Sei sulla pagina 1di 112

KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM

KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
j
th th
8 & 9 October 2014
j

Day 1

Day 7 Day 2

Day 6 Day 3

Day 5 Day 4

INTEGRATING AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK


FOR SUSTAINABILITY
CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Souvenir
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM

All living creatures are believed to be constituted out of “Panch – Tatva” i.e. Prithvee
(Earth), Agni (fire), Jal (Water), Vayu (Air) and Akash( Ether). Historical development of
mankind under various era of pre-civilization, post-civilization spanning over dark stone
age to modern and super-industrialized technology led world has been influenced by water
and fuel resource(s).
Today, the Global concern for Food & Energy Security; Hunger & Malnutrition, Global Warming
and Changing climate pattern, Economic Recession and Unemployment, Rising Human
Population and declining Natural Resources are threatening our survival.
Over the last 200 years, Knowledge, Science and Technology blended together with “Innovative
Ideas” have contributed immensely in pulling the people, societies and countries out of poverty,
malnutrition, diseases and suffering and improve the standard of living manifold.
With development, come the new problems and therefore the quest to find newer solutions to the
growing number of multiple problems faced in “Agriculture and Livestock Food Production System”
can be addressed through innovative idea(s).
Ayurvet, an organization which has innovation encrypted in its genes, floating in the
protoplasmic fluid of knowledge, sieved through the tools of science and technology has
propounded the concept of “Integrating Livestock and Agriculture” using the available
resources under 5 F Programme. This programme defines sustainable integration of Food,
Feed, Fodder, Fertilizer & Fuel for the benefit of all stake holders. The 5F Program has
embedded in it the technologies to fulfill the disjointed missing link for “Value Creation”
through optimum resource usage.
The climate change is likely to impact these sectors negatively thus affecting overall plant, animal
health and their productivity, which would affect the food security and the human health.
Moreover, the excessive indiscriminate use of chemicals and pesticide is also negatively affecting
the production of healthy food thus leading to health issues.
The Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium is a sharing platform for scientists, nutritionists,
agriculturist, policy planners, industry experts and farmers of Livestock & Agriculture sectors to
deliberate and discuss critical issues to find possible solutions
This initiative of Ayurvet to share knowledge and research for sustainability, is in line with our
commitment towards achieving the triple bottom line profits & inclusive growth.
Contents
Forword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

INDEX OF ARTICLES

Climate Change and Fish Farming in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


Relevance of climate change on indigenous livestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Climate Change: Impact on Animal Health, Production and Reproduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Challenges of Climate Change: Impact on Fodder Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Climate Change, Policy-Making and the Five Fs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Challenges of Climate Change - Impact on Dairy Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Innovative Sustainable Interventions for Improving Soil and Livestock Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Climate Change and the Food Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Integrated Sustainable Agriculture & Livestock Production: An opportunity for Better Animal,
Human & Environment Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Impact of usage of Ayurvet Herbal Specialities to meet challenges of Climatic change . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Integrating Biological Resources into Rural Economy – challenges of Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . 62
Challenges of Climate Change - Biogas an Alternative Energy and Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Gaushalas Animal Health and Future of India Cow Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Challenges of Climate Change - An Impact on Animal Health and Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
CSR STRATEGY: Promoting Rural Livelihoods through Modern and Scientific Livestock Farming 93
Challenges of Climate Change: Experience Related to Ayurvet ProGreen Hydroponics Technology. 96
Kwality Model of Rural Development – Changing Lives and Empowering People through Dairying100
Hydroponics for Value Added Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

“मयोभव
ू ातो अ भ वातू ा ऊज तीरोषधीरा रश ाम |
पीव तीज वध ा: पब वसाय प ते मळ ृ || ऋ 10.169.1”
“In pasture while being self fed-with salubrious winds wafting over them cows partake of medicinal herbs
as their feed. They have access to divine waters (fresh stream waters) that bless and their feet tread
on ground that makes them free of any disease.”
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change th th
8 & 9 October 2014

Prof. (Dr.) P.N. Bhat Presently:


F.N.A.Sc., F.N.A.A.Sc., F.N.A.V.Sc. Managing Trustee: Ayurvet Research Foundation
Chairman: World Buffalo Trust, Flat No. F-205,
Formerly:
No.F-64/C9, Sector 40, NOIDA, UP
Director & Vice Chancellor,
Chairman: Centre for Integrated Animal Husbandry
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, U.P.
& Dairy Development
Deputy Director General (Animal Science),
President: Indian Veterinary Association, New Delhi
ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi
Animal Husbandry Commissioner to Govt. of India,
Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Foreword
A significant challenge that agriculture and livestock productivity and production face is the climate
change. The climate change is real and happening in India. The recent past has seen droughts,
deficient rains, sudden heavy rains, flash floods, across many states of India. The recent examples are
the cloud bursts, heavy rains and flash floods in Jammu and Kashmir in September, 2014 and in
Uttarakhand in June, 2013. These are grim reminders to the changing environment and climate that need attention
and measures to mitigate. These have direct impact on our daily lives. The major food crops—wheat, maize and
rice—grow best within optimum temperature range of 15-25°C. Spikes in temperature pose a greater risk to crop
productivity through faster maturation and a shorter grain-filling. Climate change affects livestock both directly and
indirectly. Air temperature, humidity, wind speed and other climate factors directly influence animal performance
including growth, production, health and reproduction.

The agricultural productivity is one of the lowest in the world. There is need to improve the yields without using
harmful chemicals. Most of the chemical based fertilisers, insecticides, fungicides and growth enhancers leave
their residues in the foods and feeds and that proves harmful to human health. The availability of products of
livestock and aquatic origin are increasing. But productivity is one of the lowest in the world. Contribution of
livestock production goes beyond direct food production. They include other such products as skins, fibre,
fertilizer and fuel, and all these also add to capital formation. Agriculture and livestock activities being mainly
rural also provide financial security to the rural population in addition to the food security to the nation. It is
therefore necessary and important to ensure complete and thorough integration of agriculture with livestock
production.

It is these challenges that have made the hosting of Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium on a continuing basis. The
third in the series, the symposium would be held on October 8 and 9, 2014 on the aptly chosen theme of
“Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability - Challenges of Climate Change”. As the symposium
proceeds, we bring out a special publication incorporating articles from select experts. I am confident that these
articles and the deliberations during the symposium would benefit the fraternity of experts, scientists,
researchers and the industry leaders to understand the challenges facing food security and provide solutions.

Prof. (Dr.) P. N. Bhat


Chairman
Ayurvet Knowledge Symposium 2014

14
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change th th
8 & 9 October 2014

Message
Climate change is real. The rapid increase of natural calamities is an indication that
economic development and food security for the growing global population could
be seriously effected.
The fact is that agriculture and livestock productivity is declining. There is an
ongoing debate about whether processes of food production and livestock rearing
are aggravating climatic change, and / or whether climate change is the cause of this
declining productivity.
Under these circumstances , the debate on “Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability -
Challenges of Climate Change” is not just important, but vital.
Ayurvet Research Foundation and their collaborating partners have chosen this theme for the Ayurvet
th
Knowledge Symposium to be held on 8th and 9 October, 2014.
India is known for its traditional wisdom in integrating agriculture and livestock production. Our
Vedas are replete with the knowledge of using bio-fertiliser for healthy soil and a good crop output,
while also teaching the appropriate use of land resources - pasture, fodder and agro by-products - for
livestock production. The rampant use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides in agriculture, as well
as using antibiotics for livestock, has caused unhealthy soil and reduction in livestock productivity.
There is a immediate need to restructure some of our modern applications while integrating crop and
livestock production.
Agriculture goes beyond just food production. Other products are skins, fibre, fertilizer and fuel, as
well as capital accumulation. Livestock are closely linked to the social and cultural lives of several
million resource-poor farmers, for whom animal ownership ensures a degree of sustainable farming
and economic stability.
At the symposium, illustrious researchers, scientists and industry experts will address these
issues. A special publication on integrating Food, Feed, Fodder, Fuel and Fertilizer will be
released at the Symposium.

Pradip Burman
Chairman

2
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Climate Change and Fish Farming in India


S. Ayyappan and Madan Mohan
Indian Council of Agricultural Research

Abstract
Fishery is an important source of livelihood and fish, and is an important source of protein.
Harbouring 14.4 million fishermen, India ranks second in world fish production with ca. 5.4%
to the global fish production, thus auguring well for a blue revolution. Globally, aquaculture is
the fastest growing food-producing sector, at an annual rate of nearly nine percent.

Introduction
In India, fisheries play a very important role in Indian economy and contribute significantly to
food, nutrition, economic and employment securities, being one of the fastest growing agricultural sub-sectors
during the last few decades (DARE/ICAR, 2003-04). Total fish production in 2013-14 was to the tune of 9.45
million tonnes, out of which about 9 lakh tonnes was exported resulting in fore earning of about 5 billion USD.
Over all, this sector contributes about 4.6 per cent of the agricultural GDP. It is envisaged that the demands of
growing population will require substantial increase in aquatic food supply mainly through aquaculture in the
next 20 to 30 years. Notwithstanding, climate change is projected to impact ecosystems, increasing pressure on
all livelihoods and food supplies, including fisheries and aquaculture sector.

Global warming and aquaculture


Drivers of climate related change in aquaculture production systems can largely be grouped as: changes in air
and inland water temperatures, changes in solar radiation, changes in sea surface temperature, changes in other
oceanographic variables (currents, wind velocity and wave actions etc.), sea level rise, and increase in frequency
or intensity of extreme events and water stress. These changes will in turn create physiological (growth,
development, reproduction, disease), ecological (organic and inorganic cycles, predation, ecosystem services)
and operational (species selection, site selection, sea cage technology etc.) changes.

Understanding mechanisms by which global warming may influence aquaculture production systems is
essential for appropriate design of policies and management strategies in the aquaculture sector, particularly
when the future of fisheries sector has been conceived largely in terms of increasing support for aquaculture
development. Climate change impacts may be significant at a number of different scales ranging from global
down to the local community level. By combining national or global level indicators with case studies at the
district or local community level, it may be possible to highlight and better understand a broader range of
impacts. For example, while a large area may be exposed to the risk of flooding or drought, the adaptive capacity
of different communities within that area may vary greatly.

For instance, increased precipitation can bring its own problems in the form of flooding. Floods may damage
facilities, cause stock to escape, affect salinity, and introduce predators or disease. Increase in monsoon intensity
has been predicted over some Asian regions, while changes in the timing of the monsoon pattern and increased
inter annual variability could also be significant. Sea level rise will have gradual impacts due to loss of land via
inundation and erosion. Areas such as mangroves and salt marshes, which act as nursery grounds supplying seed
for many aquaculture species and provide some coastal protection, may be lost as they are sandwiched between

3
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

rising sea and developed land behind them. Salination of ground water may occur, especially in low lying areas,
reducing the availability of freshwater for aquaculture and other uses.

Aquaculture will have to supplement with terrestrial agriculture as well as industrial and domestic users for a
limited water supply, which may often be supporting a growing population. The relative value of aquaculture
products in relation to non-fish alternatives will be significant, as well the productivity of capture fisheries.
Water stress due to decreased precipitation and/or increased evaporation may limit aquaculture in some areas.
This may take the form of increased risks associated with a reduced water supply on a continual basis, or by
reducing the length of a routine growing season. Increased variation in precipitation patterns and droughts may
increase the risk and costs of aquaculture in some areas as provision for these extremes has to be made.

Fish growth
Temperature changes will have an impact on the suitability of species for a given location (Beitinger et al.,
2000). There are also likely to be influences on other factors such as oxygen levels, toxic algae blooms and the
prevalence of pests, diseases and predators. In temperate areas increasing temperatures could bring the
advantages of faster growth rates and longer growing seasons. McCauley and Beitinger (1992) predict that for
every 1oC rise in temperature the optimum range for the culture of channel catfish will shift approximately 240
km north. Channel catfish provide a good illustration of some of the costs and benefits of higher temperatures.
Growth rate and hence per unit area production will increase with increased average water temperature, but
o
above 30 C feeding is reduced and growth slows (McCauley and Beitinger, 1992), a situation that may bring
increased yields to farmers in cooler areas while those in warmer areas may lose out.

In India, investigations have been conducted to assess the impact on the growth of Indian Major Carp, Labeo
rohita fingerlings reared in seven thermostatic aquariums for five weeks at water temperature of 29°C, 30°C,
31°C, 32°C, 33°, 34°C and 35°. Fish reared at 34°C water temperature exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) faster
growth (SGR-2.36 % body weight per day) than those at other temperatures. The change in growth rates were
insignificant between 29°C, 30°C, 31°C and 32°C treatment groups but growth rates significantly increased in
the temperatures ranging from 32°C to 34°C and there after it has been reportedly decreased. A linear growth
model of Labeo rohita fingerlings provides a reliable projection of growth (SGR %) with unit rise of
temperature within the range of 29° to 34°C. This will help fish culturist to develop adaptation strategies with
regard to suitability of fish species and fish culture practices under the climate warming scenarios.

Fish breeding and recruitment


Since most aquatic animals are cold-blooded, their metabolic rates are strongly affected by environmental
conditions, especially temperature. Changes in temperature can have significant influences on the reproductive
cycles of fish, including the speed at which they reach sexual maturity, the timing of spawning and the size of the
eggs they lay.

In India, the fish spawn of Indian major carps has declined in the middle stretch of river Ganga over the years. The
failure of recruitment of young ones to the system is because of failure in breeding of the Indian major carp. The fish
spawn availability index declined from 281 ml from 1970s to 27 ml in recent years (1996 to 2000). There is a
decreasing percentage of major carp seed from 78% in 1961-1965 to 34% in 2000-04, whereas minor carps from 21
% in 1961-65 to 53% in 1991 to 1995 and other fish seed showed an increase from 1% in 1961-65 to 48% in 2000-
04. Whereas, in fish farm hatcheries on the gangetic plains in West Bengal plains, a positive impact on breeding was

4
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

observed in the advancement and extension of the breeding period of IMC by 45-60 days. Almost all fishers and
operators of fish hatcheries indicated that rise in temperature is the main reason for advancement of the breeding
season of IMC, along with the increasing demand and high price of seed early in the season.

Shrimp farming
Brackish water aquaculture production is concentrated mainly in the tropical and sub-tropical areas in India,
being a vulnerable and multi-hazard risk prone country. Shrimp farming dominates the brackish water
aquaculture in India and was cultured in about 1.4 lakh ha with a production of 1.43 lakh tonnes during 2005-06.
The information on the likely impacts of climate change on shrimp farming is very limited and hence it is
essential that there is concerted research effort to understand the likely impact and develop adaptive measures.

Tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon has been the mainstay of India's seafood exports and has immense potential as
a foreign exchange earner. It also has substantial contribution towards socio-economic development in terms of
income and employment. Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by changes in temperature, precipitation, drought
and storms. Floods that affect infrastructure and livelihood, can impact aquaculture both negatively and
positively. Ecological changes, inundation of low lying lands and saline intrusions into freshwater regions are
likely to cause substantial dislocation of communities and disruption of farming systems. The primary challenge
for the shrimp aquaculture is to deliver food supply, strengthen economic output and maintain and enhance food
security. It is expected that the climate change impacts will be disproportionately felt by small scale shrimp
farmers who are already amongst the most poor and vulnerable members of the society. The small scale farmers
are typically unorganized and most farmers do not have access to technological innovations and scientific
applications. Evidently, there is a need to forecast the likely effects of climate change on the shrimp aquaculture
sector and to develop strategies to assist farmers and rural communities to adapt to the upcoming changes.

In India, Andhra Pradesh has had many weather related impacts in recent years such as the worst drought in half a
century which occurred in early to mid-2009, followed by a severe flood of once in 100 years in October 2009 to name a
few. These extreme climatic events, for example, have had severe consequences including heavy economic losses to
shrimp farmers in the state. Although the state does not have ideal tidal amplitude conditions for shrimp farming, the
industry can be expanded through the excavation of ponds to depths that would allow tidal water exchange or to avoid
excavation by putting a dyke around and use a pump for filling and water exchange. Both processes introduce heavy
cost elements and technical uncertainties, risking both the technical and economic viability.

East coast of India is subject to frequent cyclonic storms and occasional tidal waves which cause loss of
aquaculture stock and damage to aquaculture facilities. A few studies on the impact of extreme climate events
such as cyclones/floods/tsunamis/drought revealed the extent of damage that these events could cause (CIBA,
2014). Cyclonic storms in May 1990 and November 1991 in coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh viz., Krishna,
East Godavari and Nellore districts. The tsunami of 2004 caused either partial or complete damage to shrimp
hatcheries and farms. The recent cyclone `Nisha' and the resultant flooding in November 2008 destroyed 1000
acres of shrimp farms in coastal Tamil Nadu. As per preliminary assessment, more than 1500 tones of mature
shrimp washed away and infrastructure including farm equipment damaged accounting for a total loss of around
326 million rupees. Changes in pond water quality, introduction of disease into aquaculture facilities along with
the flooded water resulted in yield reduction and crop losses. Studies on the changes in the sea water quality as a
result of tsunami in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh revealed that slightly lower cationic (Na, K, Ca and

5
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Mg) and higher values of heavy metals compared to the normal sea water were recorded in the worst affected
areas of Tamil Nadu, which appears to be due to anthropogenic inputs rather than the impact of tsunami.

Coldwater fish farming

With growing population in the hills vis-à-vis changing consumption pattern, a cold water fishery is becoming
popular. Studies on rainbow trout, under normal conditions, revealed that the males attained maturity in 2+
years and females in 3+ years in Fish Farm of the Directorate of Cold Water Fisheries in Uttarakhand (1620 m
nd
asl). However, both male and female rainbow trouts attain complete maturity in 2 year. Such advancement in
maturity has been attributed to slight increase in water temperature from 4.5-20.5 0C to 5.0-21.5 0C and decrease
in the duration of low temperature regime in hill regions.

Forecasting studies conducted as a part of the World Water Vision has predicted that by 2025 water stress in
entire world will increase to more than 60%. The studies also indicated that the Himalayas too will face
water stress; this is already being felt in some of the hill states, especially Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh
and Kashmir where large number of underground spring water resources with best quality of water earlier
enabled raising of trouts. This problem is further aggravated in hills through up-stream water abstraction for
other services especially portable water and irrigation use for the foothill agriculture activities. In addition to
above concerns, natural lakes in majority of the Himalayan regions have become eutrophic with
deteriorating water quality resulting in loss in fishery. Thus, rainwater harvesting becomes a viable option in
the high hills for fish farming to combat water stress (Box 1).

Box 1. Fish Farming in hills using poly-lined ponds


As water stress, is being felt in some of the hill states, especially Uttarakhand,
Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir where large number of underground spring
water resources, the best quality of water to raise trout, have either dried-up or
flows have drastically diminished with acute crisis being faced during summer.
The limited water available in family tanks or small ponds is lost due to seepage.
The plastics film lined ponds have been found very suitable for rainwater
harvesting in uplands where scarcity of water becomes major bottleneck in agricultural production or
diversification. In Himalayan hilly tracts, such ponds are being used for rainwater harvesting or storing the water
from low discharge springs which otherwise cannot be directly used for irrigation purposes. This multi-tier model
for fish culture technology may help in reducing the impact increased water temperature and reduce poverty and
contribute to sustainable land use by improving food security, providing rural employment in the mid hills.

Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries


Fishing and climate change are strongly interrelated pressures on fish production and must be addressed jointly.
Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is
the principal means of reducing the impacts of climate change. Reduction of fishing effort (i) maximizes
sustainable yields, (ii) helps adaptation of fish stocks and marine ecosystems to climate impacts, and (iii)
reduces greenhouse gas emission by fishing boats. Hence, some of the most effective actions which we can take
to tackle climate impacts are to deal with the old familiar problems such as over-fishing, and adapt Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and Integrated Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management. The challenge
becomes severe considering the high level of poverty prevalent in the coastal communities involved in
traditional fishing methods, and the lack of suitable alternate income generating options for them. These factors

6
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

make these communities highly vulnerable to future changes, as their capacity to accommodate change is very
much limited. Effort to reduce dependence on fishing by these vulnerable communities is essential.

Evolving adaptive mechanisms


In the context of climate change, the primary challenge to the fisheries and aquaculture sector will be to ensure
food supply, enhance nutritional security, improve livelihood and economic output, and ensure ecosystem
safety. These objectives call for identifying and addressing the concerns arising out of climate change; evolve
adaptive mechanisms and implement action across all stakeholders at national, regional and international levels.
In response to shifting fish population and species, the industry may have to respond with the right types of craft
and gear combinations, on-board processing equipments etc. Governments should consider establishing
Weather-Watch Groups and decision support systems on a regional basis. Allocating research funds to analyze
the impacts and establishing institutional mechanisms to enable the sector are also important. The relevance of
active regional and international participation and collaboration to exchange information and ideas is being felt
now as never before. Overall, strategies to promote sustainability and improve the supply should be in place
before the threat of climate change assumes greater proportion.

Changes in temperature, precipitation, drought, storms and floods can influence fish aquaculture both negatively
and positively. Some commercially important species may not be able to tolerate these changed and extreme
conditions and new ones may emerge as the potential candidates for farming. In India, about 62 species of fishes
those are potentially cultivable, requiring conservation efforts or both the actions. Out of these, 42 species need
immediate attention and the rest are categorized as 2nd priority species which can be taken up for studies and trials at
a later stage. Of the 42 species, 25 (60.5%) are prioritized for both aquaculture and conservation actions; 15
(34.9%) for aquaculture and the remaining 2 (4.7%) for conservation only. Some of these fish species which are
regionally preferred and fetch very good price while others need immediate attention for conservation.

Several countries emphasize environmental sustainability and social responsibility, in addition to laws and
regulations, and voluntary codes of practice that include innovative, less-polluting production techniques, such
as those based on the ecosystem approach to aquaculture. In this regard, tools and indicators are being developed
for the purpose of assessing and monitoring not only the impacts of aquaculture on the environment, but also the
impacts of the environment on aquaculture and site selection. Over all, the trends in fish aquaculture in a
warming planet, may affect nutrition and livelihood security of the humans, who are otherwise more vulnerable
to climate change and extreme climatic events. Thus, for augmenting, quality protein with alternative food
supply chain, fish farming is a pro-active step that the individual farmers and the government focus upon to
ensure not only enhanced productivity through blue revolution, but also nutritional security, particularly in the
context of climate change.

References
Baiting, T.L., Bennett, W.A. and McCauley, R.W., (2000). Temperature tolerances of North American
freshwater fishes exposed to dynamics changes in temperature. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 58: 237-275.
CIBA, (2014). Annual Report. Central Institute for Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai, 176 p.
DARE/ICAR (2003-04). Annual Report, Department of Agricultural Research and Education, Ministry of
Agriculture, Govt. of India, pp. 118-122.
McCauley, R.W. and Beitinger, T.L., (1992). Predicted effects of climate warming on commercial culture of
catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Geo Journal, 28: 61-66.

7
Do You Know ?
The compost from livestock can
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
replace chemical based NPK

Ayurvet Vermicompost reduces use of


chemical fertilizers and improves farm profits
sustainably.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734.
Source - energetica-india.net
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Relevance of climate change on indigenous livestock


Neelma Gupta and K M L Pathak
Indian Council of Agriculture Research

INTRODUCTION
Climate change is a dynamic process started ever since the earth came into existence. This
change was gradual one and the species which could tolerate that change, sustained while of
them became extinct. The earth temperature is on regular rise, increased rate of melting of
glaciers resulting into the increase in sea level. However, in last few centuries, due to increased
anthropogenic activities including industrialization, deforestation, increased mining,
constructing dams and river projects, the impending climate change, is now considered globally
to be one of the most potentially serious environmental problems ever confronting the
community. Besides being a major contributor to climate change, livestock continue to play important roles in
farming systems in developing countries by providing food and income, draught power, fertilizer and soil
conditioner, household energy and a means of disposing of otherwise unwanted crop residues. As per FAO
estimates, about 12% of the world's population depends solely on livestock for its livelihood. It has been noted
with concern that the global livestock sector is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector and
contributes about 40% to global agricultural output. Livestock has made an important contribution to the food
supplies, which more pertinent to developing countries through various products like milk, meat eggs, etc.

It has been accused globally that livestock in tropics, contribute more of green house gasses emission due to
larger population raised to meet the need of alarmingly growing human population. Firstly, it is very important
to understand that climate change is taking place not due to current level of GHG emissions, but as a result of the
cumulative impact of accumulated GHGs in the planetary atmosphere, especially due to smokes from large
industries. Current emissions from livestock and other sources are, of course, adding to the problem
incrementally. It is accepted widely that even if current emissions were, by some miracle, reduced to zero
tomorrow, climate change would continue to take place. The accumulated stock of GHGs in the atmosphere is
mainly the result of carbon-based industrial activity in developed countries over the past two centuries and
more. It is for this reason that the UNFCCC stipulates deep and significant cuts in the emissions of the
industrialized countries as fulfilment of their additional historic responsibility.

Threats to livestock due to climate change


There are serious threats of climatic changes (in the form of severe droughts, floods, intense rainfall, and
landslides) undermining agricultural development programmes in general and livestock in particular that may
alter the millennium goals aimed at reducing poverty and hunger. Climate induced disasters directly affect the
livelihood of the farmers where it is more severe on agriculture while livestock may sustain to a greater extent.
Since livelihood of the farmers is based on agriculture and animal husbandry, it is accepted globally that
decrease in the animal- agricultural production would adversely affect economic condition. Currently India is
spending around 2.5% of its total GDP on measures to control the adverse impact of climatic change, which is a
relatively big amount for any developing nation. As livestock play very important role in rural economy, it is
necessary to find suitable solution to reduce the ill effect of climate change on livestock production.

9
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Livestock sector both contributes to and is affected by climate change. Climate change affects livestock both
directly and indirectly. The direct effects from ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and other climate
factors influence animal performance: growth, milk production, wool production and reproduction. Animal
health is also affected by climate change in terms of abiotic and biotic related diseases and stress, extreme
weather events, faster adaptation to animal production systems to new environments due to frequent climate
changes, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector borne diseases as their
prevalence is often dependent on environmental factors. The relative better adaptability of indigenous livestock
under frequent climate changes is because the livestock production is an integral part of mixed farming systems
practiced in the entire country.

Livestock production systems


Livestock plays crucial role in the Indian economy and welfare of India's rural population because livestock
rearing is a centuries old tradition, they have been an integral part of Indian agriculture production system. The
importance of livestock in India's economy can be judged from the fact that around 90 million farming families
are occupied in cultivating the agricultural land and rearing more than 100 million milch animals. Livestock
production is an important source of income and employment especially in the rural sector. As a major
component of agricultural sector, its share in gross domestic product of the country has been rising gradually and
estimated that livestock contributes 40 per cent to agriculture GDP, 4 % to the country's GDP and employs more
than 8% of the labour force, including small and marginal farmers, women, and landless agricultural workers.
This sector provides a variety of essential food products, draught power, manure, employment, income, and
export earnings. Under mixed farming system, livestock serves as an important part of agriculture
diversification and income enhancement, and crucial for nutrition enhancement. Currently, India ranks first
with 485 million or 13% of the world's total livestock population sustaining in less than 5% of world's and one-
third of Asia's agricultural land area. It ranks first with for having bovine (cattle and buffalo) and second in goat
populations in the world.

Despite having huge livestock population, contribution of India stands insignificant in the world trade of
livestock products. Increasing globalization of livestock product markets is an opportunity as well as a threat to
India's livestock sector. Since 2001, India has emerged as the world leader in milk production 128 Mt, closely
followed by USA. However, India has about three times as many 'dairy' animals as the USA, but annual milk
yield per dairy animal is about one tenth of that achieved in USA. The poor productivity of indigenous livestock
is not only due to poor genetic constitution but due to non availability of quality pastures and good quality
agricultural byproducts for optimal feeding. The rapid growth in milk production is largely credited to the
'Operation Flood', the world's largest integrated dairy development program, attempted to establish linkages
between rural milk producers and urban consumers by organizing farmer-owned and-managed dairy
cooperative societies.

Besides contributing to the global food security, livestock activities have been considered to have significant
impact on virtually all aspects of the environment including air and climate change, land and soil, water and
biodiversity. It is reported that livestock production accounts for about 18% of the global GHGs emissions
including methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation and manure management, nitrous oxide (N2O)
emissions from animal manure, and carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emissions from land-use change caused by demand
for feed grains, grazing land and agricultural energy use.

10
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

The climate change has negative impact on productive and reproductive performance of livestock, increased
incidence of livestock diseases and parasitic infestation, decreasing trend of feed and fodder resources, water. It
is often considered that increased environmental temperature, decreased or irregular precipitation, increased
frequency of sudden and extreme weather conditions and longer summer season. Majority of the farmers as
green fodder and feed crop byproducts preserved fodder crop in farm of hay for adverse climatic condition.
Almost all farmers follow mixed livestock farming where livestock is an important component, use them for
diversifying farming practices and in return provide them feed/fodder, provided bedding and warmth to their
animals to protect them from extreme cold, similarly during hot days farmers provided cold water and shed to
protect their animals as adaptation strategies for sustain livestock production.

Diversity in livestock to meet the challenges of climate change


The vulnerability of indigenous livestock to climate change has hardly been documented in India and very few
experimental studies have been conducted on effects of season and climate on production, performance and
other physiological parameters of animals. But one should keep in mind that the diversity in animal breeds
within each species is so great that one find one or more breed suitable for each agroclimatic niche, differing in
almost all environmental parameters. For example, Tharparkar and Rathi breeds of cattle can withstand extreme
climate of dry heat (up to 50°C) in day time and sub zero temperature in winters in desert of Rajasthan, with little
rain and almost no green fodder and still producing milk on par with crossbreds or other milch breeds. In some
limited studies, it has been revealed that milk yield of crossbred cows in India (e.g., Karan Fries, Karan Swiss
and other Holstein and Jersey crosses) are negatively correlated with temperature-humidity index. The
influence of climatic conditions on milk production has been also observed but far lower for local cows which
are more adapted to the tropical climate of India.

Direct impact of climate change on livestock


The heat stress has detrimental effects on the reproduction of buffaloes, although buffaloes are well adapted
morphologically and anatomically to hot and humid climate. The thermal stress on Indian livestock particularly
cattle and buffaloes have been reported to on account of decrease in oestrus expression and conception rate. It
has been observed that the length of service period and dry period of all dairy animals gets increased from
normal during drought conditions. It may be due to lesser availability of feed and fodder resources during
drought conditions. In sheep and other livestock the maximum conception takes place when sufficient green
fodder is available to them.

The outbreak of the disease has often been correlated with the mass movement of animals which in turn is
dependent on the climatic factors. The FMD outbreaks often get increased in rainy season. In addition, the
hot–humid weather conditions were found to aggravate the infestation of cattle ticks like: Boophilus microplus,
Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Hyalomma anatolicum.

Factors contributing to climate change


The scientific evidence of anthropogenic interference with the climate system through greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions has led to worldwide research on assessing the impacts that might result from potential climate
change associated with GHG accumulation. As the ecosystems are sensitive to changes in climate, it is
necessary to examine the likely impact of climate change on various sectors within the ecosystems to be able to
comprehensively understand the effects of climate change. The agricultural sector has generated considerable

11
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

interest in this regard and most international studies that examine the impact of climate change on this sector due
to global warming conclude that in many instances agriculture will be disadvantaged For a mid-range
temperature rise of 2.5°C, the agriculture in tropical countries is likely to suffer while the temperate and cooler
countries may benefit from temperature increase. However, these studies are largely limited to impact
assessment on crop yields or net revenue from crop husbandry; only minor attention has been given to the
livestock sector, which is a sub-sector of agriculture, particularly in the case of developing countries.

For developing countries like India, the focus of Climate change action cannot just be current emissions. There
is the equally important issue of Adaptation to Climate Change that has already taken place and will continue to
take place in the foreseeable future even in the most favourable Mitigation scenarios. India is already subject to
high degree of climate variability resulting in droughts, floods and other extreme weather events which compels
India to spend over 2% of its GDP on adaptation and this figure is likely to go up significantly. Therefore, the
Copenhagen package must include global action on Adaptation in addition to action to GHG abatement and
reduction. How can the trade-offs between livestock for food security and possible environmental effects be
minimized is a big challenge facing the world. Indian agriculture is particularly vulnerable to impacts of climate
change due to its large livestock population. In order to have a strategic plan for developing farmer friendly
technologies to reduce livestock contribution to climate change, there is a need to quantify the GHGs emissions
from milching animals among the Indian livestock and their contribution to the milk production. This study
aims at detailed estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from milching livestock viz. dairy cattle,
buffalo and goat) vis-a-vis milk production in the country.

Conclusion
Climate change and food security are two emerging issues being faced by people all over the world. While
livestock's role in contributing to food security is very well acknowledged, its negative impacts by way of
contributing to GHGs in the atmosphere raise criticism. The long-term analysis of livestock census indicates
that total livestock has increased with an annual growth rate of 1.26% during the past five decades. Currently,
India ranks first with 485 million or 13% of the world's total livestock, of which milching livestock accounts for
21.3%. Among the categories, cattle, goat and buffalo constitute 35%, 33% and 32% of the total milching
livestock, respectively. The positive thing with indigenous livestock system is that there is great diversity in
terms of large number of breeds evolved for different agroclimatic regions where these are well adapted. So in
case of any major change in climate, would be well tolerated by indigenous livestock breeds. Second the
livestock production system in India is unique where nothing is wasted as in mixed farming system, livestock
provides manures and draught animal power for various agricultural operations at small farms and in turn get
feed and fodder as agricultural byproducts.

12
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Climate Change: Impact on Animal Health, Production and Reproduction


A. K. Srivastava and A. Kumaresan
National Dairy Research Institute

Abstract
Our country is likely to be the most populous country on this planet by 2030 with
more than 1.5 billion people. As an additional pressure on the land, the country is
home for 1.18 billion livestock and poultry also. All these collectively indicate
that the carrying capacity of the land has to be utilized effectively for meeting out
the present needs and sustain the natural resources for future requirements. This
paper discusses the effect of climate change on livestock production,
reproduction and health with special reference to dairy animals.

India's human population has crossed 1.24 billion in 2014 representing 17.3% of the world's population, which
means one out of six people on this planet live in India. Optimistically, one can visualize the situation as
possessing more young population that can act as work force to drive the country's growth in future, however, on
the other hand if we see about 41% of the total population lives on less than 65 rupees a day or about 450 million
people are poor. The security of Food, Feed, Fodder, Fuel and Fertilizer (5Fs) for future is the major challenge
that remains to be addressed in sustainable way. However, the fast growing population, expanding
urbanization, shrinking agricultural land for crop production and climate change all adds to the challenges to
ensuring the food and livelihood security.
Livestock while contributing to climate change in one hand are affected by climate change on the other. Climate
change affects livestock both directly and indirectly. Air temperature, humidity, wind speed and other climate
factors directly influence animal performance including growth, production, health and reproduction (Hounghton
et al., 2001). The livestock reared under smallholder production system and under pastoral system are more affected
because of absence or poorly managed housing systems. As such, the changes associated with climatic variability
affects the animal's productivity by influencing the quality and quantity of crop and fodder production which is
directly related to the availability of feed and fodder for feeding livestock. The conditions and diseases that are
critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions, which include heat-related diseases and stress,
adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious
diseases, especially vector borne diseases, all affect the animal health and production both.

Effect of climate change on livestock production


Average temperature increase, change in rainfall amount and patterns, rising atmospheric concentrations of
CO2 and other green house gases, change in climatic variability and extreme weather events are some of the
manifestations of climate change. The best estimate of IPCC indicates that the global mean surface temperature
could rise between 1·8°C and 4·0°C by 2100. Higher temperatures along with altered precipitation are likely to
result in the problem of heat stress in livestock in climate change sensitive regions leading to decreased
production and increased susceptibility to diseases. Heat waves and sudden climatic variability has a profound
impairment of cell-mediated immunity in young calves, high yielding cows and other vulnerable livestock
breeds and species. Thus the negative effects of heat stress on the livestock production systems are multifaceted
affecting almost all the physiological, biochemical and behavioural patterns. Heat stress occurs over a wide

13
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

combination of solar radiation levels, ambient temperatures, and relative humidity. This is further aggravated by
metabolic heat production (generated by the cow herself). The results of heat stress are a lower milk yield,
reproduction disturbance and health problems in the dairy cows, and a severe economic loss of dairy business.
Exposure to elevated ambient temperature evokes a series of drastic changes in the biological functions, which
include a decrease in feed intake, disturbances in the metabolism of water, energy and mineral balances, changes
in the hormonal secretion and blood metabolites which significantly decrease the productivity. Heat stress
affects two of the most economically important segments of the dairy farm business, milk production and
reproduction. Milk yield can be reduced by 3% to 20% or more and conception rate can go as low as 0% in
extreme cases.

The main factors linking climate change to animal productivity are:


l Changes in the quantity, intensity and distribution patterns of rainfall within the year and from one year to the
next
l Higher average temperatures and heat waves, affecting livestock through thermal stress and crops in
sensitive stages of their life cycle
l More frequent and/or more intense extreme weather events

The cow's thermo-neutral zone ranges between 50 and 68°F (10 – 20oC), in which she maintains both a normal
body temperature and basal metabolic rate, and therefore optimizing milk production. Outside this zone, the
animal experiences homeothermy. Since this requires extra energy, it is obvious that less energy is available for
production purposes. Thus, milk production in cow has been found to be reduced when ambient temperature and
temperature humidity index increases above critical threshold. Decreased synthesis of hepatic glucose and
lower non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) level in blood during heat stress causes reduction in the glucose supply to
the mammary glands resulting low lactose synthesis which in turn ensues low milk yield. Other factors resulting
reduced milk production during heat stress are decreased nutrient absorption, effect in rumen function and
hormonal status and increased maintenance requirement resulting reduced net energy supply for production.
About 35% of reduced milk production is due to decreased feed intake while remaining 65% is attributable to
direct effect of heat stress. The extent of decrease in milk yield due to heat stress is more prominent in high
yielding animals (exotic and crossbred) compared to indigenous animals.

The climate change poses formidable challenge to the development of livestock sector in India as largest
livestock population in the world (520.6 million) is in the country. India accounts for the largest number of cattle
(world share 16.1%), buffaloes (57.9%), second largest number of goats (16.7%) and third highest number of
sheep (5.7%) in the world. High proportion of crossbred cattle and buffaloes, which are highly sensitive to heat
stress. Climatic factors will ultimately be the limiting factors to high levels of production because a majority of
the animals are reared under smallholder production system, where animals are kept under minimum inputs in
terms of feeding, housing etc. Unless there is a large investment into climate controlled conditions, the high
producing cows will always be less efficient producers of milk than inherently heat tolerant breeds.

Effect of climate change on reproduction


Heat stress is associated with decreased fertility in both male and female animals. Different factors contribute to
this situation; the most important are a consequence of increased temperature and humidity that result in a
decreased expression of overt estrus and a reduction in appetite and dry matter intake (Rensisa and Scaramuzzi,
2003). The cow can be affected at all stages starting at the follicular stage (the follicle contains the egg/ovum) all

14
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

the way to post-calving.

Heat stress challenges the reproductive rhythm and performance of livestock. The first reproductive alteration
occurs through adrenal-pineal-hypothalamic interaction in heat stressed animals and manifested as altered
follicular development. Heat stressed animals decrease feed intake causing less frequent pulses of the
luteinizing hormone resulting in longer follicular waves due to altered follicular dynamics. Heat stress has a
high impact on the cow's expression of estrus due to decreased production of luteinizing hormone and estradiol.
Estradiol is important for exhibiting signs of estrus and thus decreased estradiol production in heat stress
affected animals decrease the physical activity, which further decreases estrus behavior. Thus occurrence of
silent ovulation or “silent heat” increases in cattle and buffaloes during periods of heat stress. A study in Florida
reported an estimate of 76 to 82% of undetected estrus events in summer months compared to 44 to 65% from
October to May. Heat stress has a negative impact on quality of ova and the elevated uterine temperature of the
heat stressed animal impairs the embryonic development, resulting in poor embryo implantation and increased
embryo mortality. An increase of a mere 0.9°F in the cow's uterine temperature can decrease her conception rate
by 6.9%. When the cows are heat stressed during the last 2–3 months of pregnancy, there are clear reductions in
placental function, calf birth weight and milk production. In a study conducted at NDRI, it was observed that the
conception rate in buffaloes ranged from 30 to 36% during the period May to August while the conception rate
was 40-47% during other months of the year (Upadhyay et al., 2007).

Reproductive functions in males are equally affected by elevated temperatures leading to poor semen quality
and fertility. Bulls can be heat stressed when exposed to temperatures of 80°F for merely 6 hours a day and the
effects can last 9 weeks or more after the heat stress. Studies have shown sperm motility is reduced by 10%,
abnormal sperm count is increased by 20% and total sperm concentration is reduced by 61%.

The possible impact of heat stress on the physiology of dairy animals affecting production and reproduction is
depicted in the figure.

15
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Effect of climate change on disease occurrence and animal health


Potential climate change also has a bearing on livestock diseases. Global climate change alters ecological
construction leading to geographical shifts (Slenning, 2010). These shifts affect the efficiency and transmission
pattern of the pathogen and increase their spectrum in the hosts (Brooks and Hoberg, 2007). The increased
spectrum of pathogen increases the disease susceptibility of the animal and thus supports the pathogenecity of
the causative agent. Changes in temperature and precipitation regimes may result in spread of disease and
parasites in new regions or produce high incidence of diseases with concomitant decrease in animal productivity
and increase in mortality. Early or late onset of seasons might facilitate increased rate of development of
pathogens and parasites and greater proliferation and survivability of these organisms. Warming and changes in
rainfall distribution may lead to changes in spatial or temporal distributions of diseases such as anthrax, black
quarter, hemorrhagic septicemia and vector-borne diseases that thrive in the presence of moisture (Sejian,
2013). Research studies from India have found that meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity and
rainfall explain 52 and 84% variations in the seasonality of Foot and Mouth disease in cattle in hyper-endemic
areas (Ramarao, 1988). Similarly higher Incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy animals (Singh et al., 1996) and
aggravated infestation of cattle ticks like Boophilus microplus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Hyalomma
anatolicum (Singh et al., 2000) during hot and humid weather has been reported in India.

Besides changing the pattern of disease occurrence and transmission pattern of the pathogen, the effect of
climate change on animal's immune system is also significant. Depending upon the stress level an animal will
regulate its immune function and susceptibility to disease. Various immune cells, such as neutrophils, T-cells
and dendritic cells are affected when an animal is stressed, and expression of specific molecules is also affected
during stress. Initiation of stress response involves the activation of the endocrine glands and hormone release
which dramatically affect the immune system. Changes in gene expression associated with immunity are an
integral part of the cellular response to thermal stress. The heat shock proteins (HSPs) are perhaps the best-
studied examples of genes whose expression is affected by heat shock. If an animal is exposed to a pathogen
while it is under stress, the susceptibility to disease increases by several folds.

Estimated milk losses due to climate change


In USA, it has been estimated that the loss in milk yield/day/cow due to climate change was 0.57 kg/day during
1950-1999 and the loss forecasted in future could be to the tune of 1.42 kg/day for the 2050s and 1.88 kg/day for
the 2080s (The average productivity of cow is considered as 30 kg/day/cow). Thus it is evident that climate
change associated milk loss ranges from 1.9 – 6.3% from the baseline production in dairy cows (Mauger et al.,
2014). In a study conducted at NDRI on Murrah buffaloes, it was observed that both sudden change in
temperature (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature) during summer and winter caused a negative
impact on milk yield; the decline in yield varied from 10- 30% in first lactation and 5-20% in second or third
lactation. Although the vulnerability to climate change has hardly been documented in the context of India, the
estimated annual loss due to heat stress among cattle and buffaloes at the all-India level is 1.8 million tones,
which tantamount to over Rs 2,661 crore (Upadhaya, 2010). The negative impact of direct temperature rise on
total milk production of cattle and buffaloes for India has been estimated to be about 1.6 million tonnes in 2020
and more than 15 million tonnes in 2050 (Upadhyay et al., 2008).

Epilogue
Global demand for livestock products is expected to double during the first half of the century, however during

16
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

the same period, a big change in climate is also expected globally. In India, the anticipated rise in temperature
between 2.3 and 4.8°C over the entire country together with increased precipitation resulting from climate
change is likely to aggravate the heat stress in dairy animals. This is expected to result in reduced productive and
reproductive performance of livestock. The impact of projected global warming due to climate change is likely
to have severe negative impacts on livestock and hence on the country's economy and food security. Therefore, it
is essential to develop a portfolio of strategies that includes adaptation, mitigation, technological development
and research (climate science, impacts, adaptation and mitigation) to combat climate change. Increased focus on
sustainable livestock production involving indigenously adapted livestock for optimizing production is
therefore critical in sustaining the resource base. Since livestock are both contributor to and victim of climate
change, the livestock development strategy in the changing climate scenario should essentially focus on
minimization of potential production losses resulting from climate change, on one hand, and on the other,
intense efforts for methane abatement from this sector. A well managed integrated crop-livestock system has the
potential to create a win-win situation for both farmers and the environment (e.g., draft power and manure for
crops) without damaging the environment.

References
Brooks, D.R and Hoberg, E.P., (2007). How will global climate change affect parasite host assemblages? Trends
in Parasitology, 23: 571-574.
Hounghton, J.T., Ding Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C.A.,
(2001). Climate change: The scientific basis. Contribution of working group I to the third assessment
report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mauger, G., Bauman, Y., Nennich T. and Salathé, E., (2014). Impacts of Climate Change on Milk Production in
the United States, The Professional Geographer, DOI: 10.1080/00330124.2014.921017
Ramarao, D., (1988). Seasonal indices and meteorological correlates in the incidence of foot-and-mouth disease
in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Indian J Anim Sci, 58(4):432–434.
Rensisa, F.D. and Scaramuzzi, R.J., (2003). Heat stress and seasonal effects on reproduction in the dairy cow-a
review. Theriogenology, 60 (6); 1139–1151.
Sejian, V. (2013). Climate change: impact on production and reproduction, adaptation mechanisms and
mitigation strategies in small ruminants: a review. The Indian Journal of Small Ruminants, 19(1): 1-21.
Singh, A.P., Singla, L.D., Singh, A., (2000). A study on the effects of macroclimatic factors on the seasonal
population dynamics of Boophilus microplus infesting the crossbred cattle of Ludhiana district. Int J
Anim Sci, 15(1):29–31.
Singh, K.B., Nauriyal, D.C., Oberoi, M.S., Baxi, K.K., (1996). Studies on occurrence of clinical mastitis in
relation to climatic factors. Ind J Dairy Sci, 49(8):534–536.
Slenning, B.D., (2010). Global climate change and implications for disease emergence, Veterinary Pathology,
47: 28-33.
Upadhayay, R.C., (2010). Annual milk production loss due to global warming, Animal Physiology, National
Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Press Trust of India / New Delhi.
Upadhyay, R.C., Singh, S.V. and Ashutosh, (2008). Impact of Climate Change on livestock. Indian Dairyman,
60(3):98-102.
Upadhyay, R.C., Singh, S.V., Kumar, A., Gupta, S.K. and Ashutosh, (2007). Impact of Climate change on Milk
production of Murrah buffaloes. Ital J Anim Sci, vol. 6, (Suppl. 2), 1329-1332.

17
Do You Know ?
Mastitis losses in India are worth
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
Rs. 8000 crore

Mastitis control by potentiating Udder Immunity

Strengthens
keratin layer
(the first line
of body defense)

Augments
resident cell
population
(the second
line of defense)

Ayurvet Mastilep prevents and treats


Mastitis by improving udder immunity.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734.
Source - ndri.res.in
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Challenges of Climate Change: Impact on Fodder Resources


Prof. (Dr) Col. A.K. Gahlot
Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

The issue of global change and its impact on fodder and forage as well as livestock production is
an issue of the day. Global warming will lead to increasing evaporation from the oceans and
precipitation over the mountainous regions will have higher contents of rain and lesser of snow.
This will result in an increase in fluctuation in the availability of water as melting of additional
glaciers will increase the flow of water which if not stored will go to waste. This is directly
affecting the climatic temperature and physiology of plants and animals. The single most effect
of environmental change is the shortage of water, which will adversely affect the crop and
fodder production. The United Nations Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that by
0
2100, there will be an increase in average surface temperature of earth between 1.8 to 4.0 C and sea levels will
creep up by 17.8 centimetres to 58.4 centimetres by the end of the century. If polar sheets continue to melt,
another rise of 9.9 centimetres to 19.8 centimetres is possible. The IPCC also found that snow cover since the late
1960s has decreased by about 10 per cent and lakes and rivers in the Northern Hemisphere are frozen over about
two weeks less each year than they were in the late 1960s. Mountain glaciers in non-polar region have also been
th
in 'noticeable retreat' in the 20 century and the average global sea level has risen between 0.1 and 0.2 meters
since 1900. In simple words, the world is getting warmer and the temperature is rising faster than ever. The
prediction of IPCC, 2007 is now convincing that climate change is real and will become worse in the coming
years. The International fund for agricultural development (IFAD) recognizes climate change as one of the
factors affecting rural poverty and one of the major challenges needs to be addressed on priority. Climate change
is a global phenomenon and its negative impacts are more severely felt by poor people in developing countries
who depend on the natural resources for their livelihoods. Agriculture and livestock are amongst the most
climate-sensitive sectors and are more exposed to the effects of climate change.

Climate change poses formidable challenge to the development of livestock sector in India. Climate change
may have direct or indirect effects on livestock. The anticipated rise in temperature between 2.3 and 4.8°C over
the entire country together with increased precipitation resulting from climate change is likely to aggravate the
heat stress in dairy animals, adversely affecting their productive and reproductive performance, and hence
reducing the total area where high yielding dairy cattle can be economically reared. Given the vulnerability of
India to rise in sea level, the impact of increased intensity of extreme events on the livestock sector would be
large and devastating for the low-income rural areas. The predicted negative impact of climate change on Indian
agriculture would also adversely affect livestock production by aggravating the feed and fodder shortages. The
productive and reproductive performance, health and well being of the livestock are influenced by
climate/thermal stress both directly and indirectly.

The direct effects of climate change will be mainly through higher temperature and changes in rainfall
patterns, causing a decrease in animal productivity and an increase in spread of existing vector-borne disease
and emergence of new diseases. Both developed and developing countries will be impacted by climate
change pattern, however, the impact will be more in developing countries due to lack of resources,
knowledge, veterinary and extension services and technology developed. Ruminants have wide comfort

19
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

zones and high degree of thermal tolerance, so it is likely that climate change resulting in an increase of a few
degrees is not going to have a major effect on animal performance. At the other extreme, high summer
temperature may be expected to present the dairy cow/buffalo with thermal stress and result in reduced intake
and performance. Hot humid season is more stressful to livestock species compared to hot dry season mainly
due to lower evaporative heat loss from the animal body. With global warming as predicted by Global
Circulation Models (GLM), an additional decline in milk production of about 5-14% is expected particularly
in the hot/hot-humid season.

Besides the direct effects of climate change on animal and animal production, there are profound indirect effects
as well, which include climatic influences on quantity and quality of feed and fodder resources such as pastures,
forages, grain and crop by-residues, and the severity and distribution of livestock diseases and parasites. Climate
change can be expected to have several impacts on fodder crops and animals grazing systems
l Change in herbage yield, brought about by change in temperature and atmospheric gases concentration
l Changes in herbage quality, with changing concentration of nitrogenous and non nitrogenous contents
l Changes in the composition of pastures, such as changes in the ratio of grasses to legumes
l Greater intensity of rainfall, which may increase nutrients leaching particularly nitrogen in certain systems
l Greater incidences of drought, which may offset any dry matter yield increase

As per the IPCC (2007) report, climate change will negatively impact the Indian agriculture and will adversely
affect livestock production in India. Due to poor availability of feed and fodder (3.4% area under pasture),
generally animals are maintained on poor quality grasses available in the pasture or are stall-fed, mainly on crop
residues. As per the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology (NIANP), Bangalore (2012) estimate,
India is already deficit in feed and fodder viz., dry fodder (32.58%), green fodder (24.75%) and concentrates
(46.75%). These shortages would be further aggravated by the adverse effects of global warming/climate
change on agricultural/fodder crops.

Feed requirements for the total livestock population in terms of dry and green fodder and concentrates was 475,
800 and 78 million tonnes, respectively for the year 2011 and for the year 2025 the requirement are to be
expected to be 550, 1000 and 105 million tonnes, respectively. The raw feed resources availability in terms of
dry fodder green fodder and concentrates is estimated to be 358.27, 641.26 and 53.15 million tonnes respectively
for the year 2011. The corresponding figures for the year 2025 would be 432.89, 600.24 and 65.06 respectively.
Comparing the actual feed requirements vis a vis availability shows that there will be a shortfall of 22.72, 40.21
and 53.62 per cent of dry fodder, green fodder and concentrate in 2015 respectively. The shortages are expected
to increase to 27.05, 66.60 and 61.39 per cent respectively in 2025. These shortages would be further aggravated
by the adverse effects of climate change on agricultural production.

Table: 1 Requirements of dry fodder, green fodder and concentrate (million tonnes)

Requirement 2011 2012 2015 2020 2025


Dry fodder 475.00 480.00 491.00 530.00 550.00
Green fodder 800.00 820.00 840.00 880.00 1000.00
Concentrates 78.00 82.00 87.00 96.00 105.00

20
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Table: 2 Feed resources availability (Raw resource) in million tonnes

Requirement 2011 2012 2015 2020 2025


Dry fodder 358.27 361.37 379.44 404.10 432.89
Green fodder 641.26 619.09 599.07 589.81 600.24
Concentrates 53.15 54.11 56.63 60.52 65.06

Table: 3 Per cent surplus/deficit of feed resources on dry and green fodder and concentrate basis
2015 2025
Dry Green Concentrates Dry Green Concentrates
Availability
(Million tonnes) 379.44 599.07 56.63 432.89 600.24 65.06
Requirement 491.00 840.00 87.00 550.00 1000.00 105.00
Deficit (%) 22.72 40.21 53.62 27.05 66.60 61.39

With regard to supply of feed, central to this consideration is an appreciation of what is currently fed to our farm
livestock. Non-ruminant livestock will continue to receive diets consisting of cereals and de-oiled cakes and
with least cost ration formulation. A much greater threat is likely to be posed by the food: feed: fuel conflict
providing reduced supplies. Ruminant diets differ in that, there is a major forage component. In the case of
extensive system like in sheep and goat, this may make up the entire diet whereas, in more intensive dairy cattle
or goat rearing system the forage will be balanced by a more concentration supplement. It is the source, quality
and quantity of the forage component of ruminant's diet which is likely to be affected by climate change. The
result may be either effects (advantageous or deleterious) on the existing forage species or a change to forage
species not currently grown. With respect to our existing forage species, low environmental temperature is one
of the major limitations to higher dry matter production. Thus, any increase in temperature might be expected to
have benefits on early season growth. If mean rainfall were to decline this would lead to soil moisture deficits
which would require expenditure on irrigation unless reduction in dry matter yield were to be accepted. For
existing species the stage of maturity at which the crop is cut is major determinant of quality and in any altered
climatic scenario the interplay between increasing quantity and declining quality would continue to be of major
importance although the alteration in climate may be favourable to conservation and reduce losses during hay
making. In many hill and upland areas which are currently characterized by low temperature and water logged
soils, climate change may be expected to lead to more favourable conditions and result in a shift towards more
productive species with accompanying implication to animal production.

The other major possibility is that climate change will lead to a shift in the forage species grown in a country. For
example elevated temperature may lead to an increase in the hectarage of maize and bajra grown. This might be
expected to result in improvement in both the quantity and quality of forage for ruminant livestock and could
lead us toward the forage component of rations fed to dairy cattle elsewhere. In semi-arid region of the country

21
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

like Rajasthan, the palatable species of the plants might get replaced by non-palatable species in the pasture and
might result in lower quantity of edible biomass for sheep and goat. Adverse consequences of climate change
would be more visible on livestock species in areas where high ambient temperature could be associated with
decline in rainfall, increased evapotranspiration or increase in the incidence of drought. Not only would the
fodder crops, change of climate adversely affect large livestock population of arid zone. It provides much needed
resilience to arid zone farming. The comfort, body weight and milk production as well as fodder availability will
be affected considerably due to climate changes. Aberrant weather and overgrazing had already declimaxed one
of the most productive and palatable Lasirus - Cenchrus based rangelands of Thar desert to Cynadon - Elusine to
Cenchrus biflorus- Aristida - Oropatium thomaeum type which are unpalatable as well as give low ground cover.
The composition of fodder would become imbalanced and inadequate, leaving impoverished livestock. This
would result in shift from pasture fed livestock rearing to stall fed rearing. Denudation of small hills and hillocks
spread all over desert could have tremendous implications as these are catchments for the adjoining areas and
would cause serious soil erosions. There will be a significant decrease in biodiversity which would otherwise
have provided the much needed resilience to arid ecosystem.

Further, climate and soil environment are prime determinants of the yield and quality of forages. Various reports
suggested that during the 21st century annual temperature across arid zone of India is likely to increase by 2-5oC.
Both summer and the winter temperatures will witness a gradual increase, which will affect the soil moisture regime
and crop growth pattern. In the next 50 years monsoon rainfall is likely to decline gradually by 20-30% in the north-
western part of India including Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana state. At the same time winter rains may gradually
increase by 20-40%. Arid Gujarat and adjoining south Rajasthan, on the other hand are likely to experience ~25%
higher monsoon rain, as well as higher winter rain. There is also the probability of high magnitude droughts and
floods. Such a scenario would most likely lead to higher wind and water erosions, as well as changes in vegetation
composition and its degradation. This climate change would lead to land degradation and acute water stress
conditions in arid region. Increase in temperature will lead to increased evapotranspiration. It has been estimated
that, one per cent increase in temperature from baseline data could result in an increase in evapo-transpiration by 15
mm, resulting into additional water requirement of 313.12 MCM. Thus, it would put tremendous pressure on
existing overstressed water resources of this region. At crop level, the biomass and seed yield of rainfed fodder crops
would most likely to decline by 50-54% over present yield with a rise in temperature of 4oC. With similar rise in
temperature, total biomass would perhaps decline by 49%, and seed yield by 62%. The adverse effects of
temperature rise will be more pronounced when seasonal rainfall also declines. However, with rising temperature
even an increase in seasonal rainfall by 20% may not be able to reduce the fall in fodder production. If average
rainfall of western periphery goes below 200 mm, it would completely exclude crop production as this is the
threshold precipitation for even most drought hardy fodder crops.

Lastly, climate variability and emerging climate changes will have adverse effects on the natural resources that
sustain fodder production for livestock and thereby pose a considerable threat to the mixed crop-livestock
systems of rural communities in the areas. Pastures land, which are already highly degraded in many arid and
semi arid parts of India due to absence of appropriate management practices, are at risk of further degradation
through the expected climate changes impacts, particularly more concentrated rainfalls and longer dry spells.
Loss of grazing lands may result in more intensive management practices, increasing competition between land
for food grain cultivation and livestock activities or decreasing livestock populations undermining the security
function that livestock rearing provides.

22
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

In order to face challenges on feed and fodder front, we have to start working on the following:
1. Identification of newer feed and fodder resources and developing detoxification and or improved
digestibility technologies.
2. Working for utilisation all plant fibres for animal feeding so that plant fibres are maximally consumed by the
animals for production.
3. Developing input use efficiency technologies.
4. Continuing development of technologies for improved utilisation of feed and fodder resources,
conventional as well as non-conventional ones.
5. Speed up development of high yielding fodder varieties, particularly suitable for the changed climatic
conditions.
6. Use of protected cultivation technologies for fodder production also, like, hydroponics.
7. Intensify technology transfer for fodder preservation, both dry and green.
8. Stopping pasture degradation and augmenting conservation efforts to maximise yields from the existing
pasture lands.

23
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Climate Change, Policy-Making and the Five Fs.


Mrs. Shailja Chandra I.A.S. (Retd.)
Ex-Secretary, Govt of India, Ministry of Health, Dept. of Indian Medicines
Ex-Chief Secretary, Govt. of Delhi

INTRODUCTION
This is not an article trying to tell scientists and agriculturists what they already know. It seeks to
highlight the impact of climate change on agriculture and livestock and to discuss how the
subject can take centre-stage. Governments and in particular the State governments are
preoccupied in planning for growth, implementing programmes or confronting the crises that
occur almost every day. Pre-occupied with building infrastructure, improving the availability of
electricity and water, improving health and education services and reducing the poverty gap, it
is only when destruction hits tens of thousands of people as happened recently in Uttrakhand
and more recently in the Kashmir valley, does the factum of climate change impact policy-makers.

While agricultural scientists and animal husbandry experts do foresee and counsel on mitigating the effect of
climate change, much more is needed for their advice to become integral to policy. But it is a rare policy-maker
who would be able to find time to plan for adverse situations resulting from climate change particularly when
experience shows that the effects can be anticipated but their occurrence cannot be predicted. Research also
shows that farmers have their own responses which they rely upon without any intervention from experts, so
most administrators would say, all the more reason to wait and watch.

But when the threat of severe droughts, floods, intense rainfall, and landslides begin to undermine well-laid
plans aimed at reducing poverty it becomes abundantly clear how necessary it was to have been equipped with
responses to tackle disaster; if only the predicament and available alternatives had been anticipated and shared
while there was still time. Whether it is through insurance, the use of improved technology or newer practices,
presently except for scientific conferences, very few strategies pro- actively promote sustainable agriculture and
livestock practices by involving local communities to be prepared for the havoc that climate change can create.

A part of the problem is the fact that the enormity of each sector is seldom appreciated by another. It is not
widely known that India stands at the first rank of having the largest of buffalo population, second when it comes
to cattle and goats and third in respect of sheep. We also have the fifth largest poultry population in the world.
Livestock as a whole contributes almost one quarter of the output of the entire agricultural sector. The
composition of livestock has undergone a significant transformation with a marked shift from work animals
towards milch animals which itself has spurred a threefold increase in the number of crossbred cows. Currently,
India is the largest producer of milk in the world and the per capita availability of increased from just 112 g per
day to over 250 g. A large majority livestock owning households, comprise small and marginal farmers and
landless households – the poorest sections of society. In a sense the distribution of livestock is far more equitable
than that of land. The bottom of rural households own three-fifths of the milch animals and their livelihoods
depend largely on what the animal produces. As of now mitigation strategies do not address this large and widely
dispersed group.

24
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

But when climate change related catastrophes occur it will be difficult to reach these poorer households
particularly as women who are very involved in agriculture and animal husbandry never leave the household's
immediate vicinity. Women more than men are responsible for livestock nurturing activities such as feeding,
watering, fodder collecting, cleaning and caring for small and sick animals, poultry raising and traditional
animal healthcare. Men are generally responsible for marketing, shearing, animal feed purchase, procuring
veterinary services and herding. But women are beset by a denial of land rights and tenurial security which
leaves them with little or no bargaining power. The patriarchal attitude towards women results in their exclusion
from information, knowledge and financial services. This further makes it impossible for them to articulate the
challenges they face in agriculture or in animal husbandry. They possess little or no political power and seldom
form the focus of extension work. Climate change will create havoc and intensify inequalities within the
household despite women playing a significant role in managing the household. Therefore more emphasis needs
to be placed on ensuring that any adaptation and mitigation strategy which speaks of the 5 Fs takes into account
methods to reach out to women and takes their special requirements into account.

Vulnerability to climate change has hardly been documented in the context of India. While it is well known that
water for irrigation would reduce and natural water resources would dry up, few studies have been conducted to
understand what happens to the production, performance and other physiological conditions of dairy animals.
This is despite the majority of farmers recognising that climate change affects agriculture and animal husbandry
adversely. Crop diversification is the obvious route and within that varieties that call for less water and
additionally were drought resistant, pest resistant and capable of withstanding waterlogging are preferred.
Among animals it is recognised that the chances of conception reduce even as there is an increase in vector-
borne and parasitic infestation in livestock. There is an acute paucity of green as well as dry fodder caused by
depleted water resources including ground water. This affects animal health and productivity and begs for newer
and tested alternatives.
Planting fodder tree lines around animal shed/ house to reduce effects of cold/ heat waves is an important coping
strategy as is the provision of shed to house animals. Migration and nomadic living has been another mitigation
strategy since millennia. Oftentimes, reliance on livestock increases even as crop production gets lower priority.
But this too can entail the deliberate destocking of large animals and only retaining smaller animals which can
survive in adverse conditions. Insurance of livestock is virtually unknown among smaller farmers and nor do
they have the paying capacity to buy insurance. Instead the response is generally to replace exotic breeds with
indigenous and local ones because the latter have greater adaptability. Some farmers abandon farming
altogether and instead start a business or take up occupations like carpentry, tailoring or a running a grocery
shop. All these decisions can have far reaching consequences on productivity and people's well-being.

Knowing this, any effort to draw up plans for the 5 Fs have perforce to keep in mind regional variations and
specific factors that aggravate each situation. There is a need to draw up a participatory approaches to
sustainable management by involving all stakeholders namely farmers, pastoralists and herders. Community
involvement in the identification of new solutions is key to ensuring long-term sustainability. There is a need to
plan for early warning systems which includes forecasting which can reach the last mile and which foresee the
loss of livestock before the calamity occurs. Information about climate change is critical and this must be shared
with local communities and in particular women who contribute more to this sector than anywhere else.
Moreover,local communities and indigenous people have of understanding of their environment and vast
experience in adapting to climate variability. This knowledge needs to be harnessed for effective adaptation.

25
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Perhaps more than looking for mitigation and adaptation techniques there is a need to understand the
predicaments that face poor households and to find alternatives that can be engaged -not just on a theoretical
plane but which are capable of implementation. A good place to start maybe by asking women sarpanches who
by virtue of their elected office carry the weight and voice that the community respects. In all the conversations
about women's empowerment whereas a lot of emphasis is placed on the work done in self-help groups, very
little is done to look at women in agriculture and animal husbandry. Perhaps the time has come when a new
direction might be able to leapfrog across traditional methods. That is why it is important to make policymakers
understand the gravity of the situation so that they can bring about the collaborative approaches. While there is
still time.

26
Do You Know ?
To produce 1 kg of conventional
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
fodder 60 to 80 litres of water is
required

Seed to Nursery in 7 Days

Day 1

Day 7 Day 2

Day 6 Day 3

Day 5 Day 4

STAGES OF HYDROPONICS PADDY NURSERY

Ayurvet Progreen Hydroponics uses only


2-3 litre of water to produced 1 kg of hydroponic
green feed produced in 7 days, without using soil
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734.
Source - The Indian Express, 2012
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Challenges of Climate Change -- Impact on Dairy Economy


Pradip Wig
Director, Ayurvet Limited, New Delhi

Abstract
As humans become more materialistic and expand their control of Planet Earth, climate
changes are unavoidable. The history of last few centuries proves that natural resources of the
planet - be it water or quality of air - have undergone radical changes. These changes are
unavoidable as human aspirations are unlimited. Mankind has refined its species and
encroached on Planets resources since the Stone Age. Human race would not be where it is if
this encroachment was avoided. We ought to face the reality that the environment and climate
would change -- only attempt should be made to slower the speed of these changes so that all
other related parts of the planet do not find it difficult to coordinate and coexist.

Philosophically
Science particularly modern era version of science will find ways and means to let humanity survive even if it
means to exist with less water and even less air to breathe. After all man is producing clones of animals and is
capable of producing clones of it self. Visions of a factory manufactured human are already in fiction and fiction
is always followed by reality.

The above is a philosophical aspect of changes that need to be accepted and are unavoidable. In the shorter
prospective we certainly can devise policies to improve standards and enforce refrain to preserve the scarce
resources.

Practically
Milk has an overwhelmingly positive image in many parts of the world – it is considered healthy and nutritious
and a must-have for building strong bodies. But the process of milk production creates all problems for the
environment. Milk for human consumption primarily comes from animals such as cows, buffalos, sheep, goats,
and even camels. Such animals have a very particular system of digestion, where special microorganisms work
to break down various nutrients until they can actually be utilized. But that process also generates a significant
amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, in the rumen, or paunch of the animal. Methane is considered over 20
times more damaging to the environment than carbon dioxide. So, the ruminant animals are considered a huge
climate-killer. There have been varying efforts to stem the methane by-product, but with limited success.
Methane has a massive carbon footprint. When it comes to products from ruminant animals, 50 to 80 percent of
the carbon footprint produced can be traced to methane. Goat milk has just as big a carbon footprint as cow's
milk. Goats are considered the locusts among grazing animals because their pasturing habits can significantly
contribute towards reducing the quality of the soil. Sheep milk production is likely to be even more detrimental
than goat milk, and there has been little research into camel milk's carbon footprint. Attempts to imitate foodstuff
like using Soya milk or “meat” from plant-based protein are relatively old, dating back to the middle of the last
century. Unfortunately, they haven't led to any significant breakthroughs. At the moment, there is no widespread
acceptance for replacing animal products with plant-based “imitation” proteins. There is certainly a great need
for more research.

28
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Substitute for dairy products


Soy products too are not without fault when it comes to carbon dioxide emissions. After harvest, the soybean
stalks left behind often biodegrade and produce nitrous oxide – a gas that is 300 times worse for the climate than
carbon dioxide. What is more, vast swathes of forest land are often razed to make way for soybean plantations,
devastating important ecosystems. Experts from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama say: in
Brazil's Amazon basin alone, around half a million hectares of rainforest land are lost to soy production every
year. That translates to the release of around 100 million tons of carbon dioxide annually into the atmosphere. So
whether it is a steak or a veggie burger, relying on local or regional products is almost always the most climate-
friendly option.

There have been attempts to make ruminant animals produce less methane, like giving cows a bacteria vaccine
or special methane-reducing feed. But experts believe the methods are unrealistic. Any effort to alter the
complex bacterial cocktail that generates fermentation in a cow's stomach is a difficult undertaking at best. The
animals themselves are powerless to stop the production of methane in their digestive tracts, but there are some
promising alternatives. In the US, the department of agriculture is helping farmers purchase bio converters
which transform cow dung into clean electricity.

Rising temperatures, volatile weather patterns and higher concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
make it necessary that we find a better system of stockpiling animal feed. Fodder plants become woody much
quicker, which also makes them difficult to digest. The rising temperatures will soon mean that we will need to
keep animals and stables cool during heat waves. And we will also see new diseases among plants and animals.
On the other hand, we can also expect better yields from certain plants if sufficient water is available, certain
types of plants and plant nutrients are available and if the use of carbon dioxide, which is available in vast
quantities in the atmosphere, is optimized.

The following are some of the steps recommended for retaining the viability of Dairy farming, that may help us
cope better with the expected Climate Change:
l Dairy industry raw material is Milk. Water is equally important in dairy industry as the modern systems of
milk production; processing, packaging and distribution require very high degree of bacteria free
environment all the way to consumption. If water is going to be scarce such logistics will be difficult. This
will necessitate water consumption to be controlled and possibly making recycling of water a regulatory
requirement.
l Farm Water Solutions project to assist farmers to improve on-farm water security and adjust to a future with
reduced water availability.
l Helping Farmers Secure their Water Future works closely with groups and individual irrigated dairy farmers
to improve their knowledge and understanding of the water reforms and improve irrigation management
practices to increase water use efficiency.
l Planning for Climate Change – Farm Service Climate Change projects will improve farm business
capability to manage climate change and seasonal risk, and equip them to meet the challenges associated
with reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
l To increase profitability of dairy farms by increasing home grown feed.
l Profitable Farming Systems (Feeding Pastures for Profits) program to provide farmers with a clear
understanding of the key drivers of profit for their business and help them to better manage risks.

29
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Innovative Sustainable Interventions for Improving Soil and Livestock Health


P. R. Pandey
SUMUL

Abstract
As humans become more materialistic and expand their control of Planet Earth, climate
changes are unavoidable. The history of last few centuries proves that natural resources of the
planet - be it water or quality of air - have undergone radical changes. These changes are
unavoidable as human aspirations are unlimited. Mankind has refined its species and
encroached on Planets resources since the Stone Age. Human race would not be where it is if
this encroachment was avoided. We ought to face the reality that the environment and climate
would change -- only attempt should be made to slower the speed of these changes so that all
other related parts of the planet do not find it difficult to coordinate and coexist.

Philosophically
Science particularly modern era version of science will find ways and means to let humanity survive even if it
means to exist with less water and even less air to breathe. After all man is producing clones of animals and is
capable of producing clones of it self. Visions of a factory manufactured human are already in fiction and fiction
is always followed by reality.

The above is a philosophical aspect of changes that need to be accepted and are unavoidable. In the shorter prospective
we certainly can devise policies to improve standards and enforce refrain to preserve the scarce resources.

Practically
Milk has an overwhelmingly positive image in many parts of the world – it is considered healthy and nutritious
and a must-have for building strong bodies. But the process of milk production creates all problems for the
environment. Milk for human consumption primarily comes from animals such as cows, buffalos, sheep, goats,
and even camels. Such animals have a very particular system of digestion, where special microorganisms work
to break down various nutrients until they can actually be utilized. But that process also generates a significant
amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, in the rumen, or paunch of the animal. Methane is considered over 20
times more damaging to the environment than carbon dioxide. So, the ruminant animals are considered a huge
climate-killer. There have been varying efforts to stem the methane by-product, but with limited success.
Methane has a massive carbon footprint. When it comes to products from ruminant animals, 50 to 80 percent of
the carbon footprint produced can be traced to methane. Goat milk has just as big a carbon footprint as cow's
milk. Goats are considered the locusts among grazing animals because their pasturing habits can significantly
contribute towards reducing the quality of the soil. Sheep milk production is likely to be even more detrimental
than goat milk, and there has been little research into camel milk's carbon footprint. Attempts to imitate foodstuff
like using Soya milk or “meat” from plant-based protein are relatively old, dating back to the middle of the last
century. Unfortunately, they haven't led to any significant breakthroughs. At the moment, there is no widespread
acceptance for replacing animal products with plant-based “imitation” proteins. There is certainly a great need
for more research.

30
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Animal production is poised to make a generous leap in the years to come because of the multiplicity of the
related events that are taking place around the globe. Dairying plays an important role in promoting rural
welfare, employment and income generation. In commercial dairy farming, efficient feeding and fertility
management plays very important role in health, production and reproduction efficiency. Feeding of greens
have been traditionally and scientifically accepted and constitute important source of productive & reproductive
efficiency. However, good quality calves and heifers still remain the most important pillars for milk production.

Availability of green fodder is a major constraint in our country. The major constraints in production of green
fodder by dairy farmers are decreasing land holding size, high cost of land, scarcity of water, labour, natural
calamities etc. resulting in shortage of green fodder. India faces an acute shortage of green fodder and will
continue to do so in case corrective majors are not taken today. This would have direct impact on the
reproductive efficiency of the livestock.

It is time we looked at the technologies which could produce green feed every day and save on land, water and
power. Let us examine… the case study. This is unique integration of Livestock and Agriculture benefitting the
soil, livestock and human health. Needless to mention it conserves land, water, labour and power.

Significance of Green Feed in Livestock


Fresh green feed is the natural food for all ruminant animals. Grasses are also good source of protein. Green Feed
provides all the critical elements like highly digestible protein, carbohydrates, fats and minerals. Green fodders
are a very good source of β-carotene (precursor of vitamin A). This vitamin is necessary to maintain the health
and reproductive status of the animal.

Current Scenario in India


India is the largest milk producer of the world. The challenge is to improve the per animal productivity, which is
currently low. This would require good quality feed and fodder. In the existing scenario, both feed and fodder are
deficient.

Hydroponics: A novel initiative for green Feed


The word hydroponics has been derived from the Greek word where 'Hydro' means water and 'Ponic' means
working, i.e. Water working. Plants require three things to flourish- water, nutrients and sunlight. Hydroponics
is a straightforward way of providing all these nutrients without the need of soil under controlled environment
conditions to optimize the growth of plants. It is referred as feed because when compared to conventional
fodder, protein content is about three times higher and energy values are about double in hydroponics feed. The
conventionally harvested green fodder consists only of cut grass but the hydroponics feed consists of grass,
along with grain and root. This method of producing green feed has many advantages for the farmer, the ecology
and the environment.

In conventional system, seed start germinating when it gets favourable conditions (like: water, air, temperature
and light) maximum energy is utilized by the seed in search of nutrients by developing radical (roots), very less
amount of energy is utilized for the growth of the plumule (shoot).

In hydroponics, favourable conditions are provided to the seed and food is directly supplied to the plumule, so the
maximum energy is utilized in the growth of the plumule rather than in developing radical in search of nutrient.

31
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Advantages of Hydroponics

Saving of water: It takes 2 to 3 liters of water to produce 1 Kg of green feed as compared with 80-90
liters/day required in conventional system. Therefore, it uses minimal water for maximum fodder production.
Water that is not used by the growing fodder is not wasted, as it can be recycled and reused again.

Marginal land usage: Fodder production in our hydroponics machine provides huge ecological and
economical advantages, as the production of lush green feed requires minimal land usage as compared to field
grown grasses and fodder (only 135 sq. feet for 240 Kg fodder production against 2178 sq. feet in
conventional system). This reduction in the amount of land required for maximum fodder production is an asset
for both regions where agriculture is difficult and in densely populated regions that lack sufficient growing
space.

Constant feed supply: Hydroponics technology will remove the need for long-term storage of feeds. With
hydroponics machine, a consistent supply of green fodder is guaranteed 358 days (365-7) of the year
irrespective of rain, storm, sunshine or snow. Therefore, the farmer knows exactly what feed is available
every day regardless of the seasonal conditions as it takes an initial investment of just seven days to produce up
to 240 kg of fresh green feed per day and a minimum of 75- 84 tons of fodder per year.

Reduction in growth time: The growing time of hydroponics plants takes as little as seven days from seed
germination to a fully-grown plant at a height of 25-30 cm, ready for harvest. Also, the biomass conversion
ratio is as high as 6-8 times. Thus, for every 1 Kg of seed 6- 10 kg of green feed is produced. However, to grow
the same amount of fodder in a conventional situation, if there was sufficient water for irrigation, would take up
to 12 weeks from seed germination until ready to feed out to livestock.

Reduced labour requirement: This process of growing cattle feed requires minimal man-hour ratio per
day. It is as little as 2 to 3 hours per day, needed to maintain and produce hydroponics fodder, as compared to the
many hours of intense labour required for growing the same amount of feed as a pasture crop.

Enhancement of nutritional value: Hydroponics fodder is a highly effective particularly nutritious feed,
which produces 3 times more protein as compared to conventional fodder. It has high energy content and
very high moisture content. Feeding livestock hydroponically produced feed may increase considerably the
fertility rate of cattle. Hydroponics fodder can also help in improving the quality and quantity of milk
production.

Comparison of Hydroponics fodder with conventional fodder (Barley)


Nutrient Grain Barley Conventional Fodder Hydroponics Fodder
Protein% 10.1 11.5 31.99
Fibre% 6.80 31.8 24.75
Energy (kcal/kg) 3900 2600 4727
Ash% 2.79 11.4 5.70

32
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Completely natural: An important factor about growing green feed in Ayurvet's hydroponics machine is
that it is completely natural product. Therefore, there are no pesticides or fungicides used that could
alternatively contaminate the milk or meat that are being produced.

ProGreen Hydroponics Machine


ProGreen Hydroponics machine has successfully grown nutritious green feed for maize, Barley and Oats. It has
also successfully produced Wheat and Paddy nursery in the system. Bio conversion ratio was found to be 6-8
times. Specially prepared nutrient solution “NUTROSOL” and herbal solution “HERBOSOL” are used for the
growth of plants and seed treatment respectively.

Fodder is important part of Livestock feeding and can never be under estimated. The fodders are rich in Omega 3
fatty acid which is essential for maintaining a healthy heart, flexible joints, healthy growth and strong bones and
teeth. Another constituent of importance is Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), which is believed to boost immune
functions.

The SUMUL Success Story....


Sumul or Surat Milk Union Limited is one among the 17 District unions which acts as manufacturing units of
dairy products for Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Limited, the marketers' of Amul brand of
products.

Sumul installed one APH 500 Machine (ProGreen Hydroponics) at Sumul–Vaskoi Centre. The machine was
made operational on September 12. This requires 60 units/day, depending on the season.

It was therefore decided to install on biogas unit of 60 cubic meters at Vanskui centre of Sumul Dairy. With 200
animals, daily around 1500 kg of cow dung is collected and by the use of cow dung for generating 60 cubic meter
biogas. The main content in the generated biogas is methane gas (60% by volume). To convert this Methane gas
in to the electricity, 12.5 KVA Kirloskar Biogas Generator set was installed. The Biogas Generator is producing
around 60 to 80 electrical units/day (Annexure 2). This Biogas Generator runs on Biogas with almost zero
running cost and is eco-friendly. The electricity generated in three phases is then converted in to the single phase
by using three phases to single phase inverter and then it is used to run the AHP 500 Hydroponics unit which
produces 480 to 500 kg of Green maize fodder on daily basis. This maize green feed improves animal health and
reproductive efficiency with nutritionally superior quality of feed. The hydroponics unit is installed by M/s.
Ayurvet. The observations clearly indicate: Improvement in body weight by 18%, Reduction in Feeding cost
by 20% and marked improvement in reproductive efficiency by 55% (Annexure 1).

The slurry generated from the biogas plant is used in making vermicompost 270 kg per day. Thus Sumul Dairy,
Surat is using this electricity to produce green grass fodder and finally improving the animal and soil health. This
demonstrates the unique integration of Livestock and Agriculture for the benefitting the soil, livestock and
human health. Needless to mention, it conserves land, water, labour and power. This is the first plant installed
and successfully commissioned by any organization in India which produces green feed with the help of cow
dung.

Conclusion
In our country feed shortage, especially the shortage of quality feeds is a serious problem. Green Feed from

33
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Hydroponics system is the new way of animal feeding for improving animal reproductive health. This would
help in saving water and land as the precious resource.

The traditional wisdom of ancient India existed in integration of “5F”, which meant Food, Feed, Fodder, Fuel
& Fertilizer security. In the current era, the effective use of cowdung can create extra value to farm profits,
apart from milk. This would ultimately result into better rural and socioeconomic development.

Annexure 1

Scientific feeding studies at Sumul

34
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Annexure 2

Data for Bio-Gas operated Hydroponics Machine at Vanskui (Sumul Dairy, Surat)

S No Item Description Quantity


1 Quantity of Cow Dung Per Day 1500 Kg
2 Quantity of Water Usage 1500 Ltr
3 Animal Used (Adult / Heifers) 500
4 Bio-Gas Produced per Day 60 M^3
5 Units produced per day 60 Units
6 Units required per day for running of Hydroponics, 90 Units
Machine is single phase & saved units in three phase
calculation
7 Produced Slurry used for Vermicompost
8 Quantity of Vermi Compost produced per day 270 Kg
9 Rate for 1 Bag of Vermicompost 225.00
10 Farmer though sale of Vermicompost per year 190.00
11 How many liters of water saved / day 38500 Ltrs
12 How many extra heifers able to produced 500
13 How many farmers benefitted with heifers 500
14 Qty of land saved per day 4 to 5 Acre

35
Do You Know ?
0
1 C rise in temperature increases
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
water requirement four times

Ayurvet Stresroak helps birds to adapt and


save water significantly in poultry production
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734.
Source - worldpoultry.net
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Climate Change and the Food Security


R S KHANNA
Director Kwality Ltd.

Global Hunger
The IFPRI 2013 Global Hunger Index (GHI), which reflects data from the period 2008–2012, shows that
global hunger has improved since 1990, falling by one-third. Despite the progress made, the level of hunger
in the world remains “serious”. FAO estimates that 870 million people are still going hungry.

South Asia, including India, and Africa south of the Sahara are home to the highest GHI scores. South Asia
significantly lowered its GHI score between 1990 and 1995, mainly thanks to a large decline in underweight
in children, but was not able to maintain its fast progress. Social inequality and the low nutritional,
educational, and social status of women continue to contribute to the high prevalence of underweight in
children under five.

India is home to the largest number of hungry people in the world ranking 67 out of 122 countries in the GHI
2010 67 out of 79 countries in the GH 2012 (IFPRI). Similarly, malnutrition in India, especially among
children and women, is widespread, acute and even alarming. As per a Global Survey Report released by
Save the Children on 19th July 2012, India is ranked at 112 among the 141 countries.

Introduction
India is a country that justifies the saying 'Grain grain everywhere not a grain to eat'1. It is in this
context that the definition of Food Insecure becomes important. The United States Department
of Agriculture found it necessary to define it. An expert panel constituted by the US Committee
on National Statistics defined that “Food insecurity is a household-level economic and social
condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food”. The Committee defined that,
“Hunger is an individual level physiological condition that may result from food insecurity”.
How true ! While India has a problem of low productivity per unit of most crops, we also have a
problem of outreach to the hungry with the food that India has in plenty. Hunger is not a just a problem for the
needy, inability of the Indian polity to mitigate hunger and malnutrition is also an issue that hurts the national
2
economy. Deolalikar observed that “In addition to the human cost, there is a huge economic cost to hunger and
malnutrition – in terms of loss of cognitive ability, schooling, and labour productivity. Estimates, albeit rough
ones, suggest that malnutrition may be costing the Indian economy the equivalent of 4%-5% of its GDP.” So
why invest elsewhere if investment in curing hunger and malnutrition can generate enough GDP. Therefore,
ensuring food security is not just a need for the poor, it is a need for India to rid of what was called a “National
Shame” by the former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and a need for increasing the GDP growth by making
available a larger number of healthy persons who can contribute positively to the national economy.

1
AVARD.2013.Hunger and Malnutrition in India: Status, Causes and Cures. National Situationer
2
Deolalikar, Anil.2014. A national shame: Hunger and malnutrition in India. http://www.ideasforindia.in/article.aspx?article_id=8#sthash.XzUZyzdc.dpuf

37
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Food Security Issues

Demand-Supply of Food and Inflation


3
The Economic Survey 2013-14 has noted that the El Niño effect over the Indian monsoon is likely impact on
agricultural production and consequently prices of food products. Over the last decade Indian agriculture has
been robust having recorded high production of foodgrains and oilseeds. Government initiative in procurement
has helped build huge stocks of foodgrains in the granaries. India is one of the world's top producers of rice,
wheat, milk, fruits, and vegetables. However, given that India is still home to a quarter of all undernourished
people in the world and since on an average almost half the total expenditure of about half the households is on
food, increasing the efficiency of the farm-to-fork value chain is crucial for eliminating poverty and
malnutrition. According to the 3rd Advance Estimates there has been increase in acreage and production during
2013-14. Production of foodgrains has increased to 264.4 million tonnes (mt) and oilseeds at 32.4 mt is
estimated (Table 1). Despite this increase the National Food Security Mission of the Government of India, has
targeted to produce additional 25 mt of foodgrains by 2016-17: 10 mt of rice, 8 mt of wheat, 4 mt of pulses, and 3
mt of coarse cereals. Some of the additional initiatives taken by the government are development of farmer
producer organizations and creating value chain and providing market linkages and financing schemes to build
infrastructure for production growth, infrastructure and assets. Rs. 1000 crores has been allocated to bring Green
Revolution to Eastern India.
Table 1: Area, Production and Yield of Food Grains (2013-14*)

Million Ha Area Prod: Million Tonnes Yield kg/ha


Foodgrains 126.2 (4.47) 264.4 (2.88) 2095 (-1.55)
Rice 43.9 (2.57) 106.3 (1.05) 2419 (-1.75)
Wheat 31.3 (4.33) 95.8 (2.46) 3059 (-1.86)
Coarse cereals 25.5 (2.98) 42.7 (6.64) 1672 (2.83)
Maize 9.3 (6.90) 24.2 (8.52) 2602 (1.40)
Bajra 7.9 (8.22) 9.2 (5.75) 1161 (-3.09)
Pulses 25.4 (9.01) 19.6 (7.10) 770 (-2.41)
Gram 10.2 (20.00) 9.9 (12.50) 974 (-5.98)
Tur 3.9 (0.00) 3.4 (13.33) 857 (10.44)
Oilseeds 28.2 (6.42) 32.4 (4.85) 1149 (-1.63)
Groundnut 5.5 (17.02) 9.5 (102.10) 1723 (73.17)
Rapeseed and mustard 6.5 (1.56) 7.8 (-2.50) 1208 (-4.28)
Sugarcane 5.0 (0.00) 348 (2.11) 70 (0.00)
Notes: *3rd Advance Estimates; Figures in brackets indicate per cent change over 2012-13.
Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation

3
Economic Survey 2013-14: Chapter Agriculture and Food Management. GOI.

38
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Net Availability and per capita Availability


The net availability of foodgrains has increased in 2013 at 229.1 million tonnes showing a 15% increase over last
year. The per capita net availability of foodgrains spurted to 186.4 kg per year from 164.3 kg per year, and the net
availability of edible oils also increased from 12.7 kg per year to 15.8 kg per year over the same period. The per
capita availability of milk at 295 g per day is higher than the world average, while that of eggs is around 55 eggs
per year. The per capita availability of fruits rose from 114 grams per day in 2001-02 to 172 grams per day in
2011-12; while that of vegetables increased from 236 grams per day to 350 gram per day over the same period.
These performances gain significance as the agri sector is the source of livelihood and food security for a vast
majority of low-income and vulnerable sections of the population.

Mitigating Malnutrition
The third challenge is the persistent problem of malnutrition in preschool children, which has long-run impacts
on society's human capital, and needs to be addressed in a sustainable, financially efficient manner. The causes
of malnutrition are complex, involving inadequate food access at the household level, intra-household food
distribution that may reflect gender and age bias, cooking and feeding practices, household hygiene, water
supply and sanitation, and parental knowledge. There is evidence that the multidimensional nature of
malnutrition may not readily lend itself to large-scale development projects that attempt to address many aspects
of malnutrition at once. However, there are ways in which some of the underlying causes of malnutrition can be
addressed in relatively simple, cost-effective interventions, including community-managed water supply and
sanitation, micronutrient supplementation, and biofortification of staple crops. Low-cost interventions based on
simple technologies are often relatively inexpensive to add in rural investment projects such as irrigation and
roads without overly complicating the project design.

To improve nutritional status a pilot programme on nutri-farms for introducing new crop varieties rich in micro-
nutrients such as iron-rich bajra, protein-rich maize, and zinc-rich wheat was implemented as a subscheme of the
RKVY in 2013-14 in the 100 districts of nine states most affected by malnutrition, with an outlay of Rs 200
crore.

Crisis of Food Prices


With the backing of rising per capita incomes, people spend a large share of their income on food. This has
significantly resulted in higher and more volatile food prices and the demand-supply gap. On the supply side, the
critical concerns are slowing gains in agricultural productivity, an over-exploited natural resource base,
increasing water scarcity, and climate change. On the demand side, India will continue to become more urban
and prosperous. This will put upward pressure on food prices if supply cannot keep pace with demand (Box 1).

4
Economic Survey 2013-14: Chapter Agriculture and Food Management. GOI.

39
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

5
Box 1 : Evidence of Shifting Consumption Patterns: An Indian Case Study

India's robust growth in national income has brought forth a rise in the demand for food stuff in the
country. Due to rising per capita income, domestic per capita food availability has persistently lagged
behind demand for food grains in recent years. Estimates from a simple model to assess food grain
inflation in India during the period FY1986–2007 corroborate that both demand and supply side factors
are responsible for food price increases. Demand side factors, in particular, the rise in population and
higher income, significantly drive food inflation in India. However, a more important observation from
the regression is the changing consumption patterns in the country brought forth by rising incomes.
Results confirm a priori expectations that income elasticity for food grain falls as per capita income
increases (negative coefficient for the square term). Thus, at low levels of income, demand for food
grains-cereals and pulses- are high, but as income increases, people substitute away from food grains and
consume more of other food stuff like meat, vegetables, dairy etc. This is consistent with observations
that India's food price inflation is driven, to a great extent, by escalating prices of food products like oil
cakes, edible oils and dairy products among others, rather than food grains alone which are the
6
traditional culprits of food price inflation in the country.

According to the FAO, the food price crisis reveals the need to give greater attention to the political dimensions
of food security. The challenge for policy makers is to find a reasonably efficient and politically acceptable
balance between supply and price management, subsidies, safety nets, and other programs to protect the poor
without simultaneously suppressing the price incentives to farmers that encourage their supply response. The
G20 and World Bank advice encourages developing countries to allow full transmission of world prices to
domestic markets, and to use consumption-oriented safety nets to protect the poor while the agricultural supply
response is awaited. This blanket prescription has merit at a global level, but within individual Asian countries,
policy advice needs to reflect the local political and institutional context. Safety nets can play a useful role,
particularly in a crisis, but they also present a number of difficulties in practice. This dictum has been translated
in India by having implemented National Food Security Act 2013 (NFSA). The NFSA7 provides for coverage of
up to 75% of the rural population and up to 50% of the urban population. It stipulates an entitlement of 5 kg of
foodgrains per person per month for priority households and 35 kg per household per month for Antyodaya Anna
Yojana households at subsidized prices of Rs. 3 per kg of rice, Rs. 2 per kg of wheat, and Rs. 1 per kg of coarse
grains. The NFSA also has special focus on nutritional support to women and children. Pregnant women and
lactating mothers during pregnancy and six months after the childbirth will also be entitled to maternity benefit
of not less than Rs. 6000. Children up to 14 years of age will be entitled to nutritious meals or take-home rations
as per prescribed nutritional standards. In case of non-supply of entitled foodgrains or meals, the beneficiaries
will receive a food security allowance. Based on the provisions of the NFSA, the foodgrain requirement is
estimated at 614.3 lakh tonnes. The average annual procurement of wheat and rice has been 617.8 lakh tonnes
during 2008-09 to 2012-13, i.e. 33.2% of average annual production. The estimated annual food subsidy for
implementation of the Act at 2014-15 costs is about Rs. 1,31,066 crore. In fulfilling its obligation towards
provision of minimum nutritional support to the poor through subsidized foodgrains and ensuring price stability

5
Carrasco et al (2010)
6
Sthanumoorthy (2008)
7
Department of Food and Public Distribution, Government of India

40
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

in different states, the government incurs food subsidy. While foodgrains are central to the issue of food security,
the diversifying demand patterns from cereals to protein-rich items also need to be taken into account.

International Development Assistance


Asian Development Bank8 in a working paper noted that despite rapid economic growth, Asia remains the home
to 67% of the world's hungry people (some 552 million) and more than 900 million people who subsist on less
than $1.25 per day. Issues of food security across Asia and India have been discussed in G20 meetings in
September, 2009 and November, 2010, as well as at the World Food Summit in November, 2009. These parleys
noted that international development assistance to agriculture and food security has been declining for more
than two decades. Therefore, development assistance between 2005 and 2010 rose by almost 50%. More
recently, however, this financing appears to be falling back toward pre-crisis levels. As of late 2012, the global
fund of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research was well short of meeting its annual
funding target. With the principal exceptions of India and the People's Republic of China, no change is apparent
so far in the levels of national investment in Asian agricultural research and extension systems.

The Climate and the Climate Change


Debate, views and counterviews about the change in the climate and its impact on the human life and agriculture
are perpetual and will continue. The universal fact is that the climate has always changed, and it always will. The
assumption that prior to the industrial revolution the Earth had a "stable" climate is simply wrong9. According to
this study, accurate temperature measurements made from weather balloons and satellites since the late 1950s
show no atmospheric warming since 1958. In contrast, average ground-based thermometers record a warming
of about 0.4° C over the same time period. Many scientists believe that the thermometer record is biased by the
urban heat effect and other artefacts. Nevertheless, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has
been warning on global warming and has led to the Kyoto Protocol. Those who do not consider global warming
as a threat consider that the IPCC is a political, not scientific, body. Russia has been openly critical of the IPCC
and its agenda. The Russian Academy of Sciences considers that Kyoto has no scientific basis; Andre Illarianov,
senior advisor to Russian President Putin, calls Kyoto-ism "one of the most aggressive, intrusive, destructive
ideologies since the collapse of communism and fascism".

The IPCC has been of the view that average global temperature (AGT) has increased over the last few years and
the increase has been linked to increase in CO₂ in the atmosphere. The measurements indicate that AGT has not
increased since 1995 and has declined since 2002, despite an increase in atmospheric CO₂ of 8% since 1995.
th
During the late 20 century rise in AGT was at a rate of 1-2°C per century, which lies well within natural rates of
climate change. Rajamani of School of Environmental Science is of the view that "Climate change is real and
10
happening in India” . These issues have a direct impact on our daily lives. The extreme weather events like the
cloud burst and flash floods in Uttarakhand in June, 2013 point out that climate change needs attention and there
is need to take measures to mitigate and adapt to the future changes in climate. At a seminar held by the Indian
National Science Academy on August 22, 2014 at New Delhi, it was highlighted that gradual warming has been
5
Carrasco et al (2010)
6
Sthanumoorthy (2008)
7
Department of Food and Public Distribution, Government of India
8
Asian Development Bank. 2013. Working Paper: Food Security Challenges in Asia. October 2013.
9
Carter, Robert M. 2009. Ten Facts & Ten Myths on Climate Change. James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.
10
Times of India, New Delhi August 23, 2014. 'Climate change is real and happening in India'

41
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

happening due to human activity, and the AGT has risen about 0.8°C over the past 100 years. It was noted during
discussions that the years 1983-2012 was probably the warmest 30 years in the last 1,400 years.

India has also been under pressure about the carbon emissions, leading to global warming and its impact on the
agriculture and food production. The livestock sector, particularly the inefficient bovines of India, have been
blamed with emission of methane and CO₂ leading to global warming. There has been an argument that India is
highly vulnerable to the risks posed by global warming. Therefore, IPCC has been coercing India to accept
mitigation commitments. According to Pangariya11 the argument of the IPCC “borders on fear-mongering, while
obfuscating the fact that mitigation advocated by the IPCC is entirely feasible without subjecting India to
binding commitments for some decades to come”. India accounts for just 4.4% of the current annual emissions.
Compare this to 50% from Canada, the U.S., Europe, Eurasia and Japan together and some 15% from China.
Pangariya argues, given this tiny share and the vast existing stock of carbon from emissions in the last 100 years
in the atmosphere, mitigation by India can add no more than a drop in the ocean. He, however, accepts to replace
regular light bulbs with “green” bulbs to help lower carbon emissions as well as bring down the cost of lighting
the house and to replace clean energy sources at no extra economic cost.

In the context of climate change, OXFAM12 carried out a survey of rural areas in many developing countries and
summated their perceptions. The most important and consistent observations were:
I. Seasons are more unpredictable. Transitional seasons are shorter or have disappeared altogether, being
replaced by a simpler pattern whose characteristics are predominantly hot (and getting hotter) and dry; or hot
(and getting hotter) and wet.
ii. Temperatures have increased most in winter.
iii. Rain is more erratic. There is less predictability to the start of rainy seasons. Rainy seasons and monsoons are
shorter. In mountainous areas, there is much less snowfall. Dry periods have increased in length, and drought
is more common.
iv. Within the seasons, unusual events are occurring more frequently, including heavy rains in the dry season,
dry spells in the rainy season, storms at unusual times, dense and lingering fogs, and unpredictable
temperature fluctuations.
v. Rains are intense and there are longer periods between rains during the rainy season, thus increasing the risk
of crop losses, floods, and landslides.
vi. Winds and storms have increased in strength and may come at unusual times. Prevalent wind directions have
also shifted.

Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture


These perceptions are quite consistent with observed patterns. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge has taught
the farmers to sustain their farming systems and livelihoods by managing the climate variations. Water and soil
conservation practices to mitigate climate change impacts can help sustain agricultural production, but these
may involve some trade-offs between sustainability and productivity. Agronomic practices like mulching, direct
seeding, and minimum tillage conserve soil moisture and hence offer some resistance to high temperatures.
Farmers could be supported with meteorological data and faster weather forecasts. Altering calendar for
planting can reduce exposure to extreme weather conditions, but may upset multiple cropping systems.
Switching to earlier maturing varieties can help, but early-maturing varieties tend to be lower yielding.
11
Panagariya, Arvind, 2014. Climate Change and India. Forbes.
12
S. Jennings and J. Magrath. 2009. What Happened to the Seasons? Oxfam Research Report. Oxfam Great Britain.

42
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Recent projections by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) suggest that climate change
impacts may be manageable up to 2050, provided that there is a large and sustained increase of investment in
agriculture.13 The major food crops—wheat, maize and rice—grow best within a fairly narrow temperature
range. Optimal mean growing temperatures (vary with geography and variety) are about 15°C for wheat, 20°C
for maize, and 25°C for rice. Spikes in temperature would pose a greater risk to crop productivity and the
impacts of extreme heat are intensified when water is scarce. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement
Center (CIMMYT) have used satellite observations from the years 2000–2009 to estimate the effects of extreme
heat on wheat yields in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of northern India. They found that exposure to extreme heat
14
(>34°C) faster maturation and a shorter grain-filling in wheat. Gupta et. al., found that such conditions had
reduced wheat yields in Punjab by almost 6% and in worst-affected districts up to 20% in the 2009–2010 season.
Results were the same for other crops.

Revitalizing Agricultural Productivity


The ADB in its Working Paper15 has further noted the problems of agricultural productivity need to be addressed
immediately to ensure food security. The problems of food security and agriculture should be viewed within the
context of the broader structural transformation. There is an urgent need to revitalize growth in agricultural
productivity. One of the factors for decline in crop productivity is the 'Green revolution' of the 1970s. Despite the
rapid increase in yields at the outset, the green revolution has also resulted in environmental damage caused by
(i) heavy and inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides, (ii) irrigation practices leading to salt build-up and
(iii) receding groundwater levels in areas where more water is pumped for irrigation. This has led perversely to
the dampening of long term productivity levels. The use of fertilizers was not based on proper soil testing,
nutrient deficiency analysis, or crop needs. This has adversely affected crop yields, soil fertility, and long-term
sustainability. Therefore there is soil degradation, ground water depletion and contamination and more
importantly declining yields. There is need to take corrective measures to reverse current trends and boost
production.

Climate change is often thought of as a longer-run threat, but there is accumulating empirical evidence that
rising average temperatures, extreme heat events, rising atmospheric ozone levels, and other climate related
phenomena are already adversely affecting agricultural productivity. To some degree, it will be possible to adapt
to climate change through the application of existing technologies for conservation agriculture. More efficient
use of irrigation water will also be critical.

Small Farmer Versus Commercial Farming

A singular characteristic of Indian agriculture is the predominance of small and marginal farms (1.16 ha in 2010-
11). However, empirical studies indicate that small size of land holdings are not a deterrent to increasing
productivity, which is determined by focused research and investments, access to modern inputs, appropriate
technology, and innovative marketing systems to aggregate and market the output efficiently and effectively.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research is fully cognizant of this situation and has highlighted this in its vision

13
G. Nelson et al. 2010. Food Security, Farming, and Climate Change to 2050: Scenarios, Results, Policy Options. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
14
R. Gupta et al. 2010. Wheat productivity in Indo-Gangetic Plains of India during 2010: Terminal Heat Effects and Mitigation Strategies.
Newsletter of the Professional Alliance for Conservation Agriculture. Vol. 14.
15
Asian Development Bank. 2013. Working Paper: Food Security Challenges in Asia. October 2013

43
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

16
2030 (Box 2). According a report by the ADB there is need to ensure that small farmers, those on less than 2
hectares, have the opportunity to compete and thrive in modern food value chains. Led by the private sector,
agriculture is commercializing rapidly. The challenge is to involve small, resource-poor farmers in this highly
competitive process. Although small farms occupy only about 40% of the total farm area, they produce a much
larger share of the region's staple crops. Their productivity growth over the past 35 years has been critical to
Asia's food security and its success in poverty reduction. However, while small farm families can make ends
meet, there are limits to how much income they can generate by growing only rice or wheat. In Asia, with its
large rural population and a preponderance of small farms, a successful structural transformation would see
agriculture evolve from small-scale, subsistence-oriented production to small-scale, commercially oriented
farming driven by the market forces of a dynamic, urbanizing economy. Without such a transition, there is a risk
that a large share of Asia's poor will remain mired in a rural poverty trap. If small farmers are to prosper, they
must diversify and commercialize. At the same time, if modern marketing systems are to bear the transaction
costs of dealing with small farmers, then these farmers must be able to compete on the basis of quality, reliability,
and efficiency. This warrants special attention to ensure that Asia's resource-poor farmers are not bypassed.
Numerous approaches are being tried—extension and farmer training, marketing cooperatives, credit, contract
farming, engaging nongovernment organizations, and innovative public-private partnerships. The public sector
can facilitate but cannot lead the process, since modern agricultural value chains are almost completely driven
by the private sector. However, efforts by the public sector will be required to build the necessary skills of small
farmers and the supporting institutions and organizations and to reduce the transaction costs for smallholder
engagement in value chains.

Box 2: Smallholders' Agriculture in India (Source: Vision 2030 – ICAR, January 2011)

Our agriculture is dominated by small farmers, having small landholdings for cultivation. The average
size of the landholding declined to 1.32 ha in 2000-01 from 2.30 ha in 1970-71, and absolute number of
operational holdings increased from about 70 million to 121 million. If this trend continues, the average
size of holding in India would be mere 0.68 ha in 2020, and would be further reduced to a low of 0.32 ha
in 2030. This is a very complex and serious problem, Average size of landholding is contracting when
share of agriculture in gross domestic product is declining, average size of landholding is contracting
(also fragmenting), and number of operational holdings are increasing.

Declining size of landholdings without any alternative income augmenting opportunity is resulting in
fall in farm income, causing agrarian distress. A large number of smallholders have to move to
postharvest and non-farm activities to augment their income. The research focus should be to evolve
technologies and management options to suit needs of smallholders' agriculture, and also to involve
them in agri-supply chain through institutional innovations.

Role of Livestock in Food Security


FAO17 has noted that the role of livestock in food security FAO is undervalued. Livestock provides nutrition, power and
income for small farmers and producers thereby increasing food security and contributing to rural development. The costs
of inputs into this system are low. For example, India still produces largest volume of milk, eggs, meat (Table 2) and fish
from low-input-low-output production system. All these farming occupations apart from providing food security are a
16
ibid
17
FAO. 1999. Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Asia. Role of Livestock. RAP Publication 1999/4

44
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

providing productive and remunerative employment to a very large rural population. India ranks first in milk production,
accounting for 17% of world production. During 2012-13, milk production peaked at 132.43 mt, thus becoming an
important secondary source of income for 70 million rural households engaged in dairying and for 70% of the workforce
that comprised women. The average year-on-year growth rate of milk at 4.04% vis-à-vis the world average of 2.2% shows
sustained growth in availability of milk and milk products. Government's focus, besides framing conducive policies for
commercial poultry production, is on strengthening the family poultry system, which addresses livelihood issues. Egg
production was around 69.73 billion in 2013, while poultry meat production is estimated at 2.68 mt. Fisheries is an
important source of livelihood and fish, are an important source of protein. There are 14.4 million fishermen in the country.
India ranks second in world fish production, contributing about 5.4% of global fish production. Total fish production
during 2013-14 is estimated at 9.45 mt with 6.10 mt coming from the inland sector and 3.35 mt from the marine sector.

Table 2: Milk, Egg and Meat Production from 2000 – 2014

Year Milk Eggs Meat


(million tonnes) (million nos) (million tonnes)
2000 - 01 80.6 36,632 1.9
2006 - 07 102.6 50,653 2.3
2007 - 08 107.9 53,583 4.00
2008 - 09 112.2 55,562 4.28
2009 - 10 116.4 60,267 4.56
2010 - 11 121.8 63,024 4.86
2011 - 12 127.9 66,450 5.51
2012 - 13 132.4 69,730 5.95
2013 - 14
(target) 139.68 72,943 6.35
Source: Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, 2013, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying &
Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.

Improving Livestock Productivity


18
In a brainstorming session held by the Indian Dairy Association it was observed that the entire dairy Industry in
India has its base in the small holders and marginal farmers. These prime stakeholders of the entire value chain of
milk are deprived of minimum resources of land, labour, capital etc. The low livestock productivity can be improved
through genetic improvement, better nutrition, better animal healthcare; and the use of outputs (such as dung which
can greatly increase the value of the outputs). Some of the areas that need attention are discussed below.

1. Improving the Genetic Potential of Animals: India has 199.1 million cattle and 105.3 million buffaloes.
The average milk yield per annum per milch cattle in India has been reported around 917 kg compared to
8388 kg in USA and 9787 kg in Israel. Nearly 80 percent of the breedable family stock is not covered by well-
defined breeding policies suitable for the 14 distinct agro-climatic zones of the country. Since there is no
18
IDA 2014. Minutes of the Brainstorming Session Organised by the Indian Diary Association. July 2014. NAAS- NASC Complex, New Delhi

45
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

pragmatic progeny testing and evaluation programmes there is no genetic progress. There is a need for a
breeding policy to improving the production potential of indigenous breeds of cattle such as Sahiwal, Gir,
Rathi and Kankrej and breeds of buffalo such as Murrah, Mehsana and Jaffarbadi through appropriate
selection programme. In order to cover breedable population of 80 million cattle and buffaloes, India would
need 66,000 progeny tested bulls to make provide required number of semen doses. IDA concluded that the
tools of genetic and molecular markers for identification of superior germplasm, embryo transfer
technology for rapid multiplication, and cloning to conserve elite animal species and breeds must be
employed in the years to come and these technologies need to be perfected for field application.

2. Nutrition Management for Increasing Productivity - Feed constitutes more than 70 per cent of the cost of
milk. There is evidence that lack of nutrition hinders full expression of the genetic potential of milch
animals. At present, the land under permanent pastures and grasslands is about 3.6% of the geographical area
and the fodder cultivation is limited to only to 4.86% of the cultivable land. This is very inadequate. Against a
total requirement of over 120 million tonnes of feed every year, the feed plants manufacture about 8 million
tonnes. There is a need to raise cattle feed plant capacity as well as production. There is a need to produce
more mineral mixture and introduce newer technologies for feed production, for bypass protein and bypass
fat supplements. With an increase in the level of feeding much of the additional nutrition would be
partitioned to production. Therefore, by concentrating on improving the efficiency of production of the
animals owned by smallholders, large gains in total production can be made rapidly.

3. Disease Control – There is need for prevention, control and containment of infectious and zoonotic
diseases. FMD and brucellosis can be controlled through a national control programme. Veterinarians and
human health authorities must start working together to control zoonotic diseases. Through use of GIS in AI
and veterinary health services zoonotics and other diseases can be controlled. To meet the international
requirements, it is necessary to create disease-free zones by (a) undertaking mass vaccinations (b) ear-
tagging and passbooks (c) animal movement management (d) Effective outbreak management, and (e)
Seromonitoring.

4. Clean Milk Production - Unhygienic conditions at the dairy farms are the reasons for poor quality milk in
India. Because of poor quality of raw milk Indian milk products are often rejected in the export market.
Administration of antibiotics affects quality of milk. It is therefore necessary to improve farm hygiene and
milk collection systems. Most milch animals are not regularly screened for diseases. Emphasis should be
given on preventive health care as well as curative aspects.

5. Integrate Biogas and Fertilizer Production: There is need to integrated sustainable farming systems and
incentivise farmers to gain the maximum benefit from limited resources. For example, the use of bio-
digesters to produce biogas and fertilizer increases the value of animal manure. Manure is also used directly
in fishponds to increase fish production.

46
Do You Know ?
Missing one conception cycle can
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
cause loss of Rs. 7,500 on feeding
and production

Ayurvet EJM (Exapar - Janova - Mintrus)


programme improves reproductive
efficiency and farm profits.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734.
Source - ICAR Research complex, Goa
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Integrated Sustainable Agriculture & Livestock Production:


An opportunity for Better Animal, Human & Environment Health
1 2
M.J. Saxena & Dr. Anup Kalra
Summary:
Aryans introduced livestock in our agriculture system. Now globally animal production is part of our lives and is poised
to make a generous leap. Increased demand and opportunity linked with new technologies in production, feeding &
processing may be some of the key factors responsible for the anticipated increase in livestock production. At the same
time we should address some areas of quality assurance of feed & food of animal origin, maintaining the production
inspite of scarcity of land, water & imminent climate change In nutshell it is high time we integrate Animal health &
Agriculture sector for better sustainability of farming community y & simultaneously addressing the national food
security .Needless to mention, education of rural masses for adopting new techniques will play a significant role in
entire process of livelihood generation of farming community.

Introduction:
India has different climatic zones, natural resources, socio economic strata
which is what makes feeding of ruminant different in various parts of the
country. This is in
The traditional wisdom of ancient India existed
in integration of “5F”, which meant Food, Feed, contrast to the
Fodder, Fuel & Fertilizer security. In the western part of the
current era, Ayurvet with help of modern
science has worked on the above model using world. In our
technological tools for addressing the needs of country livestock
Animal, Human & Environment Health.
plays a key role in the natural resources based livelihood, which is
mostly confined to rural areas. In fact livestock rearing in our country is quite different for subsistence farmers, where risk
management is more important than the developed market driven systems. Apart from unfriendly climate, we have
problem of large human & animal population, pressure on land, scarcity of pasture land, shortage of feed & fodder,
resulting in comparatively low productivity & consequently the low economic returns.
Inspite of the above, livestock sector is showing better promise (growth of 4-5%) than the agriculture sector (growth of -1
to 1%).The key point to be observed here is that our majority of the ruminants are reared under suboptimal conditions, as
the small livestock holders and landless together hold around 70% of our country livestock. However, planning and
involving the stake holders for holistic interactions with plants and soil, involving TRM (Total Resources Management),
which means optimum utilization of the available resources including the available biomass, through its recycling would
help in improving the overall Animal & Human Health & Food Solution.
1. Food: Our current challenge for its security & safety
Food apart from air is the most important thing for the living being survival. This is true globally. In view of the

48
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

stagnating food grain production and an increasing consumption need of the growing population, Government of
India has launched this Centrally Sponsored Scheme, 'National Food Security Mission'.The major objective of this
scheme is to increase production and productivity of wheat, rice and pulses on a sustainable basis so as to ensure food
security of the country. The approach is to bridge the yield gap in respect of these crops through dissemination of
improved technologies and farm management practices. The implementation of the NFSM would result in increasing
the production of rice by 10 million tones, wheat by 8 million tones and pulses by 2 million tones by 2011-12. It would
also create additional employment opportunities.
In this mission Livestock is also expected to jointly play an important role. Apart from providing livelihood to the
people in the rural & semi urban areas, they from are vital link for the food security. They provide us milk, meat which
is essential source of protein & energy. Moreover, agriculture income may come to farmer three to four times in a year
where as the income from milk is on daily basis
2. Feed: To help the biocoverter for producing food
Scenario of Feed Resources:
The inadequate feed resource is the major constraint in the productivity of livestock. Since feed is the only raw material
required for the production of foods of animal origin, improved supply of nutrients can bring out the full potential of the
animal to the fore. Feed is also the main input factor for milk and meat production from livestock constituting 60-70% of
the cost of livestock products. Inadequate feed supply is coupled with the availability of low quality fibrous feeds forming
the major roughage source. The cost of feed ingredients is spiraling higher and higher with each passing day. In India,
another reason for the high cost of good quality feeds is the sudden spurt in the export of these ingredients during the last
few years. It is really beyond the means of resource poor animal keepers to buy good quality feeds, as they even don't get
the remunerative price for their produce, making a vicious circle which eventually results in sub-optimal performance
from their animals. There is still not a good market for good quality feed.
NIANP Bangalore has shown that the present deficit with regard to dry fodder, green fodder and concentrate has been
shown to be to the tune of 11, 28 and 35% respectively.
In livestock farming, it becomes very important for us to feed our livestock with proper balanced feed. The basic
principle of GIGO applies here. If you feed them right, they will remain healthy & more productive during their
lifespan. As a matter of fact in our country our farmers mostly complain of less milk production & % of fat in the milk,
but, often they do not realize that production is part of reproduction. In our country, we have immense problem of
tackling the issue of infertility in animals or we may refer it as decline in the reproductive efficiency in animals. One of
the most common factors affecting this is improper nutrition or animals being not fed the nutritionally balanced
compound feed.
I) Value added compound Feed:
Though there is improvement in usage of cattle feed amongst farmers, however the quality of this feed is a big question
mark. Off late certain value added feeds which are nutritionally balanced and also possess the herbs for improving
immunity digestion, stress, production etc.

49
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

These feed may cost little higher but are known to deliver the results. Ayurvet Uttam is one such brand in India
Another concern is safety is the high content of the chemical fertilizer & pesticides in the milk & meat which the
animals produce. This comes from Agriculture by products which are used for animal feeding. These are ultimately
passed on to the human beings. This has lead to higher incidence of cancer. It is not only common in people who
consume these crops/grains but also amongst the farmers who use these pesticides to produce these crops
Improving genetic variability in nutritional quality of straws:
Straw quality differs with crops. This variation could be as high as 10-15 units, which has been studied in most of the
cereal crop residues viz. rice, wheat, barley, sorghum and millets. In the crop-livestock sustainable production
system, better quality of straw can result in 10% increase in productivity of ruminants. Cereal breeders have often
overlooked this point. It his high time that the cereal breeders plan their breeding programmes in collaboration with
animal nutritionists, and thus, helps in improving the economic lot of resource poor farmers.
II) Biotech Feed:
The new upcoming research claims that the straw when treated with a special fungus breaks the lignin bonds &
releases energy. This may even help in replacing the grain portion from the feed. Ayurvet along with Delhi University
under the DBT funded programme has successfully completed this project.
Use of trace mineral supplements
There is an urgent need for the extension agencies in the country to educate the farmers about the benefits of feeding
mineral mixture/ chealated minerals to their livestock, so that their livestock can perform at optimum level with
respect to production as well as reproduction.
3. Fodders: Nutritionally enriched green feed for Animal health
Fodder is important part of Livestock feeding & can never be under estimated. The fodders are rich in Omega 3 Fatty
acid which is essential for maintaining a healthy heart, flexible joints, healthy growth and strong bones and teeth.
Another constituent of importance is Conjugated Linoleic acid (CLA), which is believed to boost immune function
and reduce the growth of tumors.
Enhancing green herbage
In India, the area under fodder cultivation has remained static for the last three decades at 4.5% of the total cultivable
land, due to pressure of human population. The only way to increase fodder production is through intensive fodder
production, especially using high yielding varieties of fodder crops. But it is important that the farmers are supplied
seeds of high yielding fodder varieties, as its non availability is yet another bottleneck in enhancing fodder production.
Intercropping of cereal and a forage legume can serve the dual purpose of increased grain yield (wheat) and provide
good grazing. Integration of forage legumes improves soil fertility and soil structure and controls soil erosion and thus,
helps in the sustainable development of agriculture (Reddy, 2008).
In our country we do not get the green fodder round the year which affects the health of the animals & the quality of the
milk which they produce.

50
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Hydroponics: A novel initiative for green Feed:

Nutrient Grain Barley Conventional Fodder Hydroponics Fodder


Protein% 10.1 11.5 31.99
Fibre% 6.80 31.8 24.75
Energy (kcal/kg) 3900 2600 4727
Ash% 2.79 11.4 5.70

The word hydroponics has been derived from the Greek word where 'Hydro' means water and 'Ponic' means working,
i.e. Water working. Plants require 3 things to flourish- water, nutrients & sunlight; Hydroponics is a straightforward
way of providing all these nutrients without the need of soil under controlled environment conditions to optimize the
growth of plants. It is referred as feed because when compared to conventional fodder, Protein content is about three
times higher and Energy values are about double in Hydroponics feed. The conventionally harvested green fodder
consists only of cut grass but the Hydroponics feed consists of grass, along with grain and root. This method of
producing green feed has many advantages for the farmer, the ecology and the environment.
Advantages of Hydroponics:
I) Saving of water: It takes 2 to 3 liters of water to produce 1 Kg of green feed as compared with 80-90 liters/ day
required in conventional system. Therefore, it uses minimal water for maximum fodder production. Water that is not
used by the growing fodder is not wasted, as it can be recycled & reused again.
II) Marginal land usage: Fodder production in our hydroponics machine provides huge ecological & economical
advantages, as the production of lush green feed requires minimal land usage as compared to field grown grasses &
fodder (only 135 sq. feet for 240 Kg fodder production against 2178 sq. feet in conventional system) This reduction in
the amount of land required for maximum fodder production is an asset for both regions where agriculture is difficult
& in densely populated regions that lack sufficient growing space.
III) Constant feed supply: Hydroponics technology will remove the need for long- term storage of feeds. With our
hydroponics machine, a consistent supply of green fodder is guaranteed 358 days (365-7) of the year irrespective of
rain, storm, sunshine or snow. Therefore, the farmer knows exactly what feed they have available every day of the year
regardless of the seasonal conditions as it takes an initial investment of just 7 days to produce up to 240 kg of fresh
green feed per day and a minimum of 75- 84 tons of fodder per year.
IV) Reduction in growth time: The growing time of hydroponics plants takes as little as 7 days from seed germination to a
fully-grown plant at a height of 25- 30 cm, ready for harvest. Also, the biomass conversion ratio is as high as 6-8 times.
Thus, for every 1 Kg of seed 6- 10 kg of green feed is produced. However, to grow the same amount of fodder in a
conventional situation, if there was sufficient water for irrigation, would take up to 12 weeks from seed germination
until ready to feed out to livestock.
V) Reduced labor requirement: This process of growing cattle feed requires minimal man- hour ratio per day. It is as
little as 2 to 3 hours per day, needed to maintain & produce hydroponics fodder, as compared to the many hours of
intense labour required for growing the same amount of feed as a pasture crop.

51
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Enhancement of Nutritional value: Hydroponics fodder is a highly effective particularly nutritious feed, which
produces 3 times more protein as compared to conventional fodder. It has high energy content and very high moisture
content. Feeding livestock hydroponically produced feed may increase considerably the fertility rates of cattle.
Hydroponics fodder can also help improve the quality & quantity of milk production.
Comparison of Hydroponics fodder with conventional fodder (Barley)

VIII) Completely natural: An important factor about growing green feed in Ayurvet's hydroponics machine is that it is
completely natural product. Therefore, there are no pesticides or fungicides used that could alternatively
contaminate the milk or meat that are being produced.
4. Fuel: For our daily domestic & community needs
Energy is a necessary concomitant of human existence. Although many sources of energy exist in nature,
it is coal, electricity and fossil oil which have been commercially exploited for many useful purposes.
This century has witnessed the phenomenal growth of various industries based on these energy sources.
They have application in agricultural farms and have domestic use in one form or other. Fossil oil, in
particular has played the most significant role in the growth of industry and agriculture, which would be
recorded in the history of progress of human race in golden words. By now, it has penetrated so deep into
the mechanism of human living that man is not prepared to accept the fact that this useful source of energy
is not going to last very long. But that is the fact of life. Earlier fossil oil was available easily and at lower
prices irrespective of its origin of supply. It has now been scarce and costly. The immediate effect of this is
that the world is in a grip of inflation and rising prices. Today, energy crisis has mainly emerged from the
fear that the boons of fossil oil may turn into a bane as the disappearance of fossil oil would compel the
habits and practices of living of the society to change. That is the crisis and that is the compulsion for
search alternate sources of energy.

Bio-Gas as one of the Alternate Renewable Sources of Energy


It is evident that no single source of energy would be capable of replacing fossil oil completely which has diverse
applications. On the other hand, dependence on fossil oil would have to be reduced at a faster pace so as to stretch its
use for longer period and in critical sectors till some appropriate alternative energy sources preferably renewable
ones are made available. Presently, the country is spending a fortune in importing fossil oil which can hardly be
afforded for long on the face of developmental needs. Methane gas and more popularly known as bio-gas is one such
alternate sources of energy which has been identified as a useful hydro-carbon with combustible qualities as that of
other hydrocarbons. Though its calorific value is not high as some products of fossil oil and other energy sources, it
can meet some needs of household and farms.

52
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Comparative heat values and thermal efficiency of commonly used fuels

Commonly used fuels Calorific values in Kilo calories Thermal efficiency

Bio-gas 4713/M3 60%


Dung cake 2093/Kg 11%
Firewood 4978/Kg 17.3%
Diesel (HSD) 10550/Kg 66%
Kerosene 10850/Kg 50%
Major Benefits of Installing Bio-Gas Plants
It is estimated that alternative sources of energy like bio-gas plants, wind mills etc. may reduce the dependence on
conventional sources of energy by about 20% by the turn of the century. Presently, the cooking media in rural areas
consist of burning dung cake, fire-wood and to some extent kerosene where it is available easily. The installation of
bio-gas plants would directly replace the use of above three and in saving them, following gains would be made:
I) Nearly 30% of available dung which is burnt and wasted would be recovered as bio-gas plants conserve the dung while
producing bio-gas.
II) The dung after digestion in gas plant preserves more of NPK in the dung solids and cellulose which otherwise gets lost
if heaped in the open.
III) Rural people would gradually stop felling trees. Tree felling bas been identified as one of the major causes of soil
erosion and worsening flood situation.
IV) Bio-gas plants would be helpful in correcting this situation.
\V) In rural areas kerosene is used for lighting lantern and cooking in a limited way wherever kerosene supply has been
made possible. Whatever quantity is used can be replaced by bio-gas as it can be used for lighting and cooking. This
would reduce the dependence on fossil oil directly and in saving foreign exchange.
VI) Lastly, the most important social benefit would be that the dung being digested in the digester, there would be no open
heap of dung to attract flies, insects and infections. The slurry from digesters can be transported to the farm for
application in the soil, thus keeping the environment clean for inhabitation. Also, gas cooking would remove all the
health hazards of dung cake or fire wood cooking and would keep the woman folk free from respiratory and eye
diseases which are prevalent in the villages.
1. Fertilizer: For enriching the soil & its recharge
The government recent decision on deregulation of the chemical fertilizer is indicative that it is not possible to for the
government to foot the subsidy bill. As a matter of fact the use of synthetic fertilizer is reducing the soil fertility &
affecting the food production, said a joint study by Non profit Green Peace & West Bengals'Visva Bharti University.
The data quoted that in 1960 there was a 25 kg increase in grain production with each kg increase of fertilizer. In early
1990s this came down to 19 & late 1990s it was at 8kg. One of the report further mentions that micro nutrients of the

53
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

soil are lost with over use of nitrogen fertilizer, urea. The fertilizer subsidy is now at Rs.1, 20000crore against
Rs.60crore in 1976-77. Another study states that if these subsidies are gradually phased out in next 5 years, India will
be able to save Rs.12, 000 billion. Biogas can be effectively promoted by using some these saving in our country. This
would help in gradual shift to organic nitrogen fertilization of the soil.
Percent NPK & its comparison

N P2O5 K2 O
Bio-gas slurry 1.4 1.0 0.8
Farm Yard Manure (FYM) 0.5 0.2 0.5
Town Compost 1.5 1.0 1.5

I) The average NPK content of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is about 0.5, 0.2 and 0.5 percent respectively and it may be
observed that biogas slurry is rich in NPK by more than four times than ordinary dung when converted into FYM.
II) When the country is faced with shortage of fertilizers and has to spend enormous amounts for its import, the
application of bio-gas slurry can replace the chemical fertilizers to a large extent.
III) Bio-gas slurry or FYM not only adds NPK but it proves the soil porosity and texture

CONCLUSION:
In our country feed shortage, especially the shortage of quality feeds is a serious problem. For increasing the supply of
green herbage, the strategies needed are: conservation of degraded pasturelands and development of wastelands.
Feeding strategies for ruminants in tropics should also include environmental protection, through reduced methane
emission, apart from increasing the productivity of ruminant stock. Improving the utilization of the straw is a big
opportunity & scientists are confident about the breakthrough. Similarly Green Feed from Hydroponics system is the
new way of animal feeding for improving animal reproductive health. This would help in saving save the water & land
as the precious resource.
It is high time we integrate these initiatives to bring prosperity to our country. This would only happen if we effectively
integrate Agriculture & Livestock sectors. This will not only help us in succeeding in National Food Security mission
but would help in bringing back the soil fertility & improved crop production. This may not happen overnight, but then
there is always a possibility to begin at some point

References: on Request
* M.J. Saxena: Managing Director Ayurvet Limited Delhi
** Dr. Anup Kalra: CEO (ARF) Ayurvet Limited, Delhi
Website - www.ayurvet.com
For feedback or additional information on this article please mail to mjsaxena@ayurvet.com m

54
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Impact of usage of Ayurvet Herbal Specialities to meet challenges of


Climatic change
M.J.Saxena, K.Ravikanth and S. Maini

Abstract
Climatic change and food security pose key emerging global challenges for the world. The increasing animal
population to meet the food security is also considered as a major catalyst for climatic change and emerging
zoonoses, elevated carbon dioxide levels, and combined with increase in temperature, precipitation and
nitrogen deposition, result in increased primary productivity in pastures, with changes in species distribution
and litter composition (Easterling et al., 2007).

Climate Change: A Global Challenge


Climate change as one of the factors affecting rural poverty and as one of the challenges it needs to address.
While climate change is a global phenomenon, its negative impacts are more severely felt by poor people in
developing countries who rely heavily on the natural resource base for their livelihoods. Rural poor
communities rely greatly for their survival on agriculture and livestock keeping that are amongst the most
climate-sensitive economic sectors. The IPCC predicts that by 2100 the increase in global average surface
temperature may be between 1.8°C and 4.0°C. With increases of 1.5°C to 2.5°C, approximately 20 to 30% of
plant and animal species are expected to be at risk of extinction (FAO, 2007b) with severe consequences for food
security in developing countries.

How Livestock is contributing to climate change


Livestock contribute both directly and indirectly to climate change through the emissions of greenhouse gases
such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. According to scientifically reported data, 18% (7.1 billion
tonnes CO2 equivalent) of global greenhouse gas emission (GHG) is due to livestock. It accounts for 9% of
global CO2, it generates 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (N2O) and 35 percent of methane (CH4), which has
296 times and 23 times the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of CO2, respectively.

Direct and indirect sources of GHG emissions in animal production systems include physiological processes
from the animal (enteric fermentation and respiration), animal housing, manure storage, treatment of manure
slurries (compost and anaerobic treatment), land application, and chemical fertilizers (Casey et al., 2006;
Monteny et al., 2001).

For livestock production, direct emissions refer to emissions directly produced from the animal including
enteric fermentation and manure and urine excretion (Jungbluth et al., 2001). The term indirect emissions refers
to emissions not directly derived from livestock but from feed crops used for animal feed, emissions from
manure application, CO2 emission during production of fertilizer for feed production, and CO2 emission from
processing and transportation of refrigerated livestock products (IPCC, 1997; Mosier et al., 1998a). Other
indirect emissions include net emissions from land linked to livestock including deforestation (i.e., conversion
of forest to pasture and cropland for livestock purposes), desertification (i.e., degradation of above ground
vegetation from livestock grazing), and release of C from cultivated soils [i.e., loss of soil organic C (SOC) via
tilling, natural processes] associated with livestock (IPCC, 1997). Methane and N2O emissions are produced

55
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

from enteric fermentation and nitrification/denitrification of manure and urine, respectively (Kaspar and Tiedje,
1981). Livestock produce CH4 directly as a by-product of digestion via enteric fermentation (i.e., fermenting
organic matter via methanogenic microbes producing CH4 as an end-product) (Jungbluth et al., 2001). Methane
and N2O emissions are produced from enteric fermentation and nitrification/denitrification of manure and urine,
respectively (Kaspar and Tiedje, 1981). Methane production from enteric fermentation is considered the
primary source of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions accounting for approximately 73% of the 80 Tg of CH4
produced globally per year. Globally, CH4 released from enteric fermentation accounts for ~1800, 139, and 7 Tg
CO2-eq yr_1, respectively (CEC, 2005; EPA et al., 2009; FAO et al., 2006). LLS (FAO et al., 2006) estimated
that 1800 Tg CO2-eq yr_1 is produced globally via

Ch4 from enteric fermentation following only land-use change as an emission category. The primary source of
CH4 from ruminant livestock is from the process of enteric fermentation during rumination (Casey et al., 2006;
Jungbluth et al., 2001; Kaspar and Tiedje, 1981; Sun et al., 2008). Initial microbial breakdown (essential in
ruminant digestion) occurs in the rumen, or large fore-stomach, where microbial fermentation converts fibrous
feed into products digested and utilized by the animal (Boadi et al., 2004; USDA, 2004). Rumination promotes
digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose through hydrolysis of polysaccharides by microbes and protozoa,
which is followed by microbial fermentation generating H2 and CO2. Methane is produced as a by-product of
enteric fermentation and carbohydrate digestion and is expelled through the mouth via eructation (Monteny et
al., 2001). In ruminant livestock, enteric fermentation is strongly affected by quantity and quality of their diet.
Production of CH4 in ruminants is directly correlated to a loss of metabolizable energy and has been studied in
depth during performance studies that aimed at improvements of feed efficiency (Jungbluth et al., 2001; Mosier
et al., 1998b). Cattle typically lose 2–12% of their ingested energy as eructated CH4. Many factors affect CH4
emissions from livestock including feed intake, animal size, diet, growth rate, milk production, and energy
consumption Jungbluth et al., 2001). Diet and level of production directly affect CH4 emission rates (Holter and
Young, 1992; Sun et al., 2008)

In addition to CH4 emission, Livestock is also responsible for CO2 pollution. The CO2 from respiration of
livestock amounts to ~3000 Tg CO2-eq yr_1 but this CO2 had previously been absorbed via plants (FAO et al.,
2006). According to EPA et al. (2006), FAO et al. (2006), and the Kyoto Protocol (1997), emissions from
livestock are part of continuous cycling biological system where plant matter that had once sequestered CO2 is
consumed by livestock and then released back into the atmosphere by respiration to be reabsorbed by plants
(FAO et al., 2006; Kyoto Protocol, 1997).

Consequences of Climate change on Livestock production system


Climate change will have far-reaching consequences for dairy, meat and wool production, mainly arising from
its impact on grassland and rangeland productivity. Heat distress suffered by animals will reduce the rate of
animal feed intake and result in poor growth performance (Rowlinson, 2008). Lack of water and increased
frequency of drought in certain countries will lead to a loss of resources.

It is reported in literature that climate change affects livestock production by altering the quantity and quality of
feed available for animals. The most important consequences of climate change posing to livestock production
system include heat stress, changes in water availability (with droughts affecting livestock in particular) and a
greater range of livestock diseases and disease carriers (Thornton et al. 2009). Due to global warming, the

56
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

increase in the incidences of droughts and extreme rainfall variability can either trigger potential reduction in
water availability or severe feed scarcity, especially in dry land areas, with devastating effects on livestock
populations (CCAFS 2012). Climate change is expected to change the species composition (and hence
biodiversity and genetic resources) of grasslands as well as affect the digestibility and nutritional quality of
forage.

High ambient temperature exerts direct impact on reducing food intake and reproductive potential in livestock.
In dairy cows, heat stress reduces the amount of milk produced, reduces milk fat and protein content, and
decreases reproduction rates. High-producing dairy cows are the most susceptible to increases in the THI. Most
livestock species thrive at “comfort zones” beyond which feed intake is declined by 3 to 5% for each degree of
temperature rise (CCAFS 2012). Due to poor feed intake, milk production indices are obviously declined. Beef
cattle in feedlots subject to heat stress also experience reduced health and a reduction in growth, weight gain,
influencing the dressed weight & meat quality. Other intensive livestock animals; chickens and swine are also
susceptible to heat stress. Some responses include reduced feed intake, reduced laying performance in chicken,
reduced fertility levels, decreased vitality and may result into mortality.

Climate change could also affect the distribution of vector-borne livestock diseases. These changes occur as a
result of shifts in the geographical ranges of ticks, mosquitoes, flies and other vectors. Diseases affected by these
changes include East Coast fever, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and trypanosomiasis (CCAFS 2012).

Meeting the challenge: adaptation and mitigation livestock strategies


Given the magnitude of the challenge to reduce GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, it is imperative to
receive the contribution of all sectors with significant mitigation potential. Agriculture is recognized as a sector
with such potential, and farmers, herders, ranchers and other land users could and should be part of the solution.
Therefore, it is important to identify mitigation measures that are easy to implement and cost effective in order to
strengthen the capacity to adapt to climate change. Mitigation of GHG emissions in the livestock sector can be
achieved through various activities, including: different animal feeding management, manure management
(collection, storage, spreading), management of feed crop production, and the contribution the livestock sector
can make to the reduction of emissions varies. Possible mitigation options include (FAO, 2008b) Selection of
faster growing breeds. Improvements could be made to livestock efficiency in converting energy from feed into
production and losses through waste-products can be reduced. Emissions from livestock can be mitigated
through animal management techniques including nutrition, housing, and waste management (Clemens and
Ahlgrimm, 2001; Mosier et al., 1998b; Phetteplace et al., 2001; Saggar et al., 2004). Recent work has focused on
manipulating the abundance and activity of rumen methanogens, to improve the efficiency of ruminant
production in an ecologically sustainable way (Wright et al., 2004). One major mitigation technique for CH4
from livestock is through improvement of production efficiency. Mitigation through improved feed efficiency
could reduce CH4 emissions and result in economic benefits to producers while improving global methane
emissions.

Livestock can play an important role in both mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation measures could include
technical and management options in order to reduce GHG emissions from livestock, accompanied by the
integration of livestock into broader environmental services.

57
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Increasing feed efficiency and improving the digestibility


Increasing feed efficiency and improving the digestibility of feed intake are potential ways to reduce GHG
emissions and maximize production and gross efficiency. All livestock practices – such as genetics, nutrition,
reproduction, health, dietary supplements and proper feeding (including grazing) management - that could
result in improved feed efficiency need to be taken into account.

CONTRIBUTIONS BY AYURVET

Mitigation of livestock GHG emissions


Ayurvet has taken initiative to formulate certain plant based products based on the principal of manipulating
rumen function. With these objective, novel strategies for enteric methane abatement has been scientifically
evaluated by Ayurvet so as to assess the Antimethanogenic potential of few polyherbal feed supplements.

Herbal digestive tonic product Ruchamax and herbal Rumen function modulator product Optirum has been
scientifically proved to optimize the population and activity of ruminal micro flora (both protozoa & bacteria) in
a number of research studies conducted by eminent scientists in veterinary universities. For efficient cellulose
break down and digestion, it also facilitated maintenance of normal ruminoreticular and intestinal movement
for proper maceration as well as the mixing and passage of ingesta and normal expulsions of gases. "Ruchamax"
is one of the preparation uses as appetite stimulant and effective in restoration of ruminal micro flora and
ruminal dysfunction (Pradhan and Biswas, 1994; Waghmare et al., 2009). It has additional benefit to facilitate
optimal absorption and utilization of nutrients and thus improves feed conversion ratio, productivity and body
weight gain. The products are evaluated nationally & internationally (Qubec, Canada) for their in vivo methane
mitigating potential in cattle & sheep models and in in vitro trials. It is revealed in the scientific trials that both
the products possess significant methane mitigating potential by 20% was achieved by the herbal product
supplementation in cattle besides its efficacy to improve nutrient utilization, digestibility, growth &
productivity (report submitted by Dr. Prabhat Pankaj, CRIDA, Hyderabad, 2014 & Dr. S.P. Tiwari, Durg,
Chattisgarh, 2012).

Reducing Nitrogen Emission from Livestock ad poultry

Better nitrogen retention in the herbal products supplemented groups suggest efficacy of herbal products in
improving nutrient utilization.

The herbal ingredients of Ruchamax and Optirum namely Allium sativum, Terminalia belerica, Zingiber
officinale, Woodfordia fruticosa etc. have been reported to modulate the ruminal enzymes and other parameters
thereby increasing digestibility of ration specially roughages and crude fibre, leading to reduced dry matter
intake, efficient nutrient utilization & ultimately enhanced rate of growth (Handekar et. al., 2010). The
ingredient herbs of product by means of modulating the ruminal microflora and enhancing the availability of
substrate for microbial growth leads to better retention of nitrogen thereby lowering nitrogen emission. Increase
in post-prandial NH3-N2 level could be attributed to increased availability of substrate, which on proteolysis and
deamination leads to the formation of ammonia in the rumen (significant post-prandial increase in total
protozoan count may be attributed to increased availability of substrate required for microbial growth and
dislodging of microbes along with a significant increase in protozoan count. This may be attributed to the fact

58
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

that Ruchamax and Optirum allowed better utilization of ration and made available higher amount of soluble
carbohydrates, vitamins and nitrogen content this promoted microbial growth, nitrogen retention thereby
lowering nitrogen emission.

In addition to these polyherbal feed additive formulations, another range is herbal liver tonic products:
Yakrifit for cattle Superliv concentrate premix and Superliv liquid for cattle, poultry and pigs. These
formulations are polyherbal hepatic stimulant, growth promoter and production enhancer for Livestock and
poultry. The individual herb constituents of these liver tonic formulations, namely Andrographis paniculata,
Eclipta alba, Achyranthus aspera, Solanum nigrum, Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica are
scientifically well proven for their hepatoprotective, anti-hepatotoxic, immunomodilutory, antioxidant
performance enhancing and growth promoting activity (Kapil et al., 1993; Jayathritha and Mishra, 2004 and
Mahuya, 2002). From a number of scientific validation reports and published research papers it is evident that
besides being hepatoprotective, anti-hepatotoxic, hepatoregenrative, these formulations are responsible for
optimizing protein utilization, improved mucosal function and reduced cost of metabolic deamination thereby
reducing nitrogen emission in livestock and poultry.

Role of Pesticides in global warming and Alternative to pesticides


Environmentalist argues that how the use of pesticides leads to global warming and the destruction of the
ecosystems around farming areas and livestock dwellings. Both global warming and pesticide use have been hot
button issues in the world for decades. Increased Pesticide usage is contributing to global warming. Climate
change has an important implication for insect conservation and pest status. Climate and weather can
substantially influence the development and distribution of insects. The major cause may be attributed to
undesirable side effects of these chemicals on biodiversity, environment, food quality and human health. This
fact is further addressed by assessment that is reported in Green Facts: Fact on Health and the Environment 2007
and includes summarization of relationship between pesticide use for livestock & agriculture and climate for
crops that require relatively large amounts of pesticide.

To address this global issue, Ayurvet has taken a stride to develop a natural insecticide and a fly repellant product
“Keetguard liquid”. Literature perusal depicts many reports where individual or combined phytological
extracts have been found to be effective against mosquitoes, ticks, mites and as fly repellents. Taking thorough
guidelines of available literature on phytoadditives and oils possessing the properties namely, repellent,
inhibiting, hatching of eggs, ovicidal, larvicidal, nymphicidal and adult ectoparasiticidal, Keetguard liquid is
formulated by Ayurvet R&D. The product comprises of oil of herbs viz. Eucalyptus globulus, Cedrus deodara,
Pinus longifolia etc. in a fixed concentration is highly efficacious against the ectoparasite infestation in animals.
On the basis of scientific trials it is revealed that the useful ectoparasiticidal and fly repellent properties of this
product can effectively reduce the nuisance of ectoparasites and flies. In addition it is a suitable option to replace
chemical pesticide and insecticides due to its safe nature for animal as well as user, it is non-toxic and no
resistance develops against the product.

Combating the effects of climate change on livestock production system with Ayurvet herbal products
A number of natural products and feed additives for livestock swine and poultry helps to improve growth and
production indices, improve feed efficiency, strengthens immunity, alleviated environmental and physiological
stress. There is a feed additive range which has the efficacy to improve digestibility of a poor quality feed, fodder

59
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

and roughages and improves reduced appetite of affected species. Similarly, a number of products are also
available for the prevention and treatment of a number of diseases (many diseases which may occur as
implication of climate change). A complete range for overall health promotion, nutrition, dietary supplements,
liver and digestive health, reproduction, health and prevention and treatment of many bacterial diseases are
catered by Ayurvet. Since the products are plant/herb based are ecofriendly and their usage in livestock do not
exert any adverse effect on the environment.
Our company Ayurvet Limited is dedicated to promote the use of herbals for the betterment of animal
health. With the holistic approach of traditional knowledge and Modern Research, our organization is dedicated
to transform herbalism into dynamic, scientifically validated and evidence based science.

CONCLUSION
Climate change is an ongoing process. There is a two-way relationship between livestock production and
environmental health. On the one hand, livestock contribute to climate change and other environmental
problems, and at the same time livestock health and productivity can be adversely affected by these same
environmental upsets (Sherman, D.M.2010).

Research initiatives taken by Ayurvet in past 20 years have lead to the launch more than 70 trusted brands for
sustainable livestock production. Developing farmer friendly technologies is another focus of our company
especially to fulfil the objectives such as improving animal productivity, improving milk production, decrease
emission of GHG in cattle, better nutrient retention in poultry. The 5F concept of Ayurvet is designed so as to
meet Challenges of climate change, need of global food security and for sustainable agriculture and livestock
production system. Research and development of completely safe, nontoxic, ecofriendly, efficacious and cost
effective products for animals and development of innovative technologies for farmers is a continuous initiative
taken by the company.

References:
May be requested from the co-author (shivi@ayurvet.in)

60
Do You Know ?
0
1 C rise in temperature leads to loss
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
of 80 lac tons of milk production.

Ayurvet Restobal - antistress, immunomodulator -


improves immunity and milk production.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code from your
QR Code Scanner of your smar t phone or call 18001033734.
Source - inhabitat.com
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Integrating Biological Resources into Rural Economy – challenges of


Climate Change
N. B. BRINDAVANAM
Bio Resources Development Group, Dabur Research & Development Centre,

Any biological entity that has a known or potential application in economic, environmental, social and cultural
well being of mankind can be defined as “biological resource” in a broader sense. Further the term biological
resource in this broad definition invariably includes the species as a whole or its parts and genetic material.

In fact, the broader definition of biological resource seeks to encompass the interactions between the human
being and rest of our nature. Nonetheless, it has been customary to consider the biological resource purely from
an economic perspective (existing, potential or perceived) only. The following chart attempts to capture well
known economic applications of biological resources- specifically in the context of botanical species.

Figure-I: Showing the known uses of biological resources

The above list does not capture entire gamut of economic applications as the list is too exhaustive. Further,
applications like timber and plywood, paper and pulp industries depend on both wild and produced resources.
Perhaps, by means of economic value and magnitude of usage, they constitute largest economic activities
associated with biological resources.

62
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Of all the economic importance attached to botanical species, the medicinal applications are considered most
socially relevant. They are socially relevant because of the manner in which, they are utilized at least, in 3
different strata:
l At layer one; the medicinal plants are directly used by the communities based on empirical experiences.
Such usage practices constitute the primary healthcare options available to over 70% rural populations- in
absence of access to other forms of medical and healthcare. To available estimates, 5300 botanical species
are being used in ethno-medicinal practices.
l At layer two; the codified systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani) native to India use medicinal
plants in a more sophisticated manner. The classical treatises concerning the subject enumerate over 1500
species.
l In modern systems of medicine, the biologically active molecules or their precursors are isolated for
production of drugs. This usage practice is dynamic and moves with the developments in process
chemistry. About 30% of available drug molecules being used today have a link traceable to botanical
entities or medicinal plants. For this purpose, 190 species of Indian medicinal plants are reported to be in
use.

Put together, a total of 6249 species of medicinal plants are being used in various systems of medicine and
folkloric healthcare practices- as per the data bases of Institute of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (I.AIM,
FRLHT, Bangalore).

The social relevance of medicinally important biological resources (or medicinal plants) multiplies further, with
their role in rural and tribal economy.

Role of Medicinal Plants in Rural Economy


Through ages, the collection and trading of medicinal plants have been integral part of Indian economy.
Perhaps, the practice of collection of medicinal plants and their trading in inter-provincial channels came into
existence through poly-herbal complexes described in classical Ayurvedic treatises. For example, the
formulation of Chyawanprash uses a tropical fruit, Amla (Emblica officinalis) largely found in central India,
Pushkaramoola (Inula racemosa) native to Himalayan region, Agaru (Aquillaria malaccensis) native to north
east and cardamom native to Southern states (Charaka Samhita of Agnivesa, 1992).
l Logically, such practice of deploying diverse species into one formulation could form a deep basis for inter-
provincial trading. And various historical citations support this view. As per the descriptions in Harsha
Charita, Kushta, Revandchini, Jatamansi figured frequently in North India markets, while in South India-
Chandan, Pippali, Maricha, Sunthi etc figured often (Sharma, P.V., 1984)
l India's capabilities in international trading in the historical periods are proudly acknowledged. Basis the
historical evidence, India traded with many natural products like spices, medicinal plants with other
countries. Species like Guggulu, Jatamansi, Daruharidra, Kushta, Karpura, Hareetaki, Vibheetaki,
Devadaru Niryasa, Sheetalchini, Agaru, Tagar figured in the exports list from India among the medicinal
2
plants category .
l The Arthasastra written by Kautilya in the first century AD (Arthasastra of Kautilya) suggested imposing
Trade taxes on aromatic plants (Gandha Dravya) and traded medicinal plants (Panya Dravya). Further, the
rulers (King) were vested with all the powers on natural resources of the country. They were also required to
develop market yards for their trading and making them available to the needy.
l Trading with medicinal plants took a steep turn with the advent of organized production of ASU
formulations commencing during British Imperial regimes in India. Despite the fact the trading processes

63
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

have been opaque and un-organized to a large extent, the tradable volumes of medicinal plants increase
proportionately to the market needs. As per a recent study (Ved, D.K. and Goraya, G.S., 2008), a total of 960
botanical species are being traded as medicinal plants. This number excludes the spices which are known
have multiple uses (for culinary purposes through retail sales and for extraction of oleo-resins/ food
flavours/ seasoning materials).
l The study further analyses that, 178 of 960 species fall under high-volume trades exceeding 100 MT per
year. 91 of these species (51%) are sourced from forest areas, 46 species (approx. 26%) largely come from
wastelands and such other degraded land use elements. 36 species in high-trade volumes are known to come
from largely cultivated sources.
l Te historical citations and the prevailing market trends suggest distinctly that, the medicinal plants (an
important sub-set of biological resources) constitute an important avenue for promotion of rural economies.
However, the following pointers summarize prevailing limitations and constraints in the process:

Trading with Wild Medicinal Plants: While the trading with medicinal plants and such other biological
resources has been existent in India through centuries, the process did not evolve with the times. The sector
remained unorganized and somewhat secretive. Available information indicates that, the process is bottom-
driven. The collectors of wild medicinal plants collect them as a mean for supplementing their family income.
From the source of their collection- the medicinal plants reach to the destination (the end user, the manufacturers
of ASU formulations) through a multi-tier trading channel. It is generally assumed that 3-5 stakeholders
carryout the process of its aggregation in the national markets. This level of complexity seems to be associated
with the following issues:
1) Quality related issues: Since there is no direct communication between the collector and the end user, the
quality of supplies becomes more incidental in nature. It is not technically possible to prescribe
scientifically designed quality standards such as measurements of characteristic markers or of functional
groups. At the most, one can expect the compliance of the material to basic quality standards and not beyond
in any case.
2) Economic Gains to the Collectors: The collection activity particularly, from forest areas is a tedious process
for the dependent communities. The value of the resource is not precisely known. Once the material is
collected, the communities become vulnerable in terms of sale-value. More often than not, the returns from
the sale of collected medicinal plants are close to negligible. On the contrary, the material gains exponential
value through its supply chain-without any technical value addition. Over a period f time, collection of
medicinal plants from wild (be it a forest or a wasteland) sources became quite discouraging to the
communities.
3) Sustainability of Resource: Poor returns from the resource lead invariably to high-degree negligence to the
health of resources. In general, the focus of the collector's communities is shifted to volume with no
attention to sustainability of resource. Destructive collection of medicinal plants has been on rise year over
year.

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants: On the other hand, the cultivation of medicinal plants has also been anything
but satisfactory. While the report of NMPB-FRLHT enumerates 36 species, a careful review of this list shows
few tree species planted for multiple purposes (like Neem, Ceasalpenea sappan, Ficus religiosa or Ficus
benghalensis etc.). Thus, such species can't be enumerated under cultivation category in a stricter sense.

64
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Nonetheless, our farmers have exhibited exemplary traditional skills in cultivation of species like, Inula
racemosa and Saussurea costus (Himachal Pradesh), Plantago ovata (Gujarat) and Withania somnifera
(Rajasthan) are noteworthy cases. Notwithstanding these success stories, the medicinal plants cultivation needs
multiple interventions in terms of both technical and commercial perspectives.
1. Selection of Elite Strains: Cultivation of species like Andrographis paniculata or Bacopa monnieri has been
in vogue in many places. However, the end product continues to show wide inconsistencies in quality.
Another case in point is Ginger. The species is cultivated for multiple purposes and in many states in India.
However, when assessed for the precise medicinal qualities sought by international markets, we are not left
with elite cultivar. In this context, the scientific and academic fraternities are disconnected with the market
needs. As a result, cultivars are developed with a singular focus on yield and productivity.
2. Supplies of Planting Materials: As of now, enthusiastic farmers have no access to right type of Quality
Planting Materials (QPM). To change this scenario, there is a pressing need to establish facilities for
controlled production of QPM. At present, National Medicinal Plants Board is funding development of
nurseries for QPM. However, these grants are based on standard norms which do not cover facilities for
controlled production. Avenues need to be explored to promote QPM supplies through public-private
partnership channels.
3. Market Linkages: In absence of credible market linkages, cultivation of medicinal plants continues to face
uncertainties. To start with, it would be desirable to promote contract farming projects. Needless to say, the
process of contract farming should take its rooting in a fact that, the risks of farmers are greater than those of
contracting party. Once this fact is taken into cognizance, rest of contractual procedures including purchase
prices fall in line with the interests of both the parties.

Challenges of Climate Change to Medicinal Plants:


Worldwide change in seasonal patterns, weather events, and temperature ranges and other related phenomena
are largely attributed to global climate change. Distinguished experts have been cautioning on the impact of
climate change on agriculture, livestock and also our rest of ecosystems.

Medicinal plants being integral components of eco-systems are bound to respond to various stressors
precipitated by global climate change. However, the impact of global climate changes may not be uniform
across different species and in different geo-climatic regions. Two review papers (Caveliere, C., 2008; Gairola,
S. et al., 2010) on this subject are specifically useful to gauze the recorded and possible impacts of climate
change on medicinal plants. However, the larger part of these observations pertains to the species native to
western countries. Such studies though limited in the context of Indian medicinal plants, share almost similar
concerns expressed by global experts. The following facts sum up the contents of these two review publications.
l Although Arctic and alpine areas are known to record most rapid changes, other eco-systems are also
threatened by global warming effects.
l The island ecosystems especially face the risk of rising ocean levels precipitated by glacier melt in addition
to changing weather patterns. However, biodiversity contained in islands consist of species which are
widespread and are known to be highly adaptable. Thus, no serious risk is posed to these species unless the
whole island becomes submerged.
l Rain forest ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climate changes. Such changes tend to impact the entire
biodiversity native to those conditions. In addition to the risks posed by climate changes, the rain forest
areas face higher degrees of risk on account of deforestation, exploitation of land resources and rapid
population growth. Thus, it would be impractical to draw any specific inferences on impact of climate

65
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

change on medicinal plants specifically.


l On the contrary, the alpine ecosystems do face one of the highest degrees of risks but next to arctic eco
systems. Alpine ecosystems are highly relevant in the Indian context considering the importance of Indian
Himalaya Region (IHR). The following pointers suggest the kind of challenges posed by climate change.
th
o Himalayas and surrounding areas are reported to be warmed by 0.68C since the middle of 19 century.
Available evidence suggests that, range shifts of individual species are likely cause changes in the
community composition.
o In IHR particularly in alpine zones the phenological changes are reported to be visible. Basis a study
reported in the review (Gairola, S. et al., 2010) on 650 temperate species, it was inferred that the spring
events are advanced by 1.9 days per decade while the autumnal events are delayed by 1.4 days per decade
o Some temperate plant species are now recognized to migrate upwards until there are no higher areas to
inhabit, at which point they may be faced with extinction. Additionally upward migration of plant
species can lead to increased competition for space and resources.

It is worthwhile to take of intra-specific genetic diversity in this context. Temperate species in general tend to
have a narrow spectrum of genetic diversity. As such their capability to adapt to the emerging changes in the
environment is expected to be poor.

Widespread Changes in Medicinal Plants Precipitated by Climate Change


It would be highly complex to predict or establish the changes precipitated by climate change events particularly
in the wild species. However, experts classify such changes into three broad categories 5&6.

1. Shifts in Phenology: As suggested above, lifecycle events of medicinal plants are reported to be altering
visibly. For example, the flowering times of Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium are reported
to be advanced by 6 days. In case of Mentha x piperita the flowering season is said to be advanced by 10
days.
2. Shifting of the Ranges: Certain botanical species are now recorded to be migrating to higher altitudes. Such
phenomenon is correlated to increasing temperatures in their native altitudes of habitat. However, the
migratory potential is variable among different species. If the species has a low migratory potential, the
process of range shifting would not be in proportion to the pace of climate change.
3. Effect on Secondary Metabolites: The medicinal values of any botanical species are largely attributed to the
secondary plant metabolites. However, their biosynthesis within the plant is a multi-factorial phenomenon.
One of these factors is the levels of biotic or abiotic stress which, the plant is exposed to. Synthesis of
alkaloids and terpenoid groups are known to be impacted by stress exerted on the plant species.

As such, climate change is coined to exert significant stress on the entire living organism in an eco-system. This
stress factor is likely augment the synthesis of certain groups and/or might downgrade the synthesis of certain
metabolites. This phenomenon should be understood or inferred as a physiological response to the events of
climate change. Eventually, these reactions might be codified into the genetic profile of the species over a
period of time.

Addressing Both Issues Concurrently


In this article, an earnest attempt has been made to discuss two specific aspects concerning medicinal plants- in
parallel; viz. (a) Integration of medicinal plants with rural economies and (b) the challenges of climate change on

66
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

the medicinal plants. Both these issues individually have their own intrinsic challenges. And in combination,
they make the issue highly complex. As such, it would be practically difficult to enumerate common list of
suggestions which can touch upon both these aspects concurrently. At the same time, the matter is being
discussed at a time when both these challenges need to be addressed concurrently and without losing the time.
To overcome this complexity, the suggestions are classified into three broad categories.

Technical and Scientific Interventions


Domestication and cultivation of medicinal plants serves three distinct purposes viz. (a) diversification of
agriculture (b) improvements in annual family incomes (c) reducing the pressure on wild medicinal plants
thereby supporting the 'in-situ' conservation.

However this process needs to be technology driven to make a visible impact on all these fronts. Selection of
appropriate chemotypic accession for the purpose of cultivation is the first step for this purpose. In case of pan-
endemic species- it may be necessary to screen accession of multiple sources and identify an appropriate
germplasm domestication and farming. In case of endemic species; it is necessary to examine the chemo-typic
variance and genetic diversity within the populations.

Production of seedlings and saplings under controlled conditions helps in ensuring the production of medicinal
plants with consistent quality and predictable degree of biological activity. As a result, the economic returns of
communities shall remain attractive and sustainable.

To illustrate the case further, our organization attempted cultivation of Swertia chirata in up-hills of Nepal some
time in 2002 keeping these procedures in the centre stage. At present, farmers in Nepal produce 55-60 MT of the
species through cultivation. Of this volume our organization procures only 20-22 MT under buy-back
guarantees. Rest volume is traded in international markets and farmers are satisfied with the economic impact
brought about by Swertia chirata during last one decade.

Seed germination & seedling production in greenhouse Uniformity of populations in cultivation field

67
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

However, this kind of process may also pose certain major limitations. Since cultivation is limited to only one
particular genotype- considered to be elite on selected parameters, opportunities for natural forms of breeding
are narrowed down. On the contrary, wider genetic diversity within the species and also within the populations
is critical for the species to be able to cope with the stressors triggered by climate change.

Therefore, it is critical for the scientific communities to consider the importance of genetic diversity within a
species and within the populations. To mitigate the risks of climate change on medicinal plants, there is specific
need to launch two major initiatives concurrently

1. Cryo-conservation of Genetic Resources: There is a need to establish an inter-woven network of cryo-


banking facilities in different areas of our country. These facilities need to capture the intra-specific genetic
diversity and maintain them to cater to the eventualities of global climate change.
2. Augmentation of Genetic Diversity: The worst impact of climate change would first affect those species
wherein, the genetic diversity is narrow – like in endemic species. Many of such species would move closer
to extinction given the pace of climate changes. But the advancements in the field of biotechnology may
come to rescue against such possibility. A variety of biotechnological tools can be brought into play to
widen the genetic diversity of a given species or in a given population. However, the processes thereof are
time consuming and scientifically complex. This endeavor should be initiated in a concerted manner and
focusing on endemic species of medicinal plants.

Field Level Interventions


The cultivation of medicinal plants in agricultural lands is associated with many concerns. Given the pressures
on land resources it is often advocated that, the food security should not be compromised for promoting
cultivation of medicinal or other commercially important species. But this advocacy does not consider the
supply chain issues and resultant wastages of food grains. In such a case, increasing the optimal utilization of
produced food grains could be better solution to food security but not increasing the productivity.

Cultivation of Tulasi in Coconut Orchards

68
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

In an ideal situation, the plaguing supply chain issues should be addressed so as, to ensure an even distribution of
foods grains. Concurrently, effective programmes should be conceptualized and promoted to widen the
agricultural diversity. In the context of medicinal plants cultivation, there are multiple opportunities for optimal
land utilization. In this direction, one can consider four different options.

1. Inter-plantation Schemes: In the state of Tamilnadu, enterprising farmers cultivate Ocimum sactum for
medicinal purposes in coconut orchards. Similarly, our organization has been promoting cultivation of
Desmodium gangeticum and Centella asiatica in Mango orchards successfully in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. In
the state of Rajasthan, the farmers are encouraged to promote a medicinal creeper, Leptadenia reticulata in
the orchards of Cordia mixa (Lisoda-a fruit exclusively grown in semi-arid zones). The farmers associated
with such schemes are satisfied with the economic gains.
2. Hedge Plantations: Similarly, hedge spaces in agricultural spaces and household fences provide
opportunities for promotion of rural economies through medicinal plants. Species like Tinospora
cordifolia, Hemidesmus indicus, Mucuna pruriens etc. offer reliable economic opportunities to rural
households without encroaching into their food security.
3. Mixed Crop Patterns: In semi-arid zones of Rajasthan novel mixed cropping schemes comprising of lentils
and medicinal plants are being demonstrated in farmer's fields. Citrullus colocynthis and Convolvulus
pluricaulis represent the medicinal species in this scheme. This scheme has two visible advantages that, the
scheme uses only rain-fed species to be planted in one single season. Since the harvesting seasons are
different for lentil and medicinal crops- the income opportunities are spread evenly.
The schemes enumerated above, pave a path howsoever narrow it might be, suggest a distinct direction to
optimize the land utilization. But when it comes to mitigating the risks of climate change promotion of Agro-
forestry schemes seem to be a convincing tool.
4. Agro-forest Schemes: Organizations like Kovel Foundation and Nandi Foundation have been promoting the
concept of Agro-forest schemes in the private lands owned by farmers. The schemes differ vastly from well
known schemes like promoting pulp yielding or timber yielding trees in agricultural lands. Under this novel
approach, farmers are oriented to grow diverse species in small area of land. These species include both tree
and herbaceous species including vegetables medicinal plants. A part of the land is also devoted for
traditional grains and/or pulses.
For example, agro-forest schemes in Vishakhapatnam district cover a combination like Mangoes, Guava,
Coconut, Neem, Sterculia, Kutaj, Amla, Karanj, Hareetaki, Kalmegh, Guduchi and vegetables. Since the
each plot is designed in consideration to soil, irrigation facilities and economic needs of the landowner- each
village adopts to a wider diversity of species.
Agro-forest schemes can be further strengthened by apiculture and pollination management. If each village
adopts few colonies of honey bees with or without focus on honey production- the outputs from agro-forest
plots can be augmented further. Such multi-faceted approach creates a resilient eco-system in each village.
Further, these schemes have all the potential to promote sustainable livelihoods to rural poor.
Commercial Interventions
Suggestions enumerated under field level interventions will yield desirable results only when they are
integrated with markets in a seamless manner.

Contract Farming: Cultivation of medicinal plants have been attempted in the past many a time. Unfortunately
these attempts could not yield well due to the gaps in the marketing opportunities. It would be futile exercise if
farmers are given repeated orientation programmes on the subject unless credible market linkages are
established before commencement of cultivation. On the contrary, smaller players predominate the herbal
sector. To overcome various constraints in contract farming processes, formation of a consortium by herbal

69
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

sector is suggested. The success stories of Chirayata or Ashwangandha can be repeated for many other species
if the process is kick-started by awards of contract farming projects by consortia.

Producer's Companies: On the other hand, the farmers also need to converge into producer's companies. By
adapting such approach in Lahaul Valley of Himachal Pradesh, farmers have been able to market their valuable
agri-produce like Hops, seed potatoes and medicinal plants effectively. Formation of producers companies has
been simplified in recent years.

A general scheme for functioning of producer's companies is shown in Figure-II.

Figure-II: Functional Scheme for Producer's Companies

l Recognizing the importance of producer's companies in rural economy, many NGOs promoted the concept
among the beneficiaries and registered a good number of such companies. However, these companies
remained more or less, in dormancy despite their existence through many years. The following factors
contribute to their functional dormancies:
l Existing schemes of financial assistance to producer's companies are restrictive to capital costs. Funding
options are available from different organizations for the purpose of developing storage facilities or such
other infrastructure at grassroots levels.
l Lack of working capitals or related opportunities is the real crunch they are faced with. When stakeholders
seek to offer cultivated or collected medicinal plants, these organizations are unable to buy the materials
even, if they have a forward contract for the produce. Usually, the buyers seek to buy the material against a

70
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

mutually agreed credit period. On the contrary, the stakeholders are keen to sell the produce at cash even if,
it comes to lower sale price.
l Due to lack of working capitals, the company also is generally unable to infuse managerial skills into the
system. On the contrary the traditional vendors have been able to handle these issues competitively.

Creation of defined corpus fund by donor organizations could be an effective solution for such institutions. The
interests on the corpus should be strictly meant for working capital needs of the company. Further, the
producer's company should be given a dictum to refund the corpus fund after a maximum of five years duration.

Conclusion
Integration of medicinal plants with rural economies has been a topic of intense deliberations for many years
now. However, these deliberations were more or less restricted only to development of agronomic practices. But
the emerging pressures from climate change demand a radical shift in the perspective from which these package
of practices need to be examined at least, from now on.

While these technologies are critical to the purpose, they are not the end. There is an imminent need to integrate
the technological interventions with other forms of interventions.

References
Charaka Samhita of Agnivesa Redacted by Charaka and Dridhabala, text with English Translation by PV
Sharma, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 2nd Ed. (1992), Chikitsasthana, Chapter-1 Sl. 62-74, Pg 9-10.
Sharma, P.V.: In Dravyaguna-Vijnana (Part-IV, Vedic Plants & History of Dravyaguna), Chaukhambha
rd
Bharati Academy, Varanasi, 3 Ed (1984) Pp-227 & 335.
Arthasastra of Kautilya and The Chanakya Sutra with Hindi Translation by Vachaspati Gairola, published by
Chaukhambha Vidya Bhawan, Varanasi, (2000 Reprint), Pg. 79, 1/17/1, Sl. 2 & 3; Pg. 81, Sl. 2.
Ved, D.K. and Goraya, G.S., (2008). Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India, Bishen Singh
Mahendrapal Singh, Dehradun, various pages.
Caveliere, C., (2008). The effects of Climate Change on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants; HerbalGram, (81),
44-57.
Gairola, S., Shariff, N.M., Bhatt, A. and Kala, C.P., (September, 2010). Influence of Climate Change on
production of secondary chemicals in High altitude plants: issues needs immediate attention; Jour Med
Plants Res, Vol. 4 (18), pp-1825-1829.

71
Do You Know ?
India imports DL-Methionine worth
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
Rs. 587 crores annualy

Ayurvet Methiorep - Novel Feed Additive - is


an alternative and exported to 20 countries
for improving poultry production.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734. Source - inhabitat.com
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Challenges of Climate Change - Biogas an Alternative Energy and Fuel

J.P.S.Dabas and Anand Vijay Dubey

Abstract
It is a known fact that the way humans live their daily lives adversely affects the environment, and consequent
changes in the environment can sometimes spell big trouble for human, plants and animals. Now, scientists are
warning that the way people have lived since the Industrial Revolution is catching up with us in the form of
“global warming” culminating in “global climate change.” The problem of 'climate change' is no longer just a
scientific concern, but encompasses economics, sociology, geopolitics; national and local politics, law, and
health just to name a few.

Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, along with global population, poverty
alleviation, environmental degradation and global security. On the other hand “Global warming” refers to
increases in global temperatures as a result of an accumulation of what are often referred to as “greenhouse
gases” in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases are substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane
that act as a trap, holding heat closer to the Earth and not permitting it to radiate away as it would otherwise do. In
effect, it is somewhat like having a thick blanket under sunshine, trapping the internal and incoming heat. While
these gases are present naturally, we have dramatically 'thickened the blanket' through our activities.

For the past 150 years, the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans has been rising, and the
pace of this change in our climate appears to be accelerating with time. For example, the 10 hottest years on
record have all occurred since 1990. After decades of research and hundreds of studies, an overwhelming
majority of scientists have come to believe that human activities, especially excessive burning of fossil fuels
(such as coal, oil and gas) and loss of rainforests which are responsible for massive carbon sequestration tipped
the balance. Carbon dioxide levels are now approximately 40 percent higher than they were at the start of the
Industrial Revolution, and they have reached levels not seen in the atmosphere in 20 million years. Scientists say
that unless we curb greenhouse gas emissions, average temperatures could be 3 to 6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 to 4
degrees Celsius) warmer by the end of the century.

But with so many other problems in the world should we care about climate change? What we are finding is that
if we do not produce win-win solutions then climate change will make all our other problems worse.

Developed countries blame the third world practices like burning of biomass fuel, rice cultivation etc for this
situation turning a blind eye to indulging in energy guzzling life style and industrial emission in their own land.
The blame game should stop and we need strong local, national and international action to dramatically cut the
production of greenhouse gasses, slow down global warming, and prevent the worst consequences of climate
change. It's too late to prevent global warming, so we should make sure our communities, especially those that
are the most vulnerable due to sea level rise, agro-climatic change leading to crop loss and loss of biodiversity,
prepare to adapt to the problems it will cause.

Climate smart agriculture can remove from the air and sequester 7,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per acre per
year. Moreover, the GHG emission from production process and breakdown of nitrogenous fertilizer could
significantly be reduced if organic manure such as bio-gas slurry can be increased. The slurry from bio-gas

73
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

digester could be further enriched by adding bio-fertilizers, BG algae and Azolla, will be an excellent source of
plant nutrient and soil amendment. Open decay of cattle dung, burning of cattle dung cake for energy, production
of pit manure all are responsible for methane emission which otherwise can be arrested and the product of such
mechanism could provide double benefit to mankind. Due over dependence on mineral fertilizers in
conventional farming Nitrous oxide emission are also increasing year after year. This is in line with Kyoto
Summit Agreement as a carbon reducing technology. The controlled anaerobic digestion thereby reduces
emissions of greenhouse gases and intensifies the recycling of nutrients within agriculture. The clean and
particulate-free source of energy eliminates drudgery of women and also reduces the likelihood of chronic
diseases that are associated with the indoor combustion of biomass-based fuels

Often limitation of cattle dung is considered as major limiting factor in promotion of this technology. But
scientists have evaluated a large number of alternate feedstock to cattle dung for the biogas generating potential
such as crop residues and weeds, agro industrial wastes, animal wastes like piggery waste, poultry droppings,
human excreta, slaughterhouse waste, etc. Biogas became a promising avenue in achieving energy
independence and efficient waste management. Biogas (popularly known as Gobar gas in India) produced by
converting simple hydrocarbon that is methane as major constituent from organic matter including sewage
sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock by anaerobic
digestion by a consortium of micro organisms.

The biogas is also called marsh gas, landfill gas or digester gas based on the place of origin. The biogas mainly consists of
methane and carbon dioxide and some traces of other gases, notably hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Its composition varies
depending on the substrate used in the methanogenesis Generally Biogas contains 55-66% CH4, 40-45% CO2, plus a
negligible amount of H2S and H2. This is generated by anaerobic fermentation involving four stages. In the first and second
stage, complex polymeric organic substrates - carbohydrates, fats and proteins - are transformed by non-methanogenic
bacteria also called fermenting bacteria into essentially non-methanogenic substrates like propionate, butyrate, succinate,
lactate, and alcohol. Through the third stage that involves the acetogenic bacteria, the composition and identity of which
still remain to be determined, these compounds are transformed into methanogenic substrates, i.e., acetate, H2 and C1
compounds that are converted into CH4 and CO2 by the methane bacteria, obligate anaerobes that multiply in a neutral or
slightly alkaline environment.

74
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

The biogas has also been identified as a combustible “swamp gas” since ancient times. It is about 20% lighter
o o
than air and has an ignition temperature in the range of 650 to 750 C. It is an odourless, clean and colourless gas
that burns with clear blue flame similar to that of LPG gas. Biogas is useful as a fuel substitute for firewood,
dung, agricultural residues, petrol, diesel, and electricity. The gas has also the advantage of a potential thermal
efficiency of 60% with calorific value of 20 Mega Joules (MJ) per m3, compared to wood and dung that have a
very low thermal efficiency of 17% and 11% respectively (KVIC, 1993).

The biogas plants are often called "biofertilizer plants" as these systems provide a residue organic waste, after
anaerobic digestion that has superior nutrient qualities over cattle dung. So biogas is a promising solution to
energy independence, climate change mitigation, dung shortage problem, rural development and lower the
health costs linked with air pollution, thereby paved the way to sustainable development.

Biogas Technology Practices in India


Experiment on biogas technology in India began in 1937 and research was principally focused around the
Sewage Purification Station at Dadar in Bombay, undertaken by S.V. Desai and N.V. Joshi of the Soil Chemistry
Division, Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi (KVIC, 1993). The principle of anaerobic
fermentation of cattle dung which indicates aspects of providing fuel and manure was reconciled by Desai and
Biswas in 1939 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute and developed 'Gobar gas plant' as cattledung was
the only feedstock used. Acharya developed a model called the IARI design, after studying the requirements of
gas for an average village home of 5-6 family members. In 1956, Jashu Bhai J Patel developed a design of
floating drum biogas plant (Gramalakshmi III by simplifying his earlier patented model of Gramalakshmi I
(1951)) which is popularly known as Gobar Gas plant. In 1962, Patel's design was approved by the KVIC of
India and this design soon became popular in India. A number of institutes and organizations like KVIC, IARI,
NEERI, PRAD, Ajitmal and a number of scientists under the All India Co-ordinated Research Projects on
Biogas sponsored and financed by ICAR and DST, New Delhi since 1977 and many NGOs have played
significant role and made available valuable information relating to designs and use of various organic
substrates besides cattle dung.

The perceptions of energy crisis driven by the 1973/1975 oil crisis and unlimited availability of cattle dung
supply in villages shaped the Indian Biogas Programme. The National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD)
of the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) was started in 1981-82 with the beginning of the
sixth Five Year Plan, for promotion of family type biogas plants to provide clean alternate fuel to the rural
masses and enriched organic manure for agriculture.

In an effort to further bring down the investment cost, Deenbandhu model was put forth in 1984 by the Action for
Food Production (AFPRO), New Delhi which is proved to be 30 percent cheaper than Janata Model and about 45
percent cheaper than a KVIC plant of comparable size. The conventional biogas plant yield about 35 litres
biogas/kg dung for 35 days Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and daily animal dung production of 12–20 kg
dung/adult animal/day. Owning three adult cattle per family was sufficient for benefiting from a family-size
biogas plant. The potential is estimated to be 12 million biogas plants of 2 cubic meter capable of producing
17,000 MW energy, but the installed plants number is only 3.7 million plants as on 2004 (MNES, 2004). It has
been reported in 2004 that the cattle population is gradually decreasing but a significant quantity of herbaceous
biomass is available for conversion to biogas. About 120 million tons of herbaceous biomass of the net annual

75
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

generation of 1150 million tons would be adequate to bridge this gap in our country

Biogas Models practiced in India


Several designs of biogas plants are developed in India. A total of about 30 designs are developed in the country
incorporating certain distinctive features either in the digester or in the gas holder. Some of the plant models are
approved by the MNES (now named as MNRE) under the NPBD programme for implementation. The
following table shows some of the most common biogas plants that are recognized by the government. Out of
these designs, three designs namely, KVIC, Janata and Deenbandhu are being adopted by the users on mass scale
in various part of the country.

Table : Different types of biogas plant recognized by MNES


l Floating-drum plant with a cylinder digester (KVIC model).
l Fixed-dome plant with a brick reinforced, moulded dome (Janata model).
l Floating-drum plant with a hemisphere digester (Pragati model).
l Fixed-dome plant with a hemisphere digester (Deenbandhu model).
l Floating-drum plant made of angular steel and plastic foil (Ganesh model).
l Floating-drum plant made of pre-fabricated reinforced concrete compound units.
l Floating-drum plant made of fiberglass reinforced polyester.

Parameters affecting CH4 formation


The various environmental factors influencing anaerobic fermentation of organic substrates are pH, alkalinity,
and volatile acids concentration, and temperature, availability of both nutrient and toxic materials. The
operational factors include composition of organic substrate, retention time, and concentration of the substrate,
organic loading rate and degree of mixing.

Environmental Factors:

pH- Alkalinity-Volatile Acid Concentration


The optimum biogas production is achieved when the pH value of input mixture in the digester is between 7.0
and 7.2 though the gas production was satisfactory between pH 6.6 and 7.6. The gas production was
significantly affected when the pH of the slurry decreased to 5.0. Methanogenic bacteria are very sensitive to pH
and do not thrive below a value of 6.5. It has been reported that the optimum pH for acidification phase in
anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge or glucose was 5.7-5.9 and 6.0 respectively. Later, as the digestion process
continues, concentration of NH4 ion increases due to digestion of nitrogen which can increase the pH value to
above 8. When the methane production level is stabilized, the pH range remains buffered between 7.2 and 8.2.
The pH of the slurry is a function of the concentration of volatile fatty acids produced, bicarbonate alkalinity of
the system, and the amount of carbon dioxide produced. The moderate total alkalinity of 2000-3500 mg
CaCO3/L is necessary for maximum gas production. At low values, a slight increase in volatile acid
concentration leads to a drop in pH and at high values the ammonium dissociates to NH3 and H+ ions.

Temperature.
The temperature is one of the major factors affecting growth rate of micro organisms and biogas generation.
Methane fermentation occurs in a wide range of temperature i.e. thermophilic (above 450C), mesophilic range

76
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

0 0
(24-45 C) and psychrophilic range (below 20 C). But satisfactory gas production takes place in the mesophilic
0
range and the optimum temperature is 35 C. It has also been observed that there was higher production of biogas
at 550C but the process was unstable due to higher production of volatile fatty acids and specific microbial
0
consortia was needed for biomethanation of cattle waste at 55 C and the increasing operational temperature
from 55 to 650C results in an immediate unbalance between the fermenting, acid producing micro organisms and
acid consuming micro organisms.

Most of the digesters in our country operate normally at ambient conditions. Northern India records a shortfall in
biogas output during winters, and in some other parts of the country, especially in dry tracts also affect the
digester performance due to higher temperature. A temperature increase of 5-60C is required for optimum gas
0
production during winter. The process of biomethanation is drastically affected at temperatures below 25 C and
its operation becomes further difficult at temperatures below 150C. The solar-heated biogas plants greatly
increased the gas yields from 35 to 50 L/kg dung at the same retention time and digester volume.

Toxic Materials
A wide range of toxicants organic as well as inorganic materials are responsible for inhibition of microbial
activity. The concentrations at which inorganic substances show toxicity are difficult to define as they change
due to complex interactions such as antagonism, synergism or acclimatization of microbial systems to extreme
conditions.

Volatile acid
Volatile fatty acid in high concentration especially propanoic acid is inhibitory to the methanogenic bacteria.
The bicarbonate alkalinity of 1500-5000 mg/L as CaCO3 is favorable for methanogens. Below 1500 mg/L pH
will fall and above 5000 mg/L sodium and calcium concentration reaches inhibitory levels. The problem of
excessive fatty acid formation can be minimized by having proper composition of feedstock along with
adequate mix of some sludge seeding bacteria, dilution with water or addition of certain non toxic materials to
substrate for minimizing toxicity.

Ammonia
Ammonia toxicity was a major source of toxicity in protein rich wastes from swine and poultry when used for
anaerobic digestion. McCarty and McKinney reported that 50 mg/L of free ammonia was toxic to anaerobic
organisms. The toxicity caused by continuous addition of ammonia decreases as the solid retention time was
increased. It has been reported that acetate consuming methanogens are more sensitive to ammonia toxicity than
hydrogen consuming methanogens.

Heavy metals
The heavy metals in small quantities are essential for the growth of bacteria but their higher concentration has
toxic effects. Heavy metals such as copper, lead, nickel, chromium, zinc etc found in waste water and sludge
from industrial sources was inhibitory to anaerobic digestion. Aquatic plant used for waste water treatment is a
good substrate for CH4 production. The absorption of Fe, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn and Co by Azolla pinnata R.Br
and Lemna minor L. and subsequent utilization of this biomass for production of biogas has been investigated
and found that the CH4 content of biogas was higher than that which was obtained from non contaminated
biomass. The results also showed that Fe and Mn did not have any effect on the anaerobic fermentation of Azolla
and Lemna, while Cu, Co, Pb, and Zn showed toxicity. The use of mixture of biological additives (Bacilli sp) and

77
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

micro nutrients (Fe, Ni, Co and Mo) had a positive effect in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste sludge
from an enhanced primary treatment of municipal waste water.

Sulphide
Sulphate toxicity to anaerobic digestion process arises from the reduction of sulphate to sulphite and then to
sulphide by some bacteria under anaerobic environments. Sulphide is one of the most potent inhibitors of
anaerobic digestion. Sulphides are toxic to methanogens when their levels exceed 150-200 mg/L. The hydrogen
oxidizing methanogens are more sensitive to hydrogen sulphide than acetoclastic methanogens. In a
thermophilic anaerobic fermentor, sulphide inhibition could be minimized by controlling the pH and by biomass
recycling to select sulphide tolerant microflora.

Operational Factors

Substrate Composition
The organic and inorganic components in the substrate determine an ecosystem, where the selection of bacteria
depends on their ability to metabolize these compounds. It has been reported that out of the several feed stocks
like cattle dung, buffalo dung, dry animal waste, stray cattle dung, goat waste, and poultry droppings for
studying their biomethanation potential and observed that poultry droppings showed higher gas production.
And also the comparison of the rates of biogas yield from pig dung-fed and cattle dung-fed digesters, it has been
reported that the biogas yield was higher in the former.

Crop biomass mainly consists of lignocelluloses (cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin) and non-structural
carbohydrates (such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and fructans), proteins, lipids, extractives and pectins. High
amounts of easily degradable sugars resulted in a relatively low acetate concentration to the benefit of butyrate
and higher VFA. Lignin is poorly degraded in anaerobic conditions, and the rate and extent of lignocellulose
utilization is severely limited due to the intense cross-linking of cellulose with hemi cellulose and lignin.
Moreover, the crystalline structure of cellulose prevents penetration by micro-organisms or extra cellular
enzymes.

The digestion of mixtures of onion peels and pulp suggested that depending on the composition of the substrate
fed to the digester, microbial population changes resulting in different fermentation patterns. Methane
production of a specific crop is affected by its chemical composition which changes as the plant matures, and
timing and frequency of harvest are thus critical in order to optimise the biomass yield and feedstock quality.

C: N ratio
The microbial populations involved in anaerobic digestion require sufficient nutrients to grow and multiply. The
Carbon Nitrogen ratio influenced anaerobic digestion and biogas production. If the C/N ratio was very high, the
nitrogen was consumed rapidly by methanogens for meeting their protein requirements and was no longer react
on the left over carbon content of the material and as a result gas production was low. On the other hand, if the
C/N ratio was very low, nitrogen was liberated and accumulated in the form of ammonia (NH3) which increased
the pH value of the content in the digester. Often C: N was used as an index of the suitability of organic feeds for
methanogenesis but there was no agreement in the literature on the ideal C/N ratio. The C/N ratio between 25
and 30 is considered optimal for anaerobic digestion.

78
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Retention time - Loading rate – Solid concentration


The performance of anaerobic digesters was greatly influenced by the above three parameters which were
interconnected with each other.

The retention time was also dependent on the temperature and up to 350C, the higher the temperature, the lower
the retention time for example the digestion process of market waste was stable at 20 days HRT with 48%
reduction in VS and with biogas production of 35 L kg– 1 d– 1. The studies on the biogas production from biscuit
–1 –
and chocolate industry waste showed that 40 d HRT was optimum for biogas production of 466 L kg of waste d
1
with 57% methane and 65% VS distribution.

The optimum loading rate of the feedstock varied as per its nature, and likewise hydraulic retention time (HRT)
varied as per the loading rate. The minimum HRT of 7.5 days for 350C, 12 days for 250C for methanogenesis are
required. Thus the optimum retention time for the production of biogas from cattle dung was observed to be 15 d
HRT for maximum production of biogas from cattle dung. However it has been observed that an HRT of 14 days
was optimum for biogas production from cattle dung. A direct increase in biogas yield with an increase in HRT
0 0
from 30 d to 50 d at 17 C and 37 C was observed during biomethanation of apple waste, mango, banana and
pineapple wastes.

At 350C, gas production increased 40 per cent when concentration of solids of cattle waste increased from 5 to 10
per cent. But a decrease of 60 per cent in gas production was observed when poultry waste was used and
concentration of solids increased from 5 to 12 per cent. Further it has been found that from 4 per cent, 6 per cent
3
and 12 per cent TS slurry (in poultry droppings), the gas production (70 per cent methane) was 0.48 m /kg TS,
3 3 0
0.362 m /kg TS and 0.29 m /kg TS respectively at a 15 day retention time at 35 C. The controlled digestion was
attained when the loading rate was between 0.5 and 2 kg of TVS/m3/day. Biogas yield (between 0.245 and 0.372
3
m biogas/kg of VS added) was shown to increase with retention time (between 11.7 and 29.2 days) and
increasing influent per cent volatile solids (between 5 per cent and 10 per cent) being NH4+-N levels in the
effluent not exceeding 1500 mg/L (64 mg/L of free NH3) in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry litter
(manure plus saw dust) at laboratory scale in daily fed digesters.

Manurial Aspects:
The recovery of plant nutrients from the biogas plant, via biogas spent slurry (BSS) represents an economic
return to the farmer using the technology. There is now a broader realization that biogas slurry offers an
alternative reliance on the chemical inputs. The use of biogas slurry in proper combination with chemical
fertilizer is one of the major steps in Integrated Nutrient Management for sustainable agriculture. It has been
found that the use of bio digested slurry can replace 20-100 % chemical fertilizers for different crops.

The concentration of nutrient elements in the residue after digestion are reported to be higher on per cent dry
weight basis than in the undigested material due to conservation of nutrient elements during digestion and
gasification. These residues are readily available for growing plants, as well as residual carbon, phosphorous
and trace nutrients, and they can thus be returned to the cultivation soil as a fertilizer and a soil-improvement
medium.

Digested slurry has a higher fertilizer potential due to its large nitrogen content because in case of air drying of
animal wastes, 30-35 per cent of nitrogen is lost in air, whereas through anaerobic fermentation route it is limited

79
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

to 10-15 per cent .If animal urine was used in slurry preparation, the fertilizer properties of plant sludge
improved further following increased availability of nitrogen and potassium. The bio digestion of cattle dung
and organic wastes mixed with de-oiled cake provides organic manure rich in nitrogen (1.67 - 3.14%),
phosphorus (0.74 - 1.03%) and potassium (0.68% - 0.81%).

When manure is left in the open air, most of its nitrogen, potassium and some of its phosphorus and varying
amounts of other nutrients are lost through volatilization and leaching. Biogas technology is also effective in
manure management which reduces nutrient losses from the manure. Biogas Spent Sludge (BSS) obtained after
digestion is rich in valuable nutrients than the animal manure that assured better crops and has environmental
and economic advantages. The BSS is very relevant as an input to smart agriculture which surpasses the negative
problems of the energy intensive chemical input based agriculture like global warming, micro-nutrient erosion
of the soil, degradation of ground water, biomagnification of pesticides etc. The anaerobically treated materials
are often more easier to handle and is known to inactivate weed seeds, plant pathogens and pests and decrease
the amount of phytotoxic compounds in manure.

80
Do You Know ?
16 lac death occur every year due to
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
smoke from chulha in India

Ayurvet Progreen Biogas can help to save


lives and millions of trees every year.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734. Source - inhabitat.com
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Gaushalas Animal Health and Future of India Cow Milk


Subodh Kumar
Maharishi Dayanand Gosamwardhan Kendra

1. India has the world's oldest domesticated pasture cow tradition. Modern scientific
researches and Indian belief both confirm that Milk of a cow of Indian breed, fed on
greens is indeed nature's best gift to mankind:
Modern researches have confirmed that:
1. 1 Grass fed Cow's milk is very rich in EFA' (Essential Fatty Acids) viz. CLA's (Conjugated
Linolenic and Linoleic Acids). Such milk has low saturated fatty acid content. (Same is true
for beef also .) This is universally accepted as a strategy by USDA, and EU Lipgene project.
Omega 3 is the more important constituent of Grass fed Cow's milk, particularly for brain and
eyes.
1.2 Cows of Indian breeds (Bos Indicus) are recognized as producers of A2 type milk, as against cows of HF (Holstein
Frisians) Bos Taurus group that produce A1 type of milk . (World Dairy industry led by NZ farmers - the leaders in
this field- are reported to be implementing a program to convert all NZ herd to A2 type milk producer by stopping
cross breeding with HF A1 semen.
(Could the resulting low world demand for HF semen be the reason for very attractive generous offers for supply of
HF semen by USA to India, which Indian Govt. has very quickly agreed to import?)
2. Opportunity & Challenge:
This presents for India a great opportunity to build on the tremendous strength of our nation, already the largest
producer of Milk in the world.
2.1 Indian breeds of cows represent the world's largest A2 milk producing herd. Traditionally Indians have been raised
on A2 Milk for thousands of years. That accounts for excellent health and mental abilities of Indians.
2.2 In preference over cross bred cow's milk or buffalo Milk of Indian breeds of Cows enjoys excellent USP in India.
This presents tremendous commercial opportunity.
2.3 Per capita consumption and availability of liquid milk in India is about the lowest in the world and has a fantastic
Demand Potential. This is where a tremendous challenge to Animal Science experts of India, and the greatest
economical development opportunity for India exists.
Proposed Strategy:
Marketing
3.1. A2 Milk:
Milk of only Indian breeds of Cows, ( Confirmed by laboratory type testing as being free from BCM 7(Beta Caso
Morphine 7) from a DNA tested herd, for A2 milk should be supplied as separate Milk, not mixed with Buffalo or
A1 HF milk. States such as Gujarat that produce large quantities of natural A2 Milk from its Gir cows fit excellently
well to take a lead. Pure milk of Indian breeds of Cows commands very good premium prices in India.
3.2 Low fat A2 milk as the premium grade A2 milk, can command very high premium prices and cater to better
informed clientele not only in India but around the world.
EU under its Lipgene project is conducting research simultaneously in 21 laboratories in Europe to produce
designer's natural milk that has low total fat and high EFA content.

82
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Indian cows were traditionally pasture fed. (Stall feeding of cattle and concentrated prepared feed is a rather recent
development from Indian point of View.)
Cows raised in Pastures as reported in Kautilya's Arth Shastr had total fat content of less than 1%. This is
when Cow's Milk was truly Amrit- Nature's Nectar- a preventive and cure for all self degenerating diseases of
human body. Taking guidance from our ancient cow management practices in Vedas and other Sanskrit
texts, it is not difficult for us in India to produce within foreseeable future, a 'Designer's Milk' with low total
fat content. By reducing fat content, the milk yield also goes up.
Indians over thousands of years had enjoyed such low fat high EFA , A2 type Milk of Indian cows. The high Omega
3 content of this milk explains the secret of the well recognized highly developed capacity of Indian brains in the
world.
Low in total Fat & high EFA Milk of Indian breeds of Cows will be the most highly prized A2 milk from
commercial considerations.
3.3 A2 Milk Based Infant food:
A2 milk is considered most important for baby food and milk formulae. This presents India with an excellent
commercial opportunity to become a world leader in Infant milk food supplies.
4. Research & Development Work:
It is concede that Indian breeds of cows are in general very low milk producers. India thus faces extreme shortage of
Cow's Milk. This situation can be changed over a period of time with sincere efforts, by improving the green fodder
availability and breeding with pedigree Bulls. ET and AI in controlled manner can also be of great help.
4.1 AI as Breeding Practices:
AI (Artificial Insemination) is indeed a marvel of modern veterinary science. In US success rates of AI exceeding
80% , as also same cows delivering more than ten calves in good Dairy farms is not an exception.
4.1.1 AI Experience in India:
With best of our efforts in last 60 years, it has not been possible to achieve overall AI success rates better than 25%
in India. Economic hardship of farmers due to extended dry period on account of deficient AI delivery has never
been assessed by any body in India.
4.1.2 Repeatedly failed AI cattle become infertile. Fibroids caused by lack of professional expertise of the AI provider
staff, after a few calving renders good fertile cows incapable of future conception. Loss of good milk yielding cows
due to infertility has also never been assessed in the Indian Animal Husbandry practice. By poor AI delivery
apart from tremendous burden on farmers in feeding cows for the extended dry period, excellent milk cattle
is being turned infertile.
In this way AI is helping the cow slaughter industry.
4.1.3 Inbreeding with AI is a well recognized problem in developed world Dairies also. In India as it is we have a lot of
inbreeding trouble, AI is being performed for better cattle. But big potential loss of good cattle by inbreeding is
inherent in AI.
4.1.4 A more practical approach to AI in Indian context is not to overlook the advantages of Natural breeding methods.
Overall total cost of natural breeding service under Indian conditions is far more advantageous than AI.
4.1.5 AI and ET –Embryo Transfer – techniques can be practiced under controlled expert institutions and larger
Goshalas as support for the Field Services.
4.1.6 Govt. should consider to shrink its present infrastructure on AI straw production centers, and AI services, by taking a
very pragmatic view of their performance in the last many decades under Indian conditions. Saving to the national

83
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

exchequer and hardships being faced by poor cattle owning farmers will be very significant. Large number of good cows
that become infertile due to poor AI delivery practice will also be saved.
4.2 Cross Breeding:
In India large number of identifiable phenotypes of Indian breeds of cows had evolved to suit the natural
conditions, over the last thousands of years. Let us not consciously loose this nature's precious gift to our country. In
view of the modern researches about A2 milk, it will be prudent on the part of our Government to stop cross
breeding with A1 type mainly HF semen.
4.2.1 Supply of Natural Breeding Bulls:
Government cattle research institutions should be encouraged to share with Goshalas and similar institutions ,
better pedigree A2 milk producing calves to be raised as good natural service Bulls.
The present practice of culling the unpromising Cows, Heifers, Male calves and Bulls by periodic disposal should
be reformed to share good young male and female stock with range and extension services.
4.2.2 It is our experience that there is great shortage of good natural service providing bulls in India. This can be met by
providing good pedigree male calves for being raised as Natural Service Bulls. Goshalas and Gosadans should be
actively involved in this Bull development work.
5. Feed Strategies:
5.1 Green Fodder, Pasture is best:
Modern veterinary research has been devoting great efforts to the subject of animal nutrition. Development of
various concentrated feed formulations has been propelled by Dairy Industry interests. In Indian context hardly
15% of Indian Milk is in the organized Dairy Sector. It is not logical to let this 15% interest dictate the 85% . Modern
Veterinary science can also benefit by understanding traditional cattle rearing practices of India. Hardly any
attention is paid to the fact that Indians have the world's oldest continuous animal husbandry tradition.
5.1.1 Green Fodder and self fed pasture practice results in the lowest cost of milk production and at the same time
healthiest milk for human nutrition – low in total fats and high in EFA contents.
5.1.2 A very cautious approach is also required to develop alternative cattle feed formulations based on preparing
artificially extracted and developed cattle feed constituents. It is very difficult to assess the long term usage effects
that may prove harmful in the long run.
5.1.3 Indian knowledge based on thousands of years of practice has always advocated pasture based green fodder. The
latest researches and practices in NZ , Lipgene project in EU, and researches of Prof. William A. Albrecht of
University of Missouri, Columbia are there to support this proposition.
5.2 Low Milk yield Green Fodder Connection:
Experts have been advising about effects of Heat Stress, and exotic cross bred cattle as the main reason for wide
annual fluctuation in milk productivity of cattle in India. But even the Indian breeds of Milk cows have been
observed to show very similar annual milk production variation. A study of our closely monitored herd over last
ten years, indicates that loss in milk production of Cattle in India is very closely related to non availability of
adequate good Fresh Green Fodder through out the year. Just by making green fodder available throughout
the year a minimum 20% increase of milk production can be achieved. To support this hypothesis the milk
production variation over last ten years in our Goshala is attached.(Annex-1).
5.3 Enhancing Green Fodder Availability:
Problem - land availability: This indeed is the greatest challenge for multidiscipline innovative research
intervention for experts and business houses to take up. This also presents a win win opportunity for every body.

84
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Tremendous social, political and commercial advantages that will also result from success of this strategy can hardly be
exaggerated. Lot of research in traditional fodder crops and grasses has been going on in many research institutions. But
pressure on cultivable land to produce food and horticulture crops for human consumption makes green fodder cultivation
very uneconomical use of cultivable land. Almost total loss of Pastures makes it very difficult to depend on grasses.
Vagaries of weather, shortage of irrigation water also affect green fodder availability.
5.3.1 Development of perennial leaf Fodder Trees for harvesting by pollarding/coppicing should be paid more attention,
in different climate zones of India.
5.3.2 Development of Blue Green Algae such Azolla should also form an important constituent of green fodder for cattle.
5.3.3 Hydroponics Fodder:
Indian experience with Hydroponics fodder with imported Fometa devices nearly twenty years ago due to inept
handling , was given up as a bad dream. World over Hydroponics fodder is considered a very important Green highly
nutritive, high digestibility cattle feed alternative strategy. By vertical growing it improves land use nearly 200
times and reduces irrigation water requirement to mere 5% of normal cultivation and completely immune from
vagaries of weather.
We can develop our own Hydroponics Fodder device designs in India to suit various climate zones. As practiced
abroad, for India it is not necessary to use air-conditioning and artificial lighting to grow Hydroponics Fodder. It is
also possible to avoid use of chlorine as sanitizing agent against fungus problems. Combined with a Biogas plant a
Hydroponics Fodder system is a completely green energy based fodder production method for Indian conditions.
Just two kg/day of any coarse grain can provide a complete highly digestible & nutritious balanced cattle feed
for an average Indian cow, through out the year.
Post Script: This submission is based on over 15 years of past practical experience at Maharishi Dayanand
Gosamwardhan Kendra located in East Delhi. We have a herd of about 500 cows, a daily milk production of
about 800 Liters. We have also been engaged in Hydroponics Fodder production experimental work over last
5 years.

85
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Challenges of Climate Change - An Impact on Animal Health and Production

R.C. Upadhyay
National Dairy Research Institute

Abstract
In India, agriculture and allied sectors contribute nearly 18 percent of Gross Domestic Product and about 70 per
cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Livestock sector is the integral part of
India's Agricultural sector and livestock provide essential commodities and services to the majority of the India's
population. Livestock sector provides sustainability and stability to the national economy by contributing to
farm energy and food security.

Introduction
During the last decade, the annual growth rate for livestock production has maintained a steady growth of more
than 4 percent (4.8 to 6.6 percent). In contrast, the crop production remained either stagnant or increased
marginally. An estimated 529.6 million livestock heads distributed over 100 million households in
approximately 600,000 villages provide livelihood security. India has approximately 199 million cattle, out of
which 166 million are non-descript and 33 million are crossbred, 105 million buffaloes, 140.5 million goats,
71.5 million sheeps and 13 million other animals. In the face of uncertainties in the crop yields, livestock
production has been found to provide economic stability to farmers as in the case of dry land/ rain fed land that
can sustain livestock better than crop production.
One of the environmental threats that our earth faces today is the potential changes in Earth's climate and
temperature patterns. An estimate indicates that the earth's temperature has increased between 0.3 and 0.6˚C and
the sea level has risen between 10-25cm. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has also increased by more
than 20 per cent and methane by 145 percent over pre-industrial levels. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) in its fourth assessment report (AR4), projects that, without further action to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions, the global average surface temperature is likely to rise by a further 1.8 – 4.0˚C by the end of this
century, and by up to 6.4˚C in the worst case scenario. Even the lower end of this range would take the
temperature increase since pre industrial times above 20˚C of the threshold beyond which irreversible
catastrophic changes become far more likely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its
fourth assessment report (2007) indicated that many of the developing countries tend to be especially vulnerable
to extreme climatic events as they largely depend on climate sensitive sectors like agriculture and forestry. Rise
in temperature due to climate change is likely to impact livestock production and livestock health. Therefore,
climate change is one of the most serious long-term challenges faced by farmers and livestock owners around
the world.
The consequences of climate change phenomena are now visible everywhere and considered as the serious
long-term threat to agriculture (ACIAR, 2007). Infectious diseases remain most threatening for emerging
animal farm industry. And many of these infectious diseases especially those which are vector borne have
seasonal patterns and a geographic range influenced by environmental variables including biophysical (land
cover, landscapes and host abundance) and anthropogenic (socio-political changes, public health, diet and other
human behaviour) factors that modulate life cycle of pathogens with vectors and reservoirs, resulting in
alteration in disease behaviour. This can be felt by recent significant increase in several vector born diseases

86
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

such as dengue, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis, Lyme disease, tick borne encephalitis and bluetongue or the
distribution pattern of these diseases has changed or changing.

Climate Change and Pattern of Infectious Diseases


Climate change is only one of several “global change” factors driving the emergence and spread of disease in
livestock and the transfer of pathogens from animals to humans, ecosystem diversity, function and resilience.
While most developing countries are already subject to an enormous disease burden, both developing and
developed countries will be subjected to newly emerging diseases. Climate change may have a direct or indirect
influence on the onset of complex bacterial syndromes in livestock species of economic importance, such as
bovine mastitis, which usually requires antibiotic treatment, thus leading to residues in foods. Aquaculture has a
greater influence of climate and therefore highly susceptible to diseases, introduction of pathogens and
antibiotics and environmental contamination with pesticides. The impact of climate change and pattern of
infectious disease is being discussed in the light of following factors:
I. Increase in the susceptibility of animals to diseases:
Climate may have a direct or indirect influence on the susceptibility of animals to diseases. For example,
exposure to intense cold, droughts, excessive humidity or heat may predispose cattle or other vulnerable
species to complex bacterial syndromes such as mastitis. Milk from cows with severe clinical mastitis would
normally not enter the food chain as the mastitis is easily detected and the milk would be discarded by the
farmers.
II. Increase in the range or abundance of vectors/animal reservoirs:
Because of the sensitivities of vectors to climatic factors, ecological changes such as variations in rainfall
and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and incidence of many zoonotic diseases.
Examples of sensitivities of vectors to climatic change include:
l Increased night temperatures will result not only in enhanced vector flight activity (Purse et al.2005) but also
greater competence in supporting replication and transmission of viral pathogens (Baylis and Githeko,
2006).
l Cycles of drought by heavy rainfall provide breeding sites for midge and mosquito vector-borne livestock
diseases (Baylis and Githeko, 2006).
l Changes in precipitation may also affect the range and distribution of arthropod vectors, and there is
evidence of ticks expanding their range with decreasing rainfall (Trape et al., 1996). Conversely, increased
precipitation increases the abundance of snail hosts for livestock parasites.
III. Prolonged transmission cycles of vectors:
Climatic factors may also influence the length of the vectors transmission cycles and thus the incidence of
human infection or diseases. West Nile Virus is an example of a vector-borne zoonosis whose transmission
cycle is prolonged by the early onset of spring. In temperate regions; mosquito activity begins in spring and
declines in autumn. Thus an earlier spring would prolong the cycle resulting in an increased incidence of
human infection (Greer et al., 2008).

Zoonotic diseases affected by Climate Change


Climatic factors are also changing the biodiversity as animal species might shift to new locations in search of
feed and fodder and thereby, may be a source of new diseases to other species existing there over a period of
time. Zoonotic diseases are common throughout the world and in developing countries constitute an important
threat to human health. A high proportion of notifiable human diseases are zoonotic. The majority of pathogen
species causing disease in humans are zoonotic-estimated at over 60% of all human diseases. Climate change

87
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

has an unprecedented impact on zoonosis and emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases.
Parasitic diseases
Climatic variables are able to affect the prevalence, intensity and geographical distribution of directly
influencing free-living larval stages and indirectly influencing mainly invertebrate, but also vertebrate, hosts.
The impact of climate change appears to be more pronounced in trematodes, and is mainly shown by increased
cercarial production and emergence associated with global warming. Fascioliasis, schistomiasis and cercarial
dermatitis caused by avian schistosomes have been most important. Alveolar echinococcosis is currently the
only cestode disease that climate change has been found to influence. Nematodiasis, including heterakiases,
different trichostrongyliases and protostrongyliases, ancylostomiases and dirofilariases, are the helminth
diseases most intensively analysed with regard to climate change.

Climate Change and its Impact on Animal Health


Climatic conditions affect animal well-being both directly, through the physical effects of climatic extremes,
and indirectly through influences on the levels of pollution in the air, on the agricultural, marine and freshwater
systems that provide food and water. It also affects the vectors and pathogens that cause infectious diseases.

Direct effects:
1. Mortality due to heat wave and other extreme events: Animal populations in a country or region have,
over time, acclimatized and adapted to local climates and also are able to cope with a range of weather
changes. However, within these populations, there is a range of individual sensitivity to extreme weather
changes and conditions. However, within populations, there is a range of individual sensitivity to extreme
weather events. In the event of heat waves increase in frequency and intensity, the risk of animal death and
serious illness would increase. Any increase in frequency of extreme events such as storms, floods, droughts
and cyclones would not only harm livestock but also harm humans through a variety of pathways. Over
recent years climate-related disasters have caused loss of lives of both animals and humans in countries like
China, Bangladesh, Venezuela and Mozambique. Heat stress not only causes mortality, but also reduces
productivity and fertility. Heat stress prolongs the oestrus cycle of dairy cows also signs of oestrus are
weakened, the oestrus period shortened, gestation rate decreased and fetal death rate increased. Thus heat
stress significantly affects reproduction, milk yield and health in dairy cows, with a subsequent loss of
economic potential and threat to food security. With the predicted change in climate, particularly with the
rising temperature, the time periods or geographical locations that may induce heat stress in livestock will
increase.
2. Aeroallergens: Experimental research has shown that doubling CO2 levels from about 300 to 600 ppm
induces a four-fold increase in the production of ragweed pollen. Pollen counts from birch trees (the main
cause of allergies in northern Europe) rise with increasing temperature.

Indirect effects:
1. Water-borne infectious diseases: Heavy rainfall events can transport terrestrial microbiological agents
into drinking water sources resulting in outbreaks of parasitic and infectious diseases. Changes in surface
water quality and quantity are likely to deteriorate that will affect the incidence of diarrhoeal diseases viz.
cholera and typhoid as well as parasitic diseases such as amoebiasis, giardiasis and cryptosporidium.
2. Malnutrition: Livestock may be affected by climate change in two ways: by the quality and quantity of
feeds and forages from the grasslands and their supplies and by direct effects from higher temperatures and
weather variations or extremes.

88
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

3. Rodent-borne diseases: Certain rodent-borne diseases are associated with flooding including
leptospirosis, tularaemia and viral haemorrhagic diseases. Rodent populations have been shown to increase
in temperate regions following mild wet winters. These conditions may increase food sources for rodents
and promote breeding of flea populations. In 1998, an increase in cases of hantavirus was linked to increased
rodent populations which in turn, were attributed to two wet, relatively warm winters in the southern United
States with 1997/98 El Nino.

Emergence and re-emergence of new diseases


A report of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2004) on the impact of climate
change on agriculture in Asia and the Pacific suggested that livestock diseases are strongly influenced by climate
change induced modification of environmental conditions. It has been observed that, in particular, the
transmission of wind borne diseases (viral disease of all cloven hoofed animals) and infections transmitted by
ticks, flies, mosquitoes, midges and other arthropods, may be of great concern with respect to the changing
climate. The migration and spread of birds may change and affect the geographical coverage of diseases such as
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and West Nile virus. The report concluded that climate change
brings disease, and while the pattern of such disease will be difficult to predict, epidemics are a certainty.

Impact of climate change on productivity


The major challenge faced by the dairy sector in India is the climate change. An increase in temperature and
humidity due to climate change causes the heat stress in the animal which results in their impaired productive
efficiency. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on milk production of
indigenous, crossbred cows and buffaloes have been evaluated using widely known global circulation model
UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate (Ruosteenoja et al., 2003). The studies on the impact of
climate change on Indian livestock indicate that production is greatly impacted by temperature variations .The
losses in productivity on account of thermal stress are higher in crossbreds (about 100 lit/cow) than indigenous
cattle and buffaloes (about 20 lit/animal). At the all- India level, an estimated annual loss due to direct thermal
stress on livestock is about 1.8 million tonnes that is nearly two percent of the total milk production in the
country. In value terms, this amounts to a colossal Rs. 2661.62 crores (at current prices). The annual loss in milk
production of cattle and buffaloes due to thermal stress in 2020 is likely to increase to about 3.4 million tonnes
milk costing more than 5000 crores at current price rates. The increased thermal stress days on account of
warming and number of stress days to 104 due to a rise of more than 4˚C by 2100 will accentuate the magnitude
of economic losses attributable to heat stress (Upadhyay et al., 2007, 2008).The rise in temperature and/or
number of stress days is likely to reduce milk yield and reproductive efficiency of cattle and buffaloes
(Upadhyay et al., 2008).The loss in milk production due to climate change will be about 15 million tonnes by
2050. High producing crossbred cows and buffaloes will be impacted more than indigenous cattle and greater
impact of global warming on milk production during 2040-2069 and 2070-2099 will be observed. It has been
found that the lactating crossbred cows reduce milk yield during summer and rainy seasons due to exposure to
high temperature and relative humidity or due to sudden changes in weather particularly during summers. The
major challenge for high producing crossbred cows in India is of heat dissipation as they are unable to dissipate
heat gained during summer and hot-humid period. Cows producing more milk expand more energy in
proportion to level of production. In Frieswal (Holstein Friesan x Sahiwal) crossbred cows, it has been observed
that with per unit increase in maximum temperature 15˚C to greater than 40˚C , minimum temperature from
15˚C to greater than 30˚C and RH from 40% to greater than 80%, there was reduction in wet average by 0.29,

89
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

0.22, and 0.19 per cent and herd average by 0.24, 0.36 and 0.13 per cent, respectively (Misra and Mandal,
2010).The basic reason for better tolerance in indigenous cattle is their emergence by natural selection through
generations that are adapted to stressful-low input environment, on the contrary, exotic dairy breeds have
resulted from methodical approach of concurrent intense selection and breeding over generations under high-
input feeding and management system. The temperature rise may also impact draught power output, duration of
work and animal fatigue onset. Therefore, adaptive capacity of livestock production system of small and
marginal farmers needs to be improved for food-nutritional security and poverty alleviation.

Modelling potential impacts


Modelling efforts directed at predicting the potential impacts of climate change on disease behaviour mostly
belong to two major types (Rogers, 2006). The first type of model is biology based and seeks to describe aspects
of the transmission process and how it will be affected by climate change (mechanistic, biological or process
based models). A second type of model attempts to match the distribution patterns of disease to data on
contemporary climate variables in a statistical framework. Also, the correlation between climate variables and
the distribution of a vector may be analyzed either using explicit statistical techniques or through application of
semi quantitative climate change matching methods (Suthrest, 2004). Intrapolation and extrapolation are used
to predict the impact of climate changes (statistical and pattern matching models) (Rogers and Randolph, 2006).

Conclusion
Changes in climate are posing both direct and indirect effects on animal health and food security which can play
a key role in emergence and re-emergence of many animal diseases. There is an urgent need for integrated
approaches to mitigate climate changes in the tropical country like India which is impacted in a bigger way by
climate change than the countries in temperate zone. Impacts of climate change on animal health and production
may be drastic, hence, altogether new comprehensive measures need to be formulated and implemented on
world scale to minimize and limit the damage. Surveillance of infectious diseases should be increased and
special emphasis must be given for vector-borne and viral diseases where the threat of climate change is highest.
Reduction in green house gas emissions is the most important key solution to restrict climate change. On world
scale, improved disease surveillance and monitoring systems should be implemented with use of geographic
information systems (GIS) and modern veterinary and animal health production systems are required to be
followed.

References
Australian centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) (2007). Climate change and agriculture.
Australian Government (www.aciar.gov.au/node/2391).

Baylis N., Githeko A.K., (2006). The effects of climate change on infectious diseases of animals. T7.3.
Foresight. Infectious diseases: preparing for the future. Office and Science and Innovation
(www.foresight.gov.uk).
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), (2004). Impact of climate change on agriculture in Asia and the
th
Pacific In 27 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Regional Conference for Asia and
Pacific, Beijing, China, 17-21 May.
Greer A., Ng V., Fisman D., (2008). Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178:6.

90
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Misra A.K., and Mandal D.K., (2010). Climate change and the Indian bovine. Indian dairyman, 62, 80-89.
Rogers D.J., (2006). Models for vectors and vector-borne diseases. Adv. Parasitol., 10, 193-212.
Rogers D.J., and Randolph S.E., (2006). Climate change and vector-borne diseases. Adv. Parasitol., 62, 345-
381.
Ruosteenoja K., Carter T.R., Jylha K., and Tuomenvirta H., (2003). Future climate in world regions: an inter
comparison of model-based projections for the new IPCC emission scenerios. The Finnish Government 644,
Helsinki.
Purse B.V., Mellor P.S., Rogers D.J., Samuel A.R., Mertens P.P.C., and Baylis M., (2005). Climate change and
the recent emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 171-182.
Suthrest R.W., (1998). Implication of global change and climate variability for vector-borne diseases: generic
approaches to impact assessments. Int. J. Parasitol., 28, 935-945.
Trape J.F., Godeluck B., Diatta G., Rogier C., Legros F., Albergei J., Pepin Y., Duplantier J.M., (1996). The
spread of tick-borne borreliosis in West Africa and its relationship to sub-Saharan drought. American Journal of
Tropical medicine and Hygiene, 54 (3), 289-293.
Upadhyay R.C., Singh S.V., Kumar A., Gupta S.K., and Ashutosh, (2007). Impact of climate change on milk
production of Murrah buffaloes. Italian J. Anim Sci., 6(2):1329-1332.
Upadhyay R.C., Singh S.V., Ashutosh., (2008). Impact of climate change on livestock. Indian Dairyman, 60(3):
98-102.

91
Do You Know ?
Every year Livestock produce 104
KNOWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
lac tons of Methane equivalent to
218 million tons of Carbon dioxide

Ayurvet Ruchamax - Rumen Function


modulator reduces enteric methane
production by 20% and boosts milk
production by 10-15%.
For more information write to info @ayurvet.com or scan this QR Code
from your QR Code Scanner of your smart phone or call 18001033734. Source - IPCC, 1996, USEPA 1994
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

CSR STRATEGY: "Promoting Rural Livelihoods through Modern and Scientific


Livestock Farming”: An Integrated Approach (Based on Authors working
experience with Jindal CSR Department)
Maj. Deepak Bhatia

Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development and Fisheries sectors play an important role in the
National economy and in the socioeconomic development of the country. These sectors also play a
significant role in supplementing family incomes and generating gainful employment in the rural
sector, particularly among the landless laborers, small and marginal farmers and women besides
providing cheap nutritional food to millions of people.
In the Livestock sector, major constraints experienced by farmers relate to breed, feed and fodder,
health care and remunerative prices for the produce.
Taking above rational into consideration Jindal CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility)
Department initiated a Flagship Project of "Promoting Rural Livelihoods through Modern and
Scientific Livestock Farming" and designed Integrated Training Cum Revnue Generating Model which is promoted
as Mother Unit for Training all verticals of livestock Farming to Promote Rural Livelihood.
It was proposed that All the major locations viz Raigarh, Tamnar,Barbil,Patratu and Angul will develop the Dairy area
into INTEGRATED TRAINING CUM PRODUCTION UNIT where CSR should use this as Training platform to
promote rural livelihood on Modern Dairy farming, Milk collection centre, Vermicompost farming, Azolla farming,
Green fodder and Medicinal plant cultivation, Silage making, composite Feed Center and Biogas generation.
All the linked subsidiary of Dairy Farming contribute to generate revenue.

INTEGRATED TRAINING CUM REVENUE


GENERATING MODEL
AZOLLA
FODDER CULTIVATION SOCIETY MIXED
FARMING
FARMING

VERICOMPOST MILK COLLECTION


FEED CENTRE CENTERS

TRAINING
TRAINING

MODERN DAIRY
BIO GAS PASTEURIZATION PLANT
FARMING

SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES MILK PARLOUR

93
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

1. Modern Dairy: It includes all the modernized automated system viz Fully automated Milk parlor with
pasteurization and packaging unit.
Benefits:
a) Clean hygienic and unadulterated milk
b) Reduction in man power cost
c) Cows with sensors provide better identification and advance heat and disease detection system.
d) Fully computerized milk recording system.

2. Biogas system: It converts cow waste into bioenergy used for cooking and lightening purpose.
Benefits:
a) A productive waste management system.
b) Reduce overhead cost of electricity and fuel and thus contribute in revenue generation.
c) Slury from biogas can be used as manure or can be used for vermicompost.

3) Vermicompost: Convert plant and animal waste


into organic manure by use of earthworm.
Benefits:
a) Low cost source of organic manure.
b) Enhance soil fertility and also used as weedicide.
c) Vermi-wash can be used as organic insecticide
spray

4) Azolla Farming: Azolla an aquatic fern is


regarded as “Live Nitrogen manufacturing
Factory”
Benefits:
a) Azolla can be used as low cost biofertilizer and
Green manuring for Rice cultivation.
b) Being Rich source of protein Azolla can be fed to cows to replace costly oilcake from feed.

5) Silage: The conservation of Green Fodder nutrients for years by storing in air tight and moisture free condition.
Benefits:
a) The surplus Green Fodder can be stored and conserved for use in the time of scarcity.
b) Compound ration can be made by mixing silage with good quality concentrate feed.
c) Silage provide A Buyback Mechanism option to farmers for their surplus Green fodder and can generate Revenue at
the time of green fodder scarcity.

94
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

6) Composite Feed Center: A center for feed can be developed by use of silage and good quality concentrate for
cows.
Benefits:
a) Feed center can be single source of Complete cow ration for Dairy man who are associated with Milk Center.
b) It can generate good network for Milk collection center with some margin over the sale of feed.
c) All Five component of Model viz: Fodder cultivation, azolla farming, silage, Green fodder procurement and milk
collection center can easily be interlinked to establish additional revenue generation source.

7) Milk collection center: A common center establish for milk collection on the bases of Fat% and SNF%.
Benefits:
a) Enhance Milk quantity for marketing and thus more income
b) It can generate good network for Feed Center.
c) All Five component of Model viz: Fodder cultivation, azolla farming, silage, Green fodder procurement and Feed
center can easily be interlinked to establish additional revenue generation source.
This Integrated Training Cum Revenue Generating Model serve as a successful tool in promoting Rural
LIVILIHOOD through modern and scientific Agro-Livestock farming in Raigarh (Chattishgarh), Angul (Orissa)
and Patratu (Jharkhand)
However the additional Revenue can be generated by incorporating-
1. Hydroponic Green for animal fodder and rice nursery in the region.
2. Small scale industry (agarbatti, paper pack, cow urine for medicine, Panchgavya etc) if rearing of indigenous breed
is involved.
3. Mixed Livestock farming with Fishery , poultry and Duckery etc.
Jindal CSR Team has taken this new initiative by adopting this Integrated Training Cum Revenue Generating
Livestock farming Model successfully in its operational areas of Raigarh(Chattishgarh), Angul(Orissa) and
Patratu(Jharkhand) to promote self –reliant dairy entrepreneurs with special focus on employment generation,
healthy Dairy operation and auxiliary income generation in operational villages under Dairy Farming.

95
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Challenges of Climate Change: Experience Related to Ayurvet ProGreen


Hydroponics Technology
Dr. R.K. Dhuria
Livestock Feed Resource Management and Technology Centre, RAJUVAS

Rajasthan is the home to some of the best cattle breeds of the country. Livestock rearing is not an
occupation subsidiary to agriculture, but a main occupation especially in the state of Rajasthan
which plays an important role for the nutritional security, particularly of the small and marginal
farmers. Livestock production contributes to 13% of the GDP of the state. Rajasthan is home to
only 7% of the country's cattle but contributes over 11% of the total milk production. Green
fodder is an essential component of the livestock ration; otherwise the productive and
reproductive performance of the animals is adversely affected. Therefore, for sustainable
livestock farming, quality green fodder should be fed regularly to the animals. Fresh green fodder is the natural
feed for all ruminant animals. However, due to climatic conditions, succulent spring-like grass is only available
for a short period in any one year and not available at all in many arid and semi-arid regions of the country in
general and Rajasthan in particular.

Further, the Rajasthan state being drought prone has been witnessing a closure of small livestock farms, because
of various reasons, the main being shortage of fodder. The productive and reproductive efficiency of the
livestock is also adversely affected due to the unavailability of good quality green fodder. Besides the
unavailability of land, decreasing land holding size, high cost of fertile land, more labour requirement for
cultivation (sowing, earthing up, weeding, harvesting etc.), more growth time, non-availability of same quality
round the year, requirement of manure and fertilizer, the uncertain rain fall, scarcity of water or saline water and
natural calamities due to climate change are the major constraints for green fodder production by the livestock
farmers. Likewise, the pastures have degraded and there has been effort in conserving and replenishing the
pastures, but this may not be sufficient looking into the needs of the livestock population in the state. Due to the
above constraints of the conventional method of fodder cultivation, hydroponics technology is coming up as an
alternative to grow fodder for farm animals. Further, hydroponics technology for fodder production will be very
effective for rearing small ruminants (sheep and goats) as these animals have lesser dry matter requirement and
are being shifted from extensive to intensive rearing system. Therefore in the current scene of things it is the
demand of the moment to search for ways to perfect the technology of growing hydroponics fodder in the
direction of increasing the yield & decreasing the resource consumption thereby reducing the cost of production.

Hydroponics Technology for Fodder Production: An Alternative Technology against Impeding Climate
Change
The term hydroponics means the cultivation of plants without soil, using water as a medium to supply all the
requisite nutrients. There has been a lot of research to grow crops especially vegetables without soil in climate
controlled greenhouses. Lettuce cultivation is a major user of hydroponics technology, in the western countries.
The word hydroponics has been derived from the Greek word where 'Hydro' means water and 'Ponic' means
working, i.e. Water working. Plants require three things to flourish- water, nutrients & sunlight; Hydroponics is a
straight forward way of providing all these nutrients without the need of soil under controlled environment

96
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

conditions to optimize the growth of plants. With hydroponics machine, uncontaminated, consistent &
succulent green feed is available round the year regardless of location or weather. Hydroponics, the science of
growing plant without soil is gaining momentum at global level as the nutritive value of feed and fodder has a
significant bearing on productivity of livestock, due to increasing pressure on land for growing food grains,
adequate attention has not been given to the production of fodder crops, increasing gap between the demand and
supply of fodder and non availability of green fodder round the year.

Advantages of Hydroponics Technology


The major limitations of the conventional method of fodder cultivations are overcome by the hydroponics
technology.

Saving of Water: The water requirement in hydroponics technology is very less as water can be applied and
replied continuously. It takes just 2 to 3 liters of water to produce 1 Kg of green feed as compared with 80-90
liter/ day required in conventional system. Water that is not used by the growing fodder is not wasted, as it is
recycled & reused again.
th
Marginal Land Usage: On an average it requires less than 1/12 of the space needed by conventional
agriculture to grow same amount of produce. Less land is required as the vertical growing process allows the
production of large volume of hydroponics fodder on a fraction of the area required by conventional cultivation
and thus there is high yield in small area with increase in stocking capacity. Under hydroponics technology,
about 480 kg maize fodder can be produced daily in seven days only in 450 square fit area. It is estimated that to
produce the same amount of fodder, about 1 hectare land is required. This reduction in the amount of land
required for maximum fodder production is an asset for both regions where agriculture is difficult & in densely
populated regions that lack sufficient growing space.

Constant Feed Supply: Hydroponics technology will remove the need for long- term storage of feeds. With our
hydroponics machine, a consistent supply of green fodder is guaranteed 365 days of the year irrespective of rain,
storm, sunshine or snow.

Reduction in Growth Time: The growing time of hydroponics plants takes as little as 7 days from seed
germination to a fully-grown plant at a height of 25- 30 cm, ready for harvest. Also, the biomass conversion ratio
is as high as 6-8 times. Besides, there is no need of costly soil preparation for fodder production, constant weed
removal, fencing etc. There is no post-harvest loss of fodder as seen in the conventional practices as the
hydroponics fodder can be produced as per the daily requirement.

Reduced Labor Requirement: This process of growing cattle feed requires minimal man- hour ratio per day.
Only two people are sufficient to work in the hydroponics system to produce 480 kg hydroponics maize fodder
daily. It is as little as 2 to 3 hours per day, needed to maintain & produce hydroponics fodder, as compared to the
many hours of intense labour required for growing the same amount of feed as a pasture crop.

Enhancement of Nutritional Value: Hydroponic fodder is a highly effective particularly nutritious feed,
which produces more protein as compared to conventional fodder. It has high energy content, Vitamin A & E
content and very high moisture content. There is increase in fresh weight and decrease in the dry matter content
during sprouting of seeds. Yields of 6-8 folds on fresh basis (1 kg seed produces 6-8 kg fodder) and dry matter

97
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

content of 11-15% are common for hydroponics maize fodder. The hydroponics fodder looks like a mat of 20-
30cm height consisting of germinated seeds embedded in their white roots and green shoots. The germinated
seeds embedded in the root system are also consumed along with the shoots of the plants, so there is no nutrient
wasting. The hydroponics fodder is more nutritious than the conventional fodder. The nutrient changes during
the growth of hydroponics fodder are increase in the crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and
decrease in crude fibre, total ash and acid insoluble ash.

Safe for Consumption: An important factor about growing green feed in hydroponics machine is that it is
completely free of harmful chemicals. There are added advantages of round the year similar high quality fodder
supply to the farm, which are free from antibiotics, hormones and pesticides. Therefore, there are no pesticides
or fungicides used that could alternatively contaminate the milk or meat that are being produced.

Improving Animal Health: The shortage of fodder & its low quality are the main cause of low productivity. In
connection with this, the seasonal deficit of vitamins in the ration of animals can be made up for by the fodder
grown by the hydroponics method. Feeding livestock hydroponically produced feed may increase the milk
production and improve upon the general health & fertility.

Making land available for Food Production: The use of lesser grazing areas to feed livestock could in turn
provide more acreage for food crop production thus improving the economy & sustainability of land. This
system also eliminates additional pressure on an already over worked irrigation system.

RAJUVAS Experience Related to Ayurvet ProGreen Hydroponics Technology


Under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), hydroponics green fodder production units have been
established by Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (RAJUVAS), Bikaner at its Bikaner,
Udaipur and Jaipur campus through which, uncontaminated, consistent & succulent green feed is available
round the year regardless of location or weather and are being fed to the dairy animals and small ruminants of the
University. In ProGreen Hydroponics machine, crop is grown in controlled environmental conditions with a
temperature range of 15-32oC and a relative humidity of 80-85%. Crop is grown in multilayer shelves.
Controlled light is let in through suitably glazed windows. Each day 20 to 40 trays are harvested yielding up to
220-400 kg per day. The production of green feed is a continuous process. This ProGreen Hydroponics Green
Feed is found highly palatable and nutritious to the animals which have contributed towards the productivity and
reproductive efficiency of the animal. In the adverse climatic condition of Rajasthan, availability of quality
green fodder through ProGreen Hydroponics Machine is being witnessed as a big achievement which has the
potential to turn the scenario of livestock farming in the state of Rajasthan. Ayurvet ProGreen Hydroponics is a
unique & innovative technology, developed to address the scarcity of fresh and nutritious green feed. In
hydroponics machine, we have successfully grown maize and barley green feed using simple grain of these
crops as seed instead of using certified seed. The yield of the hydroponics green fodder is highly influenced by
the type and quality of seed and clean and hygienic condition of the machine. The hydroponics green fodder
looks like a mat consisting of roots, seeds and plants. It is observed that about 6-8 kg fresh hydroponics green
fodder are produced with plant height of about 20-30 cm from one kg of maize & barley seed. On comparative
nutrient analysis, hydroponics green feed was found to be on the higher side in terms of protein content, energy
values, vitamin and mineral content than conventionally cultivated green fodder crops. The hydroponics fodder
is more nutritious than the conventional fodder. The nutrient changes during the growth of hydroponics fodder

98
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

are increase in the crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and decrease in crude fibre, total ash and acid
insoluble ash. No doubt, hydroponics green fodder is quite palatable and relished by dairy animals; but the use of
solar energy in place of electricity would be a major help to the farmers of Rajasthan State, where sun light is
available in plenty. Although, the production of fodder by the hydroponics technology is impressive, but the
only constraint was the high cost of the structure and hence there was a need for a low cost device to produce
hydroponics fodder.

Conclusion
Hydroponics fodder is nutritious, palatable and digestible and can be grown with home grown grains.
Hydroponics fodder production is an effective alternative technology for sustainable livestock production in
arid and semi arid regions of Rajasthan against impeding climate change.

99
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Kwality Model of Rural Development – Changing Lives and Empowering People


through Dairying
1 2
Rajendra Singh and Pushplata Tripathi
Quality Dairy

Abstract
Dairy development has been acknowledged as the most successful rural development programme in India
substantiated by the fact that the country has achieved the distinctive position of being the highest milk producer in
the world with an estimated milk production of 132.4 million to 132.4 million tonnes with an annual growth rate of
3.5% (2012–13). Milk production is basically a subsidiary to crop farming. It is a low-input-low-output activity
with smallholder production system and about three-quarters of the rural households owning 2-3 mulch animals.

Kwality Model of Rural Milk Procurement Network


Dairy cooperatives have been instrumental in establishing dairying as an enterprise in the country. Now, some
private sector players have initiated setting up of rural network to procure milk directly from the producers.
Kwality Dairy (India) Limited, renamed as Kwality Limited entered the sector during 2003. Kwality is engaged
in milk procurement, processing and marketing milk and manufacture of many dairy products. The Company
produces and markets pure ghee, low-cholesterol ghee, milk powders, curd, paneer, fresh milk, dairy whitener,
etc. The company has three owned dairy plants and three taken on franchise. Their installed processing capacity
is around of 30 Lakh Liters per Day (LLPD).

Kwality believes that the creation of institutionalized network of rural milk procurement is sine qua non for
getting good quality raw milk. Since setting parallel cooperatives under the Cooperative Societies Act was not
possible, the Kwality adopted the self-help group route to enter the village level collection centres (VLC) and
managing these centres through Village Service Providers (VSPs) appointed in consultation with the opinion
leaders in the target village. Service Providers (VSPs) appointed in consultation with the opinion leaders in the
target village.

The functioning of the VLCs is monitored by the milk producers. The company has established a fair and
transparent system through installing Automatic Milk Collection Units (AMCUs) at the village level to
determine the rate of milk on the basis of quality at the milk producer's door step. AMCU based milk
procurement system ensures passing of maximum part of the declared rates to the milk producers. The better
price realization is acting as a catalyst to work towards increasing the milk production and productivity.

Miss Bhavna Singh has given a snapshot of the activities of the milk producers of Bheemi Village (Box 1).

eSa Hkkouk flag vesBh ftys ds Hkheh xkao esa jgrh gwa vkSj DokfyVh Ms;jh pykrh gwaA gekjs ;gka igys Hkh
Ms;fj;ka pyrh Fkha ijUrq mlls fdlkuks dks lUrq"V djuk gekjs fy, dfBu gks x;k Fkk D;ksafd xkao esa
f'k{kk dh deh Fkh fdlkuksa dks le> esa ugha vkrk FkkA /khjs&/khjs Ms;jh cUn gksus dh rjQ vxzlj gks x;h
vkSj ,d fnu ,slk vk;k fd Ms;jh cUn djuh iM+hA lHkh fdlku vius tkuojksa dks cspus yxsA dqN le;
ckn gekjs ;gka DokfyVh fyfeVsM Ms;jh dk vkxeu gqvk ftlls mEehn dh ,d fdj.k fn[kkbZ iM+h vkSj
geus ml fdj.k dks ,d izdk'k dqat cuk;kA lkjk flLVe e'khu ls gS ] fdlku dk ,d Hkh cawn nw/k cckZn
ugha gksrk gSA fdlkuksa dks vPNk jsV feyus yxk muds psgjs ij fQj ls ped vk;h vkSj oks gekjh DokfyVh Ms;jh ls tqM+us
yxsA vkt iqu% ge 100&150 yh- nw/k dk mRiknu djrs gSa vkSj yxHkx 70 fdlku gekjh Ms;jh dk fgLlk cus gq, gSaA

100
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

fdlkuksa dks igys 16&20 #- ewY; feyrk Fkk ijUrq vkt mUgsa 30&39 #- rd ewY; feyrk gSA
DokfyVh Ms;jh dh rjQ ls i'kq vkgkj Hkh feyrk gS vkSj i'kqvksa ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj dh nok,a Hkh iznku dh tkrh gSa
ftldk fdlkuksa dks ykHk feyrk gS vkSj ftlls muds i'kqvksa dk LokLFk; Hkh cuk jgrk gSA bl Ms;jh ls lHkh fdlku
cgqr gh [kq'k gSa A

ge cgqr&cgqr /kU;okn nsuk pkgsaxs DokfyVh Ms;jh dk vkSj ge mEehn djrs gSa fd DokfyVh fyfeVsM Ms;jh fujUrj izxfr
dh vksj vxzlj jgsA
Miss Bhavna Singh, VSP,
Vill. - Bheemi, Tikari Panchayat, Amethi (U.P)

Kwality-Ayurvet Collaboration: Input and Extension


Milk procurement activities are as important as providing input and extension services to farmers to improve the
breeding efficiency and nutritional status of the dairy animals including the milking, dry, pregnant dairy animals
and female calves. Efforts of the Kwality have been supported by the Ayurvet through many activities being
undertaken in the field Sourced from Ayurvet, Kwality dairy promotes use of environment friendly herbal
medicines and feed supplements to improve immunity, prevent diseases and encourage milk production that is
free from the residual effect of the medicines. The company has a dedicated field extension team consisting of
veterinarians and agriculturists. Many of the input and extension activities are being organised in collaboration
with Ayurvet Limited and they have been instrumental in the successful delivery of the entire programme.
Ayurvet Limited has developed a thorough expertise in blending the traditional knowledge of Ayurveda with
modern research techniques to deliver safe, non-toxic, environment friendly products catering to the health &
nutritional needs of the animals. Under the input and extension programme, the following services and activities
are being delivered and conducted:

1) Feed and feed supplements


Long intercalving period is one of the greatest impediments in achieving sustainable dairying as the cost of
feed and forages are on rise. Nutritional deficiency across the project area is a limiting factor which
attributes to infertility in dairy animals. In spite of the good genetic makeup of the dairy animals, the
productivity is very low mainly due to the non – availability of good quality feed & feed supplements.
Moreover, the processed feed available in the market as well as the traditional feed such as cakes, wheat bran
etc. is of inferior quality. Kwality Limited utilises the wisdom and the preferences of the milk producers for
feed formulation and finalization of the feed ingredients. We are outsourcing dairy animal feed processing
under the brand name of “DAIRY BEST”. The feed is processed in the presence of the representative of the
company. The field extension team collects the VLCC wise feed requirement and accordingly a route is
prepared to supply the feed directly from the cattle feed plant to the VLCC.

We are also promoting feed supplements such as mineral mixture, calcium, bye pass fat and probiotic etc.
manufactured by Ayurvet Limited and Indian Immunologicals Limited (IIL). In order to ensure the reach out to the
less resourceful milk producers, the company provides 20 days credit to purchase cattle feed and feed supplements.

2) Mastitis control camp


The problem of mastitis remains insurmountable to the dairy farmers and it stands second to FMD as a most
challenging disease in dairy animals in India.70% incidence of sub clinical mastitis in the dairy animals has

101
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

been reported. Mastitis causes heavy economic losses besides posing a


serious concern for public health. In order to generate awareness about
the mastitis, regular mastitis control camps are being organised at the
village level in collaboration with Ayurvet Limited. The team of the
veterinarians from Kwality Limited and Ayurvet Limited provide
preventive and curative treatment to the disease. During the camps,
awareness is also created about the importance of the de-worming,
animal nutrition and feeding system.

2) Infertility camps
Infertility in dairy animals accounts for major economic losses in dairy farming from decreased milk
production and increased management costs. Nearly 10 – 30% of lactations may be affected by infertility
and reproductive disorders.

3) Clean milk production campaign


India has made rapid strides in enhancing the milk production but we are lagging behind with regards to the
quality. We have a very long way to go in order to acquire a good position in terms of the milk quality
parameters. In the Indian context, dairying is dominated by the small and marginal farmers and the unit of
production is small. As a result, creating milk chilling infrastructure at the production level is not feasible
which affects the quality of milk adversely during transit from the production site to the processing unit. In
order to ensure the manufacturing of safe, hygienic, good quality and high value added milk products, the
implementation of clean milk production practices is of paramount importance for which Kwality Limited
drives campaign on “Clean Milk Production” annually across the project area.

4) Calf Rally
Calf plays an important role in the development and profitability of the dairy enterprise as future of the dairy
herd solely depends on the successful raising of the young calves. The proper rearing of calves is still not a
priority for the milk producers as they perceive them as a source to let down the milk from the mother.
Further, as the cost of the milk is on increase, availability of the milk for calves is less. Moreover, significant
proportion of dairy calves suffer from failure of passive transfer of antibodies from colostrum contributing
to excessively high pre weaning mortality rates and other short- and long-term losses associated with animal
health, welfare, and productivity. Considering the lack of awareness and poor calf management practices
and its impact on milk production, calf rallies for cow calves and buffalo calves at the village level are
organised during the period from November to February in collaboration with Indian Immunologicals
Limited (IIL). A three-member jury declares the winner calf.

5) Milking Competition
Despite being the world's largest milk producer, India's productivity per animal is very low which could be
attributed to practicing of dairying as less profitable economic activity leading to high cost of milk
production. In order to generate awareness regarding good genetics and feeding practices and creating a
sense of healthy completion to improve productivity of the dairy animals, Kwality Limited organizes
milking competitions of cows and buffaloes separately. A three member jury is constituted for declaring the
highest milk yielding animal.

102
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

6) Animal health management trainings


The organic industry is growing steadily with increasing number of consumers. Future of the organic milk is
very bright and the demand for the same is on rise. The production of organic milk requires the phasing out of
allopathic treatment and use of herbal treatment. Kwality Limited appreciates the use of herbal medicines
for ensuring better animal health. In order to promote herbal solutions to the animal health problems, we
organise animal health management training programmes in collaboration with Ayurvet Limited. In order to
promote herbal medicines, Kwality Limited has identified local resource persons called as “PASHU
MITRAS” who get trained on basics of animal management, animal health particularly digestive,
reproductive and udder related problems mainly mastitis. So far 80 “PASHU MITRAS” have been imparted
training at the Ayurvet Learning Centre and are successfully providing preventive and curative solutions to
the dairy animals in their villages.

These trainings have been helping these “PASHU MITRAS” to address day to day preventive health
problems of the dairy animals and better acceptance of themselves in the villages. The story of Shri Rishipal
Singh of Village Tarapur speaks for himself (Box 2).

eSa] _f"kiky flag fuoklh xzke rkjkiqj] nqX/k vo'khru dsUnz ehjkiqj esa DokfyVh fyfeVsM dk nqX/k laxzg
dsanz fiNys rhu o"kksZa ls pyk jgk gwaA esjs lkFk 120 nqX/k mRiknd tqM+s gq;s gSaA ftlls vkSlr 700 yhVj
nq/k izfr fnu vkrk gS ftlls esjh vkenuh esa c<+kSRrjh gqbZ gS ,oa eSa nw/k ds vykok ,d Vªd i'kq vkgkj
izfr ekg csp ysrk gwaA blds vfrfjDr eSaus nks fnolh; vk;qosZn Vªsfuax izkIr dh ftlls eq>s i'kq] iztuu]
FkuSyk jksx ,oa i'kqvksa ds ikpu laca/kh tkudkjh izkIr gqbZA ftlls eSa i'kqvksa dk izkFkfed mipkj Hkh dj
ysrk gwa vksj ;s nokbZ gcZy gksus ds dkj.k dksbZ lkbM bQSDV Hkh ugha gSA ftlls eq>s nw/k ,oa i'kq vkgkj
ds vykok vfrfjDr vkenuh Hkh gksrh gS vkSj esjs nqX/k mRikndksa ds i'kqvksa dk LokLF; Hkh vPNk jgrk gSA
ftlls eq>s vPNh vuqHkwfr Hkh izkIr gksrh gSA esjs vk;qosZfnd fy- dh nokb;ka cspus ls vkSj vf/kd nqX/k
mRiknd esjs lkFk tqM+ jgs gSaA ftlls nw/k dk miktZu Hkh c<+ jgk gSA blds lkFk gh lkFk esjh izfr"Bk
igys ls dgha vf/kd c<h gSA vc esjs xzke esa nqX/k mRikndksa ds i'kqvksa ds ¼j[kj[kko ,oa [kkuiku½ esa vkSj
vf/kd tkx:drk c<+h gSA

esjk DokfyVh fy- ,oa vk;qosZn fy- ls vuqjks/k gS fd bl rjg ds dk;ZØe dks gj xzke rd igqapk;k tk,
ftlls vf/kd ls vf/kd nqX/k mRiknd tqM+ ldsaA
Shri Rishipal Singh, VSP,
Vill. – Tarapur, Tarapur Panchayat, Meerut (U.P)

8) Farmer induction programme


Kwality Limited recognizes the milk producers as its major stakeholders and committed to work towards
their inclusive growth. In order to further build the confidence of the milk producers, we organise farmer
induction programmes which include visits to our dairy processing plants, cattle feed plants, Agriculture
Universities, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal etc. Our milk producers participated in the
“Knowledge Upgradation Programme” held at Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
(GADVASU), Ludhiana (Punjab).

103
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

9) Dugdh Utpadak Goshthi


It is widely recognized that the dairy and animal husbandry education and research is well spread in India.
But the major deficiency is taking the results of lab research and developmental education to the milk
producers who are the end users. Kwality Limited Company has initiated a major programme for rural level
capacity building named as “Dugdh Utpadak Goshthis” which are regular extension programmes
conducted at the village level for the milk producers to create awareness on animal management, nutrition &
health care etc.

10) Dairy animal induction


India is underserved by financial services on every parameter. In rural areas more than 45% households are
still far away from any banking services. The organized financial sector has not reached out to large
segments of the rural India. Milk producers intend to increase the herd size but the availability of credit is the
major impediment. Still to a great extent small and marginal farmers are depending on the money lenders
and end up paying very high interest. With a view to provide an opportunity for easy asses to credit facility at
the farmer's door step, we organize Loan Melas. Kwality Limited has arrangements with Allahabad Bank,
Bank of India, Baroda Uttar Pradesh Gramin Bank and Corporation Bank to provide credit facilities for the
purchase of dairy animals. Recently, in a Loan Mela organised in collaboration with Baroda Uttar Pradesh
Gramin Bank at Amethi (U.P), a credit of Rs. 67 Lakhs was disbursed to 67 milk producer members
associated with MCC Durgapur (Amethi, U.P)

Village adoption programme


India resides in villages and if the country is to be taken on the path of prosperity, the development of villages
can't be overlooked. Kwality Limited has taken the responsibility not only to provide remunerative market for
milk but also to ensure equitable development through “village adoption programme”. These adopted villages
would serve as satellite villages and would have magnetic impact on the development of the surrounding
villages. The company has adopted one village on each milk route to take up the activities identified and target is
to procure 80% of the marketable surplus by end of the year.

The programme to be undertaken in the adopted villages includes initiatives in health, education and women
empowerment.

104
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

1) Health: We appreciate the need to address the health related issues of various groups and are focusing on preventive
health care measures through the following activities:
a) Women & Child Health Camp
b) Oral health care camps for school children
c) Eye care camp

2) Education: Gender disparity in education is a major problem. The drop-out rate of girls is higher as compared to the
boys especially in the higher secondary school and these calls for targeted action to encourage girls to pursue higher
education. Kwality Limited recognizes this gender gap in education in the wider context of female disadvantage in
India and is committed to promote girl child education by awarding scholarships to meritorious girl students.

3) Women empowerment: Gender equality and women empowerment are instrumental in achieving the goal of social
and economic development. Kwality Limited firmly believe in meaningful participation of women in the decision
making process. In order to mobilise and organise women we are in the process of forming women SHGs in our project
area.

105
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

Hydroponics For Value Added Agriculture

Preeti Tiwari & Dr. Deepti Rai

Hydroponics is the art and science of growing plants without soil, by feeding it
chemical solutions containing artificial forms of nutrients, which they usually
draw from the earth. The basic principle of soil-less culture is not new. Over the
centuries, scientists have been producing plants in this way for physiological
experiments. Thus, hydroponics has developed from the findings of
experiments carried out to determine what substances make plants grow, and
the composition of plants.

The word hydroponics been derived from the Greek word “water working”, is directed to growing plants
without soil (Hydro means water and Ponic means working) Hydroponics is the science of soilless growing of
plants in nutrient rich solutions. It is a technique where the physiological requirements of plants can be met
without use of soil or natural sunlight. The advantages of hydroponics agriculture include control over plant
nutrition and therefore increased production.

Today, hydroponics is an established branch of agronomical science. Progress has been extensive over the past
30 years. The two chief merits of the hydroponic cultivation of plants are, firstly much higher crop yields, and
secondly, the fact that hydroponics can be used to cultivate crops where it is normally impossible. For this reason
hydroponics is often used for a number of applications in the study of plants. Some Value addition examples are
given here under:

The Hydroponic way : Growing and transplanting of Wheat nursery


Importance of Wheat
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the world's leading cereal grain and most important food crop. Its importance
derives from the properties of wheat gluten proteins that stretch with the expansion of fermenting dough, yet
coagulate and hold together when heated to produce a 'risen' loaf of bread. Wheat is utilized for making bread,
unleavened bread, flour for confectionary products and breakfast cereals. Its diversity of uses, nutritive content,
and storage qualities has made wheat a staple food for more than one-third of the world's population.

Our Experience
The aim of this study is evaluating of yield of the wheat variety in hydroponic system and its comparison with the
conventional system. Seedlings of wheat cultivar KRL-19 were raised through hydroponics technology in
Ayurvet Progreen Hydroponics chamber under optimum light, temperature and nutrients for 7 days, 10 days and
12 days during 2011 in Chidana, Sonepat (Haryana). After that produced seedlings were transplanted in the soil
at 7 day, 10 day and 12 day and seed were directly sown and compared. All the practices such as irrigation,
control of weeds, pest and diseases were done regularly during growth period. During growth period and after
harvesting traits were measured such as plant height, number of tillers, diameter of stem, number of days for
panicle emergence, length of panicle, number of grains per panicle, whole biomass, yield /36 square meter, straw
yield/acre and yield/ acre were measured. Soil-less cultivation systems frequently used in horticulture present
several advantages compared with soil production. Hydroponics leads to higher production. Hydroponics

106
Integrating Agriculture and Livestock for Sustainability
Challenges of Climate Change
8th & 9th October 2014

system proved more convenient than the traditional propagation system using peat sand mixtures and mineral
fertilizers. Hydroponics system of cultivation is better than the conventional system because nutrients are
readily available in aqueous solution and easily absorbed by plants.

HYDROPONICS SUGARCANE NURSERY : AN OPPURTUNITY, THE HYDROPONICS WAY


Agriculture is one of the most significant sector of the Indian Economy. Agriculture is the only means of living
for almost two thirds of the workers in India. There are number of crops grown by farmers. These include
different food crops, commercial crops, oil seeds etc., sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops grown
in India. Sugarcane is the main source of sugar in Asia and Europe. Sugarcane is grown primarily in the tropical
and sub-tropical zones of the southern hemisphere.

Water is increasingly becoming a major limiting factor for agriculture, especially where irrigated crops and dry
land agriculture are intermixed. Often in the same watershed, both irrigated crops such as rice and sugarcane
exist with dry land crops such as sorghum and millets. In such circumstances, the impact of irrigated crops on dry
land agriculture is significant, particularly in semi-arid regions, where irrigation is primarily based on ground
water exploitation, leading to decline in soil moisture and seriously reducing the productivity. Water is one of the
major constraints and it is affecting the productivity and profitability of sugarcane growers and millers.The
problem is going to further deteriorate due to variability of rainfall influenced by climate change. So, unless
sugarcane farmers are provided with options of high yields with much less water, India will find it difficult to
meet its growing demand for sugar.

With time it is becoming evident that current model of Indian agriculture needs to incorporate innovation to
make it a socially and financially sustainable activity. We need a smarter local area specific approach to
farming, where less land is used, and where water is conserved, reused and recycled. Ayurvet's
hydroponics technology requires very little amount of water and land against conventional system. This
technology has a high potential in India due to water crisis and shrinking arable land.

Vegetative sugarcane seedlings can be grown in hydroponics in 18 Days, conventionally it take 40 days
.Through hydroponics, sugarcane seedlings can be prepared with single bud instead of three buds in
conventional which would save huge number of millable cane, land , water and time.

107
YU RV E T KN OWLEDGE SYMPOSIUM
A
8th & 9th OCTOBER 2014
NEW DELHI

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE MARKETING

Patron : Shri. Pradip Burman Head Members : Mr. Tarun Kumar Sharma
Chairman : Dr. P.N.Bhat : Mr. Anand Mehrotra
: Mr. Piyush Pankaj
Vice Chairman : Mr.M.J.Saxena : Mr. C.V. Reddy
: Prof. (Dr.) Col. A. K. Gahlot, : Dr. Praful Verma
Vice Chancellor, RAJUVAS
Secretary General : Dr. R. S. Khanna

RESOURCE GENERATION HOSPITALITY

Chairman : Dr. P.N. Bhat Members : Dr. Nirupama Srivastava


Vice Chairman : Mr. M. J. Saxena : Ms. Swati Gupta
: Dr. Anup Kalra
: Mr. Jitendra Sharma
: Dr. Tribhuwan Sharma, Director (PME), IT COMMUNICATION
Dept of Animal Nutrition, RAJUVAS
: Dr. B. K. Beniwal,
College of Vet Sciences, Bikaner Members : Mr. Ashish Jain
Members : Mr. K. Ravikanth : Dr. Praful Verma
: Mr. Tarun Kumar Sharma : Ms. Nupur Singh
: Mr. Ashish Jain : Mr. Purushottam Pathak
: Mr. Tanveer Malik
: Dr. Nirupama Srivastava

FARMERS FORUM
FINANCE MANAGEMENT
Members : Dr. Anup Kalra
Head : Ms. Nisha Mittal : Mr. Jasraj Singh
: Dr. Nagendra Mishra

PUBLICATION AND MEDIA


SYMPOSIUM SECRETARIAT
Members : Dr. Kuldeep Sharma
: Dr. R.S. Khanna Members Team : Dr. Anup Kalra
: Mr. K. Ravikanth : Dr. R. K. Dhuria, Prof. COVS, Bikaner
: Dr. R. K. Dhuria, Prof. COVS, Bikaner : Ms.Swati Srivastava
: Pradeep Kr. Wadhwani : Ms. Rita Sharma
: Dr. Deepti Rai : Mr. Harsh Khanna
: Ms.Swati Srivastava
Issues that concern you,
me and our next generations !

Hungry
&
Malnourished
People
Menace of Fuel

Hunger Poverty
Chemical &
Climate Fertilizers Energy
Crisis
Change
& Feed& Soil Declining
Erratic Monsoon Fodder Erosion Soil Fertility
Shortage
Hazardous
Integrated
Residues Farming
Global Education
Warming
Food
Population Nutrition
&
Limited Nutritional
Growth Unemployment
Resource at our Security
Disposal Food
Safety Efficient
Capacity to Usage of
Healthy Feed Future Resources
Skill Nutrition Water
Crisis Generations
Enhancement Food
Safety

TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ®
AY U R V E T MODERN RESEARCH