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AGEING UNIT 10

YOUR KNOWLEDGE
1 Are elderly people generally respected in your culture?
Why? / Why not?
2 How is respect or disrespect shown to elderly people in your culture?
3 How has everyday life changed in the past 50 years for people who
are now elderly?

UNIT 10 177
PREPARING TO WRITE

Watch the video on aging issues.

Work with a partner. Discuss the questions below.

DISCUSSION

1. Does your country have a young or an ageing population?

2. What problems do elderly people in your community face?

3. What do you think can be done to ensure that elderly people in


society are protected and cared for?

4. What do you think are the economic and socio-political


consequences of aging?
2 Complete the sentences with phrases from Exercise 1.
1 Many people want to continue working when they reach
.
2 In 40 , they never had an argument.
3 Many companies scheme,
in addition to paying a salary.
4 We wish you a long and .
5 He had to retire due to .
6 My grandfather has and tells
fascinating stories from his childhood.
7 In , the average retirement
age of the population is likely to rise.
8 A comes in every day to
change his bandages.
9 When you reach , you can
often get discounts on educational courses.

ACADEMIC COLLOCATIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS


3 Complete the phrases and phrasal verbs with the correct prepositions
(in, on, with, up, of).
1 brief 5 identify
2 range 6 theory
3 focus 7 rely
4 sum 8 contrast
4 Complete the sentences below with the correct phrases and phrasal
verbs from Exercise 3.
1 States may encounter financial challenges when an increasing number
of older people have to them for support.
2 States with a younger population have high education costs.
, those with an older population have to spend more on
health care.
3 There is a voluntary work opportunities for pensioners,
such as sports coaching, business mentoring, gardening and counselling.
4 There is a tendency to the problems faced by the
elderly, not their valuable contribution to society.
5 , the major problem an ageing population will face is
how to fund healthcare.
6 While many strategies may seem to work , in practice
they rarely succeed.
7 Society has problems when its older citizens cannot
its younger members.
8 To , this report’s key recommendation is that more
educational opportunities should be provided for the over-60s.

186 LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4


AGEING UNIT 10

CRITICAL THINKING
1 Look at the population graph for Japan and answer the questions.
ANALYZE
1 How old is the data in the diagram?
2 What is the total population of Japan? 100+

3 Are there more over-40s or under-40s in Japan?


95-99
90-94
Male Female
85-89
4 On average, do Japanese men or women live 80-84

longer? 75-79
70-74
5 Approximately what percentage of the 65-69

population is aged over 60? 60-64


55-59
6 How is the graph different from the one for 50-54
45-49
Saudi Arabia in Reading 2? What are the reasons 40-44

for this? 35-39


30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9

2 Look at the two graphs below. They are 0-4


7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5%
predictions for the year 2050. Which do you think Japan – Population: 126,536,000. Year: 2010
relates to Japan, and which to Saudi Arabia? Why?
A B
100+ 100+
95-99
90-94
Male Female 95-99
90-94
Male Female
85-89 85-89
80-84 80-84
75-79 75-79
70-74 70-74
65-69 65-69
60-64 60-64
55-59 55-59
50-54 50-54
45-49 45-49
40-44 40-44
35-39 35-39
30-34 30-34
25-29 25-29
20-24 20-24
15-19 15-19
10-14 10-14
5-9 5-9
0-4 0-4
7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5% 7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5%

3 Identify the possible problems from the list below for a society with an
elderly population.
1 youth unemployment 6 lower consumer spending
2 housing shortage 7 declining fertility
3 high pension costs 8 higher taxes
4 increased healthcare costs 9 increased emigration
5 stress on the education system 10 increased immigration

READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4 CRITICAL THINKING 187


4 Write a phrase from Exercise 3 in each sentence.
APPLY
1 are likely to occur
because more elderly people will require hospital treatment and help
with ill health.
2 If people work for longer and retire at an older age,
may result.
3 may be required because
there are fewer people of working age paying tax on their income.
4 Unless the age at which people have to retire increases, there will be
which the taxes will need
to pay for.
5 As the population ages, there are fewer people having children.
This means that the
population will actually decrease.
6 In order to replace the lost workforce and to increase levels of
taxation, may be adopted
as a government policy.
5 Work in pairs. Look at the statements below. Which advantage of an
UNDERSTAND
older population do you think is the most important?
1 Older people have a great deal of knowledge and experience which are
valuable in the workplace.
2 Older people have more time and money to help their children and
grandchildren financially or through childcare and domestic jobs.
3 Older societies result in a slower global population growth.
4 Older people these days are active and productive. Many have savings
to help pay for their own healthcare and a comfortable standard
of living.

WRITING
GRAMMAR FOR WRITING
EXPLANATION

Numerical words and phrases


It is important to simplify complex statistical information when writing a
description of a graph or chart. To do this, we can use generalizations to introduce
the data and specific examples to give details or justify a claim. Numerical words
and phrases help us do this.

188 WRITING READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4


AGEING UNIT 10

1 Look at the pie chart and complete the sentences Population by age
(1–8) with words from the box.
Children
Elderly (0–14)
(65 or older) 13.1%
23.3%
1 The overwhelming of Japanese
Working age
people are of working age.
(15–64)
2 A sizable (23%) are over 65 years old.
63.6%
3 The number of Japanese people who are of
working age is almost five more than
those under 14.
4 A significant of the Japanese
population are of working age.
5 The percentage of people aged 65 and older is
nearly the percentage of children.
6 The percentage of the population who are of working
age is nearly those who are pensioners.
7 More than the population is of working age.
8 Just under a of the population is over 65.
EXPLANATION

Language of prediction
When we describe a graph, we sometimes predict what might happen in the
future based on the trends in the graph. We can use a number of different ways
to show that a statement is a prediction.

2 Match the sentence halves.


1 There is likely a well be more wealthy people with time on
2 There may their hands.
3 The number of b to be more competition for places at care
4 The population is set homes in the future.
5 We are unlikely to c projected to increase in the coming years.
6 Unemployment is d to rise sharply during the next few years.
7 Food prices e young people is expected to remain the
same for the foreseeable future.
f are predicted to come down.
g see a sharp rise in immigration based on
current trends.

READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4 WRITING 189


3 Write sentences with the same meaning. Include the word in brackets.
More than one answer is possible.
1 The population will increase in the future.
(likely)
2 Oil prices will come down this year.
(may well)
3 Unemployment will remain at the same level in the coming months.
(predicted)
4 The cost of living will rise over the decade.
(set)
5 There will be more competition for university places in the future.
(expected)
6 There will not be a reduction in the number of schools.
(unlikely)
7 Salaries will rise because of access to better training and education.
(projected)

ACADEMIC WRITING SKILLS


INTERPRETING GRAPHS AND CHARTS
1 Look at the example writing task. Are statements (1–8) true (T) or false (F)?

The diagram below shows the global population by age in 1950 and
2000 and the projected figures for 2050. Write an essay describing the
information and suggesting what the potential global impact could be if
the 2050 projections are correct.
Population by age group
10,000,000 2050
0–19
20–64
7,500,000 65+ 16%
2000
7%
27%
5,000,000
1950 39%
2,500,000 5% 57%
54%
51% 44%
0
2.5 billion 6 billion 9 billion

1 You should mention all the data in the diagram.


2 You do not have to mention exact numbers.
3 You should start your essay by copying the title or the caption.
4 You should compare the charts.
5 You should talk about general trends over time.
6 You do not need an introduction or conclusion in this type of essay.
7 Your writing does not need to be formal in this type of essay.
8 You should give your own ideas.
190 WRITING READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4
AGEING UNIT 10

2 Which of the following sentences would you include when writing the
essay in Exercise 1? Give reasons for your answers.
1 In 1950, there were 44% 0–19-year-olds, 51% 20–64-year-olds and 5%
65+ year-olds.
2 I think it’ll be really tough to be a teenager in 2050 cos there’ll be a lot
of old people.
3 Although there was only a 2% rise in the number of over-65s between
1950 and 2000, this figure is projected to rise by nearly 10% by 2050.
4 This essay will describe the global population by age in 1950 and 2000
and the projected figures for 2050.
5 The predicted decrease in the number of young people is likely to have
a range of social and economic effects.

WRITING TASK
100+
95-99
90-94 Male Female Male Female Male Female
85-89
80-84
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5% 7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5% 7.5% 5% 2.5% 2.5% 5% 7.5%

The population pyramids above show the global population by age in 1950 and 2010 and the
projected figures for 2100. Write an essay describing the information and suggesting what the
potential global impact could be if the 2100 projections are correct.

1 Look again at the structure of the essay in Reading 2 on page 184.


PLAN AND WRITE
Write the paragraph numbers of Reading 2 next to the purposes below.
A FIRST DRAFT
a Presentation and description of the data from the graphs
b Second most important implication
c Most important implication
d General overview of the impact of this data
e Third most important implication
f Introduction
2 Look at the population pyramids above. Write one sentence about what
they represent. Paraphrase the language in the writing task.

READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4 WRITING 191


3 Choose three aspects of the data to write about. Consider points that
show the general picture or overall trends of the pyramids.
Point 1:
Point 2:
Point 3:
4 Summarize the most interesting or noticeable trend in one sentence.
Main trend:
5 Think of three important implications of your main argument. A model
for Reading 2 is given below as an example.

Reading 2: Saudi Arabia


Main trend: Saudi Arabia is experiencing a ‘youth bulge’.
Implication 1: effect on education
Implication 2: effect on the economy
Implication 3: effect on housing

6 Using the paragraph structure given in Exercise 1 and your notes in


Exercises 2–5, write the first draft of your essay. Write 250–300 words.
7 Use the task checklist to review your essay for content and structure.
EDIT

TASK CHECKLIST ✔
Does the structure of your essay follow the structure in
Reading 2?

Have you talked about both the data and its implications?

Do your examples back up your main trend and its implications?

Have you written between 250–300 words?

8 Make any necessary changes to your essay.


9 Now use the language checklist to edit your essay for language errors
which are common to B2 learners.

192 WRITING READING AND WRITING SKILLS 4