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Name of the Faculty : Mr. R. Satheesh

Subject : Basic Electrical and Electronics

Regulations : R2017

Course Code : BE8251

Branch : Civil Engineering

Year & Semester : I & II

Academic Year : 2018-2019

1. Distinguish between a mesh and loop a circuit.
The difference between a mesh and a loop is that a mesh does not contain any
other loop within it. Thus a mesh is the smallest loop. A mesh is always a loop but a loop
may or may not be a mesh.
2. What is rms value of a periodic current?
(or) Define RMS value .

The effective or rms value of an alternating current is given by that steady

current (D.C) which, when flowing through a given circuit for a given time, produces the
same amount of heat as produced by the alternating current, which when flowing through
the same circuit for the same time.

RMS value= Area under the squared curve

Total time period

3. What is amplitude factor?

The peak factor of an alternating quantity is defined as ratio of maximum value
to the average value, the form factor for sinusoidal alternating quantities is 1.11.

Peak factor = RMS value

Average value

4. Define power factor.

The power factor is the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current.
Cos Φ =

Real power
Cos Φ =
Apparent power

5. Define ohm’s law.

At constant temperature the potential difference across the conductor is directly
proportional to current flowing through the conductor.

1. It does not apply to non metallic conductor.
2. It does not apply to non linear devices such as diode zener diode.

6. State kirchoff’s law.

Kirchhoff’s current law:
The sum of the current flowing towards a junction is equal to sum of the current
flowing away from it.
Kirchhoff’s voltage law:
In a closed circuit the sum of the potential drop is equal to the sum of the potential

7. What are the advantages of electromechanical measuring instruments?

The various advantages of electromechanical measuring instruments are,
1. Simple in design
2. Reliable
3. Low in cost
4. Work without any additional power supply.

8. What is indicating instrument? List three types of indicating instruments.

The instruments which make use of a dial and pointer for showing or indicating
magnitude of unknown quantity is called indicating instruments.
Types :
1. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) instrument
2. Permanent Magnet Moving Iron (PMMI) instrument
3. Dynamometer type wattmeter

9. State the different type of instrument based on their operating principles.

1. Indicating instruments (voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter)
2. Recording instruments (tape recorder, x-y recorder)
3. Integrating instruments (energy meter)

10. Name the torques that acts in indicating instruments.

(or) what are the different torques act upon the moving system of the instruments
for good operation ?
1. Deflecting torque
2. Controlling torque
3. Damping torque
11. A 120Ω resistor has a specified maximum power dissipation of 1 W. calculate the
maximum current level.
Given Data:
P=1W, R=120Ω
P= I2R
I2=P/R = 1/120
I= 0.09 A

12. Three inductive coils each with resistance of 15Ω and an inductance of 0.03H have
connected in star to a 3 , 400V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the phase voltages.
Given data:

VL=400V,R=15 Ω, L=0.03H
Solution :

VP= 400/ =230.2V

13. Two resistances are connected in parallel with values 6Ω and 3 Ω. This combination
is connected in series with 8 Ω. Find the equivalent resistance.

Parallel resistance (RP ) = (6*3)/(6+3)

Total resistance RT= RS+RP
=10 Ω

14. Define average value.

Average value = Area under the curve over one complete cycle
Base (Time period)
15. Define form factor.
Form factor is defined as the ratio between RMS value and average value.
Form factor = RMS value
Average value

16. Define electric current.

Electric current is defined as rate of flow of electric charge.
I =dq/dt
The unit of current is Amperes.

17. Define electrical potential.

This is generally measured between two points and its unit is volts. If the work
done in moving a charge of 1 coulomb between any two points is one joule, then we say
that the potential of one point with reference to the second point is one volt.


18. Define frequency.

The number cycles occurring per second is called frequency f = 1/T Hz.
19. Define power. ``’
The rate of doing work by electrical energy or energy supplied per unit time is
called the power. Its unit is watts
P = V × I; P = Energy / time = W/t

20. Define resistance.

Resistance is the property of a substance, which opposes the flow of electric
current. Whenever current flows through a resistor, a voltage drop occurs in it and it is
dissipated in the form of heat. Unit of resistance is ohm. Symbol is Ω and is measured
with a help of ohm meter.

21. Define Inductance.

Inductance is the property of the coil by which it opposes any change of current
.Its unit is Henry. It stores the energy in electromagnetic field.

22. Define capacitance.

A capacitor is a element which store the energy in electrostatic field. It is formed
by two parallel plates separated by an insulating medium.

23. Define real power.

The actual power consumed in an ac circuit is called real power. Its unit is watt.

24. Define reactive power.

The power consumed by a pure reactance in an ac circuit is called a reactive
power. Its unit is VAR.

25. Define apparent power.

It is given by the product of rms value of voltage current .Its unit is volt amperes.
26. Compare active and passive elements.
Active Elements Passive Elements
The elements which can deliver energy are The elements which consume energy either by
called as active elements. absorbing or storing are called passive elements.
Eg: Voltage source, Current source Eg: R,L & C

1. Use mesh analysis to determine the three mesh currents in the circuit show below.

2. For the circuit shown below, find the current through each of the three resistors.

3. Find the current in the 8 Ω resistors in the following circuit using krichoff s law.

4. Calculate the current in 20 ohm resistor in the circuit shown below.

5. Use nodal analysis to determine the voltage across 5 Ω resistance and the current in the 12V

6. Using nodal method find current through 8 Ω resistor as shown in below figure.

7. Find the current through 6 Ω resistor of the given circuit.

8. Describe Kirchhoff’s laws. For the circuit shown in the figure below. Determine the current
through 6 Ω resistors and the power supplied by the current source.

9. A sinusoidal current wave is given by i =50sin (100πt). Determine the root mean square value.

10. A coil of resistance 5.94 Ω and inductance of 0.35 H is connected in series with a capacitance
of 35 µF across a 200V, 50Hz supply find the impedance(z), current and the phase difference
between voltage and current(Φ).
11. Three inductive coils, each with a resistance of 15 Ω and an inductance of 0.03H are
connected in star to a three phase 400V, 50 Hz supply .calculate the phase current, line current
and power absorbed.
12. A series R-C circuit with R=20 Ω and C=127 µF has 160V, 50 Hz supply connected to it.
Find impedance, current and power factor.

13. For the circuit shown below, calculate the line current, the power and the power factor. The
value of R, Land C in each phase is 10 Ω, 1H and 100 µF respectively.
14. Determine the line current, power factor and total power when a 3- phase 400V, supply is
given to a balanced load of impedance (8+j6) Ω in each branch, is connected in star.

15. Three similar coils connected in star, take a power of 1.5kW at a power factor of 0.2lagging
from a 3 phase, 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the resistance and inductance of each coil.
16. Derive the expression s for impedance, power factor and current of a RL series circuit
connected across alternating current source. Also draw phasor diagram.

17. A series RLC circuit with R=25 Ω, L=0.3H and C=66 µF. is supplied at 220V, 50Hz. Find
the impedance of the circuit, current, voltage across each element, power and power factor.

18. A series circuit of R=10 Ω and Xc=15 Ω an phasor voltage V=50∟-90 V rms.Find the real
power, reactive power, complete power and power factor.
19. Three impedance of 42∟-35ºΩ are connected in delta to a three phases, three wire, and
350V. Find the line currents
20. With neat sketch explain the working of dynamometer type watt meter.

21. Explain the working principle of moving iron instruments.

22. Why PMMC instruments are not used for AC measurements?
23. With neat sketch explain construction and working of moving coil instruments.

24. With neat sketch explain repulsion type MI instruments.



1. What is the purpose of yoke in a DC machine?

The purposes of yoke in a DC Machines are,
1. It serves the purpose of outermost cover of the DC machine.
2. It provides mechanical support to the poles.
3. It forms a part of the magnetic circuit. It provides a path a low reluctance for
magnetic flux.

2. Write down the EMF equation of a DC Generator.

The EMF equation of a DC generator is,

Eg = PФZN Volts
Eg = induced emf in generator.
P = Number of poles.
Z = Total number of conductors in armature.
N = Speed in rpm.
A = Number of parallel path.
Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.
For lap winding A = P, for wave winding A = 2.

3. Mention the classification of DC Generator.

Depending on the method of excitation used, the dc generators are classified as,
1. Separately excited dc generator
2. Self excited dc generator
a) Series generator
b) Shunt generator
c) Compound generator
i) Long shunt compound generators.
ii) Short shunt compound generators.

4. State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. (Or) what is the basic principle
of a dc generator?
Basic principle of dc generator is Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.i.e.
whenever a conductor is moved in a magnetic field; dynamically induced emf is produced in that

5. What is the purpose of commutator and brush in a dc generator?

Purpose of commutator and brush in a dc generator are,
1. The commutator converts the alternating emf into unidirectional or direct emf.
2. The brushes are mainly used to collect current from the commutator.

6. What is back emf? State its significance.

Conductors are cutting flux and that is exactly what is required for generator action to
take place. This means that even when the machine is working as a motor, voltages are induced
in the conductors. This emf is called back emf or counter emf, since the cause for this is in the
rotation, which, in turn, is due to the supply voltage.
Hence, Eb = PФZN Volts

Significance of back emf.

So back emf regulates the flow of armature current and it automatically alters the
armature current to meet the load requirement. This is the practical significance of back emf.

7. Write the voltage equation and torque equation of DC motor.

The voltage equation of a DC motor is given by,

V=Eb + Ia Ra +Brush drop.

Where Eb = Back emf

Ia = Armature current in amps.
Ra = Armature resistance in ohms.
The torque equation of DC motor is given by,
Ta = 0.159Ф Ia PZ N-m
Where Ta = Torque in N-m
Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.
Ia = Armature current in amps.
P = Number of poles.
Z = Total number of conductors.
A = Number of parallel paths.

8. Define the term speed regulation of a DC motor.

The speed regulation is defined as the change in speed from no load to full load,
expressed as a fraction or percentage of full load speed.
Therefore, as per definition per unit (p.u) speed regulation of DC motor is given as

9. State the principle of a DC motor?

A DC motor is an electrical machine which converts electric energy into mechanical
It is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic
field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming’s Left hand rule and
the magnitude of the force in given by F = B I l Newton.

10. Mention the types of DC Motor & Applications.

The types of DC motor and applications are
1. DC Series motor -- Constant speed motor
Used in Drilling, Spinning, etc…
2. DC Shunt motor -- Variable speed motor
Used in Electric Traction, conveyors, etc…
3. DC Compound Motor – Variable speed motor
Used in Rolling Mills, Printing press, etc.

11. Why a dc shunt motor is also called a constant flux motor or constant speed
In shunt motor flux produced by field winding is proportional to the field current. Here
the input voltage is constant and so flux is also constant .Therefore DC shunt motor is also called
as a constant flux motor or constant speed motor.

12. Why series motor cannot be started without any load?

In dc series motor flux is directly proportional to armature current. i.e, under no load
condition the armature current is very low and flux is also less. By using the formula speed
inversely proportional to the flux. If flux is less speed will be very high. Due to this, motor will
be damaged. Hence dc series motor should always be started with some load on the shaft.

13. Define residual Magnetism.

The magnetism residing in the winding or poles though the current through the exciting
winding is reduced to zero is called residuals magnetism.

14. What is a transformer?

The transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which an electrical power is
transformed from one alternating current circuit to another with the desired changer in voltage
and current, without any change in the frequency.

15. What are the types of transformer based on the construction?

Based on the construction, the various types of transformer are,
1. Core type transformer.
2. Shell type transformer.
3. Berry type transformer.

16. What is voltage transformation ratio of transformer? Also write the conditions of
step up transformer.
The ratio of secondary induced emf to primary induced emf is called voltage
transformation ratio denoted by K.
E2 / E1 = N2 / N1 = K
Where, N1 = Number of primary winding turns.
N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.
For a step up transformer ,
E2 >E1 hence K> 1 and for that N2 > N1 = K.

17. Why the transformers is rated in KVA?

Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence total
losses depend on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of transformers is in kVA
and not in kW.

18. Define voltage regulation and efficiency of the transformer.

The regulation of the transformer is defined as the reduction in magnitude of the
terminal voltage due to load, with respect to the no-load terminal voltage.

% regulation = (V2 o n no-load- V2 when loaded/ V2 o n no-load) x 100

Transformer efficiency ƞ = (output power/input power) x 100

19. Write down the emf equation of transformer.

The emf equation of transformer is given by,
E1 = 4.44 fФm N1 volts
E2 = 4.44 fФm N2 volts

Where, E1 = RMS value of the primary emf

E2 = RMS value of the secondary emf
Фm = Maximum value of flux,
f = frequency of the supply voltage.
N1 = Number of primary winding turns.
N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.
20. Define all day efficiency of a transformer.
All day efficiency is the ratio of energy (in kwh) delivered in a 24 hour period to the
energy (in kwh) input for the same interval of time.
ηall day = Output in kwh/Input in kwh (for 24 hours)

21. Name the methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self
The methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self starting are
classified as,
1. Split phase induction motor
2. Capacitor start induction motor
3. Capacitor run induction motor
4. Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor
5. Shaded pole induction motor

22. Define slip.

The slip of an induction motor is defined as the ratio of difference between synchronous
speed (Ns) and rotor speed (N).

% Slip = Ns – N/N *100

23. Why the single phase induction motor is not self starting?
There is no starting torque in the single phase induction motor. Therefore the rotor does
not rotate. That’s why single phase induction motor is not self starting.

24. What are the applications of split phase induction motor?

The applications of split phase induction motor are,
1. Blowers
2. Fans
3. Centrifugal pumps
4. Washing machines

25. What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor-start capacitor run induction
Applications of capacitor-start capacitor run induction motor:

1. Compressors
2. Conveyors
3. Refrigerators
4. Pumps

Characteristics of capacitor-start capacitor run induction motor:

1. The efficiency of the motor is 60 to 70%
2. The power factor of the motor is 0.75 to 0.9
3. The power rating of the motor is 1/8 to 1HP.
4. The percentage of rated starting torque is 200% to 300%.

1. Explain the principle of operation of a DC generator and derive the EMF equation.
2. Discuss in detail about the construction of DC generator with the neat sketch.
3. Write briefly on the losses occurring in DC generator.
4. Explain the construction and working principle of DC motor with neat sketch.
5. What are the factors controlling the speed of the motor? Explain any one method of speed
control of shunt motors. Write the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
6. Describe the construction details of transformer and also explain the principle of operation
7. Derive the emf equations of transformer.
8. Explain the principle of operation of single phase induction motor.
9. Classify single phase induction motors according to the method of starting and briefly explain
10. Explain the principle of operation of split phase induction motor, capacitor start induction
motor and shaded pole induction motor with neat diagrams. Mention its applications and
characteristics of the same.

1. What is forbidden energy gap?

The upper most band is conduction band and the lower one is valence band these two
bands are separated by a gap which is known as forbidden energy gap.

2. What is intrinsic semiconductor?

The pure form of semiconductor material is known as intrinsic semiconductor examples
pure germanium and silicon which have the forbidden energy gap of 0.72 and 1.1eV.

3. What is extrinsic semiconductor? Give example.

Impure form of semiconductor is called as extrinsic semiconductor.
EX: N and P type semiconductors.

4. Compare intrinsic semiconductor and extrinsic semiconductor.

S.No. Intrinsic semiconductor Extrinsic semiconductor

1. It’s a pure form of semiconductor An impurity or doping agent is added in

the pure semiconductor forms extrinsic

2. Number of electrons and holes are Number of electrons and holes are not
equal equal because of doping

3. Conductivity is poor Conductivity is improved

5. What are minority and majority carriers in a semiconductor?

P type semiconductor: Holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carrier.
N type semiconductor: Holes are minority carriers and electrons are majority carrier.

6. What are the types of solid based on energy band theory? Give examples for each.
1. Conductor Ex: Copper ,Aluminium.
2. Semiconductor Ex: Silicon , Germanium.
3. Insulator Ex: Paper , mica.
7. Write any two salient points on a PN junction diode.
1. It conducts well in forward direction.
2. It conducts poorly in reverse direction.

8. What are the applications of PN junction diode?

1. As switch
2. As rectifiers
3. Power supplies
4. Clipper and clampers
5. Digital systems
6. Communication systems

9. What is cut in (or) Knee voltage?

The forward voltage at which the current through the junction starts increasing rapidly is
called as knee voltage (or) cut in voltage.

10. What is a zener diode?

A zener diode is a special purpose diode that is operated in reverse biased

11. Define breakdown voltage in a zener diode.

When the reverse bias voltage across of zener diode exceeds the particular voltage
level, the current increases very sharply. This voltage is called breakdown voltage of
zener diode.

12. Mention some of the applications of zener diode.

1. Voltage regulator
2. Clippers in wave shaping circuits
3. Square wave generators
4. Fixing reference voltage in electronic circuits such as power supplies and
transistor biasing.

13. Write the difference between PN junction diode and Zener diode.


1. Works in active region Works in breakdown

2. The Diode breakdown is The diode breakdown is
called avalanche called zener breakdown.

14. Compare Avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown.

S.No Avalanche breakdown Zener breakdown


1. It occurs in heavily doped junction. It occurs in lightly doped junction.

2. It occurs with reverse bias voltage is It occurs in PN junction diode with

less than 6v. reverse voltage greater than 6V.

3. Temperature coefficient is negative. Temperature coefficient is positive.

4. The reverse bias VI characteristic is The VI characteristics in reverse bias

very sharp in breakdown region. are not sharp.

5. It occurs by breaking covalent bands It occurs by breaking covalent bands

due to very high electric field due to collision of accelerated
established by the reverse bias. electrons as a chain reaction.

6. The breakdown voltage decreases if The breakdown voltage increases if

the junction temperature increases. the junction temperature increases.

15. Define peak inverse voltage of a PN junction diode.

This is the maximum voltage with which the rectifier has to withstand during reverse

16. What is the peak inverse voltage of half wave rectifier and center tapped full
wave rectifier?
PIV=Vm (Half wave)
PIV=2Vm (Full wave)

17. When should a transistor be biased? Name the biasing circuits.

In order to operate transistor properly as an amplifier, it should be biased.
Commonly using biasing

1. Common Base
2. Common Emitter
3. Common Collector

18. Give the biasing condition for a transistor to operate as an amplifier.

Region Emitter-Base junction Collector Base junction

Cutt-off Reverse Bias Reverse Bias

Active Forward bias Reverse Bias

Saturation Forward bias Forward bias

19. What is early effect?

When reverse bias voltage VCB increases, the width of depletion region also increases,
which reduces the electrical base width. This effect is called as early effect (or) base width

20. Define current amplification factor.

It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current at

21. What are the advantages of full wave midpoint rectifier?

1. The output voltage and transformer efficiency are higher.

2. Low ripple factor.
3. High transformer utilization factor.
4. The dc saturation of the core is avoided as current flows through the halves of the
centre tapped secondary of the transformer in opposite direction.

22. What are the advantages of Bridge rectifier?

1. Transformer with center tap in secondary is not required

2. As two diodes are connected in series in each conducting of positive and
negative cycle the peak inverse voltage is shared by both the diodes equally
hence it is suitable for high voltage application.
3. The transformer which is connected to bridge rectifier can be small in size
for a Given output and current flows in both primary and secondary during
both positive and negative cycle of the input voltage.
4. Better transformer utilization factor.


1. Explain intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors with neat diagrams.

2. Describe the working of a PN junction diode with neat diagrams. Also explain its V-I
3. What is a Zener diode? Explain the operation of Zener diode and draw its characteristics.
4. Explain how the zener diode is used as a voltage regulator.
4. Explain the operation of half wave rectifier with neat sketch and derive the necessary
5. Explain the operation of centre tapped full wave rectifier with neat diagram and derive
the necessary expression.
6. Explain the operation of full wave Bridge rectifier with neat diagram
7. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CE
configuration can be obtained.
8. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CB
configuration can be obtained
9. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CC
configuration can be obtained.
10. Compare the input resistance, output resistance and voltage gain of CB, CC and CE
11. Explain in detail about small signal CE amplifier.
1. Define binary logic.
Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations. The variables are
designated by the alphabets such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having only two
distinct values: 1 and 0. There are three basic logic operations: AND, OR, and NOT.
2. What are the basic digital logic gates?
The three basic logic gates are AND gate OR gate NOT gate.

3. What is a Logic gate?

Logic gates are the basic elements that make up a digital system. The electronic gate is a
circuit that is able to operate on a number of binary inputs in order to perform a particular logical

5. Which gates are called as the universal gates? What are its advantages?

The NAND and NOR gates are called as the universal gates. These gates are used to
perform any type of logic application.

6. State De Morgan’s theorem.

Theorem 1: This law states that the complement of the sum of the variables equal to the product
of complement of each variables.
A+ B = A . B
Theorem 2: This law states that the complement of a product equals the sum of complement of
each variables.

A.B = A + B
7. Define half adder and full adder.
Half adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of two bits is called half adder
Full adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of 3 bits and carries from the
previous addition.

8. What is a flip flop? Where it is used?

The basic digital memory circuit is known as flip flop. It is a memory device used to store
one binary digit(bit). The main applications are counters and shift registers.

9. What are the different types of flip flops?

The different types of flip flops are:
1. T – flip flop.
2. RS – flip flop.
3. D –flip flop.
4. JK flip flop.
5. JK master slave flip flop.
6. Clocked RS flip flop.

10. What is meant by racing in the operation of a flip flop?

This race around condition arises when the width of the clock pulse is greater than the
propagation delay time of the flip flop.
In a level triggered J-K flip flop when J and K are both high, then the output toggles
continuously. This condition is called a race around condition.

11.Define counter and mention its types.

A digital circuit used for counting. Counter is divided into synchronous and
asynchronous counter. The change of the state of a particular flip flop is depending on the
present state of other flip flop.
The different types of counters are:
1. Synchronous counter
2. Asynchronous counter
1. Up counter.
2. Down counter.
3. Up/Down counter.
4. Modulo – N counter.
5. Presettable counter.

12. What is a decade counter?

The counter in which number of states are truncated up to ten states, 0000 (0 in decimal)
through 1001 (9 in decimal) is called decade counter.

13. Define shift register.

A register is a group of flip flop that can be used to store a binary number. Register has a
variety of application in digital system including microprocessor.

14. What are the four types of shift registers?

The four types of shift registers are:
1. Serial in serial out (SISO)
2. Serial in parallel out (SIPO)
3. Parallel in parallel out (PIPO)
4. Parallel in serial out (PISO)
15. What is the difference between sequential and combinational circuit?


It has memory It has no memory
Depends on present as well as Depends only on present state
previous state
Example: Shift register , Ripple counter Example: Adder, subtractor.

16. Mention the types of digital to analog converters.

The types of digital to analog converters are:
1. Binary weighted resistors DAC
2. R-2R ladder type
3. Inverted R-2R ladder type.

17. What are the types of analog to digital converters?

The types of analog to digital converters are:
1. Flash type
2. Staircase type
3. Successive approximation type
4. Tracking or servo converter.


1. Draw a full adder circuit using logic gates. Explain with truth table. Give also the expressions
for sum and carry.
2. Show that NAND and NOR gates are universal building blocks.
3. Draw and explain the circuit diagram of AND, OR, NOT, and NAND gates with suitable truth
4. Draw the logic diagram and explain the working of a half adder.
5. Explain the operations of RS flip flop and clocked RS flip flop.
6. Explain the working of clocked master slave JK flip flop with logic diagram.
7. Draw the logic diagram of a 4-bit binary ripple counter and explain its working.
8. Explain the operation of an asynchronous counter.
9. Explain the working of binary weighted register D/A converter.
10. Explain Successive approximation A/D conversion.
11. Explain with neat sketch the working of binary ladder network for digital to analog

1. What is modulation?

The process by which baseband signal modifies the carrier signal is called modulation
and the resultant signal is called modulated signal.

2. What is demodulation?

At the receiving end, the baseband signal and carrier signal are separated from
modulated signal by the process of demodulation.

3. What are the types of modulation?

Modulation can be broadly classified into two types based on the nature of carrier signal
1. sinusoidal modulation
2. pulse modulation

4. What is meant by modulation index for AM wave?

Modulation for AM is define as the ratio of modulating signal amplitude to carrier
signal amplitude.

5. Mention two advantages of modulation when compared to transmission of

unmodulated signal.

1. Reduce the height of signals

2. Increases the range of communication
3. Allows multiplexing of signals
4. Allows adjustments in the bandwidth
5. Improves quality of reception
6. As relation to amplitude modulation, what is over modulation, under modulation
and 100% modulation?

1. If modulation index ma 1 than it is said to be under modulation.

2. If modulation index ma=1 it is said to be 100% modulation.
3. If modulation index ma>1 it is said to be over modulation.

7. Why are digital signals said to be noise immune?

When the signal propates through the channel it is affected by the noise, Hence
the digital signal is said to be noise immune.

8. State the basic characteristics of an analog signal, with an example.

1. Analog signals are the one which varies continuously with respect to time.

2. They are represented by voltage waveforms that have different amplitudes as

different instants of time.

EX: Telephone, radio broadcast and TV signal.

9. Give typical values of uplink and downlink frequency in satellite communication.

1. Uplink frequency - R.F frequency

2. Downlink frequency - I.F frequency

10. Sketch the block diagram of basic communication system.

Analog Sampler Quantizer Encode output

11. Define the term Demodulation.

Demodulation is the process of recovering the base band signal from the
modulated wave. Hence the original information is extracted at receiver end.

12. Define Total internal reflection.

Simple fiber consists of an inner core surrounded by cladding area. The light wave
propagated through the fiber by successive reflections within the core. The
principle of propagation is total internal reflection.
13. What is meant by FAX?

A facsimile or FAX system is a document carrier, with the help of a FAX machin e one
can send an image on a sheet of paper to another FAX machine over regular telephone lines.

14. What are the applications of FAX machine?

1. Transmission of photographs
2. Transmission of languages text
3. Transmission of document, map etc.
15. State the difference between analog signal and digital signal.

Analog signal Digital signal

Analog signal are one which It is a type of discrete time
varies continuously with signal
respect to time

Ex: Telephone , TV signals Ex: Radar signals ,


16. What is satellite communication system?

A satellite communication is a RF repeater station which has made broadband loin

distance communication feasible and ensures a high quality service.

17. What is the use of optical fibers?

Optical fibers are used for transmission of optical signals in the same manner of co-axial
cables for radio wave transmission.

18. What are the applications of optical fiber system?

1. International communication
2. Inter-city communication
3. Inter-exchange communication
4. Data links
5. Domestic communication
6. Plant and traffic control etc.

19. Define amplitude modulation.

In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the modulating signal reaches
maximum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also made higher and whenever the message
signal reaches minimum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also minimum.

20.Define frequency modulation.

In frequency modulation the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the
instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the amplitude of the message signal is
high FM wave has higher frequency and whenever the amplitude of the message is low
frequency of FM wave is also less.

21. What is meant by sampling?

Sampling is the process of taking the samples of a continuous time signal at regular
interval of time.


1. With neat diagram explain the principle of operation of AM and FM transmitter.

2. Draw the block diagram of radio broadcasting and reception system and explain the
function of each block.
3. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of FAX.
4. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of micro wave
5. Draw the block diagram of optical fiber communication system and explain the function
of each block.
6. With the help of a block diagram describe the working of a TV communication system.
7. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of satellite communication