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Laboratory = 2.0 units = 6.0 hours

Total = 5.0 units = 9.0 hours

Reference Books:

Reinforced Concrete Design by DIT Gillesania

Reinforced Concrete Design by McCormac

Other Related RC books (American/Filipino Books)

ACI (American Concrete Institute)

NSCP 2010 ( National Structural Code of the Phils.)

CLASSROOM POLICIES:

Written Examination Passing rate = 75%

GRADING SYSTEM:

CLASS STANDING = 70%

ATTENDANCE = 5% (ABSENT = 16 HOURS = DR)

QUIZZES = 40%

ORAL EXAM/BW = 10

ASSIGNMENTS/PLATES = 15% (SUBMISSION OF PLATES IS DONE A WEEK AFTER THE PLATE IS GIVEN ON A SHORT

SIZE BOND PAPER W/ A TITLE PAGE USE BLACK PEN)

MAJOR EXAMS = 30%

TOTAL = 100% = 1.0

CE 42B

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN 1

Laboratory = 2.0 units = 6.0 hours

Total = 5.0 units = 9.0 hours

Reference Books:

Reinforced Concrete Design by DIT Gillesania

Reinforced Concrete Design by McCormac

Other Related RC books (American/Filipino Books)

ACI (American Concrete Institute)

NSCP 2010 ( National Structural Code of the Phils.)

CLASSROOM POLICIES:

Written Examination Passing rate = 75%

GRADING SYSTEM:

CLASS STANDING = 70%

ATTENDANCE = 5% (ABSENT = 16 HOURS = DR)

QUIZZES = 40%

ORAL EXAM/BW = 10

ASSIGNMENTS/PLATES = 15% (SUBMISSION OF PLATES IS DONE A WEEK AFTER THE PLATE IS GIVEN ON A SHORT

SIZE BOND PAPER W/ A TITLE PAGE USE BLACK PEN)

MAJOR EXAMS = 30%

TOTAL = 100% = 1.0

Introduction

Concrete – is a mixture of sand, gravel or crushed rock, or other aggregates held together in a

1

rocklike mass with a paste of cement (Portland or Pozzolanic) and water.

The difference between Portland and Pozzolanic is the setting time (hardening).

The total compressive strength ( fc’ ) of concrete is attainable for 28 days- curing period.

Admixtures – are additives used in concrete to change certain characteristics of the

concrete such as its workability, durability, and time of hardening.

Example: water proofing (water sealant), retarder (to delay the setting time),

Accelerator (to increase the time of curing).

Retarder –delaying the setting time.

Water sealant/proofing – to prevent water from seeping into concrete voids.

Reinforced Concrete – concrete that is reinforced with steel bars (deformed bars), embedded in such a manner

that the two materials act together in resisting the applied loads. The main purpose of the reinforcing bar is to resist

the elongation that is developed in the concrete.

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material:

1. It has considerable compressive strength as compared to most other materials.

2. It has great resistance to the actions of fire and water and, in fact, is the best

structural material available for situations where water is present.

3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.

4. It has a low maintenance.

5. It has a very durable period under proper conditions and can be used indefinitely

without reduction of their load-carrying activities.

Cumulative effects of aftershocks

Allowable size of Cracks – equal or less than 1 mm (Temperature or hairline).

6. It is usually the only economical material available for footings (foundation), basement walls(RC not CHB),

piers, and similar applications.

7. Can be cast into variety of shapes from simple slabs, beams, columns to great

arches and shells.

8. Concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials (approved source of aggregates).

9. Lower grade of skilled labor is required for erection.

SW: Give two brief reasons in two sentences only of why steel and concrete are compatible.

Concrete and steel reinforcing work together beautifully in reinforced concrete

structures. Concrete is strong in compression, and weak in resisting tensile forces,

but tensile strength is one of the great advantages of steel. Reinforcing bars have

tensile strengths equal approximately 100 times that of the usual concretes used.

The two materials bond together very well so there is no slippage between the two,

and thus they will act together as a unit in resisting the forces. The excellent bond is

obtained due to the chemical adhesion between the two materials, the roughness of

the bars, and the closely spaced rib-shaped deformations rolled on the bar surfaces.

Reinforcing bars are subject to corrosion, but the concrete surrounding them

provides them with excellent protection. Finally, concrete and steel work very well

together in relation to temperature changes because their coefficients of thermal

expansion are quite close to each other. For steel the coefficient of thermal

expansion is 0.0000065, while it varies for concrete about 0.000004 to 0.000007

(average value 0.0000055 which is closer to that of steel).

DESIGN CODES

The most important code for reinforced concrete design is the American Concrete

2

Institute’s (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete .In the Phils’. setting design

of structures is also in accordance with the standard provisions of National Structural Code of the

Phils. (NSCP 2010 and NSCP 2015).

ASSIGNMENT:

PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

1. Compressive Strength (fc’) – is determined by testing to failure 28-day-old 6” x 12”

concrete cylinders with ultimate strengths vary 2500 psi up to as high as 10,000 to

20,000 psi, most of the concrete used fall into the 3000-7000 psi range. For ordinary

applications, 3000 and 4000 psi concretes are used. For pre-stressed construction,

5000-6000 psi strengths are used. For some applications, such as the column of the

lower stories of high rise buildings, 9000 psi maximum is required.

2. Modulus of Elasticity – concrete has no clear-cut modulus of elasticity. Its values

varies with different concrete strengths, age, type of loadings, and the

characteristics of cement and aggregates. For concrete weighing from 90 to 155

lb/ft 3, EC = wc1.533fc’, where wc is the weight of concrete in lb/ft 3. For normal weight

concrete approximately 145 lb/ft3, EC = 57,000fc’.

Values of Ec for normal weight concrete:

fc’ Ec

3,500 24.1 3,410,000 23,503

4,000 27.6 3,640,000 25,130

4,500 31.0 3,870,000 26,650

5,000 34.5 4,070,000 28,090

only shortens in length but also expands laterally. The ratio of this lateral expansion

to the longitudinal shortening is referred to as Poisson’s Ratio. Its value varies from

about 0.11 for the high strength concretes to as high as 0.21 for the weaker grade

concretes with average values of about 0.16.

4. Shrinkage – when the concrete has been cured and begins to dry, the extra mixing

water that was used begins to work its way out of the concrete to the surface, where

it evaporates.

As a result, the concrete shrinks and cracks. The resulting cracks may reduce the shear

strength of the members and be detrimental to the appearance of the structure. In addition,

the cracks may permit the reinforcing to be exposed to the atmosphere, thereby increasing

the possibility of corrosion. To minimize shrinkage it is desirable to a) keep the amount of

mixing water to a minimum; b) cure the concrete well; c) place the concrete for walls, floors,

and other large items in small sections (thus allowing some of the shrinkage to take place

before the next section is placed); d) use construction joints to control the position of

cracks; e) use shrinkage reinforcement and; f) use appropriate dense and non-porous

aggregates.

5. Creep - under sustained compressive loads concrete will continue to deform for long

period of time. The additional deformation is called creep or plastic flow. The amount of

creep is very dependent on the amount of stress. It is almost directly proportional to stress

as long as the sustained stress is not greater than about one-half of fc’. Beyond this level,

creep will increase rapidly.

3

Factors affecting the amount of creep:

a. The longer the concrete cures before loads are applied, the smaller will be the creep.

Steam curing, which causes quicker strengthening , will also reduce creep.

c. Creep increases with higher temperatures. It is highest when the concrete as at about

1500F to 1600F.

d. The higher the humidity, the smaller will the free pore water which can escape from the

concrete. Creep is almost twice as large at 50% humidity than at 100% humidity.

e. Concretes with the highest percentage of cement-water paste have the highest creep

because the paste, not the aggregate, does the creeping. This is particularly true if a

f. The addition of reinforcing to the compression areas of concrete will greatly reduce

creep because steel exhibits very little creep at ordinary stresses. As creep tends to

occur in the concrete the reinforcing will block it and pick up more and more of the load.

6. Tensile Strength – the tensile strength of concrete varies from 8% to 15% of its compressive

strength. A major reason of this small strength is the fact that concrete is filled with fine

cracks. The cracks have little effect when concrete is subjected to compression transfer.

7. Shear Strength – the shearing strength of concrete is not quite critical. It can be easily

REINFORCING STEEL

Reinforcing bars are referred to as plain or deformed bars. The deformed bars, which have

ribbed projections rolled onto surfaces to provide better bonding between the concrete and

steel. The number of the bar coincides with the bar diameter in eighths-of an inch.

4

1. ASTM A615, billet steel, Grades 40 and 60.

2. ASTM A615, billet steel, Grade 75 for # 11, # 14, and # 18.

Remember: 1” = 25 mm

Standard Size

Nominal Description SI (mm) FPS (inch)

#2 6 ¼

#3 10 3/8 (temperature, tie bars)

#4 12 ½

#5 16 5/8( footing, beams, columns)

#6 20 ¾

#7 22 7/8

#8 25 1

#9 28 1 1/8

# 10 32 1¼

# 11 36 1 3/8

# 14 43 1¾

# 18 58 2¼

OBO – OFFICE OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL

Number of Bars

Bar no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5

9 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Bar No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

4 2.16 2.36 2.55 2.75 2.95 3.14 3.34 3.53 3.73 3.93

5 3.37 3.68 3.99 4.30 4.60 4.91 5.22 5.52 5.83 5.14

6 4.86 5.30 5.74 6.91 6.63 7.07 7.51 7.95 8.39 8.84

7 6.61 7.22 7.82 8.42 9.02 9.62 10.22 10.82 11.43 12.03

8 8.64 9.43 10.21 11.00 11.78 12.57 13.35 14.14 14.92 15.71

9 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0

10 13.92 15.91 16.45 17.72 18.98 20.25 21.52 22.78 24.05 25.31

11 17.91 18.75 20.31 21.87 23.44 25.0 26.56 28.12 29.69 31.25

14 24.75 27.0 29.25 31.50 33.75 36.0 38.25 40.50 42.75 45.0

18 44.0 48.0 52.0 56.0 60.0 64.0 68.0 72.0 76.0 80.0

Bar No. No. of Bars in single layer of reinforcement Add for each

added bar

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

6

9 7.3 9.5 11.8 14.0 16.3 18.6 20.8 2.26

The purpose of reinforcing concrete with steel bars is to prevent tension and resist the

elongation that is developed in the section subjected by the loads. This is because concrete

alone cannot resist tension. Steel bars are placed in the section of the beam where tension

is mostly developed. In the moment diagram, the point in the beam where the magnitude of

the bending moment is zero is called point of inflection. Also at this point, the concavity of

the elastic curve changes from concave upward to concave downward and vise-versa. At

this point, the beam is not critical to bend and reinforcing bars are no longer needed.

Any loading

Point of Inflection

M-Diag.

CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS

When reinforced concrete is subjected to deicing salts, seawater, or spray from these items,

it is necessary to provide special corrosion protection for the reinforcing. Should the

occupy a volume far greater than that of the original metal. This reduce the bond or sticking

of the concrete to the steel is reduced. The result of these factors is a decided reduction in

7

the life of the structure.

The lives of such structure can be greatly increased if epoxy-coated reinforcing bars are

used. Such bars need to be handled very carefully so as not to break off any of the coating

AGGREGATES

Aggregates used in the concrete occupy about ¾ of the concrete volume. The maximum

size of the aggregates that can be used in reinforced concrete are specified by the ACI code

Structural Light-Weight Concrete – concretes that have 28-day strengths equal to or greater

than 2500 psi and air dry weights equal to 115 lb/ft 3. The aggregates used for these

All - Lightweight Concrete – when light-weight aggregates are used for both sand and

coarse aggregate.

Sand – Light – Weight Concrete – if sand is used for the fine aggregate and if coarse

LOADS

1. Dead Loads – loads of constant magnitude that remain in one position. They consist of

The structural frame’s own weight and other loads that are permanently attached to the

frame. For a reinforced concrete building, some dead loads are the frame, walls, floors,

roof, plumbing, and fixtures.

2. Live Loads – loads that may change in position and magnitude. Live loads that move

8

under their own power are said to be moving loads, such as trucks, people, and cranes.

Loads that may be moved are movable loads, such as furniture, warehouse materials,

and snow. Other types of live loads are rain, traffic loads for bridges, impact loads,

lateral loads such as wind loads and earthquake loads, soil pressures (such as exertion

of lateral earth pressures on walls or upward pressures on foundations), hydrostatic

pressure (as water pressure on dams, inertia forces of large bodies of water during

earthquakes, and uplift forces on tanks and basement structures), blast loads (caused

by explosions, sonic booms, and military weapons), thermal forces (due to chages

in temperature resulting in structural deformation and resulting structural forces), and

centrifugal forces ( such as caused on curved bridges by trucks and trains or similar

effects on roller coasters).

Apartment Houses

Corridors 80

Apartments 40

Office Buildings

Offices 50

Lobbies 100

Restaurants 100

Schools

Classrooms 40

Corridors 80

Storage Warehouses

Light 125

Heavy 250

9

Tension

NA

NA

Compression

Compression

NA

Tension

Doubly Reinforced Beam – a beam reinforced for tension and compression. This usually

occurs in high rise building or when the moment due to the given loads exceeds the

N.A.

When a small amount of transverse load is placed on a concrete beam with tensile

reinforcing and that the load is gradually increased in magnitude until the beam fails, the

beam will undergo three distinct stages before collapse occurs. These are:

1. The uncracked concrete stage – at small loads when the tensile stresses are less than the

modulus of rupture (the bending stress at which the concrete begins to crack), the entire

cross-section of the beam resists bending, with compression on one side and tension on

the other.

ec in compresion fc in compression

10

es for steel in fs/n for steel in tension

tension

ec in tension ft in concrete

2. Concrete Cracked – Elastic Stresses Stage – as the load is increased after the modulus of

rupture of the beam is exceeded, cracks begin to develop in the bottom of the beam. The

moment at which these cracks begin to form , that is when the tensile stress in the bottom

of the beam equals the modulus of rupture- is referred to as the Cracking Moment, M CR.

Cracks occur at those places along the beam where the actual moment is greater than the

cracking moment. The steel must resist the cracking at the bottom. This stage will continue

as long as the compression stress in the top fibers is less than one-half of the concrete’s

compression strength, fc’ and as long as the stress in steel is less than its yield point.

MCR MCR

ec fc

es fs

The straight-line stress strain variation normally occurs in reinforced concrete under

normal service load conditions because at those loads the stresses are generally less than

0.50fc’. To compute the concrete and steel stresses in this range, the transformed area

method is used. The service or working loads are the loads which are assumed to actually

occur when a structure is in use or service. Under these loads, moments develop which

are assumed to be larger than the cracking moments. The tensile side of the beam will be

cracked.

11

3. Beam Failure – Ultimate – Strength Stage – as the load is increased further so that the

compressive stresses are greater than ½ of fc’, the tensile cracks move further upward, as

does the neutral axis, and the concrete stresses begin to change appreciably from a

straight line. For this condition, it is assumed that the reinforcing bars have yielded.

ec

ey

fy

strain (steel has yielded)

Moment

Failure

Myield Reinforcing bars yield

Curvature,

e

= --------

y

where:

12

y = distance from the neutral axis of the beam

The first stage of the diagram is for small moments less than the cracking moment,

where the entire beam cross-section is available to resist bending. In this range the

strains are very small and the diagram is nearly vertical and very close to a straight

line. When the moment is increased beyond the cracking moment, the slope of the

curve will decrease a little because the beam is not quite as stiff as it was in the

initial stage before the concrete cracked. The diagram will follow almost a straight

line from MCR to the point where the reinforcing is stressed to its yield point. Up until

the steel yields, a fairly large additional load is required to appreciably increase the

beam’s deflection. After the steel yields, the beam has very little additional moment

CRACKING MOMENT

The area of the reinforcing as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a beam is

quite small (usually 2% or less), and its effect on the beam properties is almost negligible

as long as the beam is uncracked. Therefore the calculation of bending stresses is based

The tensile stress (f) in the concrete at any point a distance y from the neutral axis of the

cross-section is

My

f = ----------

Ig

The cracking moment of a section is determined by the equation (ACI Code) as:

fr Ig

MCR = ---------

yt

13

where:

M = Bending Moment

concrete

tension

Example:

1. Assuming the concrete is uncracked, compute the bending stresses in the extreme

fibers of the beam illustrated in the figure below for a bending moment of 25 ft – k. The

concrete has an fc’ = 4000 psi and fr = 7.5 fc’ = 474 psi. Determine also its cracking

moment.

12”

14

3 - # 9 bars 15”

3”

Solution:

a. Bending/Flexural Stress

25 (1000)(12)(9)

f = -----------------------

5832

f = 462.96 psi 474 psi (the section is assumed not to have crack)

b. Cracking Moment

(474)(5832)

MCR = -----------------

9

MCR = 307152 in – lb

MCR = 25.5 ft – k

15

DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

(SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM for Tension Only )

Elastic Design:

Elasticity – the ability of the material to go back to its original shape after a load is applied without undergoing any

deformation.

Hooke’s Law: e ( stress is proportional to strain)

2. Ultimate Strength Design, USD (present)

WSD or Alternate Design Method: In this method, the dead loads and the live loads to be supported,

called working loads or service loads, were first estimated. Then the members of the structure were

proportioned so that stresses calculated by transformed area did not exceed certain permissible or

allowable values.

1. The design of some highway structures is handled by WSD, although the 1989 AASHTO

specifications permit the use of WSD in a manner similar to that of the ACI code.

2. Some designers use WSD for proportioning fluid-containing structures (such as water tanks

and various similar structures). Stresses are kept at fairly low levels with the result that

there is appreciably less cracking and less consequent leakage.

3. The AC

4. I method for calculating the moments of inertia ( I ) to be used for deflection calculations

requires some knowledge of the WSD procedures.

In this method, the maximum permissible concrete compressive stress in the extreme fiber of a

member is 0.45fc’. The maximum allowable tensile stress in the reinforcing steel is 20,000 psi or

138 MPa for grades 40 and 50 steels and 24,000 psi or 166 MPa for grade 60 steels and steels

with higher yield strengths.

In the alternate design method the most economical design possible is referred to as balanced

design. A beam designed by this method will, under full service load, have its extreme fibers in

compression stressed to their maximum permissible value fc = 0.45fc’ and its reinforcing bars

If a beam is designed in which the tensile steel reaches its maximum permissible tensile stress

before the concrete fibers reach their maximum allowable compressive stress, the beam is said to

be under-reinforced.

16

Assumption:

1. Plane section remains plane and normal to the longitudinal fiber stress before and after

bending and both materials are elastic. Strain varies linearly from the neutral axis.

2. Hooke’s Law applies, i.e., within the elastic limit stress is proportional to strain.

2 3. The tensile stress of concrete is negligible and only the steel carries tension.

Consider a section

b ec fc = 0.45fc’

Fc

kd

t d NA

jd

d - kd

As d’ es fs/n T

Cross

SECTION STRAIN DIAG. STRESS DIAG.

t = total thickness of the section fc = stress of concrete in the extreme fiber (comp)

b = width of the section fc’ = allowable comp stress of concrete

As = area of steel fs = stress of steel

d = effective depth(because the depth is measured from the extreme fiber in comp. to the CGTS)

n = modular ratio = Es/Ec (10 to 12)

d’ = protective covering Es = modulus of elasticity of steel

ec = strain of concrete Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete

es = strain of steel T = tensile force of steel

Fc = compressive force of concrete fs/n = equivalent stress of steel

PLATE NO. 1 DERIVATION OF THE WSD FORMULA(1,2,3,4)

Formula:

n M

1. k = -------------- 4. As = --------- 7. T = As fs

fs / fc + n fs j d

3. d = M / Rb 6. Fc = ½ fc b k d

17

Steps:

SHEAR @:

wL

A = D = F = G = I = L = ------------

2

1.15 w L

C = J = ----------------

2

MOMENT @

w L2 w L2

A = L = - ----------- D =F = G =I = - ----------

24 11

w L2 w L2

B = K = ----------- E = H = ------------

14 16

w L2

C = J = - ---------

10

1. Two or more spans.

2. The dead load should be more than 3 times the live load.

3. The difference between the succeeding spans should be more than 20%.

4. The intensity of the uniform load should cover the entire span of the beam.

18

a. Assume at least three trials and select the section having the best proportion with

d/b ratio that ranges from 1.25 – 1.75. Try a value of “b” with corresponding “d”.

c. Calculate the total weight of the beam and solve for the additional moment plus

To be safe: Allowable bd2 ≥ Actual bd2. If Allowable bd2( Actual bd2, then increase

5. Design steel reinforcements and check no. of bars with corresponding steel areas

MT

As = ---------

fs j d

As

N = --------

Ast

6. Solve for the clear spacing of main bars, Sb . A major purpose of this spacing is to

2. Sb should not be less than or equal to the dia. of the main bar

3. Sb should not be less than or equal to 1 and 1/3 of the of the maxm. permissible

size of aggregate:

19

b. 1/3 of the slab depths

computed is less than Sb as specified by ACI Specs., then increase the size of the

bar or arrange bars into rows. If bars are placed in more than one layer, those in

the upper layers are required to be placed directly over the ones in the lower

layers and the clear distance between the layers must be not less than 1” or

25mm.

V

Actual Shearing stress, vact = --------

bd

If vact ≤ vall, then the beam is safe in shear and no need to design stirrups. Use

temperature bars along the transverse section. Minimum area of temperature bars,

As = 0.002bt.

Spacing of Stirrups, s

Av fs

s = ----------

v’ b

Av = 2 (π/4) (s)2

1. s = d/2

2. s = 600 mm

Use whichever is the least value. Computed value of “s” should be less than or equal

20

the “s” as specified by ACI Specs.

10.14√ fc’

Allowable Bond Stress, uall = --------------------

b

b = diameter of main bar

Vmax

Actual Bond Stress, uact = ---------------

o j d

o = N b

If uact ≤ uall, then the beam is safe.

If uact ≥uall, then increase the size of the main bars or the number of main bars.

CE 42B (QUIZ)

1. Use short size bond paper and strictly close all notes.

2. Using of cell phone is not allowed within the duration of the exam.

3. Sit one seat apart!No talking and sharing of solution/answers.

21

3. Write your name, schedule, and date of today.

4. This test will end at 10:00 am.

Problem

Design a singly reinforced beam (SRB) using WSD and given the following data: fc’ = 25 MPa; fy = 276

MPa; fs = 138 MPa ; n = 12. Use 28 mm diameter main bars and 12 mm diameter stirrups.

Solve only the following:

1. k , j, (don’t round-off)

and R (rounded to 3 decimal places)

2. Designing maximum moment due to applied loads.

3. Trial b,d, and t. (Round – off d value to next whole higher number that is

divisible by 25.)

4. Weight of the beam (2 decimal places).

5. Maximum moment in addition to weight of the beam.

6. Number of 28 mm diameter main bars.

Good Luck!

P LL = 25 kN

3m 3m

W LL = 14 kN/m W DL = 18 kN/m

R1 = 89.5 kN R2 = 63.5 kN

89.5

V-diag

2.797m

22

125.166 kN.m

-38.5

102.008 -63.5

63.5

M-diag

M = 125.166 kN.m (Designing Moment)

12

k = ---------------------------

[138/0.45(25)] + 12

k = 45/91

j = 76/91

R = 1/2fc k j

R = 2.32 MPa

d = 125.166(106)/2.32 b

Trial Sections:

b(mm) d(mm) d/b(1.25to 1.75)

best proportion

275 443 1.61

300 424 1.41

325 407 1.25

Try: b = 275 mm

d = 443 + 50(allowance) = 493mm

t = d + 1/2b + s + 40

t = 493 + ½(25) + 12 + 40 = 557.5mm

wb = weight of the beam

wb = b t conc

PLL = 25kN

1.

35.68

3.68

4m 1m 1m

R1 = 100.54kN R2 = 74.54kN

100.54 V

d

V- diag 2.818m

-42.18

141.66 -45.86

-70.86

116.73

23

72.71 -74.54

M-diag

MT = Total Moment in addition to beam’s weight (Basis for designing main bars)

MT 141.66 (106)

As = -------- = ------------------ = 2 493.15 mm2

fs j d 138(76/91)(493)

N = No. of Bars

As 2 493.15

N = ------------- = ------------------ = 6 bars

A25 /4 (25)2

40 s b s b s b s 40

b

s = ----------------------------

N-1

c. S should not be smaller than the dia. Of main bar (s b)

d. S should not be smaller than 1 1/3 size of the coarse aggregates (s 1 1/3 size agg.)

If s than any of the value in a, b, and c, then arrange bars into rows (layers) provided that the clear

vertical spacing of main bars should not be less than 25mm.

275 – 2(40) – 2(12) – 6 (25)

S = -------------------------------------

5

S = 4mm (not ok)

Arrange bars into 2 rows, 3 bars/row

275 – 80 – 24 - 75

S = -----------------------

2

S =48mm (ok!)

24

1.Bending: Allowable Bending Moment

Conc : Mall = Rbd2 = 2.32 (275)(493)2 (10-6) = 155.06 kN.m

Steel : Mall = Tjd = As fs jd = 6(/4)(25)2 (138)(76/91)(443)(10-6) = 150.38kN.m

The design

is undereinforced design - steel yields first- Under - Reinforced Beam – if a beam has less

reinforcement than required for a balanced ratio. In this condition, the steel will begin to yield

even though the compression concrete is highly stressed resulting in appreciable deflections and large

visible cracks in the tensile concrete. As a result, the users of the structure are given notice that the load

must be reduced or else the result will be considerable damage or even failure. If the load is increased

further, the tension cracks will become even larger and eventually the compression side of the concrete

will become overstressed and fail.

2.Shear: Design of Stirrups.

vall = allowable shearing stress = 0.09fc’ = 0.0925 = 0.45 MPa

V

vact = actual shearing stress= ----------

bd

where: V = critical shearing force at “d” distance from Vmax.

V = 100.54 – 35.68(0.493) = 82.95 kN

82.95(103)

vact = ---------------- = 0.61 MPa vall (not safe!)

(275)(493)

Design stirrups.

Av fs 2(/4)(12)2(138)

S = spacing of stirrups = ------------ = ----------------------- = 709mm (not safe!)

v’ b (0.61 – 0.45)(275)

NSCP Provisions:

a. s = d/2 = 493/2 = 246mm

b. s = 450mm

s = 246mm (safe!)

3. Bond. uall = allowable bond stress = -------------- = ----------------- = 2.028MPa

b 25

3

Vmax 100.54 (10 )

uact =-------------= ---------------------------- = 0.52 MPa uall (safe!)

O jd 6(25)(76/91)(493)

Details:

CE 42B

QUIZ

NAME:_______________________________________________DATE:_____________SCORE:_____

25

Design an overhanging beam, given the following data.: fc’ = 25 MPa; fs = 138 MPa ; n = 12. Use 25

mm diameter main bars and 12 mm diameter stirrups.

P LL = 18kN

W LL = 12 kN/m

W DL = 18 kN/m

2m 6m

P

Pab2 Pa2b

26

A a b B MA = ------- MB = ------

L L2 L2

P

PL PL

A B MA = ------ MB = ------

L/2 L/2 8 8

w wL2 wL2

A B MA = -------MB = -------

L 12 12

W 5wL2 11wL2

A B MA = ------ MB = -------

L/2 L/2 192 192

w

wL2 wL2

A B MA = ------ MB = ------

L 30 20

Example; Design a continuous beam using the data given in the previous example.

Data: fc’ = 34 MPa fy = 414 MPa

Main Bars = 25mm Stirrups = 12mm

Solution: Solving moment at the supports using moment distribution method:

27

wu1 = 53kN/m wu2 = 56.4kN/m

I A 4m B 6m C

k = ---- 3 2

L

k 1 3/5 2/5 1

DF = -----

k

70.67 -70.67 101.52 -67.68

FEM

-70.67 -18.51 -12.34 67.68

st

1 Bal.

COM -2.31375 -0.22425 0.1495 -1.5425

0 -123.8 123.8 0

Designing Ultimate Moment = 123.8 kN.m

Designing Ultimate Moment, Mu = 123.8 kNm

Assume I = LCM of 4 and 6 = 12

Solve for the design constants:

Assume steel ratio, = 50% of max

0.85fc’ 600

max = 0.75b = 0.75 [---------- . --------------]

fy 600 + fy

where: = 0.85 if fc’ 30MPa ; = 0.85 – 0.05/7[ fc’ -30] if fc’ 30MPa

but: should not be less than 0.65

= 0.85 – 0.05/7[4] = 0.821 (0k)

= 0.01271701612

Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59fy/fc’)

Ru = 4.784MPa

d = Mu/Rub = 123.8(106)/0.9(4.784b)

28

b d d/b Area

Try: b = 225mm

d = 358 + 50 = 425 mm

t = 425 + ½(25) + 12 + 40

t = 489.5mm

wUB = ultimate beam’s weight = 1.4 b t conc= 1.4(0.225)(0.4895)(24) = 3.7kN/m

wuB =3.323

x = 0.354m

A 4m B 6m C

RA = 78.834 RB = 291.769 RC = 43.827

145.311.

78.834

V

1.3996m

-135.257

3 2

DF 1 3/5 2/5 1

-75.097 77.649

29

BAL -75.097 -14.557

-21.835 77.649

37.549 7.279

0.766 7.279

5.459 0.2

55

5.459 0.255

0.192 -1.820

-0.192 1.820

0 - 135.25

135.25 0

1

RA = ---[ 56.323(4)(2) – 135.25] = 78.834kN

4

MA = 0 (SPAN AB)

1

RB1 = --- [ 56.323(4)(2) + 135.25] = 146.458.834kN

4

MC = 0 (SPAN BC)

1

RB2= --- [ 323(6)(3) + ½(6) (56.4)(4) + 135.25 ] = 145.311 kN

6

1

RC= --- [ 323(6)(3) + ½(6) (56.4)(2) - 135.25 ] = 43.827 kN

6

SCHEDULE OF BARS (COMPLETE THIS TABLE FOR 30 MINUTES)

MOMENT,Mu (min & (mm)

(kN.m) (MPa) max) (mm 2)

IF min,

then use min

AB LEFT

- - - - - - -

MIDSPAN 55.168 1.937

30

RIGHT 135.257 4.750

BC

MIDSPAN 75.398 2.648

RIGHT

- - - - - - -

A 4m B 6m C

145.311.

78.834

V

1.3996m

-135.257

Vall = 1/6 fc’

Vall = 0.972 MPa

Vu

Vact = ------------

bd

Where: = 0.85

Vu = critical shearing force at “d” distance from maximum shear

By ratio & proportion:

Vu = 125.337 kN ( 20%)

Vact = 125.337 (103)/ 0.85(225)(375)

31

V act = 1.748 MPa v all ( therefore design stirrups) (20%)

S = spacing of stirrups:

Av fy 2(/4)(12) 2( 4140

S = --------- = -----------------------------

v’ b (1.748 – 0.972)(225)

S = 536.338mm (20%)

NSCP Specs:

e. s = d/2 = 375/2 = 187.5mm(10%)

f. s = 500mm(10%)

Use s = 187.5mm (safe)(20%)

0933 038 1727

4.

wLL = 15 kN/m

wDL = 25 kN/m

6m 4.5m

32

ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN

USD

Advantages:

1. The derivation of the strength design expressions takes into account the

33

equations are applied, decidedly better estimates of load-carrying ability

are obtained.

5. The strength method permits more flexible designs than does the

varied quite a bit. As a result, large sections may be used with small

percentages of steel.

Load Combinations:

U = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

And

Spiral = 0.75

Tied = 0.70

b ec = 0.003 fc = 0.85fc’

34

c a Fc

t d NA

d–c d – a/2

T T

d’ es

USD Formula

0.85fc’ 600

1. As = b d 6. b = -------------- . ------------------

fy fy + 600

d fy

2. a = --------------- 7. For steel to yield first: min ≤ ≤ max

0.85 fc’

8. min = 1.4/fy

3. Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59 fy / fc’)

9. max = 0.75 b

4. M u = Ru b d 2

600d

5. c = ----------------

fy + 600

As

Let : = --------

bd

As = bd

35

From the stress diagram:

Fc = T

Fc = 0.85 fc’ a b

T = As fy = b d fy

0.85 fc’ a b = b d fy

b d fy d fy

a = -------------------- = -------------

0.85 fc’ b 0.85 fc’

Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59 fy / fc’)

Mu = Ultimate Moment

Mu = T ( d – a/2 )

Mu = As fy ( d – a/2 )

d fy

Mu = b d fy ( d - ------------- )

0.85 fc’ 2

Mu = fy b d 2 ( 1 – 0.59 fy / fc’ )

Mu = Ru b d 2

ec es

---- = --------

c d–c

0.003 fy/Es

------- = ---------

c d-c

c fy = 600 ( d – c )

c fy = 600d – 600c

c fy + 600c = 600d

600 d

c = ------------------

fy + 600

b = As / b d

36

Fc = T

0.85 fc’ c b = b b d fy

0.85 fc’ c

b = -------------------

d fy

b = ------------- . -----------

fy fy + 600

Design of singly reinforced beam(reinforced for tension only) using the ultimate strength

design:

1. Calculate the ultimate loads, using the most critical load combination.

2. Calculate the designing moment by analyzing the beam using equilibrium conditions for

statically determinate and moment distribution method for statically indeterminate beams.

3. Solve for the values of the steel ratios at minimum and maximum conditions and assume

4. Design the depth of the section from flexural conditions by considering a section having

Exercises

Design a singly reinforced beam using the ultimate strength design and using fc’ = 20.7 MPa

fy = 413.7 MPa.

1. Simple span of 10 m and uniform live load of 10 kN/m and dead load (excluding beam’s

weight) of 20 kN/m.

37

2. This is your bring home examination.

LL = 18 kN/m

DL = 12 kN/m LL = 12 kN/m

DL = 12 kN/m

3m 1m 2m

P LL = 20 kN P LL = 30 kN

2.5m 6m 5m

Design of Slabs

Types of Slab:

38

1. One-way slab – is a slab supported on two sides only, the loads carried is in the

direction perpendicular to the supporting beams. The ratio of the length of the

2. Two-way slab – is a slab with beams on all four sides. The ratio of the length of the short

3. Flat slab – is beamless but incorporates a thickened slab region near the columns and

A

A B

---- < 1.5 or ---- > 2.0

B A B

B

L fy

t min = ------- [ 0.40 + ------- ] for simply supported beams

20 700

L fy

t min = ------- [ 0.40 + -------- ] for one end continuous

24 700

L fy

t min = ------- [ 0.40 + -------- ] for both ends continuous

28 700

L fy

t min = ------- [ 0.40 + ------ ] for cantivered slab

10 700

L

t min = ------ for simply supported slab

20

39

L

t min = ------- for one end continuous

24

L

t min = ------- for both ends continuous

28

L

t min = ------- for cantilevered slab

10

2. Minimum Covering = 20 mm

3. Minimum size

of steel bars = 12 mm diameter

4. Spacing of main bars should be greater than 3t or 500m and not less than 100 mm.

7. Area of temperature bars needed should not exceed the following steel ratio:

c. Slabs were reinforcement with yield strength exceeds 400 MPa measured at yield

(clear)

2. Solve for the minimum thickness of the slab using ACI specs.

3. Consider one meter width of the slab, calculate the loads, and the designing moments

using the ACI moment coeffiecients or moment distribution for continuous slabs.

SHEAR @:

wL

A = D = F = G = I = L = ------------

2

1.15 w L

40

C = J = ----------------

2

MOMENT @

w L2 w L2

A = L = - ----------- D =F = G =I = - ----------

24 11

w L2 w L2

B = K = ----------- E = H = ------------

14 16

w L2

C = J = - ---------

10

4. Solve for the steel ratios, min, max , assume value of , and R U.

6. Design the main bars needed and the spacing of the main and temperarture bars.

Exercises

1. The figure shown below is a floor framing plan of a three storey reinforced concrete

commercial building. Live load is 2874 Pa, the floor has a 26 mm thick floor finished

41

weighing 20 kN/m 3 and the slabs are supported by beams. Using fc’ = 17 MPa and fy =

2m

2m

2m

2m

2m

5m

5m

2. Design a one-way slab to carry a service live load of 10 kPa. Use fc’ = 21 mPa and fy =

w (L 1 + L 2) 2

2

350 MPa. Use M A = M D = - wL 2/11 and M B = M C = - ------------------- and midspan

11

moments is wL 2/16.

3.6m 4.0 m

LL

2. -------- 3.0

42

3 LL

43

B

Perimeter

2. Calculate the minimum thickness of the slab using the formula, t min = ---------------

2A+2B 180

tmin = --------

180

A+ B

tmin = ------------

90

3. Consider one meter width of the slab and solve the ultiomate loads.

6. Compute the spacing of the main bars. Spacing of the main bars within the

44

Exercises

1. Design a two-way slab of the given floor framing plan. The slab carries a total live load

of 4792 Pa and ha s40 mm thick floor finish weighing 479 N/m 3. Use fc’ = 21 MPa and fy

= 345 MPa.

5m S1

6m S2 OPEN

3m

2m 4m 2m

45

Plate No.____

Design of Slabs

Data:

Fc’ = 23 MPa

Fy = 400 MPa

Required: Label and design all one-way and two-way slabs(assume restrained supports for OWS) .

3m 3m 3m 3m 2m 2m

5m

1.5m OPEN

6m

Slab

Steps

s=thickness

t=tread

46

(10mm) Main

Bars (12mm)

L=nt

n = number of steps

s√ r2 + t2

wsl = weight of slab = ----------------- wc (kPa)

t

r

wst = weight of step = ------ wc (kPa)

2

The design of a stairway follows the same method as in the design of a one-way slab.

Example:

Design a reinforced concrete stairway having 13 - 178 mm risers and twelve 254 mm treads. Live load is 4800

Pa and fc’ = 21 MPa and fy = 350 MPa.

L

tmin = s = ------[0.40 + fy/700]

20

t min = 138mm 75 mm(ok)

s√ r2 + t2

47

wsl = weight of slab = ----------------- wc (kPa)

t

wsl = ---------------------------------- (24 000)

0.254

w sl = 4044.31 Pa

r

wst = weight of step = ------ wc (kPa)

2

w st = 2136 Pa

wDL = (4044.31 + 2136) 1

w DL = 6180.31 N/m

w LL = 4800 N/m

wU =- 1.4(6180.31) + 1.7(4800)

w U = 16 812.434N/m

wU L2

Mu = --------

8

Mu = 19 524.078 N.m

= 0.01026710526

Ru = fy ( 1 – 0.59 fy / fc’ )

Ru = 3.2307 MPa

d = Mu/Rub

d = 81.94mm

actual thickness of the stair, s

s = 81.94 + ½ (12) + 20

s = 107.94mm tmin = 138 mm

therefore use:

t = 138mm

d = 112mm

Actual :

Mu

Ru = -------------

bd 2

Ru = 1.73MPa

48

0.85fc’

= ---------[ 1 - 1 – 2Ru/0.85fc’ ]

fy

= 0.005208859247 min = 0.004 (ok use computed )

As = b d

As = 583.39mm 2

N = no. Of bars per 1 m width = 1000/s

A12

S = ----- 1000

As

S = 193 mm

Design of Columns

compression member.

1. axially loaded

2. eccentrically loaded

Types of columns:

1. Tied Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

spaced spirals.

ACI Specs:

49

1. Tied Columns

c. Use 10 mm lateral ties for main bars smaller or equal to 32 mm and 12 mm for main

e. When there are more than 4 vertical bars, additional ties shall be added so that every

longitudinal bars will be held firmly in its designed position, no bar shall be more than

f. The reinforcement for tied column shall be protected by a concrete cover ing cast

monolithically with the core from which the thickness shall be not less than 40 mm.

g. Radius of gyration, r = 0.30 times the overalll dimension of the member in the direction

under consideration.

2. Spiral Coilumn

d. Clear spacing between spiral (pitch of spiral,S) should not exceed more than 80 mm

Ag fc’

s = 0.45 [ ------ - 1] ------ (ACI Code)

50

Ac fy

4As

s = ------- (actual)

Dc S

a. when Lu / r is less than 34 – 12 M1/M2, the effect of slenderness ratio is neglected and

the column is safe in buckling. M1 is the smaller end moment and M2 is the larger end

moment.

4. Minimum eccentricity, e

5. Po = service load

Pu = ultimate load

Pn = nominal load

3. Determine the number of longitudinal bars and the spacing of the tie bars using ACI specs.

51

6. Draw the details of the column section.

Po

Po = service load

Pc

Pc = force of concrete

Ps Ps = force of steel

Exercises

Design a tied column to carry an axial load of DL = 1070 kN, LL = 980 kN. The column has an

unsupported length of 2.2m and carries no moment. Use fc’ = 27.5 MPa and fy = 415 MPa.

Design considering a

a. tied column

b. spiral column

52

CE 514

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

53

BSCE –

GRB

54

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