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Figure 7-5. Contro! panol for bolt fiter press dewatering system. Upper and Lower nae eee a a «|| YO O\kall, ieee a womal| © Rare a OO qi ty Sore Wer en vie ‘© High sludge level on gravity drainage section © Polymer feed pump shut-down (should stop feed pumps). ‘The belt washing system should include a high pressure water pump, a set of spray bars for cleaning both the upper and lower belts, and a spray cleaning device. Belt washing occurs after the cake has been removed from each belt. It is washed from the side ‘opposite that which is in contact with the sludge cake. Ether potable water or high quality plant effluent could be used as wash water for the presses. Since some belt presses require as much as 3.16 V's (60 9pm) per meter belt width of wash water, it is more economical to use plant effluent. Therefore, when designing a system ensure that the pump, piping, and nozzles are capable of handling high quality plant cefiluent. However, when plant effluent is used, a highly efficient fittation system must be installed Upstream of the press to ensure that the offluent is, free of solids that can clog the spray nozzles. The spray nozzles should be designed for easy access to ‘enable efficient and thorough cleaning which ensures ‘complete cleaning of the filter belts. Many of the new models of presses are equipped with stainless steel brushes within the spray header to automatically clean the nozzles without removing them from the press. Figure 7-6 (6) illustrates this type of spray header. This type of cleaning system should be specified since they are easy to use and require much less operator time than the manually cleaned systems. 7.2.5 Performance Characteristics Bolt filter prosses can be used to dewater most sludges generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants. However, the sludge must be conditioned with polymer to ensure optimum performance. Polymer produces a phenomenon known as superfiocculation (2). Superflocculation is the formation of large, strong floc which causes free water to drain easily from the sludge in the gravity drainage zone of the belt filter press. Superflocculation also produces a sludge that can withstand the pressures generated during the dewatering process and prevents the sludge from squeezing out from between the dewatering belts. Only polymer can produce this phenomenon. Some plants have tried to dewater lime conditioned primary sludge on belt filter presses. (H. Johnson, Ashbrook-Simon-Hartley, personal_communication, 1987; J. Labunski. Parkson Corp., personal ‘communication, 1987.) The results have’ been poor, with low cake Solids, iow solids capture, and blinding of the belt mesh. If’ the designer wants to use lime stabilization and landfilling as the final disposal method, a postiime-stabilization system should be used. First, the sludge is conditioned with polymer ‘and dewatered, and then lime is added to the sludge cake (6). New Haven, CT is successfully dewatering ‘a high pH (limo added) raw primary and waste ‘activated sludge using a cationic polymer. However, this can be site specific and results vary widely. Usually cationic polymers are used for sludge Conditioning. Sometimes a two polymer system, such as a cationic polymer following either an anionic or a ronionic polymer, will be used on a belt filter press to improve cake release from the upper dewatering belt. The polymer must be selected carefully to ensure optimum performance. Always contact the polymer manufacturer's representative for help screening and testing polymers; this service is normally provided free, Typically, polymer and sludge are piped to the conditioning unit. When designing the polymer Conditioning system, itis important for the designer to locate polymer feed points at several locations: one at the conditioning unit itself, one about 0.6 to 0.9 m (2 to 3 ft) upstream of the unit directly into the sludge feed piping, and one about 7.6 m (25 ft) upstream. With two polymer feeds, the anionic or non-ionic polymer may have to be added before the sludge pump. Feedpoint location is especially important for a ew installation where sludge characteristics are not known, but is also important for any plant, since sludge characteristics can change periodically. Sometimes the sludge will condition better when there is a longer contact time with the polymer, but at ‘other times it requires a shorter period. Therefore, by designing polymer feed points at several locations,