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Table of Contents

Lab ‐ 1: Measurement Techniques in Electronic Circuit Design ............................... 4


1.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................................. 4
1.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................... 4
1.3 Résumé of Theory ................................................................................................................. 4
1.4 Part 1. AC and DC Voltage Amplitude Measurements ........................................... 4
1.5 Part 2. Measurements of the T and fo of periodic waveforms ............................. 7
1.6 Part 3. Phase‐Shift Measurements ................................................................................ 8
1.7 Part 4. Loading Effects .................................................................................................... 10
1.8 Part 4. Problems and Exercises ................................................................................... 13
1.9 Assessment Sheet .............................................................................................................. 14

Lab ‐ 2: Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier .......................................................... 15


2.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 15
2.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 15
2.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 15
2.4 Part 1. Common‐Emitter DC Bias ............................................................................... 16
2.5 Part 2. Common‐Emitter AC Voltage Gain .............................................................. 17
2.6 Part 3. AC Input Impedance, Zi ........................................................................................................................................17
2.7 Part 4. Output Impedance, Zo ............................................................................................................................................18
2.8 Part 5. Oscilloscope Measurement ............................................................................. 18
2.9 Assessment Sheet .............................................................................................................. 19

Lab ‐ 3: Common Base Transistor Amplifier ................................................................ 20


3.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 20
3.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 20
3.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 20
3.4 Part 1. Common‐Base DC Bias ..................................................................................... 20
3.5 Part 2. Common‐Base AC Voltage Gain .................................................................... 21
3.6 Part 3. CB Input Impedance, Zi ........................................................................................................................................22
3.7 Part 4. CB Output Impedance, Zo ..................................................................................................................................22
3.8 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................24

Lab ‐ 4: Emitter‐Follower (Common Collector) Transistor Amplifier ................. 25


4.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 25
4.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 25
4.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 25
4.4 Part 1. Emitter‐Follower DC Bias ............................................................................... 25
4.5 Part 2. Emitter‐Follower AC Voltage Gain............................................................... 26
4.6 Part 3. Emitter‐Follower (EF) Input Impedance, Zi .............................................................................27
4.7 Part 4. Emitter‐Follower (EF) Output Impedance, Zo .......................................................................28
4.8 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................29

Lab ‐ 5: Design of Common Emitter Amplifier ............................................................. 30


5.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 30
5.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 30

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Manual
5.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 30
5.4 Part 1. Selection of Components ................................................................................. 31
5.5 Part 2. Build and Test CE Circuit ................................................................................. 31
5.6 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 33

Lab ‐ 6: Common Source Transistor Amplifier ............................................................ 34


6.1 OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................... 34
6.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED.................................................................................................. 34
6.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY ........................................................................................................ 34
6.4 Part 1. Measurement of IDSS and VP ......................................................................................................................... 35
6.5 Part 2. DC Bias of Common‐Source Circuit ............................................................ 36
6.6 Part 3. AC Voltage Gain of Common‐Source Amplifier ...................................... 36
6.7 Part 4. Input and Output Impedance Measurements ........................................ 37
6.8 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 39

Lab ‐ 7: Multistage Amplifier: RC Coupling ................................................................... 40


7.1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 40
7.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 40
7.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 40
7.4 Part 1. Measurement of IDSS and VP ......................................................................................................................... 41
7.5 Part 2. DC Bias of Common‐Source Circuit ............................................................ 43
7.6 Part 3. AC Voltage Gain of Amplifier. ........................................................................ 44
7.7 Part 4. Input and Output Impedance Measurements ........................................ 45
7.8 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 46

Lab ‐ 8: Darlington Amplifier Circuits ............................................................................ 47


8.1 Objective ................................................................................................................................ 47
8.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 47
8.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 47
8.4 Part 1. Darlington Emitter‐Follower Circuit ......................................................... 47
8.5 Part 2. Darlington Input and Output Impedance ................................................. 48
8.6 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 50

Lab ‐ 9: Cascode Amplifier Circuits .................................................................................. 51


9.1 Objective ................................................................................................................................ 51
9.2 Equipment Required ........................................................................................................ 51
9.3 Résumé of Theory .............................................................................................................. 51
9.4 Part 1. Cascode Amplifier ............................................................................................. 51
9.5 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 54

Lab ‐ 10: Current Source Circuits ....................................................................................... 55


10.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................ 55
10.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED.................................................................................................. 55
10.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY ........................................................................................................ 55
10.4 Part 1. JFET Current Source ......................................................................................... 56
10.5 Part 2. BJT Current Source ........................................................................................... 56
10.6 Assessment Sheet ................................................................................................... 58

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Lab ‐ 11: Current Mirror Circuits ........................................................................................ 59
11.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................ 59
11.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED ................................................................................................. 59
11.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY........................................................................................................ 59
11.4 Part 1. Current Mirror .................................................................................................... 60
11.5 Part 2. Multiple Current Mirrors................................................................................ 60
11.6 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................62

Lab ‐ 12: Frequency Response of CE Amplifiers ............................................................ 63


12.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................ 63
12.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED ................................................................................................. 63
12.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY........................................................................................................ 63
12.4 Part 1. Low‐Frequency Response Calculations .................................................... 65
12.5 Part 2. Low‐Frequency Response Measurements .............................................. 65
12.6 Part 3. High‐Frequency Response Calculations ................................................... 66
12.7 Part 4. Gain versus Frequency .................................................................................... 67
12.8 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................68

Lab ‐ 13: Class‐A Power Amplifiers .................................................................................... 69


13.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................ 69
13.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED ................................................................................................. 69
13.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY........................................................................................................ 69
13.4 Part 1. Class‐A Amplifier: DC Bias ............................................................................. 69
13.5 Part 2. Class‐A Amplifier: AC Operation ................................................................. 70
13.6 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................72

Lab ‐ 14: Class‐B Power Amplifiers .................................................................................... 73


14.1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................ 73
14.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED ................................................................................................. 73
14.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY........................................................................................................ 73
14.4 Part 1. Class‐B Amplifier Operation.......................................................................... 73
14.5 Assessment Sheet ...................................................................................................75

Lab ‐ 15: Voltage Regulation — Power Supplies ..................................................... 76


15.1 OBJECTIVE ................................................................................................................76
15.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED .......................................................................................76
15.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY .............................................................................................76
15.4 Part 1. Series Voltage Regulator .....................................................................77
15.5 Part 2. Improved Series Regulator .................................................................78
15.6 Part 3. Shunt Voltage Regulator ......................................................................78
15.7 Assessment Sheet .............................................................................................................. 79

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Manual
Lab ‐ 1: Measurement Techniques in Electronic Circuit Design

1.1 Objectives

 To measure the ac and dc amplitudes of a waveform with an oscilloscope.


 To measure the ac and dc amplitudes of a waveform with a digital multimeter.
 To measure the period and frequency of periodic waves with an oscilloscope.
 To measure the frequency of periodic waves with a frequency counter.
 To measure the phase shift between two sinusoidal waves with an oscilloscope.
 To study the effect of instrument loading on the voltage measurements in a circuit.

1.2 Equipment Required

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 1‐kΩ, 2‐kΩ, 3.9 kΩ, 1‐MΩ
Components
Capacitors: 0.1‐µF

1.3 Résumé of Theory

This experiment will be an introduction to the measuring instrumentation commonly used to


measure dc and ac quantities. Specifically, the oscilloscope and the digital multimeter will be
used to measure both the ac and dc components of a voltage waveform. The oscilloscope is
basically a voltage measuring device. It measure the amplitude of any periodic voltage in the
term of its peak‐to‐peak values. By contrast, the digital multimeter measure the rms value of a
periodic wave. Note, however, that some digital multimeters measure the rms values of a
sinusoidal wave only.
The oscilloscope can also be used to measure the period, and consequently the frequency, of a
periodic wave, In case of a sine wave, it will measure the frequency of that wave, if a pulse is
applied, it will allow for the determination of its fundamental frequency. The frequencies
determined from the oscilloscope measurement will be compared with those made with a
frequency counter.
It is important in the use of a particular measuring instrument to note its possible effect on the
measurements taken. To demonstrate this, a circuit is used which has a low impedance
compared to the input impedance of the oscilloscope. Thus the circuit voltage measured
approaches its theoretical value. However, when the circuit impedance is changed so that its
more nearly approaches that of the oscilloscope, serious measurement errors introduced. To
overcome these errors, 10:1 test probes are used.

1.4 Part 1. AC and DC Voltage Amplitude Measurements


a. Construct the circuit of Fig 1‐1, Insert the measured resistor values.

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Figure 1‐1

R1(measured) = ____________
R2(measured) = ____________
R3(measured) = ____________

b. Connect the oscilloscope to measure the voltage Vi, for the channel being used set the AC‐
GND‐DC switch to the GND position and set the horizontal line in the middle of screen.
Then return the AC‐GND‐DC switch to the AC position.
c. Set the vertical sensitivity to 1V/cm and adjust the amplitude control of signal generator
until Vi = 8 Vp‐p at a frequency of 1kHZ. Use a horizontal sensitivity of 0.2 ms/cm.
d. Set the DC supply to 12 V using the DMM.

The network is now established with both AC and DC supply.

DC MEASUREMENTS

Both the oscilloscope and DMM will now be used to measure the DC level of Fig. 1‐1.

e. Calculate the expected DC voltage level at Vo using the measured resistor values.

Vo(calculated) =

f. Use the DMM to measure the DC level of Vo.

Vo (measured) =

Determine the present difference between the calculated and measured values using the
following equation:

|Vo(calc) –Vo(Neac) |
%Difference = × 100% (1)
|Vo(caSc)|

% Difference (calculated) =

g. Connect the scope to Vo and set the AC‐GND‐DC switch to the DC position. Using a
sensitivity of 1V/cm determine the shift (in volts) in the position peak value (referenced to
0V) from the established in part (e).

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Shift in Vo (measured) =

Was the shift up or down from the center of the screen? What does the shift tell us about the
polarity of Vo.

How does the measured shift with the oscilloscope compared with the measured with the
DMM?

Is the scope or DMM more accurate for this type of reading? Why?

AC Measurements

Both the oscilloscope and DMM will now be used to measure the AC level of Fig. 1‐1.

h. Calculate the rms value of the applied voltage Vi.

Vi(rms) (calculated) =

i. Calculate the expected rms voltage Vo for the network of Fig. 1‐1 at a frequency of 1 kHz,
using measure resistor values. Be aware the reactance of the capacitor must be
determined and the vector relationship between resistive and reactive elements employed
in the determination. For the ac analysis the 12V supply can be set to zero volts
(superposition applies to the DC/AC analysis of network) resulting in a parallel
arrangement for R2 and R3.

Vo(rms)(calculated) =

j. Use the DMM to measure the rms values of Vo .

Vo(rms) (measured) =

Determine the present difference between the calculated and measured values using Eq. 1.

% Difference(calculated) =

k. Connect the oscilloscope to measure Vo and set the AC‐GND‐DC switch the AC position.
Using an appropriate vertical and horizontal sensitivity determine the peak‐to‐peak value
of Vo .

Vo(p‐p) (measured)=

Calculate the rms values of Vo.

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Vo(rms) (measured)=

Determine the present difference between the calculated and measured values using Eq. 1‐1.

% Difference (calculated)=

l. Are you satisfied that both the oscilloscope and DMM can effectively measure the rms
values of sinusoidal waveforms? why?

1.5 Part 2. Measurements of the T and fo of periodic waveforms

In this part of the experiment the oscilloscope will be used to measure the period and
frequency of a sinusoidal waveform.

a. Hook up the signal generator directly to a vertical channel of the oscilloscope. Set the
frequency dial between 1 and 2 kHz. Without taking the time to carefully read the scale
and determine which frequency was chosen. Adjust the amplitude control until an
8Vp‐p signal is obtained on the screen.

An 8 Vp‐p sinusoidal signal of unknown frequency is now displayed on the screen. The
following is the general procedure to determine the period and frequency of a
waveform.

b. Adjust the horizontal sensitivity until one or two complete cycles of the waveform is
displayed on the screen. Record the chosen horizontal sensitivity below.

Horizontal sensitivity =

c. Measure the number of divisions (including fractional parts) encompassed by one full
cycle of the waveform on the screen.

Number of divisions =

d. Calculate the period of the waveform by multiplying the horizontal sensitivity by the
number of divisions.

Period (T) =

e. The frequency then can be determined using the relationship f = 1/T. Calculate the
frequency.

Frequency (f) =

f. Now that the frequency is known compare it to the frequency set on the signal
generator. Record the frequency below.

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f (dial setting) =

g. If the calculated frequency and frequency of signal generator do not match can you
offer a person for the difference?

h. Hook up the frequency counter to the output voltage terminals and record displayed
frequency.

f(counter) =

i. Is the frequency displayed by the counter closer to the frequency calculated using the
scope or determined from the dial of the signal generator? Assuming the counter is our
best measure ent does a scope or dial setting usually displ y a more accurate reading
of the frequency?

1.6 Part 3. Phase‐Shift Measurements

a. Construct the network of Fig. 1‐1. Insert the measured resistor value.

Figure 1‐2 phase‐shift measurement

R(measured) =

b. Determine the rms value of the 6 V Vp–p signal applied to the input.

Vi(rms) (calculated)=

c. Assuming Vi = Vi∠00 determine V0∠Ө at frequency of 1 kHz.

VO(rms) (calculated) =
VO(p–p) (calculated) =
θ=

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Manual
The angle θ is the phase angle between V i and V0.

d. Hook up Vi to channel 1 of the oscilloscope and establish Vi as a 6 Vp–p, 1 kHz


sinusoidal signal balanced (using the AC‐GND‐DC switch) above and below the center
line on the screen using a vertical sensitivity of 1V/cm. Adjust the waveform so the
intersection of positive loop with the center line occurs at the intersection of one of
vertical grid lines as shown in Fig. 1‐3.

e. Hook up channel 2 to Voand using the same vertical sensitivity of 1V/cm and
superimpose V0 on Vi. Be sure both Vo and Vi are balanced above and below the center
line using the GND position of the AC‐GND‐DC switch for each channel.

f. Count the number of horizontal division between positive slopes of V0 and Vi as shown
Fig. 1‐3 and label the result A. The sepration A represents the phase shift between Vo
and Vi.

A (number of division)=

Figure 1‐3 Determining the phase‐shift

g. Count the number of divisions encompassed by one full cycle of the waveform and
label the result B (note Fig. 1‐3)

B (number of divisions) =

h. The phase angle in degrees can then be determined using the following equation:

8 = Æ × 3600 (2)
B

Using Eq. 1‐2 calculate the phase angle between V 0 and Vi for the network of Fig. 1‐2.

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Ө(measured) =

How does the phase angle measured in part 3 (h) compare to the phase angle calculated value
of part 3(c)?

i. How does the peak‐to‐peak value of Vo compare to the calculated values of part 3(c)?

j. If Vo crosses the axis with a positive slope to the right of Vi , Vo lags Vi by the angle Ө.
For the network of Fig. 1‐2 does V0 lead or lag Vi? Is the result expected? Why?

k. The phase relationship between Vi and VR can be obtained by interchanging the


position of the capacitor and resistor. The change in location is required to insure a
common ground between waveforms viewed on the scope.

Interchanging the position of the resistor and capacitor of Fig. 1‐1 and calculated the
magnitude and angle of VR assuming Vi = Vi∠00.

VR(rms) (calculated)=
VR(p–p) (calculated)=
Ө=

l. Use the oscilloscope to measure the magnitude of VR and Vi . Also indicate if Vo leads
or lags Vi.

VR(p–p) (measured)=
Vi(p–p) (measured)=
Ө=
Leads or lags =

How do the measured and calculated results compare?

1.7 Part 4. Loading Effects

a. Construct the network of Fig. 1‐4. Insert the measure values of R1 and R2.

R1(1‐kΩ) =
R2(1‐MΩ) =
R1(1‐kΩ) =
R2(1‐MΩ) =

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Figure 1‐4 Loading effects

b. Set Vi to an 8 Vp–p square wave at a frequency of 1 kHz centered on the horizontal


center line of the display. Adjust the horizontal sensitivity to show one or two full
cycles of Vi.

c. Using the measured resistor values calculate the peak‐to‐peak values of Vo.

V(p–p)(Calculated) =

d. Energize the network of Fig. 1‐4 and measure the output voltage Vo using the
oscilloscope.

Vo (p–p)(measured) =

How do the results of parts 4(c) and 4(d) compare?

e. Now replace the two 1kΩ resistor with 1MΩ resistors. Insert the measured values of R1
and R2.

f. Using the measured resistor values calculate the peak‐to‐peak voltages for Vousing the
oscilloscope.

Vo (p–p) (calculated) =

g. Energize the network and measure Vo.

Vo (p–p) (measured) =

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How do the results of Parts 4(f) and 4(g) compare?

h. It is expected that the results of Part 4(g) will reveal that the measured and calcul ted
values of Vo do not compare as they did for parts 4(c) and 4(d). The change in response
is due to the loading of the scope on the circuit when applied to measure Vo. In Fig 1‐5
an additional resistor has been added to that Fig. 1‐4 to represent the loading of the
scope on the c rcuit.

Figure 1‐5 Loading of the scope

Using the measured levels of Vo and Vi the m gnitude of Rccope can be obtained by solving for
Rccope in the following equation obtained using the voltage‐divider rule.

R2Rccpe R1 (3)
Ru = = 7i
R2 + Rccope –1
7o

Using the measured levels of Vo and Vi determine Rccope using Eq. 3 and the measured values
of R1and R2.

Rscope (calculated) =

If the input impedance of the oscilloscope is known compare it to the calculated value.

i. If R1 is maintained at 1 MΩ and R2 replaced by a 1 kΩ resistor, use the results of Part


4(h) to calculate the expected level of Vo.

Vo(p–p) (calculated) =

j. Energize the network and measure the resulting peak‐to‐peak value of Vo.

Vo(p–p) (measured) =

k. How do the results of Parts 4(i) and 4(j) compare?

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1.8 Part 4. Problems and Exercises

1. For the network of Fig. 1‐1 is it reasonable to assume the capacitor is simply an “open‐
circuit” for dc conditions and a “short‐circuit” for ac conditions? Do the measured
values of the experiment support of your calculations? Why?

2. In general, should a DMM or oscilloscope be used for dc measurements? Why? When is


it advantageous to use an oscilloscope?

3. What are the relative advantageous of using a DMM over an oscilloscope for measuring
ac quantities?

4. What are some of the relative advantageous of using an oscilloscope over a DMM for
measuring ac quantities.

T (calculated) =
f (calculated) =

5. A sinusoidal signal occupies 5 horizontal divisions with the horizontal sensitivity set at
0.1 ms/div. what are the period and frequency of the waveform?

Ɵ(calculated) =

6. Derive Eq. 3.

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1.9 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 1

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 14


Manual
Lab ‐ 2: Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier

2.1 Objectives
 To measure AC and DC voltages in a common‐emitter amplifier.
 To obtain measured values of voltage amplification (AV), input impedance (Zi), and output
impedance (Zo) for loaded and unloaded operation.
2.2 Equipment Required

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 1k, 3k, 10k, 33k
Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent
general purpose transistor)

2.3 Résumé of Theory


The common‐emitter (CE) transistor amplifier configuration is widely used. It provides large
voltage gain (typically tens to hundreds) and provides moderate input and output impedance.
The AC signal voltage gain is defined as
Av = VO (1)
Vi
Where Vo and Vi can both be rms, peak, or peak‐to‐peak values. The input impedance, Zi, is that
of the amplifier as seen by the input signal. The output impedance, Zo, is that seen looking from
the load into the output of the amplifier. For the voltage‐divider DC bias configuration (see Fig.
1), all DC bias voltages can be approximately determined without knowing the exact value of
the transistor’s beta. The transistor’s AC dynamic resistance, re, can be calculated using the
following relation:
26(mV)
re = (2)
IE(mV)

AC Voltage Gain: The AC voltage gain of a CE amplifier (under no‐load) can be calculated
using following equation:

–RC
A
v = (3)
RE+re

If RE is bypassed by a capacitor, use RE = 0 in the above equation. Thus:

–RC
A
v = (4)
re

AC Input Impedance: The AC input impedance is calculated using

Zi = R1||R2||Q(RE + re) (5)

If RE is bypassed by a capacitor, use R E = 0 in the above equation. Thus:

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Manual
Zi = R1||R2||Qre (6)

AC Output Impedance: The AC output impedance is

Zo = RC (7)

2.4 Part 1. Common‐Emitter DC Bias


l. Record measured values of each resistor in Fig. 2‐1.
R1 =____________
R2 =____________
RC =____________
RE =____________

Figure 1

m. Calculate DC bias values for the circuit of Fig. 1. Record calculated values below.
VB(calculated) =____________
VE(calculated) =____________
VC(calculated) =____________
IE(calculated) =____________

Calculate re using Eq. 2 and the calculated level of IE.


re(calculated) =____________

n. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 1. Set VCC = 10 V. Check the DC bias of the circuit measuring
values of
VB(measured) =____________
VE(measured) =____________
VC(measured) =____________

Check that these values compare closely with those calculated in Part 1(b). Calculate the
DC emitter current using

EI = VE
RE
(8)

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Manual
IE =____________

o. Calculate the AC dynamic resistance, re, using the measured value of IE.

26(mV)
re = (9)
IE(mV)

re =____________

Compare re with that calculated in Part 1(b).


2.5 Part 2. Common‐Emitter AC Voltage Gain
a. Calculate the amplifier voltage gain for a fully bypassed emitter using Eq. 4.
Av(calculated) =____________

b. Apply an AC input signal, Vsig= 20mV, rms at f = 1kHz. Observe the output waveform on the
scope to be sure that there is no distortion (if there is, reduce the input signal or check the
DC bias). Measure the resulting AC output voltage, Vo, using a scope or a DMM.

Vo(measured) =____________

c. Calculate the circuit no‐load voltage gain using measured values.

Vo
AV= (10)
Vsig

Av =____________

d. Compare the measured value of Av with that calculated in Part 2(a).

2.6 Part 3. AC Input Impedance, Zi

a. Calculate Zi using Eq. 6. Use the beta measured with a transistor curve tracer or beta tester,
or the nominal listed value in specification sheets (say, β = 150).
Zi(calculated) =____________

b. To measure Zi connect an input measurement resistor, Rx = 1 kΩ, as shown in Fig. 2‐2.


Apply input Vsig= 20mV, rms. Observe the output waveform with a scope to ensure that no
distortion is present (adjust input amplitude if necessary). Measure Vi.

Figure 2

Vi(measured) =____________

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Manual
Solving for Vi using Vsig
V=( )∗Z (11)
i Zi+Rx i

we get
Zi = ( Vi ) ∗ Rx (12)
Vsig–Vi

Zi =____________

Compare the measured value of Zi with that calculated in Part3( ).

2.7 Part 4. Output Impedance, Zo


a. Calculate Zo using Eq. 7.
Zo(calculated) =____________

b. Remove the input measurement resistor, Rx. For input of Vsig= 20mV rms, measure the
output voltage, Vo. Check the output waveform to ensure that no distortion is present.
Vo[measured] (unloaded) = Vo=____________

Now connect load RL = 3kΩ and measure Vo.


Vo[measured] (loaded) = VL =____________

The output impedance can be obtained from

VL= ( RL ) ∗ VO (13)
ZO+RL
for which

ZO = (VO–VL) ∗ RL (14)
VL
Zo=____________

Compare the measured value of Zo with that calculated in Part4(a).


2.8 Part 5. Oscilloscope Measurement

Connect the amplifier of Fig. 1. For input of Vsig= 20 mV, p‐p, at a frequency of f = 1 kHz, sketch
the waveforms for Vsig and Vo in Fig. 2‐3.

Figure 3

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Manual
2.9 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2

Lab
Part – 3
Section

Part – 4

Part – 5

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 2

Instructor’s Verification

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Manual
Lab ‐ 3: Common Base Transistor Amplifier

3.1 Objectives
 To measure DC and AC voltages in common‐base amplifier.
 To obtain measured values of voltage amplification (Av), input impedance (Zi) and output
impedance (Zo).
3.2 Equipment Required

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 100‐Ω, 1‐kΩ, 3‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ, 33‐kΩ, 100‐KΩ,
Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent
general purpose transistor)

3.3 Résumé of Theory


The common‐base (CB) transistor amplifier configuration is used primarily for higher
frequency operation. It provides large voltage gain at low input and moderate output
impedance
AV = RC (1)
re
AC Input Impedance: The AC input impedance is
Zi = re (2)

AC Output Impedance: The AC output impedance is


Zo = RC (3)

3.4 Part 1. Common‐Base DC Bias

a. Calculate DC bias current and voltages for the circuit of Fig. 1. Record calculated values
below.

Figure 1

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 20


Manual
VB(calculated) =
VE(calculated) =
VC(calculated) =
IE(calculated) =

Calculate re using

26(mV)
re = (4)
IE(mV)
re(calculated) =

Wire up the circuit of Fig. 1. Set VCC= 10 V. Check the DC bias of the circuit measuring values of
VB (measured) =
VE (measured) =
VC (measured) =

Determine the DC emitter current using

EI = VE
RE
(5)
IE =

Calculate the AC dynamic resistance, re

26(mV)
re = (6)
IE(mV)
re =

Compare the DC voltages, current IE, and dynamic resistance re calculated in Part 1(a) with the
values obtained in Part 1(b).

3.5 Part 2. Common‐Base AC Voltage Gain

a. Calculate the AC voltage gain of the CB amplifier in Fig. 1 using Eq. 1.

Av (calculated) =

b. Apply an AC input signal, Vsig = 50mV, rms at a frequency of 1kHz. Measure the
resulting AC output voltage, Vo.

Vo(measured) =

Calculate the circuit AC voltage gain.


V
AV = o (7)
Vsig

Av =

Compare the voltage gain calculated in Part 2(a) with that measured in Part 2(b).Using the
oscilloscope, observe and sketch the input voltage waveform, Vsig, and the output voltage
waveform, Vo, in Fig. 2.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 21


Manual
Figure 2
3.6 Part 3. CB Input Impedance, Zi

a. Obtain the AC input impedance of the CB amplifier in Fig. 1 using Eq. 2.

Zi (calculated) =

b. To measure Zi connect the input measurement resistor, Rx = 100 Ω, as shown in Fig. 3.


Apply input Vsig= 50 mV, rms at frequency f = 1 kHz. Measure Vi.

Figure 3

Vi(measured) =

Determine Zi using
Zi
Vi = (8)
(Zi+RX)Vsig

Vi
Zi = (9)
(Vsig–Vi)RX

Zi(measured) =

Remove resistor Rx.


Compare the AC input impedance calculated in Part 3(a)with that measured in Part 3(b).

3.7 Part 4. CB Output Impedance, Zo

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 22


Manual
a. Determine the AC output impedance of the CB amplifier of Fig. 1 using Eq. 3.

Zo(calculated) =

For an input of Vsig = 20mV at a frequency of 1kHz, rms measure the output voltage, Vo, with no
load connected.
Vo(measured) (unloaded) =

Now connect load RL = 3kΩ and measure VL.


VL(measured) =

The output impedance can be calculated from

RLVo
VL = (10)
Zo+RL

For which

RL(Vo–VL)
Zo= (11)
VL
Zo =

Compare the AC output impedance calculated in Part 4(a) with the output impedance
calculated from measured voltage data in Part 4(b).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 23


Manual
3.8 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 3

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 24


Manual
Lab ‐ 4: Emitter‐Follower (Common Collector) Transistor
Amplifier

4.1 Objectives
 To measure DC and AC voltages in emitter‐follower (common‐collector) amplifier.
 To obtain measured values of voltage amplification (Av), input impedance (Zi) and output
impedance (Zo).

4.2 Equipment Required

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 100‐Ω, 1‐kΩ, 3‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ, 33‐kΩ, 100‐KΩ,
Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent
general purpose transistor)
4.3 Résumé of Theory

The common‐collector (CC) or emitter‐follower (EF) transistor amplifier configuration is used


primarily for impedance matching operation. It provides voltage gain near unity and high
input and low output impedance.

AC Voltage Gain: The AC voltage gain of a CC amplifier is calculated as

RE
A
V = (1)
RE+re

4.4 Part 1. Emitter‐Follower DC Bias

a. Calculate DC bias current and voltages for the EF circuit of Fig. 1. Record calculated
values below.

Figure 1

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 25


Manual
VB(calculated) =
VE(calculated) =
VC(calculated) =
IE(calculated) =

Calculate re using
26(mV)
re = (2)
IE(mV)

re(calculated) =

b. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 4. Set VCC = 10 V. Check the DC bias of the circuit measuring
values of

VB(measured) =
VE(measured) =
VC(measured) =

Determine IE using
I E= VE (3)
RE

IE =

Calculate the value of re using


26(mV)
re = (4)
IE(mV)

r e=

Compare the DC voltages and current calculated in Part 1(a)with those measured in Part 1(b).

4.5 Part 2. Emitter‐Follower AC Voltage Gain

a. Calculate the AC voltage gain of an EF amplifier using Eq. 1.

Av(calculated) =

b. Apply an AC input signal, Vsig = 1V, rms at a frequency of 1 kHz. Measure the resulting
AC output voltage, Vo.

Vo(measured) =

Calculate the circuit AC voltage gain.


Vo
AV = (5)
Vsig

Av(measured) =

Compare the voltage gain calculated in Part 2(a) with that measured in Part 2(b).
Observe and sketch the input signal, Vsig, and output voltage, Vo, in Fig. 2.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 26


Manual
Figure 2
4.6 Part 3. Emitter‐Follower (EF) Input Impedance, Zi

a. Calculate the AC input impedance of an EF amplifier using Eq. 7.

Zi(calculated) =

b. To measure Zi connect the input measurement resistor, Rx = 10kΩ, as shown in Fig. 3.


Apply input Vsig= 2 V, rms at frequency f =1 kHz. Measure Vi.

Figure 3

Vi(measured) =
Calculate Zi Using
Zi∗Vsig
Vi = (6)
Zi+RX

Vi∗RX
Zi = (7)
Vsig–Vi

Zi =

Compare the AC input impedance of a CC amplifier calculated in Part 3(a) with that measured
in Part 3(b).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 27


Manual
4.7 Part 4. Emitter‐Follower (EF) Output Impedance, Zo

a. Calculate the AC output impedance of a CC amplifier using Eq. 9.

Zo(calculated) =

b. For input of Vsig= 20 mV, rms at frequency f = 1 kHz measure the output voltage, Vo.

Vo(measured) =

Now connect load RL = 100 Ω and measure VL.

VL(measured) =

The output impedance is calculated from

RLVo
VL = (8)
Zo+RL

For which

RL(Vo–VL)
Zo= (9)
VL

Zo =

Compare the CC output impedance calculated in Part 4(a) with that determined in Part 4(b).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 28


Manual
4.8 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 4

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 29


Manual
Lab ‐ 5: Design of Common Emitter Amplifier

5.1 Objectives
To design, build, and test a common‐emitter amplifier. Both DC bias and AC amplification
values are considered.

5.2 Equipment Required

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: To be selected in design
Capacitors: To be selected in design
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent general
purpose transistor)

5.3 Résumé of Theory


This lab will design a common‐emitter amplifier as shown in Fig. 1. The design process begins
with a set of specifications that define both the transistor and the circuit operation desired.
Fig. 1 shows a voltage‐divider amplifier with emitter resistor RE fully bypassed. If possible, a
computer should be used to perform the design and test the circuit before it is built. Either
PSpice or Microcap II can be used to test any circuit design obtained. Using a 2N3904 (or
equivalent transistor), design specifications are:

β = 100 typical
IC(max) = 200mA
VCE(max) = 40 V

The circuit should have the following features:


Av = 100 minimum
Zi = 1 kΩ minimum
Zo = 10 kΩ maximum
AC output voltage swing = 3 Vp‐p Maximum
Load resistance, RL = 10kΩ minimum

Figure 1

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 30


Manual
5.4 Part 1. Selection of Components

The CE circuit to be built is that shown in Fig. 1. The level of VCC (10 V) is well within the
maximum rating of the transistor (VCE = 40 V maximum), and would allow a 3 Vp‐p output
voltage swing. For the mid‐band frequency of f = 1 kHz, capacitor values of C1 = C2 = 15µF and
CE = 100 µF would be satisfactory. For the transistor consider a minimum β = 100 in the design.

a. Select VCC 1OV


V= = = 1V
E
1O 1O

b. Have each laboratory team design for a different value of IC. The design shown here is
for IC = 1 mA. For IC =1mA. For IE = IC = 1 mA, the value of RE should be

VE 1V = 1kfi
ER = =
IE 1mA

c. Select RC to bias the circuit at about VCE = 5 V (one‐half VCC). Then VRC = VCC – VCE – VE =
4V, and
VE 4V = 4kfi (use 4. 1kfi)
ER = =
IE 1mA
d. Check Av:

26(mV)
r e= = 26fi
IE(mV)
RC 4. 1kfi
|A | = = = 158
V 26fi
re

e. Since the input impedance looking into the base of the transistor is βre = 100(26 Ω) =
2.6kΩ, select R1 and R2 as large as possible but still sensitive to the DC condition βRE ≥
10R2 so the system is not loaded down.

Using βRE ≥ 10R2 we find R2 =10, βre =10(2.6 kΩ)=26 kΩ (Use 27kΩ) for the DC bias of
VB =VE = 0.7 V = 1.7 V we calculate R1 =132kΩ (Use 130kΩ)

f. Check Zi:

Zi = R1‖R2‖Qre = 13Okfi‖27kfi‖1OO(26fi) = 2. 3kfi


g. Check Zo:

Zo = RC = 4. 1kfi

5.5 Part 2. Build and Test CE Circuit

a. Build the CE amplifier circuit of Fig. 1 using the capacitors, resistors, and transistor
from the design in Part 1, and analysis in Part 2.
b. Set VCC = 10 V. Measure and record DC voltages.

VB(measured) =
VE(measured) =
VC(measured) =

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 31


Manual
Calculate the value of IC = IE.

IC = IE =

Calculate the dynamic resistance, re.


re =

c. Apply an AC input, Vsig= 10 mV, rms at f = 1 kHz (or adjust value for maximum
undistorted load voltage as observed using a scope). Measure and record AC voltages.

Vsig =
VL(measured) =

Calculate Av with load resistor connected.


Av =

d. Connect a measurement resistor, Rx = 3kΩ, in series with input Vsig. Using a DMM,
measure and record Vsig and Vi (from base to ground).

Vsig=
Vi(measured) =
Calculate Zi.
Zi =

Remove resistor Rx.

e. Remove load resistor RL. (Readjust Resistors Vsig if waveform seen using scope is
distorted.) Measure unloaded AC output voltage Vo.

Vo(measured) =
Calculate AC output impedance (using VL in Part 3(c)).
Zo =

f. Provide a summary of original design specs and actual specs determined by


measurement. Provide a comparison to show whether the design procedure was
successful. Indicate any possible factors if design results are not fully satisfactory.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 32


Manual
5.6 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 5

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 33


Manual
Lab ‐ 6: Common Source Transistor Amplifier

6.1 OBJECTIVES

 To measure DC and AC voltages in a common‐source amplifier.


 To obtain measured values of voltage amplification (Av), input impedance (Zi), and
output impedance (Zo).
6.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 510‐Ω, 1‐kΩ, 2.4‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ, 1‐MΩ
Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent
general purpose transistor)

6.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

The DC bias of a JFET is determined by the device transfer characteristic(VP and IDSS) and the
DC self‐bias determined by the source resistor. The AC voltage gain at this DC bias point is
then dependent on the device parameters (gm or gfs) and circuit drain resistance.

AC Voltage Gain: The voltage gain of the amplifier shown in Fig. 1 is calculated from
Vo
A= = —g R = —g (R ‖R )
V m D m D L
Vi
where
g =g ( VGSQ
)
m mO 1—
VP
With
2IDSS
gmO =
VP

AC Input Impedance: The AC input impedance is

Zi = RG

AC Output Impedance: The AC output impedance is

Zo = RD

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 34


Manual
Figure 1

6.4 Part 1. Measurement of IDSS and VP

Use a characteristic curve tracer to determine the values of IDSS and VP, if available. Otherwise,
use the following steps to obtain these values.

a. Construct the circuit of Fig. 1 with

VDD = +20 V,
RG = 1 MΩ, RD = 510Ω, and RS = 0Ω. Measure and record.
VD(measured) =

Calculate the value of drain current, ID.


ID(calculated) =

Since this is the drain current at VGS = 0V


IDSS = ID =
(using the value of ID just calculated).

b. Now connect RS = 1 kΩ. Measure and record the values of

VGS(measured) =
VD(measured) =

Using the measured values just obtained: Calculate VP as follows.

First:
VDD — VD
I D=
RD

ID(calculated) =

Second:

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 35


Manual
VGS
VP =
I
1—J D
IDSS

VP (calculated) =
6.5 Part 2. DC Bias of Common‐Source Circuit

a. Calculate the DC bias expected in the circuit of Fig. 2, using IDSS and VP obtained in
Part1. Draw graphs of the equations
VGS 2
ID = IDSS (1 — )
VP

And
VGS = —IDRS

to graphically obtain the equation intersection.


Or:
Use a computer or programmable calculator to solve the simultaneous equations. The
calculated DC bias values are:

VGS(calculated) =
ID(calculated) =
Using

VD = VDD — IDRD

VD(calculated) =

b. Build the circuit of Fig. 2 using

RG = 1 MΩ, RS = 510 Ω, and RD =2.4 kΩ. Set VDD = +20 V.

c. Measure the DC bias voltages.

VG(measured) =
VS(measured) =
VD(measured) =
VGS(measured) =
Calculate the value of ID under DC bias conditions.
VS
I =
D
RS
ID =

Compare the DC bias values calculated in Part 2(a) with those measured in Part 2(c).

6.6 Part 3. AC Voltage Gain of Common‐Source Amplifier

a. Calculate the voltage gain of the common‐source amplifier of Fig. 2.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 36


Manual
Figure 2

AV = —gmRD

with 2IDSS VGS


g =( ) (1 — )
m
|VP| VP

Use VP, IDSS from Part 1, and VGS calculated in Part 2.

Av(calculated) =

b. Connect the input of Vsig= 100 mV at 1kHz. Measure and record using the DMM:

Vo(measured) =
Calculate the voltage gain of the amplifier.

Vo
AV =
Vsig
Av =
6.7 Part 4. Input and Output Impedance Measurements

a. The input impedance is


Zi = RG

Zi(expected) =

b. The output impedance is


Zo = RD

Zo(expected) =

c. Connect a 1‐MΩ resistor, Rx, in series with the input signal, Vsig = 100 mV, rms at f = 100
Hz. Measure Vi.

Vi(measured) =
Determine the input impedance using

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 37


Manual
Vi
Zi = R
Vsig — Vi X
Zi(calculated) =
Remove the measurement resistor, Rx.

d. Measure Vo.

Vo(measured) =
Connect load RL = 10 kΩ. Measure voltage across load, VL.

VL(measured) =
Determine the AC output impedance using

Vo — VL
Z o= R L
VL
Zo(calculated) =

Compare the input impedance calculated in Part 4(a) with that deter‐mined from
measurements in Part 4(c). Compare the output impedance calculated in Part 4(b) with that
deter‐mined from measurements in Part 4(d).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 38


Manual
6.8 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 6

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 39


Manual
Lab ‐ 7: Multistage Amplifier: RC Coupling

7.1 Objectives
 To measure DC and AC voltages in a multistage FET amplifier.
 To obtain measured values of voltage amplification (Av), input impedance (Zi),and
output impedance (Zo).

7.2 Equipment Required

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 510‐Ω, 1‐kΩ, 2.4‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ, 1‐MΩ
Components Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Transistors: 2N3823 or equivalent

7.3 Résumé of Theory

The DC bias of a JFET is determined by the device transfer characteristic (VP and IDSS) and the
external circuit connected to it. The AC voltage gain at this DC bias point is dependent on the
device parameters (gm or gfs) and circuit drain resistance.

AC Voltage Gain: The voltage gain of an amplifier stage as shown in Fig. 1 can be calculated
from Vo
A= = —g R = —g (R ‖R )
V m D m D L
Vi
Where
g =g ( VGSQ
)
m mO 1 —
VP
With
2IDSS
gmO =
VP

AC Input Impedance: The AC input impedance is

Zi = RG

AC Output Impedance: The AC output impedance is

Zo = RD

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 40


Manual
Figure 1

7.4 Part 1. Measurement of IDSS and VP

It is necessary to obtain values of IDSS and VP for both Q1 and Q2. Use a characteristic curve
tracer, if available, to determine the values of IDSS and VP. Obtain readings at VDS = +10 V.
For Q1:
IDSS =
VP =

For Q2:
IDSS =
VP =

Go on to Part 2. If no curve tracer is available, use the following steps to obtain the above
values.

a. Construct the circuit of Fig. 2 with RD = 510 Ω but with RS = 0Ω. Measure and record.

Figure 2

VD(measured) =

Calculate the value of drain current, ID.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 41


Manual
VDD — VD
I D=
RD

ID(calculated) =
Since this is the drain current at VGS = 0 V
IDSS(Q1) = ID =
(using the value of ID just calculated).
Replace Q1 and repeat the measurement with Q2.
VD(measured) =
Calculate the value of drain current, ID.

VDD — VD
I D=
RD
ID(calculated) =
Since this is the drain current at VGS = 0 V
IDSS (Q2) = ID =
(using the value of ID just calculated).

b. Now connect RS = 1 kΩ. Measure and record the values of

VGS(measured) =
VD(measured) =

Using the measured values just obtained, calculate VP as follows.

VDD — VD
I D=
RD
ID(calculated) =

VGS
VP =
I
1—J D
IDSS

VP(Q2) (calculated) =

Replace transistor Q2 and repeat Part 1(b) measurements.

VGS(measured) =
VD(measured) =

Using the measured values just obtained, calculate VP as follows.

VDD — VD
I D=
RD
ID(calculated) =

VGS
VP =
I
1—J D
IDSS

VP(Q1)(calculated) =

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 42


Manual
7.5 Part 2. DC Bias of Common‐Source Circuit

a. Calculate the DC bias expected in the circuit of Fig. 3, using IDSS and VP obtained in Part
1 for each transistor.

Figure 3
Draw graphs of the equations

VGS 2
ID = IDSS (1 — )
VP
And
VGS = —IDRS

To graphically obtain the equations’ inter section. Or use a computer or programmable


calculator to solve the simultaneous equations. The calculated DC bias values are:
VGS1(calculated) =
ID(calculated)=

VD1 = VDD — ID1RD1

VD1(calculated) =
The calculated DC bias values are:
VGS2(calculated) =
ID2(calculated) =
Using
VD2 = VDD — ID2RD2

VD2(calculated) =

b. Build the circuit of Fig. 3 using RG1 = RG2 = 1MΩ, RS1 = RS2=510 Ω, and RD1 = RD2= 2.4 kΩ.
RL= 10kΩ. Set VDD= +20 V.
c. Measure the DC bias voltages.

VG1(measured) =
VS1(measured) =
VD1(measured) =
VGS1(measured) =

Calculate the value of I D1 under DC bias conditions (using nominal resistor values).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 43


Manual
VS2
ID1 =
RS2
ID1 =
VG2(measured) =
VS2(measured) =
VD2(measured) =
VGS2(measured) =

Calculate the value of ID2 under DC bias conditions.

VS1
ID2 =
RS1
ID2 =

Compare the DC bias values calculated in Part 2(a) with those measured in Part 2(c).

7.6 Part 3. AC Voltage Gain of Amplifier

a. Calculate the voltage gain of the common‐source amplifier of Fig. 3.

For stage 2:
AV2 = —gm(RD2‖RL)

with
2IDSS(Q2) VGS2
(
gm(Q2) =
|VP ) (1 — )
(Q2)| VP(Q2)
Using VP(Q2), IDSS(Q2) from Part 1, and VGS2 calculated in Part 2.
AV2(calculated) =

For stage 1:
AV1 = —gm(RD1‖Zi2)

with
2IDSS(Q1) VGS1
(
gm(Q1) =
|VP ) (1 — )
(Q1)| VP(Q1)
Using VP(Q1), IDSS(Q1) from Part 1, and VGS1 calculated in Part 2(a).

AV1(calculated) =

Calculate the overall amplifier gain:

AV = AV1 ∗ AV2
Av(calculated) =

b. Connect the input of Vsig= 10 mV, rms at f = 1 kHz. Use the oscilloscope to obtain an
undistorted output voltage, adjusting Vsig if necessary. Measure and record:

Vsig(measured) =
VL(measured) =
Calculate the voltage gain of the overall amplifier:

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 44


Manual
VL
A =
V
Vsig
Av =

Measure and record:


Vo1(measured) =
Calculate the gain of each stage:
Vo1
AV1 =
Vsig
Av1(calculated) =
Vo2
AV2 =
Vsig
Av2(calculated) =

7.7 Part 4. Input and Output Impedance Measurements

a. The input impedance is

Zi = RG1
Zi =

b. The output impedance is

Zo = RD2
Zo =

c. Connect a 1‐MΩ resistor, Rx, in series with the input signal, Vsig=10 mV, rms at f = 100
Hz. Measure Vi1.

Vi1(measured) =

Calculate the input impedance using


Vi1
Z = R
i X
Vsig — Vi1
Zi =
Remove the measurement resistor, Rx.

Measure VL.
VL(measured) =
Disconnect load RL = 10kΩ. Measure output voltage, Vo.
Vo(measured) =
Calculate the AC output impedance using

Vo — Vi1
Z o= R L
VL
Zo =

Compare the input impedance calculated in Part 4(a) with that determined from
measurements in Part 4(c). Compare the output impedance calculated in Part 4(b) with that
determined from measurements in Part 4(d).
Compare their values with those obtained experimentally.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 45


Manual
7.8 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 7

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 46


Manual
Lab ‐ 8: Darlington Amplifier Circuits

8.1 Objective
To calculate and measure DC and AC voltages in Darlington connection circuits.

8.2 Equipment Required

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 100‐Ω, 51‐Ω 1‐W, 1‐kΩ, 1.8‐kΩ, 4.7‐kΩ, 5.6‐kΩ,
6.8‐kΩ, 50‐kΩ (pot), 100‐kΩ
Components Capacitors: 0.001‐μF, 10‐μF
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent general
purpose transistor), TIP120 (npn Darlington)

8.3 Résumé of Theory

8.3.1 Darlington Circuit:

A Darlington connection (as shown in Fig. 1) provides a pair of BJT transistors in a single IC
package with effective beta (β D) equal to the product of the individual transistor betas.

QD = Q1Q2

The Darlington emitter‐follower has a higher input impedance than that of an emitter‐
follower. The Darlington emitter‐follower input impedance is

Zi = RBǁ(QDRE)

The output impedance of the Darlington emitter‐follower is

Zo = re

The voltage gain of a Darlington emitter‐follower circuit is


RE
A =
v
RE+re

8.4 Part 1. Darlington Emitter‐Follower Circuit

a. For the circuit of Fig. 1 calculate the DC bias voltages and currents.

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 47


Manual
Figure 1

VB(calculated) =
VE(calculated) =
Calculate the theoretical values of voltage gain and input and output impedance.
Av(calculated) =
Zi(calculated) =
Zo(calculated) =

b. Construct the Darlington circuit of Fig. 1. Adjust the 50‐kΩ potentiometer (RB) to
provide an emitter voltage, VE = 5 V. Using a DMM, measure and record the DC bias
values:

VB(measured) =
VE(measured) =

Calculate the base and emitter DC currents:


IB(calculated) =
IE(calculated) =

Calculate the value of transistor beta at this Q‐point:


βD(calculated) =

c. Apply an input signal Vsig = 1 V, peak at f = 10 kHz. Using the oscilloscope, observe and
record the output voltage to assure that the signal is not clipped or distorted. (Reduce
the input signal amplitude if necessary.)

Vi(measured) =
Vo(measured) =
Calculate and record the AC voltage gain:
Av= Vo/Vi =

8.5 Part 2. Darlington Input and Output Impedance

a. Calculate the input impedance:

Zi(calculated) =
Calculate the circuit output impedance:

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Manual
Zo(calculated) =

b. Connect a measurement resistor, Rx = 100 kΩ, in series with Vsig. Measure and record
input voltage, Vi.

Vi(measured) =

Calculate the circuit input impedance using


Vi
Z = Rx
i
Vsig + Vi
Zi(calculated) =
Remove measurement resistor, Rx.

c. Measure the output voltage, Vo, with no load connected.

Vo(measured) =
Connect a load resistor, RL= 100 Ω. Measure and record the resulting output voltage:

Vo = VL(measured) =

Calculate the output impedance using

(Vo — VL)
Z o= R L
VL
Zo =

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Manual
8.6 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 8

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 50


Manual
Lab ‐ 9: Cascode Amplifier Circuits

9.1 Objective
To calculate and measure DC and AC voltages in cascode connection circuits.

9.2 Equipment Required

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 100‐Ω, 51‐Ω 1‐W, 1‐kΩ, 1.8‐kΩ, 4.7‐kΩ, 5.6‐kΩ,
6.8‐kΩ, 50‐kΩ (pot), 100‐kΩ
Components Capacitors: 0.001‐μF, 10‐μF
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent general
purpose transistor), TIP120 (npn Darlington)

9.3 Résumé of Theory

9.3.1 Cascode Circuit:

A cascode circuit, as shown in Fig. 2, provides a common‐emitter amplifier using Q1 directly


connected to a common‐base amplifier using Q2. The voltage gain of stage Q1 is approximately
1, with the voltage Vo1 being opposite in polarity to Vi.

AV1 = —1 (1)

The voltage gain of stage Q2 is non‐inverted and of magnitude

RC
AV2 = (2)
re2

Resulting in an overall gain is:

AV = AV1AV2 = —Rcre2 (3)

9.4 Part 1. Cascode Amplifier

a. Calculate DC bias voltages and currents in the cascode amplifier of Fig. 1 (assuming
base currents are much less than the voltage divider current).

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Manual
Figure 1

VB1(calculated) =
VE1(calculated) =
VC1(calculated) =
VB2(calculated) =
VE2(calculated) =
VC2(calculated) =

Calculate the DC bias emitter currents:


IE1(calculated) =
IE2(calculated) =

Calculate the transistor dynamic resistances:


re1(calculated) =
re2(calculated) =

b. Connect the cascode circuit of Fig. 1. Measure and record DC bias voltages.

VB1(measured) =
VE1(measured) =
VC1(measured) =
VB2(measured) =
VE2(measured) =
VC2(measured) =

Calculate the values of emitter current:


IE1 =
IE2 =

and the values of dynamic resistance:


re1 =
re2 =

c. Using Eqs. 1 and 2, calculate the AC voltage gain of each transistor stage:

Av1(calculated) =

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Manual
Av2(calculated) =

d. Apply input signal, Vsig = 10 mV, peak at f = 10 kHz. Using the oscilloscope, observe the
output waveform Vo to make sure that no signal distortion occurs. If the output is
clipped or distorted, reduce the input signal until the clipping or distortion disappears.
Using the DMM, measure and record the AC signals.

Vi(measured) =
Vo1(measured) =
Vo2(measured) =

Calculate the measured voltage gains:


Av1=Vo1/Vi =
Av2 = Vo2/Vo1=
Av = Vo2/Vi=

Compare the measured voltage gains with those calculated in Parts 1(c) and 1(d).

e. Using the oscilloscope, observe and record waveforms for the input signal, Vi, output of
stage 1, Vo1, and output of stage 2, Vo2.

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Manual
9.5 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Lab
Part – 1
Section

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 9

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 54


Manual
Lab ‐ 10: Current Source Circuits

10.1 OBJECTIVE

To calculate and measure DC voltages in current source circuits.

10.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 20‐Ω, 51‐Ω, 82‐Ω, 100‐Ω, 150‐Ω, 1.2‐kΩ, 3.6‐kΩ, 4.3‐
kΩ, 5.1‐kΩ, 7.5‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ
Components Capacitors: 15‐µF, 100‐µF
Transistors: 2N3904 or equivalent npn transistor, 2N3823
or equivalent JFET n‐channel transistor

10.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

Current source circuits are part of many types of linear integrated circuits. This experiment
will build and test a few types of each circuit.

10.3.1 Current Source:

Fig. 1 shows a simple form of current source using a JFET biased to operate at its drain‐source
saturation current. Regardless of the load RL (within practical limits), the current through load
RL will be set by the JFET device:
IL = IDSS

Figure 1

A BJT current source circuit is shown in Fig. 2. The base voltage is approximately set by
R1
V = (—VEE)
B
R1 + R2
The emitter voltage is then

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Manual
VE = VB — O. 7V
with the emitter current then
VE — VEE
I= =I
E L
RE

Figure 2

10.4 Part 1. JFET Current Source

a. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 2. Use RL = 51 Ω. Measure and record the drain‐source
voltage.

VDS(measured) =

b. Using the voltage measured in Part 1(a), calculate the load current.

VDD — VDS
I L=
RL

c. Replace RL with the resistors as listed in Table 1 and repeat Parts 1(a) and 1(b).

TABLE 1

RL 20Ω 51Ω 82Ω 100Ω 150Ω


VDS
IL

10.5 Part 2. BJT Current Source

a. Calculate the current IRL through the load in the circuit of Fig. 2.

IRL(calculated) =

b. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 2. Measure and record the following voltages.

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Manual
VE(measured) =
VC(measured) =

c. Calculate the emitter current and the current through the load.

IRE =
IRL =

d. Replace RL with the resistors listed in Table 2 and repeat Parts2(a) through 2(c).

TABLE 2

RL 3.6kΩ 4.3kΩ 5.1kΩ 7.5kΩ


VE
VC
IE
IL

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Manual
10.6 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 10

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 58


Manual
Lab ‐ 11: Current Mirror Circuits

11.1 OBJECTIVE

To calculate and measure DC voltages in current mirror circuits.

11.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 3.6kΩ, 4.3‐kΩ, 9.1‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ
Components
Transistors: 2N3904 or equivalent npn transistor

11.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

Current mirror circuits are part of many types of linear integrated circuits. This experiment
will build and test a few types of each circuit.

11.3.1 Current Mirror:

The circuit of Fig. 1 is a current mirror, in which the current set through resistor Rx is mirrored
through the load

VCC — VBE
X
= = IL
RX

Figure 1

The circuit of Fig. 1 shows how a current mirror can provide the same current to a number of
loads. The mirrored current set through resistor Rx and mirrored through both loads is
VCC — VBE
I = =I =I
X L1 L2
RX

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Manual
Figure 2

11.4 Part 1. Current Mirror

a. Calculate the mirror current in the circuit of Fig. 1.

Ix(calculated) =

b. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 1 and measure:

VB1(measured) =
VC2(measured) =
Ix =
IL =

c. Change RL to 3.6 kΩ and repeat Parts 1(a) and 1(b).

Ix(calculated) =
VB1(measured) =
VC2(measured) =
Ix =
IL =

11.5 Part 2. Multiple Current Mirrors

a. Calculate the mirror current in the circuit of Fig. 2.

Ix(calculated) =

b. Wire up the circuit of Fig. 2 and measure:

VB1(measured) =
VC2(measured) =
VC3(measured) =
I x=
IL1=
IL2=

c. Change RL to 3.6kΩ and repeat Parts 2(a) and 2(b).

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Manual
Ix(calculated) =
VB1(measured) =
VC2(measured) =
VC3(measured) =
Ix =
IL1=
IL2=

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Manual
11.6 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 11

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 62


Manual
Lab ‐ 12: Frequency Response of CE Amplifiers

12.1 OBJECTIVE

To calculate and measure the frequency response of common‐emitter amplifier circuits.

12.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Oscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power


Instruments
Supply
Resistors: 2.2‐kΩ, 3.9‐kΩ, 10‐kΩ, 39‐kΩ
Capacitors 1‐µF, 10‐µF, 20‐µF
Components
Transistors: NPN (2N3904, 2N2219 or equivalent
general purpose transistor)

12.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

The analysis of the frequency response of an amplifier can be considered in three frequency
ranges: the low‐, mid‐, and high‐frequency regions. In the low‐frequency region the capacitors
used for DC isolation (AC coupling) and bypass operation affect the lower cutoff (lower 3‐dB)
frequency. In the mid‐frequency range only resistive elements affect the gain, the gain
remaining constant. In the high‐frequency region of operation, stray wiring capacitances and
device inter‐terminal capacitances will determine the circuit’s upper cutoff frequency.

Lower Cutoff (lower 3‐dB) Frequency: Each capacitor used will result in a cutoff frequency.
The lower cutoff frequency at the network is then the largest of these lower cutoff frequencies.
For the network of Fig. 1 the lower cutoff frequencies are as follows.

Figure 1

C1: The cutoff frequency due to the input coupling capacitor is

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Manual
1
†L,1 = Hz
2GRi Ci
with

Ri = R1ǁR2ǁQre

C2: The cutoff frequency due to the output coupling capacitor is

1
†L,2 = Hz
2G(RC + RL )Ci

CE: The cutoff frequency due to the emitter bypass capacitor is


1
†L,E = Hz
2GR e C e

With
Re = REǁre

Upper Cutoff (upper 3‐dB) Frequency: In the high‐frequency range the amplifier gain is affected
by the transistor’s parasitic capacitances as follows: At input connection of circuit:

1
†H,i =
2GRTH,i Ci

Where
RTH,i = R1ǁR2ǁQre

and Ci is

Ci = Cw,i + Cbe + (1 + |Av|)Cbc

Cw,i = input wiring capacitance


Av = voltage gain of amplifier at mid‐band frequency
Cbe = capacitance between transistor base‐emitter terminals
Cbc = capacitance between transistor base‐collector terminals

At output connection of circuit:


1
†H,o = Hz
2GRTM,o Co

Where
RTM,o = RCǁRL

And
Co = Cw,o + Cce

Cw,o = output wiring capacitance


Cce = capacitance between transistor collector‐emitter terminals

(We’ll ignore the transistor’s upper cutoff frequency, as it usually is greater than that due to
wiring and inter‐terminal capacitances.)

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Manual
Keep in mind that the 3‐dB cutoff frequencies are defined by 70.7% of the midband gain, or
0.707 Av,mid. That is, once the midband gain is measured, the upper and lower cutoff
frequencies are measured at the points at which the gain drops to 0.707, the midband gain at
either upper or lower frequency.

12.4 Part 1. Low‐Frequency Response Calculations

a. Using the specifications data for the transistor, record values:

Cbe(specified) =
Cbc(specified) =
Cce(specified) =

Enter values of typical wiring capacitance:


Cw,i(approximated) =
Cw,o(approximated) =

b. Using a characteristic curve tracer, beta measuring instrument, or value obtained from
previous use in the lab, obtain the value of transistor beta.

β(measured) =

c. Calculate values of DC bias voltage and current for the circuit of Fig. 1.

VB(calculated) =
VE(calculated) =
VC(calculated) =
IE(calculated) =

Using the value of IE, calculate the transistor dynamic resistance.


re(calculated) =

d. Calculate the magnitude of amplifier midband gain (under load)using

(RcǁRL)
Av,mid =
re

e. Calculate lower cutoff frequencies due to coupling capacitors and due to bypass
capacity.

fCS(calculated) =
fCC(calculated) =
fCE(calculated) =

12.5 Part 2. Low‐Frequency Response Measurements

a. Construct the network of Fig. 1. Record the actual resistor values in the space provided
in Fig. 1, if desired. Adjust VCC = 20 V. Apply an input AC signal, Vsig= 20 mV, at a peak
frequency of f = 5 kHz. Observe the output voltage using a scope. If Vo shows any
distortion, reduce Vsig until the output is undistorted.

b. Measure and record signals for undistorted operation.

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Manual
Vsig(measured) =
Vo (measured) =
Calculate the circuit’s mid‐frequency voltage gain.
Av,mid=

Maintaining the input voltage at the level set above, vary the frequency and measure and
record Vo to complete Table 1.
TABLE 1

f 50‐Hz 100‐Hz 200‐Hz 400‐Hz 600‐Hz 800‐Hz 1‐kHz 2‐kHz


Vo
f 3‐kHz 5‐kHz 10‐kHz
Vo

Calculate the amplifier voltage gain for each frequency and complete Table 2.

TABLE 2

f 50‐Hz 100‐Hz 200‐Hz 400‐Hz 600‐Hz 800‐Hz 1‐kHz 2‐kHz


Av
f 3‐kHz 5‐kHz 10‐kHz
Av

12.6 Part 3. High‐Frequency Response Calculations

a. Using the equations provided in the Résumé of Theory section calculate the upper
cutoff frequencies and record below.

fH,I (calculated) =
fH,o(calculated) =

b. Applying an input voltage which provides non‐distorted output voltage, complete


Table 3 measuring the resulting output voltage over a range of high frequency values.

Vi(measured) =

TABLE 3

f 10‐kHz 50‐kHz 100‐kHz 300‐kHz 500‐kHz 600‐kHz 700‐kHz


Vo
f 900‐kHz 1‐MHz 2‐MHz
Vo

Calculate the amplifier voltage gain (in dB units) and complete Table 4.

TABLE 4

f 10‐kHz 50‐kHz 100‐kHz 300‐kHz 500‐kHz 600‐kHz 700‐kHz


AV
f 900‐kHz 1‐MHz 2‐MHz
AV

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Manual
12.7 Part 4. Gain versus Frequency

a. Using the semi‐log paper of Fig. 2, plot the gain versus frequency over the full
frequency range. Plot the actual points and connect to obtain the actual plot. Use
straight‐line approximation curves to obtain the Bode plot.

Figure 2

From the plot, obtain the lower and upper 3‐dB frequency points and record below.

f–3dB(measured) =
f+3dB(measured) =

Compare the measured values with those calculated in Parts 1 and 3.

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Manual
12.8 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Part – 2
Lab
Section
Part – 3

Part – 4

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 12

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 68


Manual
Lab ‐ 13: Class‐A Power Amplifiers

13.1 OBJECTIVE

To calculate and measure DC and AC voltages, and power input and output for class‐A and
power amplifiers.

13.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 20‐Ω, 120‐Ω 0.5‐W, 180‐Ω, 1‐kΩ 0.5‐W, 10‐kΩ
Capacitors: 10‐µF, 100‐µF
Transistors:
Components
npn medium power, 15‐W (2N4300 or equivalent)
pnp medium power, 15‐W (2N5333 or equivalent)
Silicon diode

13.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

A class‐A amplifier draws the same power from a voltage supply regardless of the signal
applied. The input power is calculated from

Pi(DC) = VCCIDC = VCCICQ

The signal power provided by the amplifier can be calculated using

V2C(rms) V2C(peak) V2C(p — p)


Po(AC) = = =
RC 2RC 8RC

with the amplifier’s efficiency being


Po(AC)
%y = 1OO. %
Pi(DC)

13.4 Part 1. Class‐A Amplifier: DC Bias

a. Calculate the DC bias values for the circuit of Fig. 1.

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Manual
Figure 1

VB(calculated) =
VE(calculated) =
IE(calculated) = IC =
VC(calculated) =

b. Construct the circuit of Fig. 1. If desired, measure and record actual resistor values in
the space provided in Fig. 1. Adjust the supply voltage to VCC= 10 V and measure and
record DC bias voltages:

VB(measured) =
VE(measured) =
VC(measured) =

Calculate the value of DC bias current:


IE = IC = VE/RE =

13.5 Part 2. Class‐A Amplifier: AC Operation

a. Using the DC bias values calculated in Part 1 and the equations given in the Résumé of
Theory section, calculate power and efficiency values for the largest signal swing in the
class‐A amplifier of Fig. 1.

Pi(calculated) =

Using the largest signal swing around DC bias set in Part 1:

Vo(calculated) =
Po(calculated) =
%η(calculated) =

b. Using the oscilloscope, adjust the input signal (f = 10 kHz) to obtain the largest
undistorted output signal. Measure and record these input and output voltages.

Vi(measured) =
Vo(measured) =

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Manual
c. Using the measured values, calculate the power and efficiency for the class‐A amplifier
of Fig. 1.

Pi =
Po =
%η =

Compare the measured and calculated values of power and efficiency obtained in Parts2(b)
and 2(c).

d. Reduce the input signal to one‐half the level of Part 2(b). Measure and record the input
and output voltages.

Vi(measured) =
Vo(measured) =

e. Calculate the input power, output power, and efficiency using half the input voltage
used in Part 2(a).

Pi(calculated) =
Po(calculated) =
%η(calculated) =

f. Using the measured values, calculate the power and efficiency for the class‐A amplifier
of Fig. 1.

P i=
Po=
%η=

Compare the measured and calculated values of power and efficiency obtained in Parts 2(e)
and 2(f).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 71


Manual
13.6 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 13

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 72


Manual
Lab ‐ 14: Class‐B Power Amplifiers

14.1 OBJECTIVE

To calculate and measure DC and AC voltages, and power input and output for class‐B power
amplifiers.

14.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 20‐Ω, 120‐Ω 0.5‐W, 180‐Ω, 1‐kΩ 0.5‐W, 10‐kΩ
Capacitors: 10‐µF, 100‐µF
Transistors:
Components
npn medium power, 15‐W (2N4300 or equivalent)
pnp medium power, 15‐W (2N5333 or equivalent)
Silicon diode

14.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY

A class‐B amplifier draws no power if no input signal is applied. As the input signal increases,
the amount of power drawn from the voltage supply and that delivered to the load both
increase. The input power to a class‐B amplifier is

P (DC) = V I 2VCCVC(p)
i CC DC =
GR L

The power provided by the amplifier can be calculated using:

V2L(rms) V2L(peak) V2L(p — p)


Po (AC) = = =
RC 2RL 8RL

The amplifier efficiency is calculated using Eq. 3.


Po(AC)
%y = 1OO. %
Pi(DC)

14.4 Part 1. Class‐B Amplifier Operation

a. Calculate the power ratings for a class‐B amplifier, as shown in Fig. 1, for Vo= 1 V, peak
and Vo= 2 V, peak.

Pi(calculated) =
Po (calculated) =
%η(calculated) =

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Manual
Figure 1

For Vo = 2 V, peak:

Pi(calculated) =
Po(calculated) =
%η(calculated) =

b. Construct the circuit of Fig. 2. Adjust VCC = 10 V. If desired, measure and record actual
resistor values in the space provided in Fig. 2. Adjust the input until Vo= 1 V, peak.
Measure and record AC voltages.

Vi(measured) =
Vo(measured) =

Using the measured values, calculate input and output power, and circuit efficiency.

P i=
Po=
%η=

Compare values calculated in Part3(a) with those measured in Part 3(b).

c. Adjust the input until Vo = 2 V, peak. Measure and record AC voltages.

Vi(measured) =
Vo(measured) =

Measure the average (DC) supply current from VCC.


IDC(measured) =
Using the measured values, calculate input and output power, and circuit efficiency:

P i=
Po=
%η=

Compare values calculated in Part 3(a)with those measured in Part 3(c).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 74


Manual
14.5 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1
Lab
Section
Part – 2

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 14

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 75


Manual
Lab ‐ 15: Voltage Regulation — Power Supplies

15.1 OBJECTIVE
To measure DC and ripple voltages in series and shunt regulator circuits.

15.2 EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

InstrumentsOscilloscope, DMM, Function generator, DC Power Supply


Resistors: 390‐Ω, 1‐kΩ, 2‐kΩ, 20‐kΩ
Components NPN power transistor
Op‐amp (741 or equivalent)

15.3 RÉSUMÉ OF THEORY


Voltage regulators attempt to maintain a constant DC output voltage by controlling the series
current fed to the load–series voltage regulation, or by controlling the current to the load by
shunting some of it away.
15.3.1 Series Regulation
The circuit of Fig. 1 shows a basic series regulator circuit. The Zener diode provides a
reference voltage which sets the output voltage at

VL = VZ — VBE

If the output voltage tends to go lower, the series transistor is driven further into conduction,
providing more current to the load to maintain the output voltage.

Figure 1

15.3.2 Improved Series Regulation

The circuit of Fig. 2 shows the addition of an op‐amp to provide improved regulation. The
output voltage is set by the Zener diode and feedback network made of resistors R1 and R2. The
voltage gain of the op‐amp, connected in a positive‐feedback configuration, is
R1
A=
R2

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Manual
with
VL = AVZ

If the output voltage tends to get larger, the increased feedback voltage sensed by voltage
divider R1 and R2 causes a reduced input to the op‐amp, less drive current to the series pass
transistor, and reduced load current, thereby maintaining the output voltage.

Figure 2
15.3.3 Shunt Regulation

The circuit of Fig. 3 shows a transistor connected in parallel (shunt) with the output. The
transistor conducts to provide greater or less load current, thereby maintaining the output
voltage. Again, a sensing network made of a resistor voltage divider (using R1and R2) controls
the input to the op‐amp, which then controls the conduction of the shunt transistor. The
regulated output voltage can be calculated using
R1 + R 2
V= Vz
L
R2

Figure 3

15.4 Part 1. Series Voltage Regulator


a. Calculate the resulting regulated voltage for the circuit of Fig. 1.

b. Construct the circuit of Fig. 1. (Measure and record the resistor values in Fig. 1.) Vary
the DC input voltage, Vi, from 10 V to 16 V, measuring and recording the load voltage in
Table 1. Record the regulated output voltage measured.
c.
Vo(measured) =

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Manual
TABLE 1 Series Voltage Regulator

Vi 10‐V 11‐V 12‐V 13‐V 14‐V 15‐V 16‐V


Vo

Compare the regulation voltage obtained in Part 1(b) with that calculated in Part 1(a).

15.5 Part 2. Improved Series Regulator

a. Calculate the regulated output voltage for the circuit of Fig. 2.

VL(calculated) =

b. Construct the circuit of Fig. 2. (Measure and record the resistor values in Fig. 2.) Vary
the DC input voltage, Vi, from 10 V to 24 V, in 2‐V steps, measuring and recording the
load voltage, VL,in Table 2. Record the value of the regulated load voltage.

VL(measured) =

TABLE 2 Series Voltage Regulator

Vi 10‐V 12‐V 14‐V 16‐V 18‐V 20‐V 22‐V 24‐V


VL

Compare the regulation voltage obtained in Part 2(b) with that calculated in Part 2(a).

15.6 Part 3. Shunt Voltage Regulator

a. Calculate the regulated voltage from the circuit of Fig. 3.

VL(calculated) =

b. Construct the circuit of Fig. 3. (Measure and record the resistor values in Fig. 3.) Apply
an input voltage varied from 24 V to 36 V, in 2‐Vsteps. Measure and record the load
voltage in Table 3. Record the regulated output voltage.

VL(measured) =

TABLE 3 Series Voltage Regulator

Vi 24‐V 26‐V 28‐V 30‐V 32‐V 34‐V 36‐V


Vo

Compare the regulation voltage obtained in Part 3(b) with that calculated in Part 3(a).

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 78


Manual
15.7 Assessment Sheet

Name: ___________________________

Roll. No. : ________________________

Date of Lab: _____________________

Part – 1

Lab
Part – 2
Section

Part – 3

Working
Lab
Performance
Viva

Total Score in Lab – 15

Instructor’s Verification

ELEC ‐ 01420 – Electronic Circuit Design Lab Page 79


Manual