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Unit: 1

Modals
Provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of a sentence.

Position of modal in a sentence

S V
M
Subject Verb
Modal

Example:

 They could enjoy the party at cafe.

Modals Concepts Examples


I would have gone to Karachi but I
Would have Past unreal actions
didn’t have ticket.
She could have learnt swimming
Could have Past unreal ability
but she didn’t try.
Past unreal I may have read all the stories but
May have
possibility there was no light.
Past unreal small You might have bought the laptop if
Might have
probability you really needed.
Past unreal
Should have You should have prepared the test.
recommendation
Past unreal
Must have You must have been crazy!
assumption

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Unit: 2
Synonyms
Words Synonyms Words Synonyms

Terrified Afraid Gloomy Dull

Furious Angry Gather Collect

Dazzling Bright Leap Jump

Huge Big Ancient Old

Baffle Confuse Sorrow Sad

Blend Mix Idea Thought

Abrupt Sudden Calm Relax

Capable Able Rich Wealthy

Spotless Clean Coarse Rough

Brilliant Clever Slender Slim

Freezing Cold Worth Value

Fast Quick Yearly Annually

Money Cash Attempt Try

Grumble Complain Marched Walked

Tale Story Gazed Saw

Author Writer Glad Happy


Fabric Cloth Tiny Small

Garbage Rubbish Terror Fear

Inquire Ask

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Unit: 3

Hierarchy of Language

Sentence
Clause
Phrase
Word
Sounds
3.1 Phrase
 A small group of words standing together as a conceptual unit

Examples:

 A dangerous bridge
 A bright sheet
 A crystal box

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3.2 Clause
 A group of words that may or may not contain a subject and a
verb.
 The clause having subject and verb is called independent clause.
 The clause which doesn’t have subject and verb is called a
dependent clause.

Examples:

 Sana smiles. (Independent clause)


 While going for a walk. (Dependent clause)

Exercise: 3.2
Choose the correct answer.

1. Because todays mail did not arrive. It is a _________________.


A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
2. I brushed my hair. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
3. For I didn’t know the answer. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
4. I taught him the lesson. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
5. Because the fuel is so expensive. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
6. Sally did her homework. It is a _________________.
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A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
7. For I told her the truth. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause
8. Because you can clean the house. It is a _________________.
A. Independent clause
B. Dependent clause

3.3 Sentence
 A group of words which gives a complete thought/sense.

Examples:

 Everything is available on this general store.


 She manages all her stuff nicely.

Kinds of sentence

3.3.1 Simple sentence


REMEMBER!
 Consists of one independent clause A simple sentence is an
independent clause.

Examples:

 She decided to pursue law after graduation.


 They always chose cold drinks on canteen.
 We grow plants in our garden in every winter.

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Activity: 3.3.1
Group activity:

Students will make sentences but the sentence should be equipped with
adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives explain quality of nouns/pronouns while
adverbs explain the meaning of verb. You can take the following sentence
as a help:

Example:

 Sana sat silently near the glass window.

3.3.2 Compound sentence


 Consists of two clauses joined by conjunctions
 Both clauses are ndependent.

Conjunctions
And, or, so, but

Examples:

 They marked the issues on book and I corrected them.


 Zohaib has left the country but he didn’t forget his friends.
 She dropped me in market so I shopped for party.
 She would buy a bouquet for me or she would bring a burger.

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Exercise: 3.3.2
Combine each pair of simple sentences with appropriate conjunction
to make a compound sentence.

1. A small kitten followed me home. I gave it a bowl of milk.


2. We were lost in the woods. My brother had a map in his backpack.
3. The girls were painting animal pictures. Katrina spilled the paint.
4. Jose wants to be an astronaut when he grows up. Maria wants to
be a nurse.
5. Dr. Neu told Greg to floss his teeth every day. He didn't listen.
6. The tigers at the zoo are always sleeping. The penguins are fun to
watch.

Exercise: 3.3.3
Attempt the following questions.

1. “The sports car”. What is this?


A. Phrase
B. Simple sentence
C. Dependent clause
2. Join the two independent clauses with conjunction to make a
compound sentence.
A. I ate pizza.
B. I drank coke.

_________________________________________________

3. Which is the most suitable dependent clause:


I came late _________________________.
A. Because of the driver.
B. Or driver was late.
C. But driver was late.
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4. “I brushed my teeth and went to sleep”. What is this?
A. Simple sentence
B. Compound sentence
C. Dependent clause
5. Fill in the blank to complete the phrase.
The ______________ car.
6. “So I told her the story”. What is this?
A. Independent clause
B. Compound sentence
C. Dependent clause
7. Make a simple sentence using following phrase:
The brown hat
_____________________________________.
8. “I have written a letter”. What is this?
A. Simple sentence
B. Dependent clause
C. Phrase
9. Join the two independent clause to make a compound sentence.
A. I brushed my hair.
B. It was tangled.

_________________________________________________

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Unit: 4

Antonyms
Words Antonyms Words Antonyms
Deny Admit Expensive Cheap

Correct Wrong Failure Success

Courage Fear Exposure Shelter

Easy Difficult Arrival Departure

Dirty Clean Destruction Construction

Empty Full Disease Health

Ordinary Special Hilly Flat

Coward Brave Lose Win

Create Destroy Major Minor

Horizontal Vertical Often Seldom

Late Early Attack Protect

Hot Cold Noisy Quiet

Ill Well Rural Urban

Import Export Victory Defeat

Jolly Unhappy Melt Freeze

Junior Senior Midnight Noon

Give Take Master Servant

Enemy Friend Modern Old

Love Hate Niece Nephew

Opponent Supporter

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Unit: 5

Story writing

Thomas Edison

Instructions: Consider following points for help.

Main points:

 Thomas Edison, a scientist


 Thousand trials in search of filament to light a bulb.
 2000 trials went in failure.
 Assistant’s complained for wastage of time
 Edison’s positive reply: learned a lot, two thousand elements
which we cannot use to make a good light bulb.
 Edison finally found a filament for bulb.

Moral lesson: Learn from mistakes

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The Two Pots

Instructions: Consider following points for help.

Main points:

 A cyclonic season and flood


 Houses were drowned
 A copper pot and an earthen pot washed away to a river.
 Copper pot’s dialogue: “come near me. I'll save you".
 Earthen pot’s dialogue: “I can swim well”.
 Earthen pot swam and reached to bank of a river.
 Copper pot’s got filled with water and drowned.

Moral lesson: Weakness is not in appearance.

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Unit: 6

Essay writing

Essay: 1

Gone Fishing!

Instructions: You can consider following points for help.

 Who did you go with?


 Which supplies did you bring: Fishing rod, hooks, worms etc.
 Location: River Chenab
 Patience while fishing
 Help from the person who went with you
 How many fish caught
 Packing of fish

Essay: 2

My Invention: The Talking TV

Instructions: You can consider following points for help.

 Why did you invent it:


- To help people who are lonely
- To bring change to technology
- To surprise people
- To build contact with machines
 Benefits:
- No longer need a remote
- No fighting over remote
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- You can talk to it whenever you like
- It can tell you the weather
- It can tell you when your favourite show will come on
- It can monitor your house for thieves at night

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Unit: 7

Reading comprehension

1. Seeing An Eye Doctor

Samantha could not see clearly what the teacher wrote on the board. She
told her mom about it. Her mom told her it was time to get her eyes
examined and get new glasses. She went to her eye doctor. After waiting
for her name to be called, she saw the doctor. The eye doctor tested her
eyes out. Samantha picked out a frame. She tried the new glasses and saw
perfectly. The new glasses were ready for her to pick up. She was excited.
The next day in class, she was able to see everything clearly. Samantha
now remembers to check her eyes every year.

2. Snow Cones

It was the last day of the summer day camp. It was hot, almost 100
degrees. The counselors needed a way to cool off the kids. After talking,
the counselors decided to give out snow cones. The snow cones would be
made out of ice and syrup. There were different flavours -- strawberry,
blueberry, and raspberry. Some kids got one flavour. Some kids mixed
them together. All the kids loved the snow cones. It was a fun day.
Everyone enjoyed their treat. Snow cones were a success. After the kids
had their snow cones, they went to the playground. The snow cones helped
cool them off.

3. A Perfect Day For Hiking

Sol and Victor decided to go hiking. Today was a perfect day for hiking.
The weather was a cool 70 degrees. The hike was 3 miles up and 3 miles
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down. They brought plenty of water for their hike. Sol brought his dog on
the hike also. They hiked upwards. At the top there was a waterfall. They
admired the view. It was beautiful. When they were done, they hiked back
down. After the hike Sol and Victor were tired. They decided to get a
healthy fruit smoothie. They went back to Victor's house and made
smoothies.

4. A Blackout

It was a normal day. Suddenly all the lights went out. It was a blackout.
Sam looked out his window. The lights were out on the whole street. He
went to get candles. He lit up the candles. The blackout lasted for several
hours. He had a paper due tomorrow. He had to write it out tonight. He
used the candle. His parents found some flashlights to help. The blackout
was not so bad. Sam got to see how life was without electricity. He finished
his paper much faster than he would have with the distractions of
technology.

5. Cooking For The First Time

Sam never knew how to cook. She was going to be living by herself. She
decided it was time to learn. She bought books on how to cook. She also
watched videos online. She decided to start simple. The first thing she
decided to learn was pasta. The first thing she did was to boil hot water to
cook the pasta. She then made the sauce from fresh tomatoes. She added
pepper and chilies to add more flavour. She also added cheese. After it
was done, she ate it. She was excited to eat what she made. It did not taste
that good. It was not horrible though. She decided that she needed more
practice.

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6. A Road Trip

The Adam family was going on a road trip. They were driving from
California to Utah. They were going to see the Grand Canyon. The family
got bored on the ride there. The dad suggested they play music. They
played music that the whole family liked. After a while, the mom suggested
they play a game. They played the alphabet game. Each person would say
an animal that started with a letter of the alphabet like ant, bat, cat, dog,
and so on. They changed the topic after they went through the whole
alphabet. They did names, places, and people. After that, they just talked
about what they would do at Utah. They had fun conversations and laughs.

7. Opposite Twins

Lillian had a twin. Her twin's name was Anne. Although they looked alike,
they were nothing alike. They had complete opposite personalities. Lillian
loved art. She loved painting and drawing. She spent most of her days
listening to music and drawing. She was also messy. Everything in her
room was disorganized. Anne loved reading. She loved writing stories and
figuring out problems. She spent most of her time reading. She was also
very organized. Lillian was more creative. Anne was smarter. Both of them
were similar, too. They both loved playing sports. They both were in the
tennis team.

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Words Meanings Words Meanings

Paragraph 1

Examine ‫جانچنا‬ Waiting ‫ان تظار‬

Picked ‫اٹھانا‬ Perfectly ‫نالکل ٹھنک‬

Everything ‫سب کچھ‬ Remember ‫ناد رکھنا‬

Paragraph 2

Counselor ‫مشورہ د ننے واال‬ Flavour ‫ذائقہ‬

Syrup ‫شرنت‬ Strawberry ‫ٹھل کا نام‬

Blueberry ‫ٹھل کا نام‬ Raspberry ‫ٹھل کا نام‬

Playground ‫کھنل کا مندان‬

Paragraph 3

Hiking ‫نندل سفر‬ Weather ‫موسم‬

Brought ‫النا‬ Smoothie ‫مشروب‬

Paragraph 4

Suddenly ‫اجانک‬ Blackout ‫نند کرنا‬

Flashlight ‫نارچ‬ Distraction ‫را سنے سے ندلنا‬

Technology ‫ننکنالوجی‬

Paragraph 5

Tomatoes ‫ٹماٹر‬ Chilies ‫مرچیں‬

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Horrible ‫خوفناک‬ Practice ‫مشق‬

Paragraph 6

‫امریکہ کی ایک سٹ یٹ کا‬


California Canyon ‫وادی‬
‫یام‬

Suggested ‫تجویز کردہ‬ Changed ‫تندیل کریا‬

Conversation ‫گفنگو‬

Paragraph 7
‫ن‬
Personalities ‫شخصنات‬ Disorganized ‫ید ظمی‬

Figuring out ‫مسلہ حل کریا‬

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