component Dec 2011 10

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parts & what are their functions?

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14

UNIT 5/LECTURE 6
Draft Tube:
It is a pipe of gradually increasing area which connects the outlet of the runner to the tailrace. In a
Reaction turbine such as a Francis turbine or Kaplan turbine, a diffuser tube is installed at the exit of the
runner, known as Draft Tube. It has following functions:
 It is used for discharging water from the exit of the turbine to the tailrace.
 It permits a negative head to be established at the outlet of the runner & thereby
increase the net head on the turbine.
 It converts a large portion of KE rejected at the outlet of the turbine into useful
pressure energy.

Types of draft tube:

1. Conical diffuser or straight divergent tube-This type of draft tube consists of a conical diffuser
with half angle generally less than equal to 10° to prevent flow separation. It is usually employed
for low specific speed, vertical shaft Francis turbine. Efficiency of this type of draft tube is 90%.

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2. Simple elbow type draft Tube-It consists of an extended elbow type tube. Generally, used when
turbine has to be placed close to the tail-race. It helps to cut down the cost of excavation and the

o
exit diameter should be as large as possible to recover kinetic energy at the outlet of runner.

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Efficiency of this kind of draft tube is less almost 60%.

a
3. Elbow with varying cross section-It is similar to the Bent Draft tube except the bent part is of
varying cross section with rectangular outlet.the horizontal portion of draft tube is generally

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inclined upwards to prevent entry of air from the exit end.

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Draft tube theory:

Cavitation occurs when the local absolute pressure falls below the saturated vapor pressure of the water
for the water temperature. The height of draft tube is an important parameter for avoiding cavitation.
Applying Bernoulli's equation between outlet of the runner and discharge point of the draft tube
15

Neglecting any head loss in draft tube)

z2 = z (Height of draft tube)

z3 = height of tail race which is referenced as datum line (=0)

p2 = pressure at the outlet of the runner

p3 = gauge pressure

Since draft tube is a diffuser V3 is always less than V2 which implies p2 is always negative thus height of
the draft tube is an important parameter to avoid cavitation.
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o MARKS

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What is a draft tube? Why is it
Q.1 Dec 2014
used? 2

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What is a draft tube? Explain its 4
Q.2 Dec 2013
different types.

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UNIT 1/LECTURE 7

Centrifugal Pump
It is a pump having vanes that rotate in a casing and whirl the fluid around so that it acquires sufficient
momentum to discharge from the extremities into a volute casing which surrounds the impeller and in
which the fluid is conducted to the discharge pipe.

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Main parts of centrifugal pump
1. Impeller:

a
The rotating part of the pump, consisting of a series of backward curved vanes & is mounted on

m
a shaft which is connected to the shaft of an electric motor.

a
2. Casing:
Similar to the casing of reaction turbine, it is an airtight passage surrounding the impeller & is

n
designed in such a way that the KE of the water discharged at the outlet of the impeller is

y
converted into pressure energy before the water leaves the casing & enters the delivery pipe.

d
Types of casing are:
i.
u
Volute casing: the casing that receives the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing

t
down the fluid's rate of flow. A volute is a curved funnel that increases in area as it

S approaches the discharge port. The volute converts kinetic energy into pressure by
reducing speed while increasing pressure, helping to balance the hydraulic pressure on
the shaft of the pump.
ii. Vortex casing: If a circular chamber is introduced between the casing & the impeller, it is
called vortex casing. By introducing circular chamber, the loss of energy due to the
formation of eddies is reduced to a considerable extent. Thus the efficiency of the pump
is more than the efficiency when only volute casing is provided.
iii. Casing with guide blades: In this, impeller is surrounded by a series of guide blades
mounted on a ring which is called diffuser. The guide vanes are designed in such a way
that the water from the impeller enters the guide vanes without shock. Also the area of
17

the guide vanes increases, thus reducing the velocity of flow through guide vanes &
consequently increasing the pressure of water.

3. Suction pipe, foot valve & strainer


Suction pipe connects the centre of the impeller to the sump from which liquid is to be lifted. It
is airtight & provided with a strainer at its lower end so as to prevent the entry of solid particles
& other foreign materials etc into the pump. The foot valve is a one way valve located above the
strainer into the suction pipe. It serves to fill the pump with liquid before it is started & prevents

m
back flow when the pump is stopped.

4. Delivery Pipe
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A pipe whose one end is connected to the outlet of the pump & other end delivers the water at
a required height is known as delivery pipe.

a
Working of a centrifugal pump
m
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The pump is initially primed wherein the suction pipe, casing & portion of the delivery pipe upto the

n
delivery valve are completely filled with the liquid to be pumped. Rapid motion imparted to the impeller

y
then builds up centrifugal force which throws the liquid towards the impeller periphery. This causes

d
pressure gradient in the suction pipe i.e. a partial vacuum exists at the impeller eye (centre of the
impeller) while the liquid in the sump is at atmospheric pressure. Consequently liquid from the sump is

u
t
sucked in the impeller eye. When the liquid passes through the impeller, it receives energy & that results

S
in the growth of both pressure & velocity. The casing collects the liquid from the impeller & guides it to
the delivery pipe. Since the casing increases in cross sectional area towards the delivery, kinetic head
represented by the high discharge velocity is partially transferred into pressure head before the liquid
leaves the pump. The process is continuous as long as motion is given to the impeller & there is supply of
liquid to draw upon.

Priming of pump:
Most centrifugal pumps are not self-priming. In other words, the pump casing must be filled with liquid
before the pump is started, or the pump will not be able to function. If the pump casing becomes filled
with vapours or gases, the pump impeller becomes gas-bound and incapable of pumping. To ensure that
a centrifugal pump remains primed and does not become gas-bound, most centrifugal pumps are
18

located below the level of the source from which the pump is to take its suction. The same effect can be
gained by supplying liquid to the pump suction under pressure supplied by another pump placed in the
suction line.

S.NO RGPV QUESTION YEAR MARKS


Explain briefly with neat sketches
any two of the following- 7
Q.1 (i) Volute casing Dec 2013
(ii) Vortex casing
(iii) Casing with guide blades

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UNIT 1/ LECTURE 8

Efficiencies of centrifugal pump


1. Ma o etric efficie cy ηmax): ratio of manometric head to the head imparted by the
impeller to the water is called manometric efficiency.
The power at the impeller of the pump is more than the power given to the water at
outlet of the pump. The ratio of the power given to water at outlet of the pump to the
power available at the impeller is called manometric efficiency.
2. Mechanical efficiency ηm): the power at the shaft is more than the power available at
the impeller of the pump. The ratio of the power available at the impeller to the
power at the shaft is known as mechanical efficiency.

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3. O erall Efficie cy ηo): it is the ratio of output power of the pump to input power of
the pump.
o
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a
Definitions of head:
1. Suction lift (hs): the vertical distance between the top surface of liquid in the sump
& the centre of the pump impeller. m
a
2. Discharge lift (hd): the vertical distance between the centre of the pump impeller &

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the top surface of liquid in the discharge tank.

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3. Total static or vertical lift: sum of suction & delivery lifts

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4. Suction head (Hs): It is the vertical height of the centre line of the centrifugal pump

u
above the water surface in the suction tank or pump from which water is to be
t
lifted.
S
Hs = hi + hfs + hs + (Vs2/2g)
Where hi = loss of head at inlet to suction pipe, hfs = loss of head due to friction and Vs
= flow velocity in suction pipe (s denotes for suction pipe) The head (h i + hfs + hs) is
measured by a vacuum gauge installed near the suction flange quite adjacent to
pump.
5. Delivery head (Hd): It is the vertical distance between the centre line of the pump
& the water surface in the tank to which water is delivered.
Hd = hfd + hd + (Vd2/2g)
hfd = head loss due to friction & Vd = flow velocity in discharge pipe (d denotes for
20

discharge/delivery pipe).
6. Total external head (H): head against which the pump has to work. It is given by
H = Hs + Hd – (Vs2/2g)
Where Hs + Hd is also called static head.
7. Manometric head: difference between the total energy of fluid at inlet to and at
exit from the pump. It is given by following expressions:
a. Hm = total head at outlet – total head at inlet
�� ��2 �� ��2
={
��
+ + �� } - { + + �� }
� �� �

b. Hm = static head + head losses (friction & minor) in the suction & delivery pipe +
velocity head at delivery pipe
��2
= Hs + Hd + hfd + hfs +

m
8. Net positive suction head: NPSH = (absolute pressure at inlet to pump) – (vapour
pressure of liquid being pumped) + (velocity head in suction pipe) o
NPSH = ��� −
� ��
+
��2
.c
a
�� �

NPSH represents suction head at the impeller eye, which further represents the head

m
required to make the liquid flow from the suction pipe to the pump impeller. For

a
smooth & cavitation free operation of the pump, NPSH should have a value such that

n
the flowing liquid does not boil under reduced pressure.

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9. Shut off head: It is the highest point to which the pump will lift the liquid.

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S.NO
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RGPV QUESTION YEAR MARKS

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Define manometric, mechanical &
Q.1 overall efficiency of a centrifugal Dec 2014 3

S pump.
21

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