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Plant design and control

valve selection under
increasing cost and time
pressure - Part II
This is the second and final section of Mr Siemers´ technical paper addressing plant design and
control valve selection when working under increased time and cost pressure. The first section (April
issue) focused on control valve operating points and provided a case history involving a mismatch
before introducing better valve sizing practices. Part two starts by explaining the trends and
definitions of inherent valve characteristics before focusing on “quick and dirty” sizing. The paper
then addresses cavitation before concluding with the expert software available to help select the
optimum valve characteristic form.

By Dipl. Ing. Holger Siemers, SAMSON AG

5 Trends and definitions of inherent general market demands to the highest

valve characteristics for globe and flow capacity (cv x 100)/DN2 at lowest
Part I
1. Plant design under cost and time
rotary valves initial cost.Today, the inherent character-
pressure Gain requirements of valve inherent char- istics of globe valves are somewhat modi-
2. Control valves today are converting acteristics are defined in IEC 543 2-4 with fied equal percentage in the competitive
links between budgets! a tolerance band of +-10 % within the range of published highest cv values.To be
3. From traditional to modern limits: 0.5 < ∆cv / ∆s < 2.This was a competitive, valves need to be offered
Development and Engineering compromise to the former stricter nation- mostly with the largest seat diameter
Practice (DEP) for plant designers al regulations of VDI 2173 with (smallest nominal size DN), if not speci-
4. The new DEP for trouble-shooting 0.7 < ∆cv / ∆s < 1.3 and +-10% of the fied otherwise.
the mismatched case study in cv100 value. See Figures 7a to 7c. Cam and positioner signal technology
section 2
Because today there are many types of in- used to linearize any mismatching is not
herent valve characteristics, from the the “door to heaven”; rather, advantages
globe control valves to quarter-turn con- and disadvantages need to be discussed
Part II
trol valves, IEC 534 2-4 has defined basic separately.[4]
5. Trends and definitions of inherent requirements for the characteristic quality Figures 7d and 7e show that there is an in-
valve characteristics for globe and (see Figures 7a to 7e). teraction between the valve characteristic
rotary valves. In general, all kinds of characteristics are form, the flow capacity and the power
6. Detail engineering-sources for plant supported, but they are to be published if consumption.This is shown here with liq-
and valve designers have dried out! they are not of the ideal linear or equal uid measurements of xFz characteristics
7. Noise reduction and getting the percentage type, i.e. outside the tolerance versus load cv/cv100.Valves with higher
plant power under control. band defined in IEC 534 2-4.The ideal xFz values convert the power [dp x q x
8. Selecting the optimum valve equal percentage characteristic of globe const.][1] better to heat by flow friction
characteristic form
valves from former times cannot be than high flow capacity valves, which con-
9. Using software to increase control
achieved with modern economic standard vert more to flow velocity and therefore
quality, reduce cost and save time
for creativity
globe valves, which also have to follow cavitation occurs at smaller pressure drops.
Note: given the amount of detail in some of the graphics in this article, readers might like to note that a high resolution
PDF version can be viewed at:

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Fig. 7a Fig. 7b

Fig. 7c

Fig. 7d Fig. 7e

Figs 7a to 7e: Inherent valve characteristic versus flow capacity versus power converting capability -xFz f(cv/cv100)-. JUNE 2005 Valve World 35

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Modern control valves are designed for tence for high-level engineering for valves valve qualities with comparison measure-
specific marked segments like chemicals, with higher demands have dried out and ments of seven globe valves. Adjusted to
food & beverage and pharmaceuticals. On the risk of “quick and dirty” sizing is in- the same cv100 value the valves create
a higher price level they are used for the creasing. SPL differences between 65 and 95 dB(A)
downstream hydrocarbon processing in- Given today's quality standards ISO depending on valve design parameters
dustries and oil and gas market. And at 9001:2000 and the upcoming SIL (IEC like top-guided parabolic, top seat-guided
the top price level they are mainly applied 61508) requirements even for non emer- contour plug or top seat-guided parabolic
in the onshore and offshore upstream gency shut down ESD serial valve prod- AC trim. If no measurements from the
market, in oil and gas exploration, separa- ucts, do we really need SIL for special se- valve database are available, valve recov-
tion, storing and transport, or they are vere service valves? Also, as products are ery factors versus valve load cv/cv100 are
tailored for special demands. In the HPI more often being offered under e-pur- used in the software for flow and SPL cal-
market, control valves are more often chasing conditions characterized by an in- culation as a first approximation for para-
“power converting machines” up to 300 creasing cost and time pressure, the au- bolic plugs (flow to open).
MW used as flare valves, blow down or thor would like to point out that care Figure 8e shows a real-time test rig for
anti-surge control valves and for other needs to be taken in this area, particularly comparison measurements as demon-
special demands.Those valves in the se- for severe service valves. Proper control strated in Figure 8f with xFz measure-
vere service area in all nominal sizes and valve selection requires detail engineering ments -xFz versus valve load cv/cv100-
pressure ratings are on average approxi- with competence.We should not save ini- for different plug guidance principles. In
mately four times more expensive -in- tial costs by cutting back on detailled en- critical cases detailled engineering is nec-
cluding more detail engineering- than gineering and shifting higher cost to other essary to find valves with xFz characteris-
valves of non critical standard applications after-sales budgets, e.g. troubleshooting, tics Figure 8f overlaying the curves in Fig-
in chemical plants in the range of maintenance and, at worst, plant shut- ure 8b to avoid cavitation over the entire
DN <= 6 inch and PN <= Class 300. down or accidents. control range.
The CONVAL software looks at plant pa- In applications with steam or gases, highly
6 Detail engineering-sources for rameters (pipework, pipe devices, flow sophisticated noise reduction measures
plant-and valve designers dried out! meters and valves) from an overall point also need to be taken, giving priority to
Plant and valve designers in the field of of view with expert system features to the valve outlet velocity, especially in case
severe applications need time to optimize compensate for the negative trends de- of flashing, which is not noise sensitive.[1,
control quality, the sound level and power scribed above.The integrated mighty part 2]
consumption as well as to handle increas- valve database can store every brand valve
ing regulation paperwork and economic function like inherent valve characteristic 8 Selecting the optimum valve charac-
aspects. Sizing control valves from a total as well as all defined valve recovery factor teristic form
point of view is a challenge for the project functions. This is the last point to improve control
engineer as well as for the valve manufac- quality but also the most difficult. In case
turer's specialists, even if they use mod- 7 Noise reduction and getting the of pressure control from a static point of
ern powerful in-house sizing programs plant power under control is not that view, an equal percentage characteristic
and tools.Those “valve guys” need long- easy under time pressure. stands for a more constant gain ∆p/ds ;
term experience and high skills in meas- Figures 8a to 8d show the interaction of p=p1, p2, or ∆p independent of the
urement and control, mechanical engi- different valve authority parameters with valve authority. But anti-surge pressure
neering and thermodynamics. In the liquid sound emission and the chal- control mostly calls for a linear charac-
comparison to the past, the time available lenge to select the most economic valve teristic because of dynamic reasons to
for major projects has been more than for each unique plant design. Figure 8a protect the flow machine as quickly as
halved, the specification volume -includ- shows examples of a pump-generated possible.
ing the increasing paperwork associated plant system with total valve authority The software looks at all loop parameters
with standards, special regulations and V=0.3 and a tank level control process using questions and answers as illustrated
tailored customer requirements have with total valve authority V = 0.7. in the table in Figure 10.The recommen-
more than doubled. All possible valve authorities versus valve dation then is the characteristic form
Negative effects of today are: valve speci- load cv/cv100 are shown in Figure 8b. with advantages in comparison to others.
fication sheets are often of low quality, The hatched area may include > 80% of It does not mean that other characteris-
operating points are missing or not logi- all applications. Cost pressure drives the tics are not practicable. It only means
cally sorted to qmax, qnorm, qmin, Im- trend towards the bottom line V < 0.1, that they will produce higher gain fluctu-
portant property data (like the vapour unfortunately with a negative impact on ations, which can be checked separately
pressure) may be missing, no information good control parameters.This sometimes by the graphical support of the software.
about the worst-case conditions like dur- calls for undersizing cv 100 < cv max to Figure 9 shows the borders of valve au-
ing start-up, no control loop information avoid excessive gain fluctuations. thorities where the program shifts to the
etc. No wonder that sources of compe- Figure 8c shows different standard globe next better valve characteristic form. JUNE 2005 Valve World 37

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Plant characteristic, pump power 50 [kWatt] Globe valve comparison: If

xF > 0.5, risk of high SPL

Up and downstream
pressure [bar_abs]
dB(A) and resonating stem
for top guided parabolic
trims DN > 1.5 inch.
Difference > 30 dB(A)
between valve Type d) and
AC Anti-Cavitation Trim
System-Top and seat guides
special parabolic trim.

Type of valves: a to e, Cv100 from 91.7 to 131

Plant adjustment: dp_100/dp0 = 0.1 at V713 and direct replacement with a to e.

Sound pressure level

dB(A) Flow [m3/h]
Fig. 8c: The interaction of globe valve design parameters to the liquid sound emission.

Fig. 8a: The interaction of valve authority parameters to

different installed flow characteristic.

Typical globe valves xFz-characteristic

curves for sound SPL dB(A) prediction
regarding IEC 534-8-4

Fig. 8d: Approximation of valve recovery Fig. 8f: Typically measurements of

factors for standard valves (flow to open - xFz-characteristic for parabolic plug
Valve authority versus load cv/cv100
FTO), if only one value at load cv/cv100 = trims (FTO) and circumference
0,75 is given. guided trims

The valve authority characteristic is

independent from the valve characteristic.
The hatched area includes > 80% of all

Fig. 8b: Characteristic of the plant parameter

xF as a function of the load cv/cv100 and
the valve authority. Fig. 8e: Real-time test rig at SAMSON AG.

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Nevertheless, attention should still be 9 Using software to increase control tool for pipelines and pipe devices. Includ-
paid to some more specific loop parame- quality, reducing cost and saving ing material and property database for
ters for the final software decision of the time for creativity more than 3,000 substances like hydrocar-
best characteristic form. (See Figure The CONVAL® 6 software treats the bons and chlorine.About 60 industrial flu-
10b.) plant and valve sizing parameters from an ids are calculated very accurately using
After calculating the specific valve au- overall point of view, issuing dynamic equations of state developed by Ruhr Uni-
thority the software expert system goes graphics with installed characteristics con- versity in Bochum, Germany. (See
through the tables by Questions and An- cerning flow, power, gain, and outlet ve- for more details.)
swers and recommends the optimum locity as a function of the valve coefficient If operating conditions are given with one,
valve inherent characteristic form (Fig- cv and the valve travel.The software is a two or three operating points the plant
ure 10a). manufacturer-independent optimization system is defined in the standardized dif-
ferential pressure versus flow diagram.
Recommendations to improve the optimum inherent valve characteristic form. The valve The inherent cv characteristic of any valve
manufacturer cannot influence the valve upstream and downstream pressure characteristic - plant as well as all other valve characteristics
design responsibility. The valve manufacturer can influence the valve authority V if the optimum
cv100 valve is chosen. CONVAL recommend five typically characteristics forms of valve families
xFz, Fl, xT, Fd, etc. are stored in a mighty
found today. valve database in form of equations or
polynomial coefficients. Every valve in-
stalled characteristic like flow, gain, and
valve authority, sound, inlet and outlet ve-
locity as well as cavitation, flashing and
choked flow areas are presented in graphic
form.A dynamic ruler indicates all results
Example for flow control with measurements dp proportional to flow. including alarms at any valve travel posi-
If other characteristics are chosen from other aspects of view, eg, dynamic aspects, the control loop tion.The program combines expert valve
may have more gain variations. (If not out of limits, who cares?) sizing with powerful plant optimization
and troubleshooting.

Fig. 9: Borders of the inherent valve characteristics forms as a function of the valve authority.

Fig. 10a: Questions and answers in CONVAL to select the best characteristic form for the control variable flow, level, temperature and pressure.
See also Fig. 10b. JUNE 2005 Valve World 39

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Recommendations for
improving the basic
characteristic form
It is assumed that only one of the
disturbance quantities acts as the main
disturbance quantity.
The symbol “=” in front of the
characteristic means that the control
loop parameters remain constant;
“” before the characteristic means
that the parameters change in the
event of a disturbance or setpoint

Fig. 10b: CONVAL question and answers Table to select flow control, level control, temperature control and pressure control.

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The software successfully detected valve

sizing mistakes in several of the 1,200
control valves installed in a German refin-
ery before the regular plant shutdown
after five years' operation.With the soft-
ware “troubleshooting features” the refin-
ery therefore ordered spare parts in time
and started up without any delays.
The software provides a bi-directional
COM link to spreadsheets and CAE sys-
tems as well as in-house valve sizing pro-
grams which companies can use to store
valve data e.g. sound measurements, ad-
ministration of inquiry and quotation sys-
tems as well as pricing and drawings. (See
Figure 11.) ■

About the author

Mr Holger Siemers, who
gained a Dipl. Ing.
Degree from the
University of
Furtwangen, started his
career with ECKARDT
AG company. He was
former head of the
Control Valve Sales
Department in ECKARDT; ECKARDT-
the founder members of VDMA 24422 79 and
89 which becomes worldwide Standard IEC
534 8-4 - Sound Prediction Methods for
He was also chairman in the VDI Working
Group: Valve Characteristics, gave support and
copyright of CONVAL (the plant- and valve
optimization tool) and was involved in the
R&D of SILENCER Technology - Multi-hole
orifices with deliveries of 2500 silencers in the
past twenty years.
He has trouble-shooting experience with
Fig. 11: Valve database for sizing, calculation and optimization of all kinds of valves and sound, loop stability, life cycle and plant
common plant components and the bi-directional interface structure.
performance problems and been involved in
valve optimization for demanding applications
in petrochemicals and refineries (hydro-
carbon-processing, HPI, LNG, PTA, ...).
Publications, Training and Support: Application
References: and plant design, control loop optimization,
[1] Siemers: Control Valve Design Aspects for critical applications in petrochemical plants. Part I. selecting and sizing control valves.
Valve World Magazine June 2004. After 30 years' plant design with control valves
[2] Siemers: Selecting Valves by choosing the optimum flow characteristic, chapter 9, Fig. 9. 3rd he joined SAMSON AG in 1999. Now he is
International Conference 27-29 March 1990 Developments in valves and actuators for fluid SAMSON's Severe Service Control Valves
control Bournemouth UK BHR Group. Marketing Manager in the International Sales
[3] Dr. Kiesbauer: Control Valves for Critical Applications, Hydrocarbon Processing, June 2001. & Marketing Department.
[4] H.D. Baumann : Valve Primer, A User`s Guide Chapter 7 ISA Edition. JUNE 2005 Valve World 43