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Republic of the Philippines

City of Talisay
TALISAY CITY COLLEGE
Poblacion, Talisay City, Cebu

REVIEW MATERIAL FOR TEACHING PROFESSION


Second semester school year 2018-2019

NCBTS D-NCBTS PPST


 Key element of the  2015, after  Complements the reform initiatives on
Teacher Education the teacher quality from pre-service to in-
Development Program implementati service training
 It influences each stage of on of the K-  New version of the NCBTS introduced
the TEDP 12 DepEd om 2017 through DepEd O No. 42
 Effective teaching means released the  Complements the reform initiatives on
that all types of elarners revised teacher quality from pre-service
will achieve the goals of version to education to in-service training
the curriculum this  articulates what constitutes teacher
 Implemented via CHED  Removed the quality in K to 12 Reform through well-
memo no 52 s2007 and domain of defined domains, strands and
DepEd O No. 32 s2009 Social Regard indicators
 Since then became part of for Learning  Provide measures of professional
the implementation of and learning, competent practice and
Basic Education Sector subsumed in effective engagement
Reform Agenda (BESRA) 3 domains  Make explicit standards what teachers
 Originally defined the  3 domains is should know, be able to do and value
different dimensions of replaced to achieve competence, improved
teaching (called domains) with student learning outcomes and
and was composed of 7 Content, eventually quality education
domains, 23 strands, and Knowledge  Founded on teaching philosophies of
80 performance indicators and learner-centeredness, lifelong learning
 Based on the core values Pedagogy and inclusivity/inclusiveness
of a Filipino teacher (CKP)  Public statement of professional
Maka-Diyos, Makatao, accountability that can help teachers
Makabayan, and Maka- reflect on and assess their own
kalikasan practices as they aspire for personal
growth and professional development

NCBTS VS D-NCBTS VS PPST


AREA NCBTS D-NCBTS PPST
Number of Domains 7
Names of Domains  Social Regard for  Content, Knowledge and Pedagogy
Learning  Learning Environment
 Learning Environment  Diversity of Learners
 Diversity of Learners  Curriculum and Planning
 Curriculum Assessing and Reporting
 Planning, Assessing Community Linkages and
and Reporting Professional Engagement
 Community Linkages Personal Growth and Professional
 Personal Growth and Development
Professional
Development
Career Stages None None 1 – Beginning Teachers
2 – Proficient Teachers
3 – Highly Proficient
Teachers
4 – Distinguished
Teachers

NCBTS VS D-NCBTS VS PPST


NCBTS DOMAIN 7 D—NCBTS/PPST
Social Regard for Learning 1 Content Knowledge and Pedagogy
- Teachers serve as positive and - Content knowledge and its application
powerful role models of values within and across curr areas
like pursuit or learning and the - Research-based knowledge and
effort to learn principles of teaching and learning
The teachers’ actions, statements, and - Positive use of ICT
social interactions with students show - Strategies for promoting literacy and
there are role models numeracy
- Strategies for developing critical &
creative thinking as well as HOTS
- Mother-tongue, Filipino, and English in
teaching and learning
- Classroom communication strategies
Learning Environment 2 Learning Environment
- Teachers provide a physical and - Learners’ safety and security
social environment where all - Fair learning environment
students, despite their - Management of classroom structure
differences, can engage in all and activities
learning activities and achieve - Support for learning participation
curricular goals - Promotion of purposive learning
- Management of learner behavior

Diversity of Learners 3 Diversity of Learners


- Teachers facilitate the learning - learners’ gender needs, strengths.
process to different types of learners. Interests, and experiences
They recognize individual differences - Learners’ linguistic, cultural socio-
and design learning experiences economic, and religious backgrounds
according to their differences - Learners with disabilities, giftedness
and talents
- Learners in difficult circumstances
- Learners from indigenous group
Curriculum 4 Curriculum and Planning
- Teachers maximize all the - Planning and management of teaching
elements of the teaching- and learning process
learning process to help - learning outcomes aligned with
students achieve goals, attain learning competencies
high standards of learning and - Relevance and responsiveness of
succeed learning programs
- The elements include subject - Professional collaboration to enrich
matter knowledge, strategies, teaching practice
activities, instructional - Teaching and learning resources,
materials/resources, and including ICT
knowledge of the learners
Planning, Assessing and Reporting 5 Assessment and Reporting
- Teachers align their assessment - Design, selection, organization and utilization
and planning activities in order of assessment strategies
to ensure that the activities are - Monitoring and evaluation of learner
a match to the current progress and achievement
knowledge and skill levels of - Feedback to improve learning
students - Communication of learner needs,
- When they have assessment progress, and achievement to key
data, teachers use these to stakeholders
adjust teaching-learning - Use of assessment data to enhance
episodes and provide either teaching and learning practices and
enhancement or remediation programs
- Teachers utilize diagnostic,
formative and summative
assessments effectively.
- Teachers report students
achievements and points for
improvement accurately.
Community Linkages 6 Community Linkages and Professional
- Teachers ensure school Engagement
activities are aligned with the - Establishment of learning
values, aspirations and environments that are responsive to
experiences of students in their community contexts
homes and communities - Engagement of parents and the wider
- Teachers forge and strengthen school community in the educative
links with the community and process
aid of achieving curricular - Professional ethics
objectives - School policies and procedures
Personal Growth and Professional 7 Personal Growth and Professional
Development Development
- Teachers demonstrate high - Philosophy of education
regard for being a teacher - Dignity of teaching as a profession
- Teachers demonstrate concern - Professional links with colleagues
for their professional - Professional reflection and learning to
development and ensure they improve practice
continuously improve - Professional development goals

Career stages of teachers


Stage 1 – BEGINNING Teacher
• gained qualifications in entry to teaching
• strong understanding of the subjects/areas
• trained in CKP.
• possess the requisites of KSV support the T & L
• manage learning programs and have strategies that promote L & LN
• Seek advice from experienced colleagues to consolidate their teaching practice
Stage 2 – PROFICIENT Teacher
• professionally independent in the application of skills to T and L.
• provide focused teaching programs on curriculum and assessment.
• skilled in planning, implementing, and managing learning programs.
• engaged in collaborative learning with the professional community, stakeholders for growth and
advancement.
reflective practitioners who continually consolidate the KSV of teachers in Career Stage
Stage 3 – HIGHLY PROFICIENT Teacher
• high level of performance
• Manifest an in-depth and sophisticated understanding of the T & L
• High education-focused situation cognition, adept in problem-solving and optimize opportunities gained from
experience.
• Works with colleagues and provide support and mentoring
• seek to develop their professional knowledge
• practice by reflecting their & others needs
Stage 4 – DISTINGUISHED Teacher
• Embody the highest standard for teaching – global
• Exhibit exceptional capacity to improve their teaching practice and others
• Recognized as leaders in education, contributors to profession, initiator of collaboration & partnership
• Create life-long impact on the lives of others
• Seek for professional advancement relevant to teaching quality and excellence
• Exhibit commitment to inspire Phil education
Commonalities and differences IPPD RPMS
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Individual Results –
Beginning Proficient Highly Distinguished Plan for Based
Proficient Professional Performance
Development Management
introduced in System
6/2010
Minimum Bachelor’s Degree Individual Results –
Qualifications Professional License as a Teacher Plan for Based
Professional Performance
Development Management
introduced in System
6/2010
In relation to Asks help Can do it gives help to Gives help to Helps Replaced CB-
others alone fellow faculty fellow faculty professional PAST om SY
members members, plan their 14-15
students and continuous
even learning and Shared by
strangers development teacher and
(e.g. as superior
textbook, Regularly and
module individually Open
authors, prepares, discussion of
researchers, implements, job
seminar monitors and expectations,
facilitators updates the KRA,
plan in objectives
consultation and how it is
with SH aligned to
the goals of
SH will help DepEd
match the
plan with the There is a list
Teachers’ of what is to
Strengths be done to
and Needs improve on
Assessment pts where
for the the teacher
particular scored low
region/area.

NCBTS D-NCBTS/PPST
Instructional Competence
Domains 3, 4, and 5 Domains 1, 3, 4, and 5
School, Home and Community Linkages
Domains 2 and 6 Domains 2 and 6
Personal and Social Growth and Professional Characteristics
Domains 1 and 7 Domain 1
This system was developed as a result of RA 9155 or the Governance of Basic Education Act

HISTORICAL
RA PROVISIONS RA PROVISIONS
1987 C Education, Science and Technology, 11036 Mental Health Act Non-Education
Art XIV Culture, Arts and Sports specific laws/regulations/programs
that have an impact on teachers; on
students safety and well-being
DO16s MTBMLE Guidelines (12) (BSA) 74s ‘09 MTBMLE (Arroyo)
1982
ED 1863 3 levels of curriculum, entrada, acenso, 6655 Free Public Secondary Education Act (Pres. C.
termino Aquino)
9155 Governance of Basic Educ (Sec-N; R; D; 8545 Gov’t Assistance to Students and Teachers
D; Sch) Private Education (GASTPE)
10157 Integrated Kindergarten Education Act 7722 Higher Education Act (FVR)
10912 Continuing Prof Dev’t Act/CPD 7836 Teachers Professionalization Act
Art XIV Sec 1-5 is on EDUCATION Art XIV Sec 6 – 13 Languages
Sec 14 – 18 Arts and Culture
Sec 19 – Sports
4670 Magna Carta of Publ Sch T 10533 K to 12
CMOs – for BEED, BSED English, Science, Math, Filipino
New one is for BECED, BSNED, BPED, BTTE

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Vocation – a calling
Mission – to send/a task entrusted to you in this world
Profession – denoting something that is done, in a long and arduous years of preparation, striving for
excellence, dedication to public interest, commitment to moral and ethical values has financial rewards

• Teaching as a profession - Regulated


• QUALIFICATIONS
• College graduates (find the courses)
• If professionals want to teach, RA 4670 (18 units of professional education subjects)
• by the government
• WORK CONDITIONS
• Security of tenure as long as they possess the necessary qualifications (RA 7836) and civil service eligibility (RA
4670)
• RESPONSIBILITIES
• Must adhere to RA 7630 and RA 7836
• Must teach all assigned classes and must perform non-teaching duties (adviser & other work)
• Must pass the medical examination
• Possess a valid professional teacher’s license
• RIGHTS
• To be notified about transfer of assignment (1month) RA 4670
• Can join organizations
• When disciplinary measures, inform in writing, access to evidences, right to defend him/herself with a
representative, given enough time to prepare and right to appeal
• While case is pending, no publicity to ensure teacher’s reputation especially if later on not guilty
• NCBTS – Originallly
• IPPD – Individual Plan for Professional Development
• CB-PAST – Competency-Based – Professional Appraisal System for Teachers
• D-NCBTS – Developmental National Competency Based for Teacher Standard. Domain 6 –teacher relating with
the community and fellow educators

PHILIPPINE QUALIFICATION FRAMEWORK – A NATIONAL POLICY DESCRIBING THE LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL


QUALIFICATIONS AND SETS THE STANDARDS AND SETS THE STANDARDS FOR QUALIFICATION OUTCOMES
 COMPETENCY-BASED
 LABOR MARKET-DRIVEN
 ASSESSMENT-BASED QUALIFICATION RECOGNITION
 Aquino EO No. 83 created PQF National Coordinating Committee DepEd (chair) TESDA, CHED, DOLE AND PRC
 TESDA – provides info..on education and training, professional and skilled qualifications, maintains updates
database of professional and skills qualifications
 CHED – (1) provides pathways and equivalencies…facilitates transfer and/or progression begween education
and enhancement of the Ladderized Education Program (2) Quality Assurance…develops PQF quality
procedures and manuals, facilitates the conduct of evaluation and compliance audits vis-à-vis NCC
 DepEd – information and guidelines…develops materials to promote and advocate PQF; formulates guidelines,
circulars, and policy issuances for the approval of NCC
 PRC – international Alignment…conducts researches/studies for comparability/benchmarking of PQ with other
countries and reg’l, int’l groupings, coordinates w/professional orgns mutual recognition
arrangements/agreements

Beneficiaries of the PQF


PERSON EMPLOYERS EDUCATION AND AUTHORITIES
Encouraged to engage in Have a common TRAINING PROVIDERS Provides the standards,
lifelong learning and understanding on Ensures transparency in taxonomies, and typology
progress from his initial standards, qualifications, training provision, of qualifications as bases
level to the succeeding and levels. conformance to standards, for granting approvals to
qualifications that suits his Assures that standards and and preciseness of providers and stakeholders.
needs and interest qualifications are accountability for learning Harmonizes qualifications
consistent to job outcomes. in education and training
requirements or demand Provides a common across the Philippines
understanding of policies
and guidelines on credit
transfers, articulation,
portability, bridge
pathways and RPL

LEVELS OF QUALIFICATIONS
LEVEL QUALIFICATION KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS APPLICATION DEGREE OF
AND VALUES INDEPENDENCE
I NC 1/ Manual and concrete Activities are set in a limited Very close support,
GRADE 10 or practical and or range of highly familiar, guidance, or
operational in focus predictable context supervision
Involve straightforward routine
issues addressed by set rules,
guidelines, or procedures
II NC 1I/ Manual and concrete Activities are set in a limited Substantial support,
GRADE 12 or practical and or range of highly familiar, guidance or
operational in focus predictable context supervision
with a variety of Involve routine issues addressed Limited judgment
options by SELECTING FROM AND or discretion is
FOLLOWING A NUMBER OF set of needed
rules, guidelines, or procedures
III NC III Balance of theoretical Activities are set in contexts with May involve
and practical some unfamiliar or unpredictable individual
Understanding work aspects responsibility or
process, contributing Involve routine and non-routine autonomy
to problem-solving and issues addressed by interpreting May involve some
making decisions to and applying established responsibility to
determine process, guidelines or procedures, with others
equipment and some variations May involve team
materials to be used participation or
group coordination
IV NC IV Mainly theoretical Activities are set in a range of Some leadership
and/or abstract with contexts, most of which and guidance when
significant depth in one involve…unfamiliar and/or organizing activities
or more areas unpredictable aspects of self and others
Contributing to Involve largely non-routine issues
technical solutions of a addressed using guidelines or
non-routine or procedures which require
contingency nature interpretation and/or adaptation
Evaluation and analysis
of current practices
Development of new
criteria and procedures
V Diploma Mainly theoretical Activities are supervisory, There is broad
and/or abstract with complex and non routine which guidance and
significant depth in one require an extensive direction
or more areas together interpretation and/or Where judgment is
with wide-ranging adaptation/innovation required in planning
specialized, technical, and selecting
creative and appropriate
conceptual skills equipment, services
Perform work activities and techniques for
demonstrating self and others
breadth, depth and Undertake work
complexity in the involving
planning and initiation participation in the
of alternative development of
approaches to skills strategic initiatives
and knowledge as well as personal
applications across a responsibility and
broad range of autonomy in
technical and/or performing
management complex technical
requirements, operations or
evaluation and organizing others
coordination
VI Baccalaureate or Broad coherent Professional work or research in a Independent
Bachelor’s degree knowledge and skills specialized field of discipline and/or in teams or
int heir field of study and/or for further study related field
(to be used) for With minimal
professional work and supervision
lifelong learning
VI Post Advanced knowledge Professional work that requires Independent or in
Baccalaureate and skills in specialized leadership and management in a teams of multi-
program/Master’s or multi-disciplinary specialized or multi-disciplinary discplnary fields,
degree field of study for professional work, research, with very minimal
professional practice or and/or for further study supervision
self-directed research
VIII Doctoral degree Highly advanced Highly specialized or complex Independent
and post-doctoral systematic knowledge multi-disciplinary field of and/or teams of
program and skills in very professional work, research multi-disciplinary
specialized or complex and/or further study that and complex setting
multi-disciplinary field requires management expertise,
of learning for multi- innovation and leadership
faceted research or
professional practice or
for advance of learning

Who is a teacher?
• Makes a community complete
• The next adult influence of students after the parents
• Not just on teaching or just a profession, it is a vocation, people with genuine desire to teach and serve can do
the job truthfully and successfully
• Through quality teachers, the Philippines can develop holistic learners who are steeped in values, equipped
with 21st century skills (communicator, collaborator, critical thinker, creative) and able to propel the country to
development and progress
• DepEd Order 42, series 2017 “ role of teachers in the PPST

Who is a global teacher?


 Mentors of students not just in their areas but also those in other parts of the world
 Know how to deal will people who come from different religions, socio-economic backgrounds, cultural heritage,
races.

Competent knowledgeable Eager to learn erudite thorough


Conscientious Just Careful Honest Wise
Committed Industrious Patient Kind Understanding
Flexible Direct Emotionally stable Driven Refined
Pleasant motivated Objective Cooperative resourceful
There are three main classifications of skills that teachers must possess:
Functional Adaptive Professional
Planning Creativity Mastery of the Subject Matter
Organizing Dependability Competence in Use of Teaching strategies
Controlling Resourcefulness Transfer of Learning
Communicating Persuasiveness Understanding of Human Behavior
Motivating Discipline Understanding of the different Foundations of
Developing Memory Education
Managing Perceptiveness
Positive Attitude

ROLES OF A TEACHER
1. Lecturer
 teaches assigned subjects
 Provides review sessions for students
 Applies psychology of learning principles in teachsing
 Emphasizes understanding of concepts and facts
 Explains the lessons clearly
 Emphasizes important points so that students can easily outline
 Answers students’ questions correctly and professionally
II. Facilitator
 Departs from the old belief that T is a transmitter of knowledge
 Makes teachers a manager of learning activities and experiences
 Instead of being the sole fountain of knowledge, the teacher accompanies students in their quest of learning
 Guides students in their experiences
 assists/implements curricular, co and extra activities of students
 Provides opportunities for students to participate
 Provides varied activities that will ensure understanding
 Allows students to be creative when appropriate
 Listens to students’ ideas and processes these
 Makes students think and reason
III. Planner
 Anticipates risk and knows how to avoid them
 Creative and be able to conceptualize learning activities that will benefit students
 Considers who the learners are (needs, abilities, weaknesses), what the lesson is and what resources are
available to him or her
 prepares effective lesson plans
 Combines government-mandated, school directed and teacher-made goals/lesson objectives
 Follows and enhances what is required in the curriculum
 Considers lesson, strategy and students when making instructional materials
 Determines how students’ schemata and past experiences can help in making the lesson understandable
IV. Assessor
 Assessment is a function of every teacher and is crucial in determining whether a student P or F (what
happens)
 Judgment provides encouragement or lacks in a learner
 A credible and influential authority in assessment
 assesses students’/pupils’ progress
 Reports about students’/pupils’ progress
 Fairly assesses learners and removes all forms of biases
V. Values Formator
 Role model to students and others
 Must learn how to accept his/her limitations to his/her actions
 Class adviser
 Concerned with the class’ overall well-being, not just academic
 implements rules and regulations
 Provides guidance services to students
 Participates in socio-economic development projects
VI. Record keeper
 Keeps neat, complete, organized and easily retrievable records
 Holds learners’ academic records (grades)
 Knows how to prepare anecdotal records – qualitative or paragraph-form feedback or descriptions that can
characterize the learner’s progress
 Exercises a high level of trust on learners’ sensitive personal information, academic and deportment records
 keeps accurate and up-to-date records of students
 Regularly checks attendance
 Provides both quantitative (e.g. grades) and qualitative (e.g. anecdotal) records of students
VII. Material developer
 prepares visual aids and other devices for instruction
 Ensures materials are durable and can be reused without sacrificing resources
VIII. Non-teaching duties
 helps enroll/interview students/applicants/transferees
 Monitors availability of materials (e.g. textbooks and modules for students
 Maintain membership in professional organizations
BIOTA – BIOLOGY LSP – LINGUISTIC MATHED- MATHEMATICS
NOPTI – PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS PACT – CHEMISTRY PAFTE – TEACHER EDUCATION
PALT – LANGUAGE TEACHING PI LAMBDA THETA – PHARMACISTS
SUCTEA – STATE UNIV, COLL PSBMB – BIOCHEM AND MOLECULAR PHA - HISTORY

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION
• Set of principles that serve as basis in one’s teaching
• Guide in the decision-making of the teacher
• Enables the teacher to explain what he/she is doing and why
• Applies his mind systematically to issues of importance which have been clarified and refined

1. REALISM
PROPONENTS Aristotle, Francis Bacon, St. Thomas Aquinas
MAIN TENETS • Believes in the world as it is. It views the world literally and deals with it
accordingly.
• Nothing comes to the mind without passing first through the senses
• It is based on the view that reality is what we observe. It believes that truth is
what we sense
• It stands by two beliefs: existence and independence
• Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human min. The ultimate
reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is on the body/objects
AIMS OF • Students are taught factual information – facts that can be verified, measured,
EDUCATION and OBSERVED
• Understanding the material world through inquiry
• Focus is on subject matter relating to Science and Mathematics
• Teaching methods include observation, experimentation and demonstration
2. IDEALISM
PROPONENTS Socrates, Plato

MAIN TENETS • What is ultimately real is not the object itself but the IDEA behind it
• Ideas are the only thing worth knowing for
• Its major tenet is that ideas are the only true reality. In search for truth, beauty
and justice that is enduring, the focus is on conscious reasoning in the mind
• Emphasis is given on activities that help develop the human mind, such as
reasoning, insight, introspection, and intuition
AIMS OF • Education should develop the mind fully. It makes a person rational as well. Only
EDUCATION the highly developed mind can understand all the pervading forces.
• Believe education must help in the full evolution of mind, the emancipation of
spirit, self-realization, and the realization of higher values of life and to train the
whole man completely.
• The aim of education is to discover and develop each individual’s abilities and full
moral excellence in order to better serve society.
• The curricular emphasis is subject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy
and religion
• Teaching methods focus on handling ideas through lecture, discussion, and
Socratic dialogue ( a method of teaching that uses questioning to help students
discover and clarify knowledge)
• There is an emphasis on the importance of theory before practice and cultivation
of moral values
• Character is developed through imitating examples and heroes
3. EXISTENTIALISM
PROPONENTS Jean Paul Sartre, Soren Kierkegaard

MAIN TENETS • The nature of reality for existentialist is subjective and lies within the individual
• Individual choice and standards rather than external standards are central
• Existence comes before any definition of what we are (existence precedes
essence)
• We define ourselves in relationship to that existence by the choices to make
• According to existentialist, we should not accept anyone else’s predetermined
philosophical system; rather we must take responsibility for deciding who we are
AIMS OF • Focus is on the individual student. The curriculum is specialized
EDUCATION • The subject matter in an existentialist classroom is unique to each individual,
which allows them learn how to accept and appreciate themselves
• View education and knowledge as what we learn through personal inquiries and
relationships
• Methods are designed towards providing opportunities for the students for self-
direction and self-actualization
• The aim of education is to help the students understand and appreciate
themselves as unique individuals by giving them freedom and personal choices
• Character development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions. Real
answers come from within the individual, not from outside authority
4. BEHAVIORISM
PROPONENTS John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, Burrhus Frederick Skinner
MAIN TENETS • It is predicated on the belief that human behavior can be explained in terms of
responses to external stimuli
• The predictability and control of human behavior are paramount concepts. The
control is obtained not by manipulating the individual but by manipulating the
environment
• Man is shaped by his environment. He is not a product of his choices
• All behaviors are both objective and observable
• As natural organisms, humans seek for positive reinforcement and avoid
punishment
AIMS OF • Education can best be achieved by modifying or changing student behaviors in a
EDUCATION socially acceptable manner through the arrangement of the conditions of learning
• The teacher should arrange conditions under which learning can occur
• Students will learn best by the use of carefully planned schedules of
reinforcement. The use of reinforcement. The use reinforcements and rewards
can positively affect learning
5. ESSENTIALISM
PROPONENTS William Bagley, james Koerner, H.G. Rickover
MAIN TENETS • it is an educational movement that promotes the traditional or back-to-basics
approach in teaching and learning
• Education involves the learning of the basic skills, arts and sciences that have
been developed in the past. Mastering these skills and subjects prepares the
student to function as a member of a civilized society. In addition, the student
also should acquire the behavior needed for successful living.
• Essence precedes existence
• The learning of the essential curriculum requires discipline and hard work
• Schools should be academic rather than social agencies.
AIMS OF • Emphasis is on the teaching of Basic 3R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic) and
EDUCATION essential skills that have been proven over time to be needed in the society
• Learning is teacher-directed
• Emphasis on content over process
• Methods of teaching focus on giving drills, recitation, regular assignments, and
frequent testing and evaluation
• Essentialism stresses the authority of the teacher and the value of the subject
matter curriculum
• Aim is to produce skilled graduates who will become model citizens and functional
members of the society
6. PERENNIALISM
PROPONENTS Robert Hutchins, Jacques Martain, Mortimer Adler, Allan Bloom
MAIN TENETS • Views truth as unchanging, ageless, universal and everlasting
• Is teacher-centered. Teachers should have the mastery of subject matter and
have the authority in exercising it
• Rules that govern the world and the characteristics that make up human nature
stay the same
• Focus is based on the need to return to the past, namely to universal truth and
such absolutes as reason and faith
• The pursuit of truth can best be accomplished through the study of the history’s
great books, timeless concepts, and great literary works of civilization
• Favor schools that develop the intellect of all learners and prepare them for life
• They see education as the search for the intellect of all learners and prepare them
for life
• Sees education as a search for and the dissemination of truth. Since truth is
universal and unchanging a genuine education is also universal and constant
AIMS OF • The primary goal of education is to develop the intellect, the rational and moral
EDUCATION powers of man
• Attracted to courses in general education, humanities, and literature the
curriculum is generalists
• These classics are viewed as important because they deal with universal issues
and themes that are as contemporary today as when they were written
• School’s curriculum should emphasize the recurrent themes of human life. It
should contain cognitive subjects that cultivate rationality and the study of moral,
aesthetic, and religious principles to cultivate the attitudinal dimension
• Includes history, language, mathematics, logic literature and humanities and
science. The content of these subjects come from the classical works of literature
and art
7. PRAGMATISM
PROPONENTS Charles Sanders Peirce, John DeweyGeorge Herbert Mead
MAIN TENETS • The truth of an idea is dependent on its workability. Ideas are true so far as they
work
• For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real
• The Greek meaning is “work” and also mean “practical”, “functional”, or “useful”
thus what is useful is true
• Reality is seen as always changing in transition. Knowing is a transaction here the
person is always interacting with an ever-changing environment
• The experience is the central to the pragmatist. For this reason, P is sometime
experientialism
• Pragmatism is derived from the teaching of Charles Pierce who believed that
thought must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to
indecisiveness
AIMS OF • Emphasis on hands-on method, experiential learning, problem solving,
EDUCATION experimenting and projects, cooperative learning and moral development
• Curriculum should bring the disciplines together to focus on solving problems in
an interdisciplinary way. Rather than passing down organized bodies of
knowledge to new leaners. Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their
knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares
students for citizenship, daily living and future careers
• Focus on the necessity to provide true-to-life applications of a certain lesson or
skill to be able to appreciate its functionality, practicality, or usefulness to the real
world
8. PROGRESSIVISM
PROPONENTS John Dewey
MAIN TENETS • Rooted in the philosophical school of pragmatism. Progressivism is the
counterpoint to essentialism, perennialism, and memorization of irrelevant facts
• Progressivists take the pragmatic view that CHANGE is the essence of reality;
therefore education is always in the process of changing; it is a positive, continual
reconstruction of experience
• Emphasizes CHANGE and GROWTH as inevitable events. Hence, it is based on
what is new and modern so that learning becomes relevant to the present
generation
• For progressivists the child should be the focal point of the school; therefore the
curriculum and teaching methodology should relate to the students’ interests and
needs
• Moreover, Progressivism contents that children want to learn if they are not
frustrated by adults; therefore, teachers should act merely as guides to student
learning
• Individuals handle the complexity of life more effectively if they break experience
down into specific problems. Therefore, learning should involve the solving of
problems rather than memorization of subject matter
• Humans are social animals who learn best in active and real-time activities with
other people.
AIMS OF • The aim of education is to teach based on the needs of the students through
EDUCATION experiential learning so that students may learn to survive and live life fully today
• Contrary to essentialism and perennialism, progressivism is the most student
centered philosophy. The main focus is to address the needs and interests of the
learners
• Teachers only act as facilitators of learning
• Learning is an active, democratic and social process
• Learning by doing. The primacy of experience: an ounce of experience is better
than a ton of theory
• Students learn as they experiment and solve problems
• Emphasis on embracing change and innovation
• Methods in teaching include hands-on method, cooperative learning, experiment,
problem-solving and interaction
9. RECONSTRUCTIVISM
PROPONENTS Theodore, Brameld, George Sylvestre Counts, Paulo Regius Neves Freire, Ivan Illich
MAIN TENETS • R is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform
themselves in order to establish better systems of social networks
• Man, to a significant degree, plans and controls his society
• Society is in need of constant reconstruction
• It focuses on improving society through change by way of convergence and
transformation
• Its main goal is to attain social change
AIMS OF • Education is on the quest for a better society
EDUCATION • The teacher serves as a primary agent of social change
• The teacher provides opportunities for students to actively discuss social, political,
economic and educational issues
• The curriculum is centered on activities that are geared toward social reforms
• Schools should come up with programs and pokicies that will bring about social
change
• Strategies include community – based projects and problem-solving method
10. CONSTRUCTIVISM
PROPONENTS Jerome Bruner
MAIN TENETS • Constructivism posits that learning is an active, constructive process
• It is also known as discovery learning. It is a highly student – centered philosophy
• New information is linked to prior knowledge; thus mental representations are
subjective
• The learner is an information constructor. He constructs knowledge by reflecting
on the his own experiences and connecting his past and current knowledge
AIMS OF • Teachers only act as facilitators because students are capable of building their
EDUCATION own knowledge
• Learning is a contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than
acquiring it. Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and the
hypotheses of the environment
• Constructivist – oriented instructional models include problem – based learning,
situated learning and anchored instruction
OTHER PHILOSOPHIES DESCRIPTION
UTILITARIANISM States that the best action is the one that maximizes utility, which is usually defined
as that which produces the greatest well-being of the greatest number of people
RATIONALISM Stresses that reason, rather than experience, is the foundation of certainty of
knowledge
EMPIRICISM Place emphasis on sense-experience as the ultimate source of knowledge
HEDONISM Is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of leisure is most important goal of
human life
EPICUREANISM Epicurus concluded that “freedom from pain in the body and from trouble in the
mind” is the ultimate aim of a happy life
STOICISM It teaches people how to be calm and brave in the face of overwhelming anxiety and
pain
21ST CENTURY SKILLS
SKILLS WHAT ARE THOSE
COMMUNICATION Teaming, collaboration, interpersonal skills, local, national and global orientedness
interactive communication
LEARNING AND 3 C’s creativity, curiosity critical thinking problem solving skills and risk taking
MOTIVATION
LIFE AND CAREER Flexibility and adaptability; leadership and responsibility; social and cross-cultural skills;
SKILLS initiative and self-direction; productivity and accountability and ethical, moral and
spiritual values
INFORMATION, Visual literacies - ability to interpret, make meaning from information presented in the
MEDIA AND form of an image. Ability to evaluate, apply or create conceptual visual representations
TECHNOLOGY Information Literacies - ability to identify what information is needed, identify the best
sources of information for a given need, locate those sources, evaluate the sources
critically and share the information. Very essential on research
Media Literacies – ability to critically analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell
to us every day and sell to us everyday. Ability to bring critical thinking skills to bear on all
forms of media asking pertinent questions about what’s there and noticing what’s not
Scientific literacies – encompasses written, numerical and digital literacy pertaining to
understanding observing and theorizing sciences
Economic literacies - ability to apply economic concepts in situations relevant to one’s
life
technological Literacies – computer skills and the ability to use computers and other
technology to improve learning, productivity and performance
multicultural literacies – ability to interact with diversified people or persons

4 Guiding Principles in ACCESs


1. Leadership and governance
2. Curriculum and learning
3. Resource management
4. Accountability for higher learning outcomes

GASTPE – Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education


ESC – Educational Service Contracting Scheme whose aim is to decongest public secondary schools by “contracting”
the excess capacities of private high schools through the provision of subsidies for students who, otherwise, would
have gone to the public high schools.
ADM – Alternative Delivery Modes. Addresses the learning needs of the marginalized pupils and those learners at risk
of dropping out. Also, help learners overcome social and economic constraints in their schooling.
e-IMPACT – electronic – Instructional Management by Parents, Community and Teachers. The principle of e-IMPACT
is for students/children to be active participants in the learning process.. their modes of delivery are in the forms of
(1) programmed teaching (2) peer-group learning and (3) individual study
ESD – Education for Sustainable Development

4 PILLARS OF EDUCATION
1 – Learning to Know – implies learning how to learn by developing one’s concentration, memory skills and ability to
think
2 – Learning to Do – describes putting knowledge and learning into practice innovatively through (1) skill development
(2) practical know-how (3) development of competence (4) life skills (5) personal qualities (6) aptitudes and (7)
attitudes. It is more of acquisition of skills that are often linked to occupational success.
3 – Learning to Live Together – learning to live together in peace and harmony in a dynamic, holistic and lifelong
process through which are internalized and practices. It is the process that begins with the development of inner
peace in the minds and hearts of individuals engaged in the search for truth , knowledge and understanding. This is
also the development of social skills and values such as respect and concern for others, social and inter-personal skills
and appreciation of the diversity of the world.
4 – Learning to Be – it is an all-round development of the whole person, to fulfill his/her highest potential and be able
to think, decide and act independently – the source of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship. The aim of
development is the complete fulfillment of man, in all the richness of his personality the complexity of is forms of
expression and his various commitments as an individual, a member of a family and of a community, as a citizen and
producer, inventor of techniques and creative dreamer. This involves activities that foster personal development
(body, mind and spirit) and contribute to creativity, personal discovery and an appreciation of the inherent value
provided by these pursuits.

Acculturation cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another
culture
Cultural relativism - principle that an individual’s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that
individual’s own culture
Empiricist– our learning is based on our observations and perception; knowledge is not possible without experience.
Enculturation - the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its
practices and values
Essentialist – the aim is to instill students with the "essentials" of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics
approach. Essentialism ensures that the accumulated wisdom of our civilization as taught in the traditional academic
disciplines is passed on from teacher to student.
Non – Rationalism – the principle or habit of accepting reason as the supreme authority in matters of opinion, belief
or conduct.
Pragmatist – is not teaching or imparting knowledge but to encourage learning through self-effort and creative
activity.
Progressivist – believe that individuality, progress, and change are fundamental to one's education.
Rationalist – regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source
of knowledge or justification"
Stoicism - the endurance of pain or hardship without the display of feelings and without complaint.
Utilitarianist - theory about how we should evaluate a wide range of things that involve choices that people face.