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QUESTION BANK

Engineering

Regulations : R2017

UNIT 1

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND MEASUREMENTS

PART -A

1. Distinguish between a mesh and loop a circuit.

The difference between a mesh and a loop is that a mesh does not contain any

other loop within it. Thus a mesh is the smallest loop. A mesh is always a loop but a loop

may or may not be a mesh.

2. What is rms value of a periodic current?

(or) Define RMS value .

current (D.C) which, when flowing through a given circuit for a given time, produces the

same amount of heat as produced by the alternating current, which when flowing through

the same circuit for the same time.

The peak factor of an alternating quantity is defined as ratio of maximum value

to the average value, the form factor for sinusoidal alternating quantities is 1.11.

Average value

The power factor is the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current.

Resistance

Cos Φ =

Impedance

Real power

Cos Φ =

Apparent power

At constant temperature the potential difference across the conductor is directly

proportional to current flowing through the conductor.

VαI

V=IR

Limitation:

1. It does not apply to non metallic conductor.

2. It does not apply to non linear devices such as diode zener diode.

Kirchhoff’s current law:

The sum of the current flowing towards a junction is equal to sum of the current

flowing away from it.

Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

In a closed circuit the sum of the potential drop is equal to the sum of the potential

rises.

The various advantages of electromechanical measuring instruments are,

1. Simple in design

2. Reliable

3. Low in cost

4. Work without any additional power supply.

The instruments which make use of a dial and pointer for showing or indicating

magnitude of unknown quantity is called indicating instruments.

Types :

1. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC) instrument

2. Permanent Magnet Moving Iron (PMMI) instrument

3. Dynamometer type wattmeter

1. Indicating instruments (voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter)

2. Recording instruments (tape recorder, x-y recorder)

3. Integrating instruments (energy meter)

(or) what are the different torques act upon the moving system of the instruments

for good operation ?

1. Deflecting torque

2. Controlling torque

3. Damping torque

11. A 120Ω resistor has a specified maximum power dissipation of 1 W. calculate the

maximum current level.

Given Data:

P=1W, R=120Ω

P= I2R

I2=P/R = 1/120

I= 0.09 A

12. Three inductive coils each with resistance of 15Ω and an inductance of 0.03H have

connected in star to a 3 , 400V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate the phase voltages.

Given data:

VL=400V,R=15 Ω, L=0.03H

Solution :

VP= VL/

VP= 400/ =230.2V

13. Two resistances are connected in parallel with values 6Ω and 3 Ω. This combination

is connected in series with 8 Ω. Find the equivalent resistance.

=2Ω

Total resistance RT= RS+RP

=2+8

=10 Ω

Average value = Area under the curve over one complete cycle

Base (Time period)

15. Define form factor.

Form factor is defined as the ratio between RMS value and average value.

Form factor = RMS value

Average value

Electric current is defined as rate of flow of electric charge.

I =dq/dt

The unit of current is Amperes.

This is generally measured between two points and its unit is volts. If the work

done in moving a charge of 1 coulomb between any two points is one joule, then we say

that the potential of one point with reference to the second point is one volt.

V=dW/dQ

The number cycles occurring per second is called frequency f = 1/T Hz.

19. Define power. ``’

The rate of doing work by electrical energy or energy supplied per unit time is

called the power. Its unit is watts

P = V × I; P = Energy / time = W/t

Resistance is the property of a substance, which opposes the flow of electric

current. Whenever current flows through a resistor, a voltage drop occurs in it and it is

dissipated in the form of heat. Unit of resistance is ohm. Symbol is Ω and is measured

with a help of ohm meter.

Inductance is the property of the coil by which it opposes any change of current

.Its unit is Henry. It stores the energy in electromagnetic field.

A capacitor is a element which store the energy in electrostatic field. It is formed

by two parallel plates separated by an insulating medium.

The actual power consumed in an ac circuit is called real power. Its unit is watt.

P=VICOS

The power consumed by a pure reactance in an ac circuit is called a reactive

power. Its unit is VAR.

Q=VISin

It is given by the product of rms value of voltage current .Its unit is volt amperes.

S=VI

26. Compare active and passive elements.

Active Elements Passive Elements

The elements which can deliver energy are The elements which consume energy either by

called as active elements. absorbing or storing are called passive elements.

Eg: Voltage source, Current source Eg: R,L & C

PART –B

1. Use mesh analysis to determine the three mesh currents in the circuit show below.

2. For the circuit shown below, find the current through each of the three resistors.

3. Find the current in the 8 Ω resistors in the following circuit using krichoff s law.

5. Use nodal analysis to determine the voltage across 5 Ω resistance and the current in the 12V

source

6. Using nodal method find current through 8 Ω resistor as shown in below figure.

8. Describe Kirchhoff’s laws. For the circuit shown in the figure below. Determine the current

through 6 Ω resistors and the power supplied by the current source.

9. A sinusoidal current wave is given by i =50sin (100πt). Determine the root mean square value.

10. A coil of resistance 5.94 Ω and inductance of 0.35 H is connected in series with a capacitance

of 35 µF across a 200V, 50Hz supply find the impedance(z), current and the phase difference

between voltage and current(Φ).

11. Three inductive coils, each with a resistance of 15 Ω and an inductance of 0.03H are

connected in star to a three phase 400V, 50 Hz supply .calculate the phase current, line current

and power absorbed.

12. A series R-C circuit with R=20 Ω and C=127 µF has 160V, 50 Hz supply connected to it.

Find impedance, current and power factor.

13. For the circuit shown below, calculate the line current, the power and the power factor. The

value of R, Land C in each phase is 10 Ω, 1H and 100 µF respectively.

14. Determine the line current, power factor and total power when a 3- phase 400V, supply is

given to a balanced load of impedance (8+j6) Ω in each branch, is connected in star.

15. Three similar coils connected in star, take a power of 1.5kW at a power factor of 0.2lagging

from a 3 phase, 400V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the resistance and inductance of each coil.

16. Derive the expression s for impedance, power factor and current of a RL series circuit

connected across alternating current source. Also draw phasor diagram.

17. A series RLC circuit with R=25 Ω, L=0.3H and C=66 µF. is supplied at 220V, 50Hz. Find

the impedance of the circuit, current, voltage across each element, power and power factor.

18. A series circuit of R=10 Ω and Xc=15 Ω an phasor voltage V=50∟-90 V rms.Find the real

power, reactive power, complete power and power factor.

19. Three impedance of 42∟-35ºΩ are connected in delta to a three phases, three wire, and

350V. Find the line currents

20. With neat sketch explain the working of dynamometer type watt meter.

22. Why PMMC instruments are not used for AC measurements?

23. With neat sketch explain construction and working of moving coil instruments.

UNIT –II

ELECTRICAL MACHINES

PART –A

The purposes of yoke in a DC Machines are,

1. It serves the purpose of outermost cover of the DC machine.

2. It provides mechanical support to the poles.

3. It forms a part of the magnetic circuit. It provides a path a low reluctance for

magnetic flux.

The EMF equation of a DC generator is,

Eg = PФZN Volts

60A

Where

Eg = induced emf in generator.

P = Number of poles.

Z = Total number of conductors in armature.

N = Speed in rpm.

A = Number of parallel path.

Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.

For lap winding A = P, for wave winding A = 2.

Depending on the method of excitation used, the dc generators are classified as,

1. Separately excited dc generator

2. Self excited dc generator

a) Series generator

b) Shunt generator

c) Compound generator

i) Long shunt compound generators.

ii) Short shunt compound generators.

4. State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. (Or) what is the basic principle

of a dc generator?

Basic principle of dc generator is Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.i.e.

whenever a conductor is moved in a magnetic field; dynamically induced emf is produced in that

conductor.

Purpose of commutator and brush in a dc generator are,

1. The commutator converts the alternating emf into unidirectional or direct emf.

2. The brushes are mainly used to collect current from the commutator.

Conductors are cutting flux and that is exactly what is required for generator action to

take place. This means that even when the machine is working as a motor, voltages are induced

in the conductors. This emf is called back emf or counter emf, since the cause for this is in the

rotation, which, in turn, is due to the supply voltage.

Hence, Eb = PФZN Volts

60A

So back emf regulates the flow of armature current and it automatically alters the

armature current to meet the load requirement. This is the practical significance of back emf.

V=Eb + Ia Ra +Brush drop.

Ia = Armature current in amps.

Ra = Armature resistance in ohms.

The torque equation of DC motor is given by,

Ta = 0.159Ф Ia PZ N-m

A

Where Ta = Torque in N-m

Ф = Flux per pole in Weber.

Ia = Armature current in amps.

P = Number of poles.

Z = Total number of conductors.

A = Number of parallel paths.

The speed regulation is defined as the change in speed from no load to full load,

expressed as a fraction or percentage of full load speed.

Therefore, as per definition per unit (p.u) speed regulation of DC motor is given as

A DC motor is an electrical machine which converts electric energy into mechanical

energy.

It is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic

field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming’s Left hand rule and

the magnitude of the force in given by F = B I l Newton.

The types of DC motor and applications are

1. DC Series motor -- Constant speed motor

Used in Drilling, Spinning, etc…

2. DC Shunt motor -- Variable speed motor

Used in Electric Traction, conveyors, etc…

3. DC Compound Motor – Variable speed motor

Used in Rolling Mills, Printing press, etc.

11. Why a dc shunt motor is also called a constant flux motor or constant speed

motor?

In shunt motor flux produced by field winding is proportional to the field current. Here

the input voltage is constant and so flux is also constant .Therefore DC shunt motor is also called

as a constant flux motor or constant speed motor.

In dc series motor flux is directly proportional to armature current. i.e, under no load

condition the armature current is very low and flux is also less. By using the formula speed

inversely proportional to the flux. If flux is less speed will be very high. Due to this, motor will

be damaged. Hence dc series motor should always be started with some load on the shaft.

The magnetism residing in the winding or poles though the current through the exciting

winding is reduced to zero is called residuals magnetism.

The transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which an electrical power is

transformed from one alternating current circuit to another with the desired changer in voltage

and current, without any change in the frequency.

Based on the construction, the various types of transformer are,

1. Core type transformer.

2. Shell type transformer.

3. Berry type transformer.

16. What is voltage transformation ratio of transformer? Also write the conditions of

step up transformer.

The ratio of secondary induced emf to primary induced emf is called voltage

transformation ratio denoted by K.

E2 / E1 = N2 / N1 = K

Where, N1 = Number of primary winding turns.

N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.

For a step up transformer ,

E2 >E1 hence K> 1 and for that N2 > N1 = K.

Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence total

losses depend on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of transformers is in kVA

and not in kW.

The regulation of the transformer is defined as the reduction in magnitude of the

terminal voltage due to load, with respect to the no-load terminal voltage.

Transformer efficiency ƞ = (output power/input power) x 100

The emf equation of transformer is given by,

E1 = 4.44 fФm N1 volts

E2 = 4.44 fФm N2 volts

E2 = RMS value of the secondary emf

Фm = Maximum value of flux,

f = frequency of the supply voltage.

N1 = Number of primary winding turns.

N2 = Number of secondary winding turns.

20. Define all day efficiency of a transformer.

All day efficiency is the ratio of energy (in kwh) delivered in a 24 hour period to the

energy (in kwh) input for the same interval of time.

ηall day = Output in kwh/Input in kwh (for 24 hours)

21. Name the methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self

starting.

The methods adopted to make the single phase induction motors self starting are

classified as,

1. Split phase induction motor

2. Capacitor start induction motor

3. Capacitor run induction motor

4. Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor

5. Shaded pole induction motor

The slip of an induction motor is defined as the ratio of difference between synchronous

speed (Ns) and rotor speed (N).

23. Why the single phase induction motor is not self starting?

There is no starting torque in the single phase induction motor. Therefore the rotor does

not rotate. That’s why single phase induction motor is not self starting.

The applications of split phase induction motor are,

1. Blowers

2. Fans

3. Centrifugal pumps

4. Washing machines

25. What are the applications and characteristics of capacitor-start capacitor run induction

motor?

Applications of capacitor-start capacitor run induction motor:

1. Compressors

2. Conveyors

3. Refrigerators

4. Pumps

1. The efficiency of the motor is 60 to 70%

2. The power factor of the motor is 0.75 to 0.9

3. The power rating of the motor is 1/8 to 1HP.

4. The percentage of rated starting torque is 200% to 300%.

PART -B

1. Explain the principle of operation of a DC generator and derive the EMF equation.

2. Discuss in detail about the construction of DC generator with the neat sketch.

3. Write briefly on the losses occurring in DC generator.

4. Explain the construction and working principle of DC motor with neat sketch.

5. What are the factors controlling the speed of the motor? Explain any one method of speed

control of shunt motors. Write the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

6. Describe the construction details of transformer and also explain the principle of operation

7. Derive the emf equations of transformer.

8. Explain the principle of operation of single phase induction motor.

9. Classify single phase induction motors according to the method of starting and briefly explain

them.

10. Explain the principle of operation of split phase induction motor, capacitor start induction

motor and shaded pole induction motor with neat diagrams. Mention its applications and

characteristics of the same.

UNIT-III

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS

PART -A

The upper most band is conduction band and the lower one is valence band these two

bands are separated by a gap which is known as forbidden energy gap.

The pure form of semiconductor material is known as intrinsic semiconductor examples

pure germanium and silicon which have the forbidden energy gap of 0.72 and 1.1eV.

Impure form of semiconductor is called as extrinsic semiconductor.

EX: N and P type semiconductors.

the pure semiconductor forms extrinsic

semiconductor

2. Number of electrons and holes are Number of electrons and holes are not

equal equal because of doping

P type semiconductor: Holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carrier.

N type semiconductor: Holes are minority carriers and electrons are majority carrier.

6. What are the types of solid based on energy band theory? Give examples for each.

1. Conductor Ex: Copper ,Aluminium.

2. Semiconductor Ex: Silicon , Germanium.

3. Insulator Ex: Paper , mica.

7. Write any two salient points on a PN junction diode.

1. It conducts well in forward direction.

2. It conducts poorly in reverse direction.

1. As switch

2. As rectifiers

3. Power supplies

4. Clipper and clampers

5. Digital systems

6. Communication systems

The forward voltage at which the current through the junction starts increasing rapidly is

called as knee voltage (or) cut in voltage.

A zener diode is a special purpose diode that is operated in reverse biased

conditions.

When the reverse bias voltage across of zener diode exceeds the particular voltage

level, the current increases very sharply. This voltage is called breakdown voltage of

zener diode.

1. Voltage regulator

2. Clippers in wave shaping circuits

3. Square wave generators

4. Fixing reference voltage in electronic circuits such as power supplies and

transistor biasing.

13. Write the difference between PN junction diode and Zener diode.

region

2. The Diode breakdown is The diode breakdown is

called avalanche called zener breakdown.

breakdown

.

less than 6v. reverse voltage greater than 6V.

very sharp in breakdown region. are not sharp.

due to very high electric field due to collision of accelerated

established by the reverse bias. electrons as a chain reaction.

the junction temperature increases. the junction temperature increases.

This is the maximum voltage with which the rectifier has to withstand during reverse

biasing.

16. What is the peak inverse voltage of half wave rectifier and center tapped full

wave rectifier?

PIV=Vm (Half wave)

PIV=2Vm (Full wave)

In order to operate transistor properly as an amplifier, it should be biased.

Commonly using biasing

1. Common Base

2. Common Emitter

3. Common Collector

When reverse bias voltage VCB increases, the width of depletion region also increases,

which reduces the electrical base width. This effect is called as early effect (or) base width

modulation.

It is defined as the ratio of change in output current to the change in input current at

constant.

2. Low ripple factor.

3. High transformer utilization factor.

4. The dc saturation of the core is avoided as current flows through the halves of the

centre tapped secondary of the transformer in opposite direction.

2. As two diodes are connected in series in each conducting of positive and

negative cycle the peak inverse voltage is shared by both the diodes equally

hence it is suitable for high voltage application.

3. The transformer which is connected to bridge rectifier can be small in size

for a Given output and current flows in both primary and secondary during

both positive and negative cycle of the input voltage.

4. Better transformer utilization factor.

PART -B

2. Describe the working of a PN junction diode with neat diagrams. Also explain its V-I

characteristics

3. What is a Zener diode? Explain the operation of Zener diode and draw its characteristics.

4. Explain how the zener diode is used as a voltage regulator.

4. Explain the operation of half wave rectifier with neat sketch and derive the necessary

expression.

5. Explain the operation of centre tapped full wave rectifier with neat diagram and derive

the necessary expression.

6. Explain the operation of full wave Bridge rectifier with neat diagram

7. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CE

configuration can be obtained.

8. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CB

configuration can be obtained

9. Explain with a neat diagram how the input and output characteristics of a CC

configuration can be obtained.

10. Compare the input resistance, output resistance and voltage gain of CB, CC and CE

configuration

11. Explain in detail about small signal CE amplifier.

UNIT – IV

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

PART – A

1. Define binary logic.

Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations. The variables are

designated by the alphabets such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having only two

distinct values: 1 and 0. There are three basic logic operations: AND, OR, and NOT.

2. What are the basic digital logic gates?

The three basic logic gates are AND gate OR gate NOT gate.

Logic gates are the basic elements that make up a digital system. The electronic gate is a

circuit that is able to operate on a number of binary inputs in order to perform a particular logical

function.

5. Which gates are called as the universal gates? What are its advantages?

The NAND and NOR gates are called as the universal gates. These gates are used to

perform any type of logic application.

Theorem 1: This law states that the complement of the sum of the variables equal to the product

of complement of each variables.

A+ B = A . B

Theorem 2: This law states that the complement of a product equals the sum of complement of

each variables.

A.B = A + B

7. Define half adder and full adder.

Half adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of two bits is called half adder

Full adder: The logic circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of 3 bits and carries from the

previous addition.

The basic digital memory circuit is known as flip flop. It is a memory device used to store

one binary digit(bit). The main applications are counters and shift registers.

The different types of flip flops are:

1. T – flip flop.

2. RS – flip flop.

3. D –flip flop.

4. JK flip flop.

5. JK master slave flip flop.

6. Clocked RS flip flop.

This race around condition arises when the width of the clock pulse is greater than the

propagation delay time of the flip flop.

In a level triggered J-K flip flop when J and K are both high, then the output toggles

continuously. This condition is called a race around condition.

A digital circuit used for counting. Counter is divided into synchronous and

asynchronous counter. The change of the state of a particular flip flop is depending on the

present state of other flip flop.

The different types of counters are:

1. Synchronous counter

2. Asynchronous counter

1. Up counter.

2. Down counter.

3. Up/Down counter.

4. Modulo – N counter.

5. Presettable counter.

The counter in which number of states are truncated up to ten states, 0000 (0 in decimal)

through 1001 (9 in decimal) is called decade counter.

A register is a group of flip flop that can be used to store a binary number. Register has a

variety of application in digital system including microprocessor.

The four types of shift registers are:

1. Serial in serial out (SISO)

2. Serial in parallel out (SIPO)

3. Parallel in parallel out (PIPO)

4. Parallel in serial out (PISO)

15. What is the difference between sequential and combinational circuit?

It has memory It has no memory

Depends on present as well as Depends only on present state

previous state

Example: Shift register , Ripple counter Example: Adder, subtractor.

The types of digital to analog converters are:

1. Binary weighted resistors DAC

2. R-2R ladder type

3. Inverted R-2R ladder type.

The types of analog to digital converters are:

1. Flash type

2. Staircase type

3. Successive approximation type

4. Tracking or servo converter.

PART-B

1. Draw a full adder circuit using logic gates. Explain with truth table. Give also the expressions

for sum and carry.

2. Show that NAND and NOR gates are universal building blocks.

3. Draw and explain the circuit diagram of AND, OR, NOT, and NAND gates with suitable truth

tables.

4. Draw the logic diagram and explain the working of a half adder.

5. Explain the operations of RS flip flop and clocked RS flip flop.

6. Explain the working of clocked master slave JK flip flop with logic diagram.

7. Draw the logic diagram of a 4-bit binary ripple counter and explain its working.

8. Explain the operation of an asynchronous counter.

9. Explain the working of binary weighted register D/A converter.

10. Explain Successive approximation A/D conversion.

11. Explain with neat sketch the working of binary ladder network for digital to analog

conversion.

UNIT-V

FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

PART – A

1. What is modulation?

The process by which baseband signal modifies the carrier signal is called modulation

and the resultant signal is called modulated signal.

2. What is demodulation?

At the receiving end, the baseband signal and carrier signal are separated from

modulated signal by the process of demodulation.

Modulation can be broadly classified into two types based on the nature of carrier signal

1. sinusoidal modulation

2. pulse modulation

Modulation for AM is define as the ratio of modulating signal amplitude to carrier

signal amplitude.

unmodulated signal.

2. Increases the range of communication

3. Allows multiplexing of signals

4. Allows adjustments in the bandwidth

5. Improves quality of reception

6. As relation to amplitude modulation, what is over modulation, under modulation

and 100% modulation?

2. If modulation index ma=1 it is said to be 100% modulation.

3. If modulation index ma>1 it is said to be over modulation.

When the signal propates through the channel it is affected by the noise, Hence

the digital signal is said to be noise immune.

1. Analog signals are the one which varies continuously with respect to time.

2. Downlink frequency - I.F frequency

Digital

Analog Sampler Quantizer Encode output

Input

Demodulation is the process of recovering the base band signal from the

modulated wave. Hence the original information is extracted at receiver end.

Simple fiber consists of an inner core surrounded by cladding area. The light wave

propagated through the fiber by successive reflections within the core. The

principle of propagation is total internal reflection.

13. What is meant by FAX?

A facsimile or FAX system is a document carrier, with the help of a FAX machin e one

can send an image on a sheet of paper to another FAX machine over regular telephone lines.

1. Transmission of photographs

2. Transmission of languages text

3. Transmission of document, map etc.

15. State the difference between analog signal and digital signal.

Analog signal are one which It is a type of discrete time

varies continuously with signal

respect to time

Telegraph

distance communication feasible and ensures a high quality service.

Optical fibers are used for transmission of optical signals in the same manner of co-axial

cables for radio wave transmission.

1. International communication

2. Inter-city communication

3. Inter-exchange communication

4. Data links

5. Domestic communication

6. Plant and traffic control etc.

In amplitude modulation the amplitude of the carrier is varied in accordance with the

instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the modulating signal reaches

maximum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also made higher and whenever the message

signal reaches minimum amplitude the amplitude of the carrier is also minimum.

In frequency modulation the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the

instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Whenever the amplitude of the message signal is

high FM wave has higher frequency and whenever the amplitude of the message is low

frequency of FM wave is also less.

Sampling is the process of taking the samples of a continuous time signal at regular

interval of time.

PART –B

2. Draw the block diagram of radio broadcasting and reception system and explain the

function of each block.

3. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of FAX.

4. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of micro wave

communication.

5. Draw the block diagram of optical fiber communication system and explain the function

of each block.

6. With the help of a block diagram describe the working of a TV communication system.

7. With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of satellite communication

systems.

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