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# Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

## Faculty Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and

Science
Department: Department of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering
Unit Code and Name UEME 2123 Fluid Mechanics I
Experiment No.: 3
Title of Experiment: Fluid FIow Friction and Fittings Loss
Laboratory Room No. and Name: KB731 Thermofluids Lab
Experiment Duration (hour): 3 hours
Number of Student per Group 5 students

Objective

To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters pipes, joints and valves.

Introduction

When a fluid flows through pipes, energy is lost inevitably due to frictions which occur as a
result of viscous drag. Fluid friction produces eddies and turbulence, and these form of kinetic
energy are eventually converted into thermal energy. Losses in energy can be expressed in term
of pressure or head loss.

The total head, H, for a fluid flowing across a pipe is being derived based on Bernoulli’s
principle and is expressed as follow:

P V2
H  z
g 2 g

P V2
Where is pressure head, is dynamic or velocity head and z is elevation head.
g 2g

For laminar flow (Re < 2000), energy loss is given by Hagen-Poiseuilles Equation:

128lQ 128lQ
Pf  or h f 
d 4 gd 4

Where,

##  Pf = Pressure loss due to friction

 = Fluid viscosity
L = Pipe length
d = Pipe diameter
Q = Volumetric flow rate

## Latest updated: 14th January 2016

For turbulent flow (Re > 4000), the pressure loss is given by Darcy’s Equation:

 R  l  V 2 
Pf  8  
2 

 V  
d 2 

Where,
R = Shear stress acting on the wall
ρ = Fluid density
V = Fluid velocity

 R 
The dimensionless   can be grouped as  , known as friction factor,
 V
2

## Thus the equation would be simplified to:

l  V 2  l V 2 
Pf  8   h f  8  
d  2  or
d  2g 

## Effect of pipe diameter on energy losses

Different pipe diameters would result in different amount of energy losses depending on the
regime of flow. The head loss is inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe.

## Energy losses due to sudden change in pipe diameter

Consider a sudden enlargement in pipe flow area from A1 to A2, the head loss is

2
 V 2  A 
h f   1 1  1 
 2 g  A2 

## Head loss at sudden contraction

Eddies that formed between the 'vena contracta' and the pipe wall caused the most energy
dissipation. Between the vena contracta and the downstream section (2) a flow pattern similar
to that occurring after an abrupt enlargement is formed and thus loss occurs once again as

2
 V12  A2   V22 

h f      
 A  1  K c  2 g 
 2 g  c   

## Latest updated: 14th January 2016

Energy losses in fittings

Energy is lost whenever the direction of flow in a pipe is altered. The magnitude of these losses
is mainly dependent on the radius of curvature of the bend. A pipe bend, elbow or junction
therefore causes an additional head loss. The extra loss is expressed as

V 2 
h f  K  1 
 2g 

## Where K is the coefficient of friction for fittings

Losses in valves

Valves that are installed in a piping system are causing additional losses of head. For turbulent
flow, the head loss can be represented by

V2 
h f  K  
 2g 

Quantity estimation
Item Description *Item category (e.g. per set/group of
student)
Fluid FIow Friction and Fittings Loss
E 1
Apparatus
Digital Manometer W 1

*Item category
SP Sample or specimen
C Consumable
CH Chemical
W Labware, glassware, tool, and
components
E Equipment
S Software

Procedures

## 2. Shut off all the valves of the trainer.

3. Switch on the trainer main power supply. Ensure the water pump is running.

4. Adjust the by-pass (BV) and flow regulating valve (FRV) to obtain the desired liquid
flow rate.

## Latest updated: 14th January 2016

5. Turn off all valves except V1, connect the pressure meter to measure the head loss across
the 8 mm copper pipe.

6. Turn off V1, switch on V2, with the rest of the valves remain closed, measure the head
loss across the contraction, 12 mm PVC pipe and the enlargement portion.

7. Turn off V2, switch on V3, to measure the head loss across 15.5 mm pipe.

8. Turn off V3, switch on V4, measure head loss across 18 mm pipe, ball valve, 45o Y-
joint and 90o bend.

9. Turn off V4, fully turn on globe valve, measure the head loss in 90o elbow, 90o T-joint,
in-line strainer, gate valve and globe valve.

## 11. Record all the data obtained to the table provided.

Laboratory Report

## 1. Plot the graphs of head loss against flow rate.

2. Calculate the friction factor for pipe flow and coefficient of friction for various fittings.

## 5. Your report must consist of Objective, Introduction, Procedures, Results, Discussion,

Conclusions and References.

## Fitting Head loss, Δh (mH2O)

4 GPM 5 GPM 6 GPM 7 GPM 8 GPM
(0.00025 m3/s) (0.00032 m3/s) (0.00038 m3/s) (0.00044 m3/s) (0.00050 m3/s)
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube)
12 mm (PVC) full
15.5 mm (PVC)
18 mm (PVC)
Sudden enlargement
Sudden contraction

Bends
90 o Bend
90 o Elbow
90 o T-joint
45 o Y-joint

Valves
Gate
Ball
Globe
In-line strainer

## Fitting Flow rate : 4 GPM

Δh l /d V2 / 2g  K
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube) -
12 mm (PVC) full -
15.5 mm (PVC) -
18 mm (PVC) -
Sudden enlargement - -
Sudden contraction - -

Bends
90 o Bend - -
90 o Elbow - -
90 o T-joint - -
45 o Y-joint - -

Valves
Gate - -
Ball - -
Globe - -
In-line strainer - -

## Fitting Flow rate : 5 GPM

Δh l /d V2 / 2g  K
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube) -
12 mm (PVC) full -
15.5 mm (PVC) -
18 mm (PVC) -
Sudden enlargement - -
Sudden contraction - -

Bends
90 o Bend - -
90 o Elbow - -
90 o T-joint - -

## Latest updated: 14th January 2016

45 o Y-joint - -

Valves
Gate - -
Ball - -
Globe - -
In-line strainer - -
Fitting Flow rate : 6 GPM
Δh l /d V2 / 2g  K
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube) -
12 mm (PVC) full -
15.5 mm (PVC) -
18 mm (PVC) -
Sudden enlargement - -
Sudden contraction - -

Bends
90 o Bend - -
90 o Elbow - -
90 o T-joint - -
45 o Y-joint - -

Valves
Gate - -
Ball - -
Globe - -
In-line strainer - -

## Fitting Flow rate : 7 GPM

Δh l /d V2 / 2g  K
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube) -
12 mm (PVC) full -
15.5 mm (PVC) -
18 mm (PVC) -
Sudden enlargement - -
Sudden contraction - -

Bends
90 o Bend - -
90 o Elbow - -
90 o T-joint - -

## Latest updated: 14th January 2016

45 o Y-joint - -

Valves
Gate - -
Ball - -
Globe - -
In-line strainer - -
Fitting Flow rate : 8 GPM
Δh l /d V2 / 2g  K
Straight Pipes
8 mm (copper tube) -
12 mm (PVC) full -
15.5 mm (PVC) -
18 mm (PVC) -
Sudden enlargement - -
Sudden contraction - -

Bends
90 o Bend - -
90 o Elbow - -
90 o T-joint - -
45 o Y-joint - -

Valves
Gate - -
Ball - -
Globe - -
In-line strainer - -

## Additional information for Lab 3:

• Lengths for the straight pipes (8 mm, 12 mm, 15.5 mm, and 18 mm) are 1 m.
• Diameters for the sudden enlargement and sudden contraction pipes are 15.5 mm and
12 mm, respectively.
• Diameters for the bends and valves are 15.5 mm.
• Volumetric flow rate, Q = VA