Sei sulla pagina 1di 79

UNIT- III Transistor Characteristics

BJT: Junction transistor, transistor current components,

transistor equation, transistor configurations, transistor as an

amplifier, characteristics of transistor in Common Base, Common Emitter and Common Collector configurations, Ebers- Moll model of a transistor, punch through/ reach through, Photo transistor, typical transistor junction voltage values. FET: FETtypes, construction, operation, characteristics, parameters, MOSFET-types, construction, operation, characteristics, comparison between JFET and MOSFET.

ECE 663

Transistor/switch/amplifier a 3 terminal device

Source Gate Drain
Source
Gate
Drain

Dam

Incoherent

Light

Vein Artery Valve
Vein
Artery
Valve

Coherent

Light

Gain medium

Laser

Heart

t Vein Artery Valve Coherent Light Gain medium Laser Heart Emitter Base BJT Collector MOSFET Ion

Emitter

Base

BJT

Collector

Valve Coherent Light Gain medium Laser Heart Emitter Base BJT Collector MOSFET Ion Channel Axonal conduction

MOSFET

Ion Channel
Ion Channel

Axonal conduction

Valve Coherent Light Gain medium Laser Heart Emitter Base BJT Collector MOSFET Ion Channel Axonal conduction

ECE 663

All of these share a feature with…

All of these share a feature with… • Output current can toggle between large and small

Output current can toggle between large and small

(Switching Digital logic; create 0s and 1s)

Small change in ‘valve’ (3 rd terminal) creates Large change in output between 1 st and 2 nd terminal

(Amplification Analog applications; Turn 0.5 50)

Recall p-n junction

P N W + - V appl > 0
P
N
W
+
-
V appl > 0
N P W + - V appl < 0
N
P
W +
-
V appl < 0

Forward bias, + on P, - on N (Shrink W, V bi )

Allow holes to jump over barrier

into N region as minority carriers

I
I

V

Reverse bias, + on N, - on P (Expand W, V bi )

Remove holes and electrons away from depletion region

V
V

I

So if we combine these by fusing their terminals…

P N W + - V appl > 0
P
N
W
+
-
V appl > 0
N P W + - V appl < 0
N
P
W +
-
V appl < 0

Holes from P region (“Emitter”) of 1 st PN junction driven by FB of 1 st PN junction into central N region (“Base”)

Driven by RB of 2 nd PN junction from Base into P region of 2 nd junction (“Collector”)

1 st region FB, 2 nd RB

If we want to worry about holes alone, need P+ on 1 st region

For holes to be removed by collector, base region must be thin

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics

- + I I C E - + I B
-
+
I
I C
E
-
+
I B

I E = I B + I C

………(KCL)

V EC = V EB + V BC ……… (KVL)

The BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor

The BJT – Bipolar Junction Transistor Note: Collector layer has Moderate doping. Normally Emitter layer is

Note:

Collector layer has Moderate doping.

Normally Emitter layer is heavily doped, Base layer is lightly doped and

The Two Types of BJT Transistors:
The Two Types of BJT Transistors:
npn C
npn
C
n p n
n
p
n
C
C
pnp
pnp
E p n p C C Cross Section B B Schematic Symbol E
E
p
n
p
C
C
Cross Section
B
B
Schematic
Symbol
E

E

Cross Section

B B Schematic Symbol E • Collector doping is usually ~ 10 9 • Base
B
B
Schematic
Symbol
E
• Collector doping is usually ~ 10 9
• Base doping is slightly higher ~ 10 10 – 10 11
• Emitter doping is much higher ~ 10 17

BJT Current & Voltage - Equations

BJT Current & Voltage - Equations I E I C - V + CE E C
I E I C - V + CE E C - - V BE I
I E
I C
-
V
+
CE
E
C
-
-
V BE
I B
V BC
+
+
B
n p n
I E = I B + I C
V CE = -V BC + V BE
I E I C + V - EC E C + + V EB I
I E
I C
+
V
-
EC
E
C
+
+
V EB
I B
V CB
-
-
B
p n p
I E = I B + I C
V EC = V EB - V CB
I co - I nc + V CB - + I pe I ne -
I co
-
I nc
+
V CB
-
+
I pe
I ne
-
Bulk-recombination
V BE
Current
n - p
n
-
p

- Electrons

+ Holes

+ n
+
n

Figure : Current flow (components) for an n-p-n BJT in the active region.

NOTE: Most of the current is due to electrons moving from the emitter through base to the collector. Base current consists of holes crossing from the base into the emitter and of holes that recombine with electrons in the base.

Physical Structure

Physical Structure • Consists of 3 alternate layers of n - and p -type semiconductor called
Physical Structure • Consists of 3 alternate layers of n - and p -type semiconductor called

Consists of 3 alternate layers of n- and p-type semiconductor called emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C).

Majority of current enters collector,

crosses base region and exits through emitter. A small current also enters base terminal, crosses base- emitter junction and exits through emitter.

Carrier transport in the active base region directly beneath the heavily doped (n + ) emitter dominates i-v characteristics of BJT.

in the active base region directly beneath the heavily doped ( n + ) emitter dominates
I c C - - - - - - n Recombination - - - V
I
c
C
-
-
-
-
- -
n
Recombination
-
-
-
V
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CB
_
- Electrons
+ Holes
-
-
-
-
-
B
-
+
-
- +
-
-
p
+
+
I
B
-
-
V
_
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
BE
- -
-
--
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
n
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
I
E
For CB Transistor I E = I ne + I pe I = I -
For CB Transistor I E = I ne + I pe
I
= I
-
I
c
nc
co
And I c = - αI E + I Co
Bulk-recombination
CB Current Gain, α
current
I CO
I nc
(I c - I co ) .
(I E - 0)
For CE Trans., I C = βI b + (1+β) I co
where β ═
α
,
1- α
is CE Gain
I pe
I ne

Figure: An npn transistor with variable biasing sources (common-emitter configuration).

Common-Emitter

Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of

Circuit Diagram I C

Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
V CE
V CE
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
+ _
+
_
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
I B
I
B

V

C
C

C

Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of
Common-Emitter Circuit Diagram I C V CE + _ I B V C C Region of

Region of Operation

Description

Active

Small base current controls a large collector current

Saturation

V CE(sat) ~ 0.2V, V CE

increases with I C

Cutoff

Achieved by reducing I B to 0, Ideally, I C will also be equal to 0.

Collector-Current Curves I C Active Region I B V CE Saturation Region Cutoff Region I
Collector-Current Curves
I
C
Active
Region
I
B
V
CE
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I B = 0

BJT’s have three regions of operation:

1) Active - BJT acts like an amplifier (most common use)

2) Saturation - BJT acts like a short circuit 3) Cutoff - BJT acts like an open circuit

a short circuit 3) Cutoff - BJT acts like an open circuit BJT is used as

BJT is used as a switch by switching between these two regions.

I C (mA) Saturation Region I B = 200 mA 30 C Active Region I
I C (mA)
Saturation Region
I B = 200 mA
30
C
Active Region
I B = 150 mA
B
22.5
E
I B = 100 mA
15
I
B = 50 mA
7.5
Cutoff Region
I B = 0
0
V CE (V)
0
5
10
15
20
DC Models for a BJT:
C
C
C
R o
I CEO
b
b
dc I B
dc I B
r
sat
I
B
+
B
_
B
+
+
_
_
B
V o
R BB
V o
V o
E
E
Active Region Model #1
Active Region Model #2
E
Saturation Region Model

When analyzing a DC

BJT circuit, the BJT is replaced by one of the DC circuit models shown below.

DC b and DC

DC b and DC  b = Common-emitter current gain  = Common-base current gain b
b = Common-emitter current gain  = Common-base current gain b =  = I
b = Common-emitter current gain
 = Common-base current gain
b =
 =
I C
I C
I B
I E
The relationships between the two parameters are:  = b b + 1 b =
The relationships between the two parameters are:
 =
b
b + 1
b =
1 - 
Note:  and b are sometimes referred to as  dc and b dc because
Note:  and b are sometimes referred to as  dc and b dc
because the relationships being dealt with in the BJT
are DC.

Output characteristics: npn BJT (typical)

30

22.5

15

7.5

0

I C (mA)

I B = 200 mA I B = 150 mA I B = 100 mA
I B = 200 mA
I B = 150 mA
I B = 100 mA
I B = 50 mA
I B = 0
0
5
10
15
20

V CE (V)

Input characteristics: npn BJT (typical)

b dc

=

I = h

C

I FE

B

Note: The PE review text sometimes uses dc instead of b dc. They are related as follows:

dc

= b

dc

b

dc

+ 1

 b  dc dc 1-  dc
b 
dc
dc
1- 
dc

Find the approximate values of b dc and dc from the graph.

I B (mA) V CE = 0.5 V 200 V CE = 0 V CE
I B (mA)
V CE = 0.5 V
200
V CE = 0
V CE > 1
V
150
100
50
0
V BE (V)
0
0.5
1.0

The input characteristics look like the characteristics of a forward-biased diode. Note that V BE varies only slightly, so we often ignore these characteristics and assume:

Common approximation: V BE = V o = 0.65 to 0.7V

Note: Two key specifications for the BJT are B dc and V o (or assume V o is about 0.7 V)

Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.

Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.

Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.

Figure: Common-emitter characteristics displaying exaggerated secondary effects.

Various Regions (Modes) of Operation of BJT

Various Regions (Modes) of Operation of BJT

Active:

Saturation:

Cutoff:

• Most important mode of operation • Central to amplifier operation • The region where
• Most important mode of operation
• Central to amplifier operation
• The region where current curves are practically flat
• Barrier potential of the junctions cancel each other out causing a virtual short (behaves
• Barrier potential of the junctions cancel each other out
causing a virtual short (behaves as on state Switch)
• Current reduced to zero • Ideal transistor behaves like an open switch
Current reduced to zero
Ideal transistor behaves like an open switch
* Note: There is also a mode of operation called inverse active mode, but it
* Note: There is also a mode of operation called
inverse active mode, but it is rarely used.

BJT Trans-conductance Curve

For Typical NPN Transistor 1 Collector Current: I C =  I ES e V
For Typical NPN Transistor 1
Collector Current:
I C =  I ES e V BE / V T
I
C
Transconductance:
(slope of the curve)
8
mA
g m =
I C /
V BE
6 mA
I ES = The reverse saturation current
of the B-E Junction.
V T = kT/q = 26 mV (@ T=300 o K)
4
mA
= the emission coefficient and is
usually ~1
2
mA
0.7 V
V BE

Three Possible Configurations of BJT

Three Possible Configurations of BJT
Biasing the transistor refers to applying voltages to the transistor to achieve certain operating conditions.
Biasing the transistor refers to applying voltages to the transistor
to achieve certain operating conditions.
1. Common-Base Configuration (CB) :
input
= V EB & I E
output = V CB & I C
2. Common-Emitter Configuration (CE): input = V BE & I B output= V CE &
2. Common-Emitter Configuration (CE): input = V BE & I B
output= V CE & I C
3. Common-Collector Configuration (CC) :input = V BC & I B (Also known as Emitter
3. Common-Collector Configuration (CC) :input = V BC & I B
(Also known as Emitter follower)
output = V EC & I E

Common-Base BJT Configuration

I C
I
C
V CE I E
V CE
I
E
C E Circuit Diagram: NPN Transistor V CB V BE The Table Below lists assumptions
C
E
Circuit Diagram: NPN Transistor
V CB
V BE
The Table Below lists assumptions
I
B
that can be made for the attributes of
the common-base BJT circuit in the
different regions of operation. Given
for a Silicon NPN transistor.
B
V CB
V BE
Region of
C-B
E-B
I
C
V CE
V BE
V CB
Operation
Bias
Bias
Active
bI B
~0.7V
 0V
Rev.
Fwd.
=V BE +V CE
Saturation
Max
~0V
~0.7V
-0.7V<V CE <0
Fwd.
Fwd.
None
Cutoff
~0
 0V
 0V
Rev.
=V BE +V CE
/Rev.
+
_
+
_

Common-Base (CB) Characteristics

Common-Base (CB) Characteristics Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most common configuration, it is often
Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most common configuration, it is often helpful in
Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most common
configuration, it is often helpful in the understanding operation of BJT
V c - I c (output) Characteristic Curves I C mA Breakdown Reg. 6 Active
V c - I c (output) Characteristic Curves
I
C
mA
Breakdown Reg.
6
Active Region
I
4
E
I
E =2mA
2
I
E =1mA
Cutoff
I E = 0
V
0.8V
2V
4V
6V
8V
CB
RegionSaturation

Common-Collector BJT Characteristics

Emitter-Current Curves The Common-Collector biasing circuit is basically equivalent to the common-emitter biased
Emitter-Current Curves
The Common-Collector
biasing circuit is
basically equivalent to
the common-emitter
biased circuit except
instead of looking at I C
as a function of V CE and
I B we are looking at I E .
Also, since  ~ 1, and 
= I C /I E that means I C ~I E
I
E
Active
Region
I
B
V
CE
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I B = 0

n p n Transistor: Forward Active Mode

Currents

Base current is given by

I C = I B = V BE I E =
I C =
I B =
V BE
I E =

Forward Collector current is

V BE

V

T

I

C

I

co

exp

1

I co is reverse saturation current

I

B

I

C

b

F

I

co

b

F

exp

V BE

V

T

1


20

b

500

is forward common-emitter

F

current gain Emitter current is given by

I

E

I

C

0.95

F

I

I

B

co

F

b

F

b

F

1

exp

1.0

V

BE

V

T

1

is forward common- base current gain

In this forward active operation region,

10

18

A

I

co

10

9

A

V T = kT/q =25 mV at room temperature

I

C

I

B

b

F

I

C

I

E

F

BJT configurations

BJT configurations GAIN CONFIG ECE 663

GAIN

CONFIG

ECE 663

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics

- + I I C E - + I B
-
+
I
I C
E
-
+
I B

V EB >-V BC > 0 V EC > 0 but small

I E > -I C > 0 I B

> 0

but small I E > -I C > 0  I B > 0 V E

V EB , V BC > 0 V EC >> 0

I E , I C > 0 I B

> 0

0 I E , I C > 0  I B > 0 V E B
0 I E , I C > 0  I B > 0 V E B

V EB < 0, V BC > 0 V EC > 0

I E < 0, I C > 0 I B

> 0 but small

ECE 663

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics

Bipolar Junction Transistors: Basics Bias Mode E-B Junction C-B Junction Saturation Forward Forward

Bias Mode

E-B Junction

C-B Junction

Saturation

Forward

Forward

Active

Forward

Reverse

Inverted

Reverse

Forward

Cutoff

Reverse

Reverse

ECE 663

BJT Fabrication

BJT Fabrication ECE 663
BJT Fabrication ECE 663

ECE 663

PNP BJT Electrostatics

PNP BJT Electrostatics ECE 663

ECE 663

PNP BJT Electrostatics

ECE 663

NPN Transistor Band Diagram: Equilibrium

NPN Transistor Band Diagram: Equilibrium ECE 663

ECE 663

PNP Transistor Active Bias Mode

V EB > 0 V CB > 0 Few recombine in the base
V EB > 0
V CB > 0
Few recombine
in the base

Large injection of Holes

Most holes

diffuse to collector

Collector Fields drive holes far away where they can’t return thermionically

ECE 663

Forward Active minority carrier distribution

P P+ N p B (x) n E (x’) n C0 p B0 n E0
P
P+
N
p B (x)
n E (x’)
n C0
p B0
n E0
n C (x’’)

ECE 663

PNP Physical Currents

PNP Physical Currents ECE 663

ECE 663

PNP transistor amplifier action

IN (small)

PNP transistor amplifier action IN (small) OUT (large) Clearly this works in common emitter configuration ECE
OUT (large)
OUT (large)

Clearly this works in common emitter configuration

ECE 663

Emitter Injection Efficiency - PNP

I E I C I Ep I Cp C E I En I Cn I
I E
I C
I Ep
I Cp
C
E
I En
I Cn
I
B
I Ep
I Ep

I
I
I
E
Ep
En
Can we make the emitter
see holes alone?

0  1

ECE 663

Base Transport Factor

I Ep I Cp I En I Cn I B
I Ep
I Cp
I En
I Cn
I B

I E

Base Transport Factor I Ep I Cp I En I Cn I B I E E

E

Base Transport Factor I Ep I Cp I En I Cn I B I E E

I C

I C
Transport Factor I Ep I Cp I En I Cn I B I E E I

 

T

I Cp

I Ep

C

0   1

T

Can all injected holes make it to the collector?

ECE 663

Common Base DC current gain - PNP

Common Base Active Bias mode:

I C = DC I E + I CB0

Bias mode: I C =  DC I E + I CB0 I Cp = 

I Cp = T I Ep

DC I E + I CB0 I Cp =  T I Ep  D C

DC = T

= T I E

I C = T I E + I Cn

 T I Ep  D C =  T  =  T  I
 T I Ep  D C =  T  =  T  I

ECE 663

Common Emitter DC current gain - PNP

Common Emitter Active Bias mode:

I E = b DC I B + I CE0

I C = DC I E + I CB0

= DC (I C + I B ) + I CB0

I CB0 =  D C (I C + I B ) + I C B
I CB0 =  D C (I C + I B ) + I C B

I

C

I B
I B

I C = DC I B + I CB0

B 0 I C I B I C =  DC I B + I CB0

1-DC

I

E

E

I C =  DC I B + I CB0 1-  D C I E
I C =  DC I B + I CB0 1-  D C I E

b DC = DC /(1-DC )

GAIN !!

ECE 663

Common Emitter DC current gain - PNP

b


dc



T

1  

T

Thin base will make T 1 Highly doped P region will make 1

ECE 663

PNP BJT Common Emitter Characteristic

PNP BJT Common Emitter Characteristic ECE 663

ECE 663

E

Eber-Moll BJT Model

E Eber-Moll BJT Model The Eber-Moll Model for BJTs is fairly complex, but it is valid
The Eber-Moll Model for BJTs is fairly complex, but it is valid in all regions
The Eber-Moll Model for BJTs is fairly complex, but it is valid in
all regions of BJT operation. The circuit diagram below shows
all the components of the Eber-Moll Model:
I E
I C
C
 R I E
R I C
I
F
I
R
I B
B

Eber-Moll BJT Model

Eber-Moll BJT Model  R = Common-base current gain (in forward active mode)  F =
 R = Common-base current gain (in forward active mode)  F = Common-base current
 R = Common-base current gain (in forward active mode)
 F = Common-base current gain (in inverse active mode)
I ES = Reverse-Saturation Current of B-E Junction
I CS = Reverse-Saturation Current of B-C Junction
I C =  F I F – I R I E = I F
I C =  F I F – I R
I E = I F -  R I R
I B = I E - I C
I F = I ES [exp(qV BE /kT) – 1]
I R = I C [exp (qV BC /kT) – 1]
 If I ES & I CS are not given, they can be determined using
 If I ES & I CS are not given, they can be determined using various
BJT parameters.

PHOTO TRANSSTOR

The phototransistor is a transistor in which base

current is produced when light strikes the

photosensitive semiconductor base region.

The collector-base P-N junction is exposed to incident

light through a lens opening in the transistor package.

When there is no incident light, there is only a small

thermally generated collector-to-emitter leakage

current i.e. I(CEO), this is called the dark current and is typically in the nA range.

When light strikes the collector-base pn junction, a base current produced that is directly proportional
When light strikes the collector-base pn junction, a base current
produced that is directly proportional to the light intensity.
is
Since the actual photo generation of base current occurs in the collector-base region, the larger
Since the actual photo generation of base current occurs in the
collector-base region, the larger the physical area of this region, the
more base current is generated.
A phototransistor does not activated at every type of wave lengths of light.
A phototransistor does not activated at every type of wave lengths of
light.

The phototransistor is similar to a regular BJT except that the base current is produced and controlled by light instead of a voltage source.

The phototransistor effectively converts variations in light energy to an electrical signal

The collector-base pn junction is exposed to incident light through a lens opening in the transistor package.

The phototransistor is a transistor in which base current is produced when light strikes the photosensitive semiconductor base region.

When there is no incident light, there is only a small thermally generated collector-to-emitter leakage current i.e. I(CEO), this is called the dark current and is typically in the range of nA.

When light strikes the collector-base pn junction, a base current, I λ , is produced that is directly proportional to the light intensity.

This action produces a collector current that increases with I λ .

Except for the way base current is generated, the phototransistor behaves as a conventional BJT.

In many cases there is no electrical connection to the base

The relationship between the collector current and the light-generated base

current in a phototransistor is

I C = β DC * I λ .

SYMBOL OF PHOTOTRANSISTOR

SYMBOL OF PHOTOTRANSISTOR
SYMBOL OF PHOTOTRANSISTOR

A typical phototransistor is designed to offer a large area to the incident light, as the simplified structure diagram in Figure:

phototransistor is designed to offer a large area to the incident light, as the simplified structure

Phototransistor are of two types.

1. Three Lead Phototransistor.

2. Two Lead Phototransistor.

1. Three Lead Phototransistor:

In the three-lead configuration, the base

lead is brought out so that the device can be used as a conventional BJT with or without the additional light-sensitivity feature.

brought out so that the device can be used as a conventional BJT with or without

2. Two Lead Phototransistor:

In the two-lead configuration. the base

is not electrically available, and the

device can be used only with light as the input. In many applications, the

phototransistor is used in the two-lead

version.

can be used only with light as the input. In many applications, the phototransistor is used
Phototransistor Bias Circuit

Phototransistor Bias Circuit

Typical collector characteristic curves. Notice that each individual curve on the graph corresponds to a certain value of light intensity (in this case, the units are m

W/cm 2 ) and that the collector current increases with light intensity.

intensity (in this case, the units are m W/cm 2 ) and that the collector current
Phototransistors are not sensitive to all light but only to light within a certain range

Phototransistors are not sensitive to all

light but only to light within a certain range

of wavelengths. They are most sensitive to particular wavelengths. as shown by the peak of the spectral response curve in Figure.

Key Points

Bipolar transistors are widely used in both analogue and

digital circuits

They can be considered as either voltage-controlled or current-controlled devices

Their characteristics may be described by their gain or by

their transconductance

Feedback can be used to overcome problems of variability

The majority of circuits use transistors in a common-emitter

configuration where the input is applied to the base and the

output is taken from the collector

Common-collector circuits make good buffer amplifiers

Bipolar transistors are used in a wide range of applications

FET ( Field Effect Transistor)

Few important advantages of FET over conventional Transistors

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Unipolar device i. e. operation depends on only one type of

charge carriers ( h or e)

Voltage controlled Device (gate voltage controls drain current)

Very high input impedance (10 9 -10 12 )

Source and drain are interchangeable in most Low-frequency

applications

Low Voltage Low Current Operation is possible (Low-power consumption)

Less Noisy as Compared to BJT

No minority carrier storage (Turn off is faster)

Self limiting device

Very small in size, occupies very small space in ICs

Low voltage low current operation is possible in MOSFETS

Zero temperature drift of out put is possiblek

Types of Field Effect Transistors (The Classification)

» FET
»
FET
» FET JFET MOSFET (IGFET) n-Channel JFET p-Channel JFET Enhancement MOSFET Depletion MOSFET n-Channel EMOSFET

JFET

MOSFET (IGFET)

n-Channel JFET

p-Channel JFET

» FET JFET MOSFET (IGFET) n-Channel JFET p-Channel JFET Enhancement MOSFET Depletion MOSFET n-Channel EMOSFET
Enhancement
Enhancement

Enhancement

MOSFET

MOSFET

Enhancement MOSFET
Enhancement MOSFET
Enhancement MOSFET
Enhancement MOSFET
(IGFET) n-Channel JFET p-Channel JFET Enhancement MOSFET Depletion MOSFET n-Channel EMOSFET n-Channel DMOSFET
Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET

Depletion

Depletion
MOSFET

MOSFET

Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET
Depletion MOSFET

n-Channel

EMOSFET

n-Channel

DMOSFET

p-Channel

DMOSFET

p-Channel

EMOSFET

The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)

The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) Figure: n -Channel JFET.

Figure: n-Channel JFET.

Gate

Gate Drain Source n-channel JFET SYMBOLS Gate Drain Source n-channel JFET Offset-gate symbol Gate Drain Source

Drain

Source

n-channel JFET

SYMBOLS

Gate

Gate Drain Source n-channel JFET SYMBOLS Gate Drain Source n-channel JFET Offset-gate symbol Gate Drain Source

Drain

Source

n-channel JFET Offset-gate symbol

Gate

Drain Source n-channel JFET SYMBOLS Gate Drain Source n-channel JFET Offset-gate symbol Gate Drain Source p-channel

Drain

Source

p-channel JFET

Biasing the JFET

Biasing the JFET Figure: n -Channel JFET and Biasing Circuit.
Biasing the JFET Figure: n -Channel JFET and Biasing Circuit.

Figure: n-Channel JFET and Biasing Circuit.

Operation of JFET at Various Gate Bias Potentials

Operation of JFET at Various Gate Bias Potentials Figure: The nonconductive depletion region becomes broader with

Figure: The nonconductive depletion region becomes broader with increased reverse bias. (Note: The two gate regions of each FET are connected to each other.)

Operation of a JFET

Drain

+
+
Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -
Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -

-

N P P N
N
P
P
N

Source

Gate

-

Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -
Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -
Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -

+

- +
-
+
Operation of a JFET Drain + - N P P N Source Gate - + -

Output or Drain (V D -I D ) Characteristics of n-JFET

or Drain ( V D -I D ) Characteristics of n-JFET Figure: Circuit for drain characteristics
or Drain ( V D -I D ) Characteristics of n-JFET Figure: Circuit for drain characteristics

Figure: Circuit for drain characteristics of the n-channel JFET and its Drain characteristics.

Non-saturation (Ohmic) Region:

its Drain characteristics. Non-saturation (Ohmic) Region: V DS      V V  

V

DS

 

V

V

 

GS

P

The drain current is given by

I

DS

2 I

DSS

V

2

P

Saturation (or Pinchoff) Region:

I  DS 2 I DSS V 2 P Saturation (or Pinchoff) Region:   

V

2

DS

   V

V V

GS

P

DS

2

V

DS

 

V

GS

V

P

I

DS

I

DSS

V

2

P

V

GS

V

P

2

and

I

DS

I

DSS

 

V

GS

V

P

1

2

Where, I DSS is the short circuit drain current, V P is the pinch off voltage

Simple Operation and Break down of n-Channel JFET

Simple Operation and Break down of n-Channel JFET Figure: n -Channel FET for v G S

Figure: n-Channel FET for v GS = 0.

N-Channel JFET Characteristics and Breakdown

Break Down Region
Break Down Region

Figure: If v DG exceeds the breakdown voltage V B , drain current increases rapidly.

V D -I D Characteristics of EMOS FET

V  V  V   DS GS P Locus of pts where Saturation
V
 V  V
DS
GS
P
Locus of pts where
Saturation or Pinch
off Reg.
Figure: Typical drain characteristics of an n-channel JFET.
DS GS P Locus of pts where Saturation or Pinch off Reg. Figure: Typical drain characteristics

Transfer (Mutual) Characteristics of n-Channel JFET

I 2 DSS    V  GS I  I 1  
I
2
DSS
  
V
GS
I
I
1
DS
DSS
  
V
P
V GS (off) =V P

Figure: Transfer (or Mutual) Characteristics of n-Channel JFET

JFET Transfer Curve

This graph shows the value of I D for a given value of V GS

JFET Transfer Curve This graph shows the value of I D for a given value of
Figure p -Channel FET circuit symbols. These are the same as the circuit symbols for

Figure p-Channel FET circuit symbols. These are the same as the circuit symbols for n-channel devices,

except for the directions of the arrowheads.

Figure: Circuit symbol for an enhancement-mode n -channel MOSFET.

Figure: Circuit symbol for an enhancement-mode n-channel MOSFET.

Figure: n -Channel Enhancement MOSFET showing channel length L and channel width W .

Figure: n-Channel Enhancement MOSFET showing channel length L and channel width W.

Figure: For v G S < V t o the pn junction between drain and

Figure: For v GS < V to the pn junction between drain and body is reverse biased and i D =0.

Figure: For v G S > V t o a channel of n -type material

Figure: For v GS >V to a channel of n-type material is induced in the region under the gate. As v GS increases, the channel becomes thicker. For small values of v DS ,i D is proportional to v DS. The device behaves as a resistor whose value depends on v GS.

Figure: As v D S increases, the channel pinches down at the drain end and

Figure: As v DS increases, the channel pinches down at the drain end and i D increases more slowly. Finally for v DS > v GS -V to , i D becomes constant.

Current-Voltage Relationship of

n-EMOSFET

Current-Voltage Relationship of n-EMOSFET Locus of points where

Locus of points where

Current-Voltage Relationship of n-EMOSFET Locus of points where
Figure: Drain characteristics

Figure: Drain characteristics