Sei sulla pagina 1di 86
CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND COMPANION DOCUMENTS 7th Grade - Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities Contains:

CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND COMPANION DOCUMENTS

7th Grade - Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

Contains:

- Science Companion Document for 7th Grade Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities unit

- General Inquiry Questions Assessment questions

- 7th Grade Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities Assessment questions

- 7th Grade Science Expectations

- 7th Grade ELA Expectations

- 7th Grade Mathematics Expectations

- 7th Grade Social Studies Expectations

- Grade 6-8 Technology Expectations

Introduction to the K-7 Companion Document An Instructional Framework

Overview

The Michigan K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations for Science establish what every student is expected to know and be able to do by the end of Grade Seven as mandated by the legislation in the State of Michigan. The Science Content Expectations Documents have raised the bar for our students, teachers and educational systems.

In an effort to support these standards and help our elementary and middle school teachers develop rigorous and relevant curricula to assist students in mastery, the Michigan Science Leadership Academy, in collaboration with the Michigan Mathematics and Science Center Network and the Michigan Science Teachers Association, worked in partnership with Michigan Department of Education to develop these companion documents. Our goal is for each student to master the science content expectations as outlined in each grade level of the K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations.

This instructional framework is an effort to clarify possible units within the K- 7 Science Grade Level Content Expectations. The Instructional Framework provides descriptions of instructional activities that are appropriate for inquiry science in the classroom and meet the instructional goals. Included are brief descriptions of multiple activities that provide the learner with opportunities for exploration and observation, planning and conducting investigations, presenting findings and expanding thinking beyond the classroom.

These companion documents are an effort to clarify and support the K-7 Science Content Expectations. Each grade level has been organized into four teachable units- organized around the big ideas and conceptual themes in earth, life and physical science. The document is similar in format to the Science Assessment and Item Specifications for the 2009 National Assessment for Education Progress (NAEP). The companion documents are intended to provide boundaries to the content expectations. These boundaries are presented as “notes to teachers”, not comprehensive descriptions of the full range of science content; they do not stand alone, but rather, work in conjunction with the content expectations. The boundaries use seven categories of parameters:

a. Clarifications refer to the restatement of the “key idea” or specific intent or elaboration of the content statements. They are not intended to denote a sense of content priority. The clarifications guide assessment.

b. Vocabulary refers to the vocabulary for use and application of the science topics and principles that appear in the content statements and expectations. The terms in this section along with those presented

within the standard, content statement and content expectation comprise the assessable vocabulary.

c. Instruments, Measurements and Representations refer to the instruments students are expected to use and the level of precision expected to measure, classify and interpret phenomena or measurement. This section contains assessable information.

d. Inquiry Instructional Examples presented to assist the student in becoming engaged in the study of science through their natural curiosity in the subject matter that is of high interest. Students explore and begin to form ideas and try to make sense of the world around them. Students are guided in the process of scientific inquiry through purposeful observations, investigations and demonstrating understanding through a variety of experiences. Students observe, classify, predict, measure and identify and control variables while doing “hands-on” activities.

e. Assessment Examples are presented to help clarify how the teacher can conduct formative assessments in the classroom to assess student progress and understanding

f. Enrichment and Intervention is instructional examples that stretch the thinking beyond the instructional examples and provides ideas for reinforcement of challenging concepts.

g. Examples, Observations, Phenomena are included as exemplars of different modes of instruction appropriate to the unit in which they are listed. These examples include reflection, a link to real world application, and elaboration beyond the classroom. These examples are intended for instructional guidance only and are not assessable.

h. Curricular Connections and Integrations are offered to assist the teacher and curriculum administrator in aligning the science curriculum with other areas of the school curriculum. Ideas are presented that will assist the classroom instructor in making appropriate connections of science with other aspects of the total curriculum.

This Instructional Framework is NOT a step-by-step instructional manual but a guide developed to help teachers and curriculum developers design their own lesson plans, select useful portions of text, and create assessments that are aligned with the grade level science curriculum for the State of Michigan. It is not intended to be a curriculum, but ideas and suggestions for generating and implementing high quality K-7 instruction and inquiry activities to assist the classroom teacher in implementing these science content expectations in the classroom.

HSSCE Companion Document

Seventh Grade GLCE Companion Document

Unit 4:

Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

SCIENCE

Big Ideas

Clarifications

Inquiry

Vocabulary

Instruments

Measurements

Instructional Framework Enrichment Intervention Real World Context Literacy Integration Mathematics Integration

Enrichment • Intervention • Real World Context • Literacy Integration • Mathematics Integration v.1.09

v.1.09

Seventh Grade Companion Document

7-Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

Table of Contents

Page 1

Curriculum Cross Reference Guide

Page 2

Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

Page 4

Big Ideas (Key Concepts)

Page 4

Clarification of Content Expectations

Page 4

Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication, Reflection and Social Implications

Page 16

Vocabulary

Page 17

Instruments, Measurements, and Representations

Page 18

Instructional Framework

Page 19

Enrichment

Page 22

Intervention

Page 22

Examples, Observations and Phenomena (Real World Context)

Page 22

Literacy Integration

Page 23

Mathematics Integration

Page 24

7 th Grade Unit 4:

Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

Content Statements and Expectations

Code

Statements & Expectations

Page

E.ES.M.1

Solar Energy – The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the surface of the Earth.

4

E.ES.07.11

Demonstrate, using a model or drawing, the relationship between the warming by the sun of the Earth and the water cycle as it applies to the atmosphere (evaporation, water vapor, warm air rising, cooling, condensation, clouds).

4

E.ES.07.12

Describe the relationship between the warming of the atmosphere of the Earth by the sun and convection within the atmosphere and oceans.

5

E.ES.07.13

Describe how the warming of the Earth by the sun produces winds and ocean currents.

6

E.ES.M.4

Human Consequence – Human activities have changed the land, oceans, and atmosphere of the Earth resulting in the reduction of the number and variety of wild plants and animals sometimes causing extinction of species.

6

E.ES.07.41

Explain how human activities (surface mining, deforestation, overpopulation, construction and urban development, farming, dams, landfills, and restoring natural areas) change the surface of the Earth and affect the survival or organisms.

6

E.ES.07.42

Describe the origins of pollution in the atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere, (car exhaust, industrial emissions, acid rain, and natural sources), and how pollution impacts habitats, climatic change, threatens or endangers species.

7

E.ES.M.7

Weather and Climate – Global patterns of atmospheric and oceanic movement influence weather and climate.

8

E.ES.07.71

Compare and contrast the difference and relationship between climate and weather.

8

E.ST.07.72

Describe how different weather occurs due to the constant motion of the atmosphere from the energy of the sun reaching the surface of the Earth.

8

E.ES.07.73

Explain how the temperature of the oceans affects the different climates on Earth because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.

9

2

Code

Statements and Expectations (Continued)

Page

E.ES.07.74

Describe weather conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded) and the movement of major air masses and the jet stream across North America using a weather map.

9

E.ES.M.8

Human consequence – Water circulates through the four spheres of the Earth in what is known as the “water cycle.”

11

E.ES.07.81

Explain the water cycle and describe how evaporation, transpiration, condensation, cloud formation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff and ground water occur within the cycle.

11

E.ES.07.82

Analyze the flow of water between the components of a watershed, including surface features (lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands) and groundwater.

13

E.FE.M.1

Atmosphere – The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different physical and chemical composition at different elevations.

14

E.FE.07.11

Describe the atmosphere as a mixture of gases.

14

E.FE.07.12

Compare and contrast the atmosphere at different elevations.

14

3

7 – Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems and Human Activities

Big Ideas (Key Concepts)

The sun is the major source of energy for phenomenon on Earth.

The sun’s warming relates to weather, climate and the water cycle.

Human interaction and use of natural resources affects the environment.

The Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of gases and water vapor.

Clarification of Content Expectations

Standard: Earth Systems

Content Statement – E.ES.M.1 Solar Energy – The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the surface of the Earth.

Content Expectations

E.ES.07.11 Demonstrate, using a model or drawing, the relationship between the warming by the sun of the Earth and the water cycle as it applies to the atmosphere (evaporation, water vapor, warm air rising, cooling, condensation, clouds).

Instructional Clarifications

1. Demonstrate is to show through manipulation of materials, drawings, and written and verbal explanations the relationship between the warming of the Earth by the sun and the water cycle.

2. The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water from the ocean and other bodies of water to the atmosphere, precipitation to the Earth’s surface, through runoff and groundwater to streams, and back into the oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams.

3. The sun sends energy to the Earth in the form of light/radiation, and this energy is transformed into thermal energy after it arrives at Earth.

4. Heat causes water to evaporate. Evaporation is the process by which liquid water changes into a gas called water vapor and enters the atmosphere.

5. Warm air in the atmosphere rises. Surrounding cooler air pushes it up.

6. The cooling temperatures in the upper atmosphere cause water vapor to change state and condense as a liquid.

7. The cooled water in the atmosphere forms clouds. The water droplets in the cloud collide and form larger droplets until they are pulled to the ground by gravity in the form of precipitation.

Assessment Clarifications

1. The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water from the ocean and other bodies of water to the atmosphere, precipitation to the Earth’s surface, through runoff and groundwater to streams, and back into the oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams.

2. The sun sends energy to the Earth in the form of light/radiation, and this energy is transformed into thermal energy after it arrives at Earth.

3. Heat causes water to evaporate. Evaporation is the process by which liquid water changes into a gas called water vapor and enters the atmosphere.

4. Warm air in the atmosphere rises.

5. The cooling temperatures in the upper atmosphere cause water vapor to change state and condense as a liquid.

6. The cooled water in the atmosphere forms clouds. The water droplets in the cloud collide and form larger droplets until they are pulled to the ground by gravity in the form of precipitation.

E.ES.07.12 Describe the relationship between the warming of the atmosphere of the Earth by the sun and convection within the atmosphere and oceans.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words how the sun’s

warming of the atmosphere is related to convection in the atmosphere and oceans.

2. The atmosphere is the envelope of gases that surrounds Earth.

3. Convection is the transfer of heat energy through liquids and gases by moving particles. Convection currents move warmer air through the atmosphere and warmer water through the oceans.

4. Air will rise if it is warmer than the surrounding air.

5. If cool air is present, warm air will rise to great heights.

6. Eventually the rising air will cool.

7. Cool air holds less water vapor than warm air. Water vapor in a cooling air mass will condense into liquid water at a certain temperature and pressure.

8. The water vapor may produce clouds and precipitation.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Convection is the transfer of heat energy through liquids and gases by moving particles. Convection currents move warm air through the atmosphere and warm water through the oceans.

2. The atmosphere is the envelop of gases that surrounds Earth.

3. Air will rise if it is warmer than the surrounding air.

4. If cool air is present, warm air will rise to great heights.

5. Eventually the rising air will cool.

6. Cool air holds less water vapor than warm air. Water vapor in a cooling air mass will condense into liquid water at a certain temperature and pressure.

7. The water vapor may produce clouds and precipitation.

E.ES.07.13 Describe how the warming of the Earth by the sun produces winds and ocean currents.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words how the warming of the Earth by the sun produces winds and ocean currents.

2. Wind is the movement of air from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

3. Areas of high or low pressure are caused by differences in the Earth’s

temperature. Differences in Earth’s temperature are due to the sun’s uneven heating of the Earth’s surface.

4. The air that moves is affected by the rotation of the Earth.

5. An ocean current is the movement of ocean water.

6. The uneven heating and density of the ocean waters cause ocean currents. On a global scale ocean currents can be classified as cold or warm resulting from the latitude of origin. In some places cold currents result when deep water ascends to the surface.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Wind is the movement of air from areas of high pressure to areas of low

pressure.

2. Areas of high or low pressure are caused by differences in the Earth’s temperature. Differences in Earth’s temperature are due to the sun’s warming.

3. The air that moves is affected by the rotation of the Earth.

4. An ocean current is the movement of ocean water.

5. Ocean currents are made up of hot or cold water.

6. The movement of ocean water is similar to the movement of warm and cold air in the atmosphere.

Content Statement – E.ES.M.4 Human Consequences – Human activities have changed the land, oceans, and atmosphere of the Earth resulting in the reduction of the number and variety of wild plants and animals sometimes causing extinction of species.

Content Expectations

E.ES.07.41 Explain how human activities (surface mining, deforestation, overpopulation, construction and urban development, farming, dams, landfills, and restoring natural areas) change the surface of the Earth and affect the survival or organisms.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Explain is to clearly describe by means of illustrations (drawings), demonstrations, written reports or verbally how human activities change the surface of the Earth and survival of organisms.

2. Examples of human activities that affect habitats and the survival of organisms include surface mining, deforestation, overpopulation, construction and urban development, farming, dams, landfills, and restoring natural areas.

3. Human activities change animal habitat.

4. Change in animal habitat affects the survival rate of organisms.

5. The strongest force in rapid habitat loss is human activity.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Human activities change animal habitat.

2. Habitat destruction is due to surface mining, deforestation, overpopulation, construction and urban development, farming, dams, landfills, and restoring natural areas.

3. Change in animal habitat affects the survival rate of organisms.

4. The strongest force in rapid habitat loss is human activity.

E.ES.07.42 Describe the origins of pollution in the atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere (car exhaust, industrial emissions, acid rain, and natural sources), and how pollution impacts habitats, climatic change, and threatens or endangers species.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words the origins of pollution in the atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere.

2. Pollution is the presence of harmful substances in the air, water, and land.

3. The atmosphere is the envelope of gases that surround the Earth.

4. The geosphere is the land that makes up the Earth.

5. The hydrosphere is the bodies of water that make up the Earth.

6. The major causes of air pollution come from automobiles, fuel consumption in buildings, and coal-burning power plants.

7. Air pollution damages plants and causes health problems in animals. Most air pollution is the result of burning fossil fuels (such as coal, oil,

gasoline, and diesel fuel) due to the release of particles and gases when burned.

8. Damage to plants causes a loss of habitat.

9. Loss of habitat threatens or endangers species.

10.Fossil fuels, aerosols, pollution, and land use influence climate change.

11.Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the air.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Pollution is the presence of harmful substances in the air, water, and land.

2. The atmosphere is the envelope of gases that surround the Earth.

3. The geosphere is the land that makes up the Earth.

4. The hydrosphere is the bodies of water that make up the Earth.

5. The major causes of air pollution come from automobiles, fuel consumption in industry and buildings, and coal-burning power plants.

6. Air pollution damages plants and causes health problems in animals. Most air pollution is the result of burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel due to the release of particles and gases when burned.

7.

Damage to plants causes a loss of habitat.

8. Loss of habitat threatens or endangers species.

9. Fossil fuels, aerosols, pollution, and land use can influence climate change.

10.Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the air.

Content Statement – E.ES.M.7 Weather and Climate – Global patterns of atmospheric and oceanic movement influence weather and climate.

Content Expectations

E.ES.07.71 Compare and contrast the difference and relationship between climate and weather.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Compare and contrast is to tell in written form the similarities and

differences between climate and weather.

2. Weather is the mix of events that happen each day in the atmosphere including temperature, rainfall and humidity.

3. Climate is the average weather pattern in a place over many years.

4. Climate is useful for weather forecasting.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Weather is the mix of events that happen each day in the atmosphere

including temperature, rainfall and humidity.

2. Climate is the average weather pattern in a place over many years.

3. Climate is useful for weather forecasting.

E.ES.07.72 Describe how different weather occurs due to the constant motion of the atmosphere from the energy of the sun reaching the surface of the Earth.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words how weather is due to the motion of the atmosphere from the sun’s warming of the Earth.

2. Most weather occurs at the lower portion of the atmosphere.

3. An air mass is a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height in the atmosphere.

4. Temperature changes in air masses and upper air currents cause air masses to move in the atmosphere.

5. The sun is the major cause of the heating of our atmosphere.

6. The Earth gets the same amount of light each day, but since the Earth is tilted on its axis, the light is unevenly divided into two hemispheres. The hemisphere that is tilted toward the sun and is receiving more of the direct light is experiencing spring and summer. The hemisphere that is tilted away from the sun is receiving less direct light and is experiencing fall and winter.

7.

Rising warm air eventually cools.

8. Cool air is eventually warmed.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Most weather occurs at the lower portion of the atmosphere and is due to changes in the temperature of air masses.

2. An air mass is a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height in the atmosphere.

3. Temperature changes in air masses cause them to move in the atmosphere.

4. The sun is the major cause of the heating and cooling of our atmosphere.

5. The Earth gets the same amount of light each day, but since the Earth is tilted on its axis, the light is unevenly divided into two hemispheres. The hemisphere that is tilted toward the sun and is receiving more of the direct light is experiencing spring and summer. The hemisphere that is tilted away from the sun is receiving less direct light and is experiencing fall and winter.

6. Rising warm air eventually cools.

7. Cool air is eventually warmed.

8. The more hours of sunlight mean more solar heating.

E.ES.07.73 Explain how the temperature of the oceans affects the different climates on Earth because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Explain is to clearly describe by means of illustrations (drawings), demonstrations, written reports or verbally how the temperature of the oceans affects climates.

2. The sun is the main source of the Earth’s energy.

3. Both oceans and land absorb solar energy.

4. Oceans make up 70% of the Earth’s surface.

5. Oceans absorb more energy from the sun than land.

6. Oceans store a lot of heat energy.

7. The oceans store and transport heat energy that is related to climate.

Assessment Clarifications

1. The sun is the main source of the Earth’s energy.

2. Both oceans and land absorb solar energy.

3. Oceans make up 70% of the Earth’s surface.

4. Oceans absorb more energy from the sun than land.

5. Oceans store a lot of heat energy.

6. The oceans store and transport heat energy that is related to climate.

E.ES.07.74 Describe weather conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded) and the movement of major air masses and the jet stream across North America using a weather map.

Instructional Clarification

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words weather conditions associated with frontal boundaries and the movement of major

air masses and the jet stream across North America, using a weather map.

2. Frontal boundaries refer to the boundary that forms between warm and cold air masses.

3. Air masses are huge bodies of air that have similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height in the atmosphere. Warm and cold air masses do not mix readily.

4. Warm air masses are forced to rise and expand over and above cold air masses, and cold air masses wedge underneath warmer air masses. Cool air is more dense and tends to sink. Warm air is less dense and tends to rise.

5. As the warm air cools, the moisture condenses to form clouds. Rain or snow may form if the warm air continues to rise and expand.

6. A cold front is a situation where a cold air mass is advancing upon a warm air mass.

7. A warm front is a situation where a warm air mass is advancing upon a cold air mass.

8. A stationary front is a situation where a cold air mass and warm air mass meet and neither mass is displacing the other.

9. An occluded front occurs when warm, cool, and cold air masses come

together. They are not as common as cold, warm, or stationary fronts. 10.The jet stream is the concentrated, high-altitude streams of fast moving wind that blow from west to east across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It is responsible for the movement of major weather features from west to east across North America and the Earth as a whole. 11.Big thunderstorms in the summer and snowfalls in the winter are the weather conditions associated with cold fronts. 12.Steady, long-lasting rains in the summer and steady snowfalls in the winter are weather conditions associated warm fronts. 13.Weather conditions associated with an occluded front can be divided into three categories: before passing, while passing, and after passing. 14.Stationary fronts occur when neither warm nor cold air advances. The two air masses reach a stalemate. Neither front is moving. These types

of conditions can last for days, producing nothing but altocumulus clouds. Temperatures remain stagnant and winds are gentle to nil.

Assessment Clarifications

1. Frontal boundaries refer to the boundary that forms between warm and cold air masses.

2. Air masses are huge bodies of air that have similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height in the atmosphere. Warm and cold air masses do not mix readily.

3. Warm air masses are forced to rise and expand over and above cold air masses, and cold air masses wedge underneath warmer air masses. Cool air is more dense and tends to sink. Warm air is less dense and tends to rise.

4. As the warm air cools, the moisture condenses to form clouds. Rain or snow may form if the warm air continues to rise and expand.

5.

A cold front is a situation where a cold air mass is advancing upon a warm air mass.

6. A warm front is a situation where a warm air mass is advancing upon a cold air mass.

7. A stationary front is a situation where a cold air mass and warm air mass meet and neither mass is displacing the other.

8. An occluded front occurs when warm, cool, and cold air masses come together. They are not as common as cold, warm, or stationary fronts.

9. The jet stream is the concentrated, high-altitude streams of fast moving

wind that blow from west to east across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It is responsible for the movement of major weather features from west to east across North America and the Earth as a whole. 10.Big thunderstorms in the summer and snowfalls in the winter are the weather conditions associated with cold fronts. 11.Steady, long-lasting rains in the summer and steady snowfalls in the winter are weather conditions associated warm fronts. 12.Weather conditions associated with an occluded front can be divided into three categories: before passing, while passing, and after passing. 13.Stationary fronts occur when neither warm nor cold air advances. The two air masses reach a stalemate.

Content Statement – E.ES.M.8 Water Cycle – Water circulates through the four spheres of the Earth in what is known as the “water cycle.”

Content Expectations

E.ES.07.81 Explain the water cycle and describe how evaporation, transpiration, condensation, cloud formation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff and ground water occur within the cycle.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Explain is to clearly describe by means of illustrations (drawings), demonstrations, written reports or verbally the water cycle.

2. The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water from the ocean and other bodies of water to the atmosphere, precipitation back to the Earth’s surface, through runoff and groundwater to streams, transpiration from plants, and returning into the oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams.

3. Earth's water is always in motion, and the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.

4. Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns from liquid water to water in a gaseous state (water vapor). The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air.

5.

Plants absorb water from the soil and move it through the plant to all parts of the plant. Excess water leaves the plant through openings in the leaves, which is called transpiration.

6. Condensation takes place high in the atmosphere and at ground level.

Water vapor rises and cools collecting around particles of dust, smoke, or salt to form water droplets. The process happens close to the ground. Fog develops when air having a relatively high humidity content (i.e., moist) comes in contact with a colder surface, often the Earth's surface, and cools to the dew point. Additional cooling leads to condensation and the growth of low-level clouds. (USGS)

7. Clouds form in the atmosphere because air containing water vapor rises and cools. Condensation takes place to complete the process. See Item 6 above for details.

8. For precipitation to occur, cloud droplets or ice crystals must grow heavy enough to fall through the air. One way that cloud droplets grow is by colliding and combining with other droplets and particulate matter in the atmosphere. As the droplets grow larger, they move faster and collect more small droplets. Finally, the droplets become heavy enough to fall out of the cloud as raindrops.

9. Infiltration occurs when precipitation remains in the shallow soil layer, then moves through the soil and subsurface. Eventually the water enters a stream by seepage or filters down to become ground water.

10.Runoff is when rain falls on saturated or impervious ground and flows downhill as runoff. 11.Large amounts of water are stored beneath the surface of the Earth as groundwater. Rain soaks into the ground until it reaches layers of rock or clay that has tiny particles that are packed closely together. The water travels and fills the spaces between soil, rocks, and sand. The ground water stays within the aquifers within the ground until it seeps out as a spring, connects to rivers or lakes, or people use it by digging wells. 12.A common misconception is that groundwater is in the form of rivers and lakes beneath the surface of the Earth.

Assessment Clarifications

1. The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water from the ocean and other bodies of water to the atmosphere, precipitation back to the Earth’s surface, through runoff and groundwater to streams, and returning into the oceans, lakes, rivers, and streams.

2. Earth's water is always in motion, and the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.

3. Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air.

4. Plants absorb water from the soil and move it through the plant to all parts of the plant. Excess water leaves the plant through openings in the leaves, which is called transpiration.

5. Condensation takes place high in the atmosphere and at ground level. Water vapor rises and cools collecting around particles of dust, smoke, or

salt to form water droplets. The process happens close to the ground. Fog develops when air having a relatively high humidity content (i.e., moist) comes in contact with a colder surface, often the Earth's surface, and cools to the dew point. Additional cooling leads to condensation and the growth of low-level clouds. (USGS)

6. Clouds form in the atmosphere because air containing water vapor rises

and cools. Condensation takes place to complete the process. See Item 6 above for details.

7. For precipitation to occur, cloud droplets or ice crystals must grow heavy enough to fall through the air. One way that cloud droplets grow is by colliding and combining with other droplets and particulate matter in the atmosphere. As the droplets grow larger, they move faster and collect more small droplets. Finally, the droplets become heavy enough to fall out of the cloud as raindrops.

8. Infiltration occurs when precipitation remains in the shallow soil layer, then move through the soil and subsurface. Eventually the water enters a stream by seepage or filters down to become groundwater.

9. Runoff is when rain falls on saturated or impervious ground and flows downhill as runoff.

10.Large amounts of water are stored beneath the surface of the Earth as groundwater. Rain soaks into the ground until it reaches layers of rock or clay that has tiny particles that are packed closely together. The water travels and fills the spaces between soil, rocks, and sand. The groundwater stays within the aquifers withing the ground until it seeps out as a spring, connects to rivers or lakes, or people use it by digging wells.

E.ES.07.82 Analyze the flow of water between the components of a watershed, including surface features (lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands) and groundwater.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Analyze is to examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations the flow of water between the components of a watershed.

2. A watershed is the land area that is drained by a river.

3. Streams and rivers that join another river become a larger watershed.

4. One watershed is divided or separated from another by a ridge or rise in the land.

5. Some of the precipitation that falls onto the land infiltrates into the ground to become groundwater. Once in the ground, some of this water travels close to the land surface and emerges very quickly as discharge into streambeds, but, because of gravity, much of it continues to sink deeper into the ground. If the water meets the water table (below which the soil is saturated), it can move both vertically and horizontally. Water moving downward can also meet more dense and water-resistant non- porous rock and soil, which causes it to flow in a more horizontal fashion,

generally towards streams, the ocean, or deeper into the ground. (From USGS)

Assessment Clarifications

1. A watershed is the land area that is drained by a river.

2. Streams and rivers that join another river become a larger watershed.

3. One watershed is divided or separated from another by a ridge or rise in

the land.

Content Statement – E.FE.M.1 Atmosphere – The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different physical and chemical composition at different elevations.

Content Expectations

E.FE.07.11 Describe the atmosphere as a mixture of gases.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Describe means to tell or depict in written or spoken words the atmosphere as a mixture of gases.

2. The atmosphere is the envelope of gases that surrounds Earth.

3. The atmosphere is primarily composed of nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen and 1% trace gases.

4. Trace gases include argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane,

krypton, and hydrogen.

5. The combination of gases in Earth’s atmosphere makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.

Assessment Clarifications

1. The atmosphere is the envelope of gases that surrounds Earth.

2. The atmosphere is primarily composed of nitrogen and oxygen. The atmosphere is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen and 1% trace gases.

3. The combination of gases in Earth’s atmosphere makes conditions on Earth suitable for living things.

E.FE.07.12 Compare and contrast the atmosphere at different elevations.

Instructional Clarifications

1. Compare and contrast is to tell in written form or verbally the similarities

and differences of the atmosphere at different elevations.

2. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations.

3. At higher elevations the temperature of the air is generally colder (there are some exceptions), the air pressure is lower, and the density is lower.

4. The concentration of oxygen at sea level is about 21% and the barometric pressure averages 760 mmHg. As altitude increases, the concentration remains the same but the number of oxygen molecules per breath is reduced. At 12,000 feet (3,658 meters) the barometric pressure is only

483 mmHg, so there are roughly 40% fewer oxygen molecules per

breath.

5. The atmosphere stretches high above the Earth and gets thinner at higher elevations. At an elevation of 80 kilometers (50 miles) there is very little air at all.

Assessment Clarifications

1. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations.

2. At higher elevations the temperature of the air is generally colder.

3. The atmosphere stretches high above the Earth and gets thinner at higher elevations. At an elevation of 80 kilometers (50 miles) there is very little air at all.

Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication, Reflection and Social Implications

   
 

Inquiry Process

S.IP.07.11 Generate scientific questions about fluid earth systems and human activities based on observations, investigations, and research.

S.IP.07.12 Design and conduct scientific investigations on fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IP.07.13 Use tools and equipment (spring scales, stop watches, meter sticks and tapes, models, hand lens, thermometer, models, sieves, microscopes, hot plates, pH meters) appropriate to scientific investigations of fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IP.07.14 Use metric measurement devices in an investigation dealing with fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IP.07.15 Construct charts and graphs from data and observations dealing with fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IP.07.16 Identify patterns in data regarding fluid earth systems and human activities.

Inquiry Analysis and Communication

S.IA.07.11 Analyze information from data tables and graphs to answer scientific questions concerning fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IA.07.12 Evaluate data, claims, and personal knowledge through collaborative science discourse on fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IA.17.13 Communicate and defend findings of observations and investigations dealing with fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IA.07.14 Draw conclusions from sets of data from multiple trials of a scientific investigation on fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.IA.07.15 Use multiple sources of information on fluid earth systems and human activities to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data.

Reflection and Social Implications

S.RS.07.11 Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, and data regarding fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.RS.07.12 Describe limitations in personal and scientific knowledge regarding fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.RS.07.13 Identify the need for evidence in making scientific decisions about fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.RS.07.14 Evaluate scientific explanations based on current evidence and scientific principles dealing with fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.RS.07.15 Demonstrate scientific concepts through various illustrations to depict fluid earth systems and human activities.

S.RS.07.16 Design solutions to problems about fluid earth systems and human activities using technology.

S.RS.07.17 Describe the effect humans and other organisms have on the balance of the natural world in terms of the water cycle and the sun's warming of the Earth.

S.RS.07.18 Describe what science and technology can and cannot reasonably contribute to society when dealing with fluid earth systems.

S.RS.07.19 Describe how science and technology concerning fluid earth systems have advanced because of the contributions of many people throughout history and across cultures.

Vocabulary

Critically important-State Assessable

Instructionally Useful

water cycle atmosphere evaporation water vapor condensation clouds convection ocean currents wind weather climate frontal boundaries cold front warm front stationary front occluded front air mass jet stream transpiration cloud formation precipitation infiltration surface runoff groundwater absorption watershed elevations surface mining deforestation overpopulation construction and urban development farming dams landfills air pressure barometric pressure acid rain fog dew radiation conduction energy sun pollution

pollutant oxygen nitrogen trace gases altitude particle size hold water solar energy habitat destruction endangered species extinct species potable non-potable

Instruments, Measurements, Representations

Measurements

Instruments

Units

temperature

thermometers

Celsius, Fahrenheit

wind velocity

wind vane or sock

north, south, east, west, kilometers/hour

barometric pressure

barometer

in/Hg

Representations of the water cycle are made through models and drawings of how the water in the atmosphere moves in a cycle.

A model of the water movement in a watershed demonstrates how smaller streams and rivers feed the largest river in a given landmass. The addition of ridges and elevations demonstrates the boundaries between watersheds.

Weather maps are representations of different weather conditions and demonstrate the movement of frontal boundaries.

Instructional Framework

The following Instructional Framework is an effort to clarify possible units within the K-7 Science Grade Level Content Expectations. The Instructional Framework provides descriptions of instructional activities that are appropriate for inquiry science in the classroom and meet the instructional goals. Included are brief descriptions of multiple activities that provide the learner with opportunities for exploration and observation, planning and conducting investigations, presenting findings, and expanding thinking beyond the classroom. The Instructional Framework is NOT a step-by-step instructional manual, but a guide intended to help teachers and curriculum developers design their own lesson plans, select useful and appropriate resources and create assessments that are aligned with the grade level science curriculum for the State of Michigan.

Instructional Examples

Solar Energy: E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.13 Human Consequences: E.ES.07.41, E.ES.07.42 Weather and Climate: E.ES.07.71, E.ES.07.72, E.ES.07.73, E.ES.07.74 Water Cycle: E.S.07.81, E.ES.07.82 Atmosphere: E.FE.07.11, E.FE.07.12

Objectives

Explain how the sun’s warming of the Earth creates movement of air and water and affects weather and climate.

Describe the affects of human activity on the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

Describe the atmosphere as a mixture of gases.

Engage and Explore

Conduct a brainstorming session to determine students’ initial ideas about the water cycle. Write the following statement on the board or chart paper: Earth’s water is moving all the time. Ask students to discuss their ideas in small groups and make diagrams of how they think the water on Earth is moving all the time and circulates through the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans. Have students share their ideas of how a raindrop is made and where it goes after it falls to the ground. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.81, S.IP.07.11, S.IP.07.12, S.IA.07.13, S.IA.07.14, S.RS.07.15)

To test student ideas about the water cycle make a model that demonstrates how water can circulate on land, water, and air. Use a container that is clear and can be a closed system. Place sand or soil in the bottom of the container and moisten the soil. Place a container or tub

of water in the model to represent a body of water. Close the system with a lid or plastic wrap to keep air from going into the model or coming out of the model. Place a clamp lamp or light bulb over the model. Position or direct the lamp over the body of water. Place a baggie of ice on one side of the lid so that it is positioned over the land (sand or soil) and have students make observations and record their findings. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.81, S.IP.07.11, S.IA.07.13, S.IA.07.14,

S.RS.07.15)

Demonstrate ocean currents using blue food coloring and hot water and icy cold water. Fill a container with hot tap water and place a few drops of dark blue food coloring in the hot water. Have the students make observations of the water and describe what they think is happening. Repeat the procedure with a container of icy cold water. Have students compare their observations between the two containers. Give students the opportunity to ask some what would happen if… questions and mess about with mixing hot and cold water and ice cubes to the containers and observe. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.13, S.IP.07.11, S.IA.07.13, S.IA.07.14, S.RS.07.15)

Investigate the role of evaporation on pure water and salt water. Have students make a solar still by placing a small cup of water into a closable bag and place in the sunlight. Have students make one still with salt water and one still with pure water and make observations over a period of time. (E.ES.07.11)

Explain and Define

Provide posters or other resources that illustrate the water cycle for students to use to compare their observations of the model of the water cycle and solar stills. Ask students to describe how the model demonstrates what happens in the atmosphere. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.13, E.ES.07.81)

As a class determine a working definition of the water cycle and then introduce the terms evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration. Only after students have determined a meaning on their own, have them refer to a resource that helps to explain the definition of the terms. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.81)

Relate the model of the solar still to the water cycle and ask students the part of the water cycle where evaporation is key. Explain the role of the sun’s warming of the Earth in the water cycle. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.81)

Discuss the sun’s warming of the oceans. Explain that the oceans are vast bodies of salt water and represent three-fourths of the Earth’s surface.

Explain that the sun’s warming of the atmosphere also causes movement or currents in the air (wind) similar to the currents in the ocean. (E.ES.07.11, E.ES.07.12, E.ES.07.13)

Compare weather and climate and explain how movement of water in the oceans and atmosphere affect weather and climate. Explain that weather is the daily conditions of temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity

and climate is the long term, year-to-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity. (E.ES.07.71, E.ES.07.72, E.ES.07.73,

E.ES.07.74)

Elaborate and Apply

Elaborate on the concept of the sun’s warming of the Earth, the water cycle, and ocean currents to weather and climate. Have students study weather maps and weather reports to make connections between weather fronts and boundaries. Have students determine how the sun’s warming of the Earth’s land, water, and air affect the make-up of the different climates on Earth and daily weather changes. (E.ES.07.81, E.ES.07.74)

Make real world connections to students’ lives by relating the effect of human activity on the environment and how it affects plant and animal life. Have students do research on green house gases and global warming. Make connections to pollution in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. (E.ES.07.41, E.ES.07.42)

The movement of water in the water cycle can be elaborated on by following the flow of water after it falls to the ground. Students investigate and make models of groundwater and the movement of water in local watersheds. Have students identify different habitats that exist in the watersheds and how pollution and human activity has affected populations and quality of life. (E.ES.07.81, E.ES.07.82)

Challenge the class to design and carry out a procedure that would clean polluted water. Encourage students to use what they have learned about the water cycle and evaporation through the solar still to clean the polluted water sample. (E.ES.07.41, E.ES.07.42)

Evaluate Student Understanding

Formative Assessment Examples

Demonstrations and explorations

Experiment design and conclusion

Classroom discussion

Student journal entries

Quick Writes

Summative Assessment Examples

End of unit test

Poster, brochure, or Power Point presentation on the water cycle and how the sun’s warming of the Earth causes ocean and air currents

Written report on the effect of human activities and action steps that can be taken

Models of water cycle, solar still, design for cleaning a sample of polluted water

Enrichment

Students take local soil and water samples to determine the level of pollution.

Keep a long-term log of precipitation and compare it to records of 25 years and 50 years ago.

Make a solar still to capture and clean rainwater.

Research and report on acid rain and other environmental issues.

Have students follow a drop from a cloud to the ocean.

Research the role the Great Lakes play in the supply of fresh water on Earth.

Intervention

Students design investigations to rank the particle size of different Earth materials: soil, sand, silt, clay, and pebbles. Students layer the water from largest to smallest particle size (top to bottom) and make observations of the flow of water underground and around different material.

Use a sponge to demonstrate how water moves between the particles of soil.

Watch daily weather reports and determine where the cold and warm fronts are located in the United States and the resulting weather from the fronts.

Ask a local meteorologist to talk to the students and explain Doppler radar and how it is used to track different weather fronts.

Examples, Observations, and Phenomena (Real World Context)

The usual path of air masses in the Northern Hemisphere is from west to east. As air moves up a mountain range, it cools and is less able to hold water. Precipitation often occurs and most of the water contained in the clouds falls to the ground on the west side of the mountain range. The land on the east side of the mountain range is dryer than the land on the west side. The east side of some mountain ranges is where some deserts are located.

Dew, fog, and clouds form when water vapor condenses on surfaces such as dust, smoke particles, and sea salt crystals. These small particles in the air are a necessary part of the water cycle for condensation to occur in the atmosphere.

Global warming and the effect of carbon emissions is a real world issue for students to study and make connections between the cycles and conditions that are necessary for life on Earth and how the activities of humans have threatened the survival of the planet.

Literacy Integration

Students will…

Reading

R.IT.07.01 Students will analyze the structure, elements, features, style, and purpose of informational genre including persuasive essay, research report, brochure, personal correspondence, autobiography and biography.

R.CM.07.01 Students will connect personal knowledge, experiences, and understanding of the world to themes and perspectives in text through oral and written responses.

R.CM.07.02 Students will retell through concise summarization, grade-level narrative and informational text.

R.CM.07.04 Students will apply significant knowledge from grade-level science, social studies, and mathematics texts.

Books:

The Inside Story of Earth, Tam O’Shaughnassey, 2007

Living Green, John Johnson, Jr., 2008 A River Ran Wild, Lynne Cherry

Writing

W.GN.07.02 Students will write a research report using a wide variety of resources that includes appropriate organizational patterns (e.g., position statement/supporting evidence, problem statement/solution, or compare/contrast), descriptive language, and informational text features.

W.GN.07.03 Students will formulate research questions using multiple resources, perspectives, and arguments/counter-arguments to develop a thesis statement that culminates in a final presented project using the writing process.

W.PR.07.01 Students will set a purpose, consider audience, and replicate authors’ styles and patterns when writing a narrative or informational piece.

W.PR.07.02 Students will apply a variety of pre-writing strategies for both narrative (e.g., graphically depict roles of antagonist/protagonist, internal/external conflict) and informational writing (e.g., position statement/supporting evidence, problem statement/solution, or compare/ contrast).

W.PR.07.03 Students will revise drafts to reflect different perspectives for multiple purposes and to ensure that content, structure, elements of style and voice, literary devices, and text features are consistent.

W.PS.07.01 Students will exhibit personal style and voice to enhance the written message in both narrative (e.g., personification, humor, element of surprise) and informational writing (e.g., emotional appeal, strong opinion, credible support).

Speaking

S.CN.07.01 Students will adjust their use of language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes by using specialized language related to a topic and selecting words carefully to achieve precise meaning when presenting.

S.DS.07.02 Students will respond to multiple text types in order to anticipate and answer questions, offer opinions and solutions, and to identify personally with a universal theme.

Mathematics Integration

N.MR.07.04 Convert ratio quantities between different systems of units.

N.MR.07.02 Solve problems involving derived quantities such as density, velocity, and weighted averages.

A.PA.07.01 Recognize when information given in a table, graph, or formula suggests a directly proportional or linear relationship.

A.PA.07.11 Understand and use basic properties of real numbers.

D.RE.07.01 Represent and interpret data using graphs.

D.AN.07.03 Calculate and interpret relative frequencies and cumulative frequencies for data sets.

Science Grade 7: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding space on the answer document.

 

1. Geri's class was investigating the effect of temperature on the size of a balloon filled with air. Which is the BEST way for the students to determine the size of their balloon in the different situations?

 

3. Kari's class was investigating how a powdered drink mix dissolves in water of different temperatures. They needed to determine how much mix would dissolve in a given sample of water. Which would be the BEST procedure?

 

A. Draw a diagram of the balloon in each situation.

 

A. Add heaping teaspoons of mix until no more dissolves. Count the number of heaping teaspoons used.

B. Measure the mass of mix before and after shaking small amounts into the water until no more will dissolve. Calculate the difference.

B. Put the balloon on a balance to measure the mass of the balloon and air in grams.

C. Put your hands around it to see if the size has changed.

D. Use a tape measure to measure the circumference of the balloon in centimeters.

C. Shake a little bit in a time until no more will dissolve. Count the number of shakes.

ItemID kmorgan.2119 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.13 ( 7 )

 

D. Add three packages of mix to the water. See how much of it dissolves.

 

ItemID kmorgan.2121 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.12 ( 7 )

 

2. Mary tried the following experiment. She placed a drinking glass filled with ice cubes on her kitchen table and observed the outside of the glass. At the end of the hour, the outside of the glass was very wet and water had run down the side of the glass and formed a puddle on the table at the base of the glass. As a result of these observations, which of the following questions is the BEST question that Mary could ask?

4. Juan's class was investigating how fast ice cubes melt at different locations in the room. Which would be the BEST way to select ice cubes to use?

 

A. Measure the mass of several cubes and choose the ones that have the greatest mass.

 

A. Is glass made out of water?

B. Take ice cubes from the same bag.

B. Which material, glass or ice, contains the most water?

C. Choose ice cubes that look about the same size.

C. Did the water on the outside of the glass come from the ice inside the glass or the air around the glass?

D. Measure the mass of several cubes and choose the ones that are closest in mass.

D. Does this experiment work better if a bigger glass or more ice is used?

ItemID kmorgan.2122 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.12 ( 7 ), SCI.7.S.IP.07.13 ( 7 ), SCI.7.S.IP.07.14 ( 7 )

 

ItemID kmorgan.2120 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.11 ( 7 )

 
 
   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

5.

Read the following paragraph and then answer the question below.

6.

The diagram below shows the early development of a vertebrate embryo. According to this information, how many cells will be present after the fourth cleavage?

of a vertebrate embryo. According to this information, how many cells will be present after the
 
cells will be present after the fourth cleavage?   A. 4 B. 16 C. 32 Students

A. 4

B. 16

C. 32

Students in a science class were studying plant

growth. They filled pots with potting soil and weighed each pot. They weighed several small bean plants and planted them carefully in separate pots. The potted plants were placed in a lighted area and watered for 45 days. After that time, the students removed each plant carefully from the pot, shaking the soil from the roots into the pot. The plants and the pots were again weighed separately. The beans gained an average mass of 0.5 kg. The soil in the pots weighed the same as in the beginning. Why did the students measure the mass of the soil and pots at the beginning of the experiment?

A. They expected the soil to grow along with the bean plants.

D. 64

ItemID kmorgan.2124 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.16 ( 7 )

 

7.

7.

B. They wanted to see if there was enough soil for the bean plants.

C. They wanted to see if the bean plants got their mass from the soil.

Male collard lizards are larger that females. According to the pictures above, what is the approximate difference in length between the male and the female collard lizard when measured from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail?

D. They needed to check the scales to make sure that they worked.

ItemID kmorgan.2123 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.12 ( 7 ), SCI.7.S.IP.07.13 ( 7 ), SCI.7.S.IP.07.14 ( 7 )

A. 3 cm

B. 8 cm

C. 12 cm

 

D. 15 cm

ItemID kmorgan.2125 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IA.07.11 ( 7 )

 

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

8.

8. 9. According to the graph, when was the population of moose highest?  

9.

According to the graph, when was the population of moose highest?

According to the graph, when was the population of moose highest?

 

This is a diagram showing three of the stages involved in mining. First, valuable ores are removed from the mine. Next, trucks transport the ore to a factory. Finally, the ore is processed in the factory so it can be used by humans for a variety of needs.

An environmental organization wants to investigate the effects of this mine on the local wildlife. Which one of the following tests will be MOST useful in its investigation?

A. 1940

B. 1910

C. 1935

A. Measure the heights of the largest trees in the area.

D. 1925

B. Calculate the amount of pollution produced by the factory in one day.

ItemID kmorgan.2127 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IA.07.11 ( 7 )

 

C. Determine what the population of local animals was before the mine was created.

 

D. Compare the change in population of local animals before and after the mine was created.

10.

D. Compare the change in population of local animals before and after the mine was created.

What

 

ItemID kmorgan.2126 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.12 ( 7 )

is the average length of these snail shells?

A. 2.1 cm

 

B. 2.3 cm

C. 2.5 cm

D. 2.7 cm

ItemID kmorgan.2130 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IP.07.13 ( 7 ), SCI.7.S.IP.07.14 ( 7 )

 

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

11. The graph shows the results of a restocking program in which shrimp raised on a shrimp farm are released into the wild. If this trend continues,

13. One person predicts that it will be a severe winter because oak trees are producing lots of

 
 

about how many metric tons of shrimp will be released in 1999?

about how many metric tons of shrimp will be released in 1999? A. 12

A. 12

acorns. Which of the following BEST describes this prediction?

A. The prediction is a wild guess, not based on observation.

B. The prediction follows from careful scientific observation.

 

C. The prediction cannot be tested, so it is not scientific.

D. The prediction is based on observation and can be tested.

ItemID kmorgan.2133 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.11 ( 7 )

 

14. Mary's claim was that water in solid form at one place on the earth could end up in liquid form at another place on the earth. If you were Mary's friend and heard her make this claim, how would you react to it?

B. 13

C. 14

D. 15

ItemID kmorgan.2131 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.S.IA.07.11 ( 7 )

 

A. Deny that this could happen because Mary had performed no test to show that this was possible.

 

B. Deny Mary's statement until you could check on a current weather report.

12. Our everyday life has been improved by the development of low-density, high-strength materials. These materials are useful for all of the following items EXCEPT for these?

A. car parts

C. Accept Mary's statement as possible since just about anything is possible with the weather in the United States.

D. Accept Mary's statement as possible because it agrees with what we know about wind and precipitation.

 
 

B. life jackets

C. boat anchors

ItemID kmorgan.2134 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.11 ( 7 )

D. bicycle frames

ItemID kmorgan.2132 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.18 ( 7 )

 
   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7: General Inquiry Questions » Teacher Version

15. Read the passage below and then answer the question. Archaeopteryx (ar-kay-op-ter-icks) is the name given to a creature that lived about 145 million years ago. This creature had feathered wings that enabled it to fly, but its skeleton resembled that of a small carnivorous dinosaur. It is believed to have been cold-blooded. This creature was first discovered in Germany in a layer of ground associated with the Jurassic period. Based on the information in the passage, what is MOST LIKELY true of Archaeopteryx's place in the ecosystem?

A. It was a predator.

B. It was parasitic.

C. It was a plant-eating dinosaur.

D. It spent most of its time underwater.

ItemID kmorgan.2135 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.14 ( 7 )

16.

Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.14 ( 7 ) 16. Surface mining can have negative effects on the

Surface mining can have negative effects on the environment around the mine. Which one

of the following is MOST LIKELY to be a negative environmental effect of surface mining?

A. increase in gasoline prices

B. increase in local economy

C. destruction of animal habitat

D. destruction of mining equipment

ItemID kmorgan.2136 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.S.RS.07.17 ( 7 )

Stop! You have finished this exam.

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

Directions: For each of the following questions, decide which of the choices is best and fill in the corresponding space on the answer document.

 

1. Earth's atmosphere is divided into layers that are based upon which of the following characteristics?

 

3. Which of the following is usually NOT a source of water pollution?

 

A. water content

 

A. mountain springs

B. relative humidity

B. industrial waste

C. gas content

C. landfills

D. temperature gradient

D. sewage

ItemID kmorgan.2083 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.E.FE.07.12 ( 7 )

 

ItemID kmorgan.2086 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.42 ( 7 )

 

2. Part of the Earth's water cycle involves liquid water evaporating from Lake Michigan in the summer, condensing into clouds, and then falling as rain in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in the summer. How is this part of the water cycle modified by the arrival of the winter season?

4. Mary is at the beach on the shores of Lake Michigan. Suddenly a large, puffy, dark cloud passes overhead. Mary looks at the cloud for a while and then says to her friend, "I'll bet that cloud was once snow in the Rocky Mountains and now it's going to end up as rain in Michigan." Why is Mary's statement true?

A. Clouds are made of snow.

 

A. Winter prevents the evaporation of water from the lake so very little rain (or snow) will ever fall in Michigan's Lower Peninsula.

B. The cycle stays pretty much the same except that the water that falls in Michigan's Lower Peninsula is now in the form of snow.

 

B. Clouds are made of water that was originally on the earth's surface.

C. The Rocky Mountains are a very good source of clouds, even in the summer.

C. It is difficult to make predictions about the water cycle since it is able to start and stop at almost any time.

D. Snow on mountain tops in the summer makes the best cloud material.

D. Once winter arrives, the water cycle stops and does not start again until spring.

ItemID kmorgan.2087 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 ), SCI.7.E.ES.07.81 ( 7 )

 

ItemID kmorgan.2084 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.81 ( 7 )

   
   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

5.

The surface water in Michigan could become

6.

drinking water in Nairobi, Kenya. How is this possible?

A. Large rivers of water flow under the ground to all major locations on the surface of the earth. People dig wells to tap this under ground source of water.

 

Study the map below and then answer the question.

Study the map below and then answer the question. Which of the following shows the correct

Which of the following shows the correct path that water takes through the region covered by the map?

B. The water of the world is in constant circulation, carried by the flow of rivers, currents of the oceans, and winds of the atmosphere.

C. Water can exist in many forms. It changes back and forth between these forms at will.

D. It is not possible for water to do this. Water generally moves about very little.

ItemID kmorgan.2088 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.81 ( 7 )

 

A. St. Clair River > Lake Huron > Detroit River

>

Lake St. Clair > Lake Erie

B. Lake Huron > St. Clair River > Lake St. Clair

>

Detroit River > Lake Erie

C. Lake Erie > Detroit River > Lake St. Clair > St. Clair River > Lake Huron

D. Lake St. Clair > Detroit River > Lake Erie > Lake Huron > St. Clair River

ItemID kmorgan.2089

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

7.

7. 8. Sewage treatment plants have many benefits for the environment. What negative impact could occur

8. Sewage treatment plants have many benefits for the environment. What negative impact could occur at these facilities during heavy rainfall?

 
 

A. These facilities could overload, releasing pollution into the river.

B. These facilities reduce evaporation of water from the river.

C. These facilities can reduce the water level of the river.

D. These facilities will attract more visitors to the river for recreational purposes.

ItemID kmorgan.2091 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.42 ( 7 )

 

9. In what part of the system does water exist primarily in a gaseous form?

The picture above shows the water cycle on Earth. What can be concluded from this cycle?

 

A. Lake

B. Atmosphere

A. Water remains in a constant state.

C. Ocean

B. Water only exists as a liquid on Earth.

D. Groundwater

C. Water is constantly moving and changing.

ItemID kmorgan.2092 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.11 ( 7 )

 

D. Water in the atmosphere does not return to Earth.

ItemID kmorgan.2090 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.81 ( 7 ), SCI.7.E.ES.07.82 ( 7 )

10.

What is the main cause of water evaporation from the ocean?

 

A. Currents in the ocean

B. Wind and wave action along the shore

C. Heat energy from the sun

D. Heat energy from the ocean floor

ItemID kmorgan.2093 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.72 ( 7 )

 

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

11.

After a storm there was a lot of water vapor in the air. It was a hot day and Anna noticed that her shirt felt a little damp. What caused this dampness?

13.

On the local news, Anna notices that the weather forecast calls for high winds and heavy rainfall to be coming her way. Which of the following is MOST LIKELY to be the cause of this predicted weather?

 

A. humidity

B. wind

C. clouds

C. clouds
C. clouds

D. pressure

ItemID kmorgan.2094 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.11 ( 7 ), SCI.7.E.ES.07.81 ( 7 )

12.

12.
12.

A. A cold air mass is remaining stationary for an extended period of time.

B. A cold air mass is colliding with a moist, warm air mass.

Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the map?

C. A warm air mass is remaining stationary for an extended period of time.

A. A cold front has just passed through Michigan.

D. A moist, warm air mass is colliding with a dry air mass of the same temperature.

B. A warm front is heading toward Michigan.

ItemID kmorgan.2096 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 )

C. A cold front is heading toward Michigan.

D. A warm front has just passed through Michigan.

 

ItemID kmorgan.2095 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 )

   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

14. Directions: Study the weather maps below and then answer the question. What kind of weather effect is causing the change in the weather in Chicago?

16.

Which of the following measures would have the greatest impact on reducing river pollution in a farm area?

A. planting crops that absorb less water

B. plowing land earlier in the year

 
  C. controlling the use of fertilizer
  C. controlling the use of fertilizer

C. controlling the use of fertilizer

D. increasing irrigation of crops

ItemID kmorgan.2099 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.41 ( 7 )

 
17. An oasis is a place in a desert where underground water seeps through to

17.

An oasis is a place in a desert where underground water seeps through to the

An oasis is a place in a desert where underground water seeps through to the surface. The figure above shows how water from rainfall in the mountains passes through the porous rock below a desert region. If the dotted line represents the top of the water table, where is the most likely place for an oasis to form?

A. 1

A. warm moist air

B. warm dry air

C. cold clear air

D. warm clear air

ItemID kmorgan.2097 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 )

15. What do you predict the atmospheric pressure to be behind the cold front?

B. 2

 

A. higher than in front of the cold front

 

B. lower than in front of the cold front

 

C. 3

 

D. 4

 

C. the same as that in front of the cold front

 

D. both lower and higher in front of the cold front

 

ItemID kmorgan.2101 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.82 ( 7 )

 

ItemID kmorgan.2098 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 )

 
   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

18. When soil becomes saturated during rainfall, excess water begins to collect on the surface. What is the downslope movement of this excess water to rivers, lakes, and streams called?

A. runoff

21. Wind develops as a result of differences in which of the following?

 
 

A. air temperature and humidity

B. relative humidity and dew point

 

B. filtration

C. condensation and evaporation rates

C. groundwater

D. atmospheric pressure and temperature

D. condensation

ItemID kmorgan.2105 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.13 ( 7 )

 

ItemID kmorgan.2102 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.82 ( 7 )

 
 

22. Why are cloudy skies less common over deserts?

 
 

A. High humidity prevents cloud formation.

19. When rain falls on the land, some of it is absorbed by the surface sediment. How porous the surface sediments are controls how much water is absorbed. Which of the following will most likely result in an area where surface sediment is NOT porous?

A. flooding

B. Constant winds keep water from evaporating.

C. There is not enough moisture in the air for clouds to form.

D. Evaporation rates in the desert are much higher than other places.

 

B. drought

ItemID kmorgan.2106 Correct C Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.73 ( 7 )

 

C. tornadoes

D. spring formation

 

ItemID kmorgan.2103 Correct A Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.82 ( 7 )

23. Surface mining is a type of mining that is done at the surface of Earth. In addition to supplying valuable minerals to industry, what might surface mining also do?

 
 

20. Which of the following is true regarding the properties of an air mass?

A. An air mass is warmer at the leading edge and cooler at the trailing edge.

 

A. discourage landfills

B. increase Earth's surface area

C. eliminate groundwater pollution

 

B. An air mass has similar temperature and moisture properties throughout it.

D. create recreational ponds and lakes

ItemID kmorgan.2107 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.41 ( 7 )

 

C. An air mass is cooler near the edges and has greater moisture near the center.

D. An air mass has greater moisture near the edges and is cooler near the center.

 

ItemID kmorgan.2104 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.74 ( 7 )

   

Go on to the next page »

Science Grade 7, Unit 4: Fluid Earth Systems & Human Activities » Teacher Version

24. Which of the following is NOT a way in which plants are affected by acid rain?

 
 

1. They grow taller.

2. They die.

3. Their leaves turn brown.

A. 1 and 2

B. 1 only

C. 2 only

D. 1 and 3

ItemID kmorgan.2108 Correct B Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.41 ( 7 ), SCI.7.E.ES.07.42 ( 7 )

25. Pollution of air and water can also be caused in natural ways. What is one natural source of air pollution?

 

A. growing trees

B. recycling aluminum cans

C. automobile exhaust

D. volcanic eruptions

ItemID kmorgan.2109 Correct D Standard(s) SCI.7.E.ES.07.42 ( 7 )

 

Go on to the next page »

Stop! You have finished this exam.

S E V E N T H G R A D E S C I
S E V E N T H
G R
A D E
S C I E N C E
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
7
v.1.09
Welcome to Michigan’s K-7 Grade Level Content Expectations
SCIENCE PROCESSES
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of
creating Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the Federal No
Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of
PHYSICAL SCIENCE
comprehensive state grade level assessments in mathematics and English
language arts that are designed based on rigorous grade level content. In
addition, assessments for science in elementary, middle, and high school
were required. To provide greater clarity for what students are expected to
LIFE SCIENCE
know and be able to do by the end of each grade, expectations for each grade
level have been developed for science.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess
EARTH SCIENCE
personal, social, occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of
the knowledge and essential skills defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content
Expectations will increase students’ ability to be successful academically, and
contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the communities in
which they choose to live.
Reflecting best practices and current research, the Grade Level Content
Expectations provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students,
and provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should
know and be able to do as they progress through school.
Development
In developing these expectations, the K-7 Scholar Work Group depended heavily
on the Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational
Progress (National Assessment Governing Board, 2006) which has been the
gold standard for the high school content expectations. Additionally, the
National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), the
Michigan Curriculum Framework in Science (2000 version), and the Atlas for
Science Literacy, Volumes One (AAAS, 2001) and Two (AAAS, 2007), were
all continually consulted for developmental guidance. As a further resource
for research on learning progressions and curricular designs, Taking Science
to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8 (National Research
Council, 2007) was extensively utilized. The following statement from this
resource was a guiding principle:
“The next generation of science standards and curricula at the national and
state levels should be centered on a few core ideas and should expand on
them each year, at increasing levels of complexity, across grades K-8. Today’s
standards are still too broad, resulting in superficial coverage of science that
fails to link concepts or develop them over successive grades.”
Michigan’s K-7 Scholar Work Group executed the intent of this statement
Office of School Improvement
in the development of “the core ideas of science
document.
the
big picture” in this
www.michigan.gov/mde
SCIENCE

7 2

Curriculum

Using this document as a focal point in the school improvement process, schools and districts can generate conversations among stakeholders concerning current policies and practices to consider ways to improve and enhance student achievement. Together, stakeholders can use these expectations to guide curricular and instructional decisions, identify professional development needs, and assess student achievement.

Assessment

The Science Grade Level Content Expectations document is intended to be a curricular guide with the expectations written to convey expected performances by students. Science will continue to be assessed in grades five and eight for the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) and MI-Access.

Preparing Students for Academic Success

In the hands of teachers, the Grade Level Content Expectations are converted into exciting and engaging learning for Michigan’s students. As educators use these expectations, it is critical to keep in mind that content knowledge alone is not sufficient for academic success. Students must also generate questions, conduct investigations, and develop solutions to problems through reasoning and observation. They need to analyze and present their findings which lead to future questions, research, and investigations. Students apply knowledge in new situations, to solve problems by generating new ideas, and to make connections between what they learn in class to the world around them.

Through the collaborative efforts of Michigan educators and creation of professional learning communities, we can enable our young people to attain the highest standards, and thereby open doors for them to have fulfilling and successful lives.

Understanding the Organizational Structure

The science expectations in this document are organized into disciplines, standards, content statements, and specific content expectations. The content statements in each science standard are broader, more conceptual groupings. The skills and content addressed in these expectations will, in practice, be woven together into a coherent, science curriculum.

To allow for ease in referencing expectations, each expectation has been coded with a discipline, standard, grade-level, and content statement/expectation number.

For example, P.FM.02.34 indicates:

P - Physical Science Discipline

FM-Force and Motion Standard

02-Second Grade

34-Fourth Expectation in the Third Content Statement

Content statements are written and coded for Elementary and Middle School Grade Spans. Not all
Content statements are written and coded for Elementary and Middle School Grade
Spans. Not all content expectations for the content statement will be found in each
grade.

Why Create a 1.09 Version of the Expectations?

The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product for educators. This committment served as the impetus for revision of the 12.07 edition. This new version, v.1.09, refines and clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent and reflects the feedback from educators across the state during the past year.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

7 3

Middle School (5-7) Science Organizational Structure

Discipline 1 Science Processes Discipline 2 Physical Science Discipline 3 Discipline 4 Life Science Earth
Discipline 1
Science Processes
Discipline 2
Physical Science
Discipline 3
Discipline 4
Life Science
Earth Science
Standards and Statements (and number of Content Expectations in each Statement)
Inquiry Process (IP)
Force and Motion (FM)
Force Interactions (2)
Organization of
Living Things (OL)
Earth Systems (ES)
Inquiry Analysis
and Communication
(IA)
Solar Energy (3)
Force (4)
Cell Functions (4)
Human
Speed (3)
Growth and
Consequences (2)
Reflection and Social
Implications (RS)
Energy (EN)
Development (2)
Seasons (2)
Kinetic and Potential
Animal Systems (2)
Weather and Climate
Energy (2)
Producers,
(4)
Waves and Energy (3)
Consumers, and
Water Cycle (2)
Energy Transfer (3)
Decomposers (2)
Solid Earth (SE)
Solar Energy Effects
Photosynthesis (3)
Soil (4)
(2)
Heredity (HE)
Rock Formation (1)
Properties of Matter
Inherited and
Plate Tectonics (3)
(PM)
Acquired Traits (2)
Magnetic Field of
Chemical Properties
Reproduction (2)
Earth (2)
(1)
Evolution (EV)
Fluid Earth (FE)
Elements and
Species Adaptation
Atmosphere (2)
Compounds (4)
and Survival (4)
Changes in Matter
Relationships Among
Earth in Space and
Time (ST)
(CM)
Organisms (1)
Solar System (1)
Changes in State (2)
Ecosystems (EC)
Solar System Motion
Chemical Changes (3)
Interactions of
(5)
Organisms (1)
Fossils (1)
Relationships of
Geologic Time (2)
Organisms (3)
Biotic and Abiotic
Factors (2)
Environmental
Impact of Organisms
(2)

Science Processes: Inquiry Process, Inquiry Analysis and Communication, Reflection, and Social Implications

The seventh grade content expectations present the final opportunity for the middle school learners to refine and develop their inquiry skills prior to the introduction of the high school curriculum. Students should be able to recognize that different kinds of questions suggest different approaches for scientific investigation. Students should be able to generate a variety of questions through observation, sets of data, manipulation of variables, investigations, and research. They further develop and sharpen their skills in measurement and the use of tools and scientific equipment. They collect and organize their own sets of data into charts and graphs, make sense of their findings, evaluate and analyze their own data as well as the data of others, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their findings and the claims of others. Students recognize the importance of collaborative science discourse. Learners understand that science investigations and advances may result in new ideas and areas of study generating new methods and possibly resulting in new investigations.

Reflection and social implications are the application of the students’ new knowledge and affects their decision making and their perception of the effect humans, scientific discovery, and technology have on society and the natural world.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

7 4

Physical Science: Energy, Properties of Matter, Changes in Matter

Seventh grade students continue their exploration into the concept of energy through the exploration of light energy and solar energy effects. Students gain a greater understanding of the role of the sun’s warming and lighting of the Earth, and how light energy is transferred to chemical energy through photosynthesis. The transfer of energy is studied through examples of waves (sound, seismic, and water) and how waves transfer energy when they interact with matter.

Their earlier studies of properties of matter emphasized observable physical properties. Seventh grade students explore a more in-depth study of physical properties (boiling point, density, and color) and chemical properties of matter (flammability, pH, acid-base indicators, and reactivity). Students are introduced to organization of the Periodic Table of the Elements and recognize the atom as the smallest component that makes up an element.

Seventh grade students draw upon their knowledge of properties of matter and use evidence to describe physical and chemical change. They recognize that when a chemical change occurs, a new substance is produced and that the new substance has different physical and chemical properties than the original substance. Students describe evidence of chemical change as a change in color, gas formation, solid formation, and temperature change.

Life Science: Organization of Living Things and Heredity

Seventh grade students expand their investigations of living things to include the study of cells. They demonstrate that all organisms are composed of cells and that multi- cellular organisms and single cellular organisms exist in ecosystems. The seventh grade study of cells includes how cells make up different body tissues, organs, and organ systems and are specialized in their functions. Cell division is explored to help the students describe growth and development. Seventh grade students have the fine motor skills and conceptual development to use a light microscope and accurately interpret what they see. This enhances their introduction to cells and microorganisms, establishing a foundation for molecular biology at the high school level.

In the seventh grade content expectations, students expand their knowledge to include how characteristics of living things are passed on through generations, both asexually and sexually. Seventh grade students are able to understand that genetic material carries information. They compare and contrast the advantages of sexual vs. asexual reproduction, and recognize that reproduction is a characteristic of all living things and necessary for the continuation of every species.

Earth Science: Earth Systems and Fluid Earth

The primary focus of the Earth science content expectations is understanding the relationship between the sun’s warming of the Earth, the water cycle, and weather and climate. In the sixth grade Earth science curriculum, students studied the rock cycle and physical and chemical weathering. The seventh grade units of study explore another Earth cycle in the context of the water cycle and the composition of the atmosphere. Students investigate the sun’s warming of the atmosphere, land, and water, and how it affects the movement of water through the atmosphere, weather, and climate. Their knowledge of weather goes beyond the more basic observations of weather from the elementary curriculum to include the frontal boundaries, major air masses, and the jet stream. The reflection of their knowledge is applied to how human activities have changed the land, oceans, and atmosphere, and the implications of pollution, climate change, and threatening or endangering species.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

7 5

Seventh Grade Science Standards, Statements, and Expectations

Note: The number in parentheses represents the number of expectations.

Discipline 1: Science Processes (S) Standard: Inquiry Process (IP)

1 Statement (6)

Standard: Inquiry Analysis and Communication (IA)

1 Statement (5)

Standard: Reflection and Social Implications (RS)

1 Statement (9)

Discipline 2: Physical Science (P) Standard: Energy (EN) Waves and Energy (3) Energy Transfer (1) Solar Energy Effects (2) Standard: Properties of Matter (PM) Chemical Properties (1) Elements and Compounds (4) Standard: Changes in Matter (CM) Chemical Changes (3)

Discipline 3: Life Science (L) Standard: Organization of Living Things (OL) Cell Functions (4) Growth and Development (2) Photosynthesis (3) Standard: Heredity (HE) Reproduction (2)

Discipline 4: Earth Science (E) Standard: Earth Systems (ES) Solar Energy (3) Human Consequences (2) Weather and Climate (4) Water Cycle (2) Standard: Fluid Earth (FE) Atmosphere (2)

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

SCIENCE PROCESSES

Inquiry Process

 

Inquiry Analysis and Communication

Reflection and Social Implications

K-7 Standard S.IP: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems.

S.IP.M.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting investigations, and developing solutions to problems through reasoning and observation.

S.IP.07.11 Generate scientific questions based on observations, investigations, and research. S.IP.07.12 Design and conduct scientific investigations. S.IP.07.13 Use tools and equipment (spring scales, stop watches, meter sticks and tapes, models, hand lens, thermometer, models, sieves, microscopes, hot plates, pH meters) appropriate to scientific investigations. S.IP.07.14 Use metric measurement devices in an investigation. S.IP.07.15 Construct charts and graphs from data and observations. S.IP.07.16 Identify patterns in data.

K-7 Standard S.IA: Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and investigations require analysis and communication of findings, using appropriate technology.

S.IA.M.1 Inquiry includes an analysis and presentation of findings that lead to future questions, research, and investigations.

S.IA.07.11 Analyze information from data tables and graphs to answer scientific questions. S.IA.07.12 Evaluate data, claims, and personal knowledge through collaborative science discourse. S.IA.17.13 Communicate and defend findings of observations and investigations. S.IA.07.14 Draw conclusions from sets of data from multiple trials of a scientific investigation to draw conclusions. S.IA.07.15 Use multiple sources of information to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, or data.

K-7 Standard S.RS: Develop an understanding that claims and evidence for their scientific merit should be analyzed. Understand how scientists decide what constitutes scientific knowledge. Develop an understanding of the importance of reflection on scientific knowledge and its application to new situations to better understand the role of science in society and technology.

S.RS.M.1 Reflecting on knowledge is the application of scientific knowledge to new and different situations. Reflecting on knowledge requires careful analysis of evidence that guides decision-making and the application of science throughout history and within society.

7 6

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Energy

Energy

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Energy

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

S.RS.07.11 Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of claims, arguments, and data. S.RS.07.12 Describe limitations in personal and scientific knowledge. S.RS.07.13 Identify the need for evidence in making scientific decisions. S.RS.07.14 Evaluate scientific explanations based on current evidence and scientific principles. S.RS.07.15 Demonstrate scientific concepts through various illustrations, performances, models, exhibits, and activities. S.RS.07.16 Design solutions to problems using technology. S.RS.07.17 Describe the effect humans and other organisms have on the balance of the natural world. S.RS.07.18 Describe what science and technology can and cannot reasonably contribute to society. S.RS.07.19 Describe how science and technology have advanced because of the contributions of many people throughout history and across cultures.

K-7 Standard P.EN: Develop an understanding that there are many forms of energy (such as heat, light, sound, and electrical) and that energy is transferable by convection, conduction, or radiation. Understand energy can be in motion, called kinetic; or it can be stored, called potential. Develop an understanding that as temperature increases, more energy is added to a system. Understand nuclear reactions in the sun produce light and heat for the Earth.

P.EN.M.3 Waves and Energy-Waves have energy and transfer energy when they interact with matter. Examples of waves include sound waves, seismic waves, waves on water, and light waves.

P.EN.07.31 Identify examples of waves, including sound waves, seismic waves, and waves on water. P.EN.07.32 Describe how waves are produced by vibrations in matter. P.EN.07.33 Demonstrate how waves transfer energy when they interact with matter (for example: tuning fork in water, waves hitting a beach, earthquake knocking over buildings).

P.EN.M.4 Energy Transfer- Energy is transferred from a source to a receiver by radiation, conduction, and convection. When energy is transferred from one system to another, the quantity of energy before the transfer is equal to the quantity of energy after the transfer. *

P.EN.07.43 Explain how light energy is transferred to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

7 7

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

7 8

Properties of Matter

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

P.EN.M.6 Solar Energy Effects- Nuclear reactions take place in the sun producing heat and light. Only a tiny fraction of the light energy from the sun reaches Earth, providing energy to heat the Earth.

P.EN.07.61 Identify that nuclear reactions take place in the sun, producing heat and light. P.EN.07.62 Explain how only a tiny fraction of light energy from the sun is transformed to heat energy on Earth.

K-7 Standard P.PM: Develop an understanding that all matter has observable attributes with physical and chemical properties that are described, measured, and compared. Understand that states of matter exist as solid, liquid, or gas; and have physical and chemical properties. Understand all matter is composed of combinations of elements, which are organized by common attributes and characteristics on the Periodic Table. Understand that substances can be classified as mixtures or compounds and according to their physical and chemical properties.

P.PM.M.1 Chemical Properties- Matter has chemical properties. The understanding of chemical properties helps to explain how new substances are formed.

P.PM.07.11 Classify substances by their chemical properties (flammability, pH, and reactivity). *

P.PM.M.2 Elements and Compounds- Elements are composed of a single kind of atom that are grouped into families with similar properties on the periodic table. Compounds are composed of two or more different elements. Each element and compound has a unique set of physical and chemical properties such as boiling point, density, color, conductivity, and reactivity.

P.PM.07.21 Identify the smallest component that makes up an element. P.PM.07.22 Describe how the elements within the Periodic Table are organized by similar properties into families (highly reactive metals, less reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals, and some almost completely non-reactive gases). P.PM.07.23 Illustrate the structure of molecules using models or drawings (water, carbon dioxide, table salt). * P.PM.07.24 Describe examples of physical and chemical properties of elements and compounds (boiling point, density, color, conductivity, reactivity). *

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

 

Changes in Matter

LIFE SCIENCE

Organization of Living Things

 

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

K-7 Standard P.CM: Develop an understanding of changes in the state of matter in terms of heating and cooling, and in terms of arrangement and relative motion of atoms and molecules. Understand the differences between physical and chemical changes. Develop an understanding of the conservation of mass. Develop an understanding of products and reactants in a chemical change.

P.CM.M.2 Chemical Changes- Chemical changes occur when two elements and/or compounds react (including decomposing) to produce new substances. These new substances have different physical and chemical properties than the original elements and/or compounds. During the chemical change, the number and kind of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kind of atoms in the products. Mass is conserved during chemical changes. The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products. *

P.CM.07.21 Identify evidence of chemical change through color, gas formation, solid formation, and temperature change. P.CM.07.22 Compare and contrast the chemical properties of a new substance with the original after a chemical change. P.CM.07.23 Describe the physical properties and chemical properties of the products and reactants in a chemical change.

K-7 Standard L.OL: Develop an understanding that plants and animals (including humans) have basic requirements for maintaining life which include the need for air, water, and a source of energy. Understand that all life forms can be classified as producers, consumers, or decomposers as they are all part of a global food chain where food/energy is supplied by plants which need light to produce food/energy. Develop an understanding that plants and animals can be classified by observable traits and physical characteristics. Understand that all living organisms are composed of cells and they exhibit cell growth and division. Understand that all plants and animals have a definite life cycle, body parts, and systems to perform specific life functions.

7 9

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

8 0

L.OL.M.2 Cell Functions- All organisms are composed of cells, from one cell to many cells. In multicellular organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells, and function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

L.OL.07.21 Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells (single cell organisms, multicellular organisms). L.OL.07.22 Explain how cells make up different body tissues, organs, and organ systems. L.OL.07.23 Describe how cells in all multicellular organisms are specialized to take in nutrients, which they use to provide energy for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or organism needs. L.OL.07.24 Recognize that cells function in a similar way in all organisms.

L.OL.M.3- Growth and Development- Following fertilization, cell division produces a small cluster of cells that then differentiate by appearance and function to form the basic tissue of multicellular organisms. *

L.OL.07.31 Describe growth and development in terms of increase of cell number and/or cell size. L.OL.07.32 Examine how through cell division, cells can become specialized for specific functions.

L.OL.M.6 Photosynthesis- Plants are producers; they use the energy from light to make sugar molecules from the atoms of carbon dioxide and water. Plants use these sugars along with minerals from the soil to form fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. These products can be used immediately, incorporated into the cells of a plant as the plant grows, or stored for later use.

L.OL.07.61 Recognize the need for light to provide energy for the production of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. L.OL.07.62 Explain that carbon dioxide and water are used to produce carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. L.OL.07.63 Describe evidence that plants make, use and store food.

* Revised expectations marked by an asterisk.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

 

Heredity

EARTH SCIENCE

Earth Systems

K-7 Standard L.HE: Develop an understanding that all life forms must reproduce to survive. Understand that characteristics of mature plants and animals may be inherited or acquired and that only inherited traits are passed on to their young. Understand that inherited traits can be influenced by changes in the environment and by genetics.

L.HE.M.2 Reproduction- Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems; because no individual organism lives forever, reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species. Some organisms reproduce asexually. Other organisms reproduce sexually.

L.HE.07.21 Compare how characteristics of living things are passed on through generations, both asexually and sexually. L.HE.07.22 Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of sexual vs. asexual reproduction.

K-7 Standard E.ES: Develop an understanding of the warming of the Earth by the sun as the major source of energy for phenomenon on Earth and how the sun’s warming relates to weather, climate, seasons, and the water cycle. Understand how human interaction and use of natural resources affects the environment.

E.ES.M.1 Solar Energy- The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the surface of the Earth.

E.ES.07.11 Demonstrate, using a model or drawing, the relationship between the warming by the sun of the Earth and the water cycle as it applies to the atmosphere (evaporation, water vapor, warm air rising, cooling, condensation, clouds). E.ES.07.12 Describe the relationship between the warming of the atmosphere of the Earth by the sun and convection within the atmosphere and oceans. E.ES.07.13 Describe how the warming of the Earth by the sun produces winds and ocean currents.

8 1

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

8 2

E.ES.M.4 Human Consequences- Human activities have changed the land, oceans, and atmosphere of the Earth resulting in the reduction of the number and variety of wild plants and animals, sometimes causing extinction of species.

E.ES.07.41 Explain how human activities (surface mining, deforestation, overpopulation, construction and urban development, farming, dams, landfills, and restoring natural areas) change the surface of the Earth and affect the survival of organisms. E.ES.07.42 Describe the origins of pollution in the atmosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere, (car exhaust, industrial emissions, acid rain, and natural sources), and how pollution impacts habitats, climatic change, threatens or endangers species.

E.ES.M.7 Weather and Climate- Global patterns of atmospheric and oceanic movement influence weather and climate.

E.ES.07.71 Compare and contrast the difference and relationship between climate and weather. E.ES.07.72 Describe how different weather occurs due to the constant motion of the atmosphere from the energy of the sun reaching the surface of the Earth. E.ES.07.73 Explain how the temperature of the oceans affects the different climates on Earth because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. E.ES.07.74 Describe weather conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded) and the movement of major air masses and the jet stream across North America using a weather map.

E.ES.M.8 Water Cycle- Water circulates through the four spheres of the Earth in what is known as the “water cycle.”

E.ES.07.81 Explain the water cycle and describe how evaporation, transpiration, condensation, cloud formation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, ground water, and absorption occur within the cycle. E.ES.07.82 Analyze the flow of water between the components of a watershed, including surface features (lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands) and groundwater.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

8 3

Fluid Earth

Fluid Earth

K-7 Standard E.FE: Develop an understanding that Earth is a planet nearly covered with water and that water on Earth can be found in three states, solid, liquid, and gas. Understand how water on Earth moves in predictable patterns. Understand Earth’s atmosphere as a mixture of gases and water vapor.

E.FE.M.1 Atmosphere- The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different physical and chemical composition at different elevations.

E.FE.07.11 Describe the atmosphere as a mixture of gases. E.FE.07.12 Compare and contrast the composition of the atmosphere at different elevations.

S E V E N T H

G R A D E

S C I E N C E

v.1 . 0 9

M I C H I G A N

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

E D U C A T I O N

S E V E N T H G R A D E E N G
S E V E N T H
G R A D E
E
N
G
L
I
S
H
L
A
N
G
U
A
G
E
A
R
T
S
GRADE LEVEL
CONTENT
EXPECTATIONS
7
v.12.05
Welcome to Michigan’s K-8 Grade Level Content Expectations
R
E A D I N G
Purpose & Overview
In 2004, the Michigan Department of Education embraced the challenge of creating
Grade Level Content Expectations in response to the federal No Child Left Behind Act
of 2001. This act mandated the existence of a set of comprehensive state grade level
W R IT I N G
assessments that are designed based on rigorous grade level content.
In this global economy, it is essential that Michigan students possess personal, social,
occupational, civic, and quantitative literacy. Mastery of the knowledge and essential skills
S
P E A K I N G
defined in Michigan’s Grade Level Content Expectations will increase students’ ability to
be successful academically, contribute to the future businesses that employ them and the
communities in which they choose to live.
L
I ST E N I N G
The Grade Level Content Expectations build from the Michigan Curriculum Framework
and its Teaching and Assessment Standards. Reflecting best practices and current
research, they provide a set of clear and rigorous expectations for all students and
provide teachers with clearly defined statements of what students should know
V
I EW I N G
and be able to do as they progress through school.
Why Create a 12.05 Version of the Expectations?
The Office of School Improvement is committed to creating the best possible product
for educators. This commitment served as the impetus for the revision of the 6.04 edition
that was previously released in June of 2004. This new version, v.12.05, refines and
clarifies the original expectations, while preserving their essence and original intent.
As education continues to evolve, it is important to remember that each curriculum
document should be considered as a work in progress, and will continue to be refined
to improve the quality.
The revision process greatly improved the continuity from one grade to the next, and
better ensured coherence both in content and pedagogy. To obtain more specific details
about the revisions, please refer to the addendum included in this document. The forward
of the Across the Grades v.12.05 companion document also clarifies the types of changes
made. Educators can access the Across the Grades companion document by visiting
the Michigan Department of Education Grade Level Content Expectations web page at
www.michigan.gov/glce.