Sei sulla pagina 1di 8

www.gradeup.co

1. Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus

www.gradeup.co 1. Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus Let F(x) be a function defined in [a,b] such

Let F(x) be a function defined in [a,b] such that at all points in (a,b), F'(x)=f(x), then

[a,b] such that at all points in (a,b), F'(x)=f(x), then If F(x) is continuous at x=b

If F(x) is continuous at x=b then

F'(x)=f(x), then If F(x) is continuous at x=b then Similarly, if F(x) is continuous at x=a,

Similarly, if F(x) is continuous at x=a, then

at x=b then Similarly, if F(x) is continuous at x=a, then Then, 2.Geometrical Significance of Let

Then,

x=b then Similarly, if F(x) is continuous at x=a, then Then, 2.Geometrical Significance of Let y=f(x)
x=b then Similarly, if F(x) is continuous at x=a, then Then, 2.Geometrical Significance of Let y=f(x)

2.Geometrical Significance of

continuous at x=a, then Then, 2.Geometrical Significance of Let y=f(x) be the equation of a curve

Let y=f(x) be the equation of a curve referred to two rectangular axes. Let A denote the area bounded by the curve, the x axis, a fixed ordinate AG, (OA=a) and a variable coordinate MP. Let

OM=x, so that MP=y=f(x). The area A depends on the position of the ordinate MP whose abscissa is

x and is, therefore, a function of x.

We take a point Q (x+Δx, y+Δy) on the curve which lies so near to P that, as a point moves along the curve from P to Q, its ordinate either constantly increases (shown in the first figure) or it constantly decreases (shown in the second figure).

www.gradeup.co

We have ON=x+Δx, NQ= y+Δy, MN=Δx

www.gradeup.co We have ON=x+Δx, NQ= y+Δy, MN=Δ x The increment ΔA in A, consequent to the

The increment ΔA in A, consequent to the change Δx in x, is the area of the region MNQPM. The area ΔA of the figure MNQPM lies between the areas (y+Δy)Δx and yΔx of the two rectangles QM, PN.

From the first figure, we have (y+Δy)Δx>ΔA>yΔx

Let point Q tend to point P so that Δx tends to zero.

Let point Q tend to point P so that Δx tends to zero. Thus, Also, we

Thus,

point Q tend to point P so that Δx tends to zero. Thus, Also, we have

Also, we have yΔx>ΔA>(y+Δy)Δx

or, y> (ΔA /Δx)>(y+Δy)

Let point Q tend to point P so that Δx tends to zero. Thus

Let point Q tend to point P so that Δx tends to zero. Thus Let BH

Let BH be the ordinate x=b. Then we have,

to zero. Thus Let BH be the ordinate x=b. Then we have, =The value of A

=The value of A (when x=b) - The value of A (when x=a)

have, =The value of A (when x=b) - The value of A (when x=a) = Area
have, =The value of A (when x=b) - The value of A (when x=a) = Area

= Area of the region GABHGA - 0

= Area of the region GABHGA

which is the area bounded by the curve y=f(x), the x-axis, x=a, and x=b.

3. Definite Integrals as the limit of Sum

www.gradeup.co

www.gradeup.co Let the interval [a,b] be divided into n equal parts and let the length of
www.gradeup.co Let the interval [a,b] be divided into n equal parts and let the length of
www.gradeup.co Let the interval [a,b] be divided into n equal parts and let the length of

Let the interval [a,b] be divided into n equal parts and let the length of each part be h so that nh=b-a. Let the function f(x) increases monotonically from a to b.

So, the entire area is divided into several trapeziums. If the length of each interval is very small, then each of these trapeziums can be approximated to be a rectangle. Again, the area of all these rectangles should be equal to the area enclosed by the curve with the positive x-axis. However, integration is for a continuous interval. To make the two areas equal, the number of divisions or intervals must be infinite or the length of each interval, h, must tend to 0.

infinite or the length of each interval, h, must tend to 0. where nh=b-a and x=r/n

where nh=b-a and x=r/n

The same result holds when the function f(x) monotonically decreases from a to b

Steps to express the limit of the sum as definite integral.

a. Existing To be replaced r/n x 1/n dx ∫
a.
Existing
To be replaced
r/n
x
1/n
dx

There are basically two steps involved in this transformation.

There is certain replacement required which is as follows:

b. Now put the least and the greatest values of r as lower and upper limit respectively and evaluate it

further.

www.gradeup.co

4. Summation of series

www.gradeup.co 4. Summation of series
www.gradeup.co 4. Summation of series

www.gradeup.co

5. Properties of definite integrals

www.gradeup.co 5. Properties of definite integrals 6. Integration using Reduction Formula Any formula which expresses an
www.gradeup.co 5. Properties of definite integrals 6. Integration using Reduction Formula Any formula which expresses an

6.

www.gradeup.co 5. Properties of definite integrals 6. Integration using Reduction Formula Any formula which expresses an

Integration using Reduction Formula

of definite integrals 6. Integration using Reduction Formula Any formula which expresses an integral in terms

Any formula which expresses an integral in terms of another which is simpler is a reduction formula for the first integral. The successive application of the reduction formula enables us to express the integral of the general member of class of functions in terms of that of the simplest member of the class.

The reduction formula is generally obtained by applying the rule of integration by parts.

www.gradeup.co

www.gradeup.co 7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign
www.gradeup.co 7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign
www.gradeup.co 7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign
www.gradeup.co 7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign

7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign

www.gradeup.co 7. Newton- Leibnitz Formula: Differentiation under the integral sign

www.gradeup.co

8. Inequalities in Definite Integration

www.gradeup.co 8. Inequalities in Definite Integration Attempt the free Mock Test here 60 Days Revision Plan
www.gradeup.co 8. Inequalities in Definite Integration Attempt the free Mock Test here 60 Days Revision Plan
Attempt the free Mock Test here 60 Days Revision Plan for JEE Main 2019 January
Attempt the free Mock Test here
60 Days Revision Plan for JEE Main 2019 January Exam

All the best!

Team Gradeup

for JEE Main 2019 January Exam Gradeup Launches Boost Your Rank For JEE Main 2019 (January)