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CHAPTER

3

Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

CHAPTER 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions 1
CHAPTER 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions 1

1

CHAPTER 3

Relevant Sections

CHAPTER 3 Relevant Sections 3.7 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 3.8 Amounts of Reactants and Products

3.7 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations

3.8 Amounts of Reactants and Products

3.9 Limiting Reagents

3.10 Reaction Yield

3.7

Chemical Reactions and

Chemical Equations

3.7 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations

A CHEMICAL REACTION is a process

in which one or more substances is

changed into one or more new

substances.

SUBSTANCES ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS
SUBSTANCES
ELEMENTS
COMPOUNDS

According to Dalton’s Atomic Theory:

A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction

A chemical reaction involves the same set of elements at the beginning of and

at the end of the reaction.

All of the elements you see on the left side of the equation start Initial

All of the elements you see on the left side of the equation

start

Initial stage

reactants

the left side of the equation start Initial stage reactants you should also see on the

you should also see on the right side of the equation

end

Final stage products

A chemical equation is a shorthand expression or

representation of a chemical reaction

A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to

show what happens during a chemical reaction

reactants

products

For reactions with more than one reactant or product, use a plus (+) sign to separate the formulas of the different substances

Solid

(s)

Liquid (l)

Aqueous Solution (aq)

Gas

(g)

(Homogeneous Mixture with H 2 O as solvent)

Symbol for heating

Write the chemical equation representing the formation of

liquid water from the reaction of the gaseous molecules of

hydrogen and oxygen.

reactants

gaseous molecules of hydrogen and oxygen

H 2 (g)

+

2H 2 (g)

O 2 (g)

+

O 2 (g)

products

Liquid water

H 2 O (l)

2H 2 O (l)

Not balanced

Balanced

When ammonia reacts with molecular oxygen gas it forms nitrogen monoxide gas

and liquid water.

Write the correct chemical formulas of the

reactants (left side) and products (right side)

NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g)  NO(g) + H 2 O( l)

Patterns of Chemical Reactions

Combination Reactions

Decomposition Reactions

Combustion Reactions

Displacement Reactions

Exchange Reactions

COMBINATION REACTIONS

COMBINATION REACTIONS

Combination Reaction

PATTERN:

X +

Z  XZ

For this type of reaction, two or more substances react to form a single (one) product.

All the elements present in the reactants are contained in the chemical formula of the product.

4Fe(s ) + 3O 2 (g ) 

2Fe 2 O 3 (s)

DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS

DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS

Decomposition Reactions

PATTERN: XZ  X + Z

Decomposition reactions are the reverse of the simple combination reactions.

For this type of reaction, there is only one reactant but many substances form the product.

2 NH 3 (g)  N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g)

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS

DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS An element, A takes the place of another element X in the compound, XZ.

An element, A takes the place of another element X in the compound, XZ.

Displacement Reactions

Hydrogen Displacement

Metal Displacement

Halogen Displacement

The Activity Series for Halogens

F 2 > Cl 2 > Br 2 >I 2

Displacement Reaction

PATTERN: A + XZ  AZ + X

An activity series determines which elements are capable of displacing another.

Activity Series

METALS:

Na > Al > Zn > Cr > Fe > Ni > Sn > Pb > H > Cu > Ag > Au

Zn + 2HCl (aq)  H 2 (g) + ZnCl 2 ( aq)

2Al + 3CuSO 4 (aq) 

3Cu + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

COMBUSTION REACTIONS

COMBUSTION REACTIONS A compound reacts with O 2 (g) to produce a new set of substances

A compound reacts with O 2 (g) to produce a new set of substances that contains the

element, oxygen.

NOTE: If O 2 (g) reacts with an element, it is classified under a combination reaction.

EXCHANGE REACTIONS

EXCHANGE REACTIONS Notice that there is an exchange of cation and anions in the reactants to

Notice that there is an exchange of cation and

anions in the reactants to form the products.

Exchange Reactions or

Double Displacement Reactions

PATTERN: AD + XZ  AZ + XD

Aqueous reactions that follow the pattern of reaction acid-base reactions precipitation reactions

NaOH(aq) + HCl (aq)  H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq)

Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)+ 2KI (aq)  PbI 2 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq)

22
22
22

Classify the following reactions:

(A) 2N 2 O →2N 2 +O 2 ()

(B) 6Li + N 2 → 2Li 3 N()

(C) Ni + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 → Pb + Ni(NO 3 ) 2 ()

Balancing Chemical Equations

Count the number of atoms of each element

present on the right and on the left side

NOTE: Do you have all of the elements present on both sides of the chemical equation?

NOTE: Are all the chemical symbols

and formulas correct?

Write the stoichiometric coefficients on the

space before each chemical symbol or formula

on the space before each chemical symbol or formula NOTE: Do not be afraid to change
on the space before each chemical symbol or formula NOTE: Do not be afraid to change

NOTE: Do not be afraid

to change your coefficients?

NOTE: You may erase the previous answer and rewrite a new one.

BALANCING CHEMICAL

EQUATIONS

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

K

+

Cl 2

 

KCl

Zn

+

O

2

ZnO

Ni +

 

HCl

NiCl 2 +

H 2

Cu

+

AgNO 3

Cu(NO 3 ) 2 +

 

Ag

 

+

CuSO

4

ZnSO 4

+

Cu

Cl 2 +

NaBr

Br 2

+

NaCl

Al 2 O 3

O 2

+

Al

VCl 3

Cl

2

+

V

NH 4 NO 3

N 2 O +

 

H 2 O

Na 2 C 2 O 4

+

CaCl 2

+ 2NaCl

Part 1. Balance the following chemical equations and identify the pattern of chemical reaction

Write the letter that corresponds to the type of reaction illustrated by the equation.

A.

Combination Reaction

B.

Decomposition Reaction

C.

Displacement Reaction

D.

Exchange Reaction

Type of Chemical Equation Reaction 1. Mg( s ) + N 2 (g ) 
Type of
Chemical Equation
Reaction
1.
Mg( s ) +
N 2 (g )

Mg 3 N 2 (s )
2.
NaHCO 3 (s )

Na 2 CO 3 (s ) +
H 2 O(l ) +
CO 2 (g )
3.
Zn 3 Sb 2 +
H
2 O 
Zn(OH)
+
SbH
2
3
NH
4 NO 3 (s )

N 2 O(g )
+
H 2 O(l )

Some reactions result from the combination of two

patterns of chemical reaction

2NaHCO 3 ( s )  Na 2 CO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

Amphoteric substance - can either donate or accept a proton,

NaHCO 3 ( s ) + NaHCO 3 ( s)  Na 2 CO 3 ( s ) + H 2 CO 3 ( aq ) H 2 CO 3 ( s )  H 2 O( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

2NaHCO 3 ( s )  Na 2 CO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

Type of Chemical Equation Reaction 1. Mg( s ) + N 2 (g ) 
Type of
Chemical Equation
Reaction
1.
Mg( s ) +
N 2 (g )

Mg 3 N 2 (s )
2.
NaHCO 3 (s )

Na 2 CO 3 (s ) +
H 2 O(l ) +
CO 2 (g )
3.
Zn 3 Sb 2 +
H
2 O 
Zn(OH)
+
SbH
2
3
NH
4 NO 3 (s )

N 2 O(g )
+
H 2 O(l )

For some reactions involving water, H 2 O

Zn 3 Sb 2 +

H

2 O 

Zn(OH)

2

+

SbH

3

Split water into two components, H OH

Zn

3 Sb 2 +

Zn 3 Sb 2 +

HOH 

H 2 O 

Zn(OH)

Zn(OH)

2

2

+

+

SbH

SbH

3

3

Type of Chemical Equation Reaction 5. Zn( s ) + HCl (aq )  ZnCl
Type of
Chemical Equation
Reaction
5.
Zn( s )
+
HCl (aq )

ZnCl 2 (aq )
+
H 2 (g )
6.
K( s ) +
H 2 O(l )

KOH(aq ) +
H 2 (g )
7.
H 2 O 2 (aq ) 
O
2 (g )
+
H
2 O (l )
8.
(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 
N
+
Cr
+
H
2
2 O 3
2 O

Write the balanced chemical equations that will represent the reactions described below. Write your answers on the space provided for each number.

The formation of barium oxide from the reaction of barium metal with

oxygen gas.

ANSWER:

The reaction between fluorine gas and water to yield the gaseous products oxygen difluoride and hydrogen fluoride.

ANSWER:

The burning of magnesium in nitrogen gas produces magnesium nitride.

ANSWER:

Write the balanced chemical equations that will represent the reactions described below. Write your answers on the space provided for each number.

The burning of iron(III) oxide in hydrogen gas generates iron metal and water.

ANSWER:

The complete combustion of hydrocarbons deals with the reaction of the hydrocarbon with oxygen gas producing carbon dioxide and water.

Write the balanced chemical equation representing the complete combustion of butane, C 4 H 10 .

ANSWER:

Additional exercises: for

independent study

Additional exercises: for independent study

Balance the following chemical equations.

 

Chemical Equations

 

KOH +

 

H 3 PO 4



K 3 PO 4 +

H 2 O

NH

4 NO 3



N 2 O +

H 2 O

Al

+

H

2 SO 4



Al

2 (SO 4 ) 3 +

H

2

P

4 O 10 +

H 2 O



H

3

PO 4

Balance the following chemical equations.

 

Chemical Equations

 

NH 3 +

CuO 

Cu +

N 2 +

H 2 O

C 2 H 6 +

O 2 

CO 2 +

H 2 O

HCl +

CaCO 3 

CaCl 2 +

H 2 O +

CO 2

NaHCO 3



Na 2 CO 3 +

H 2 O +

CO 2

Write the balanced chemical equation that will represent the chemical reaction described below:

1. When toluene (C 7 H 8 ) reacts with nitric acid,

trinitrotoluene (TNT), C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6 and water are formed.

(TNT), C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6 and water are formed. toluene ( C

toluene (C 7 H 8

)

+

C 7 H 8 +

HNO 3

HNO 3

( C 7 H 8 ) + C 7 H 8 + HNO 3 HNO 3

+

trinitrotoluene,

C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6

C 7 H 5 N 3 O 6 +

H 2 O

H

2 O

2. Carbon disulfide and carbon monoxide are produced

from the reaction of sulfur dioxide with carbon.

Answer:

3. Solid Lead (II) oxide reacts with ammonia gas to produce lead metal, nitrogen gas and liquid water.

Answer:

4. The complete combustion of liquid octane, C 8 H 18 , with O 2 ( g) generates carbon dioxide gas and liquid water.

Answer:

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