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CE 42B


Reference Books:
 Reinforced Concrete Design by DIT Gillesania
 Reinforced Concrete Design by McCormac
 Other Related RC books (American/Filipino Books)
 ACI (American Concrete Institute) NSCP 2010 ( National Structural Code of the

Course Requirements:
 Attendance ( x maximum allowable unexcused
 Plates (submission will be a week after the plate is
 Quizzes (70 = passing %age)
 Major Exam (70 = passing %age)
 Notes (notebook)
 Assignment/seatwork
 Class Participation

Topic 1

Concrete – is a mixture of sand, gravel or crushed rock, or other aggregates held together in a

rocklike mass with a paste of cement and water.

Admixtures – are additives used in concrete to change certain characteristics of the

concrete such as its workability, durability, and time of hardening.
Example: water proofing (water sealant), retarder (to delay the setting time),
accelerator (to increase the time of curing)

Reinforced Concrete – concrete that is reinforced with steel bars, embedded in such a
manner that the two materials act together in resisting the applied loads. The main
purpose of the reinforcing bar is to resist the elongation that is developed in the

Advantages of Reinforced Concrete as a Structural Material:

1. It has considerable compressive strength as compared to most other materials.

2. It has great resistance to the actions of fire and water and, in fact, is the best
structural material available for situations where water is present.
3. Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid.
4. It has a low maintenance.
5. It has a very durable period under proper conditions and can be used indefinitely
without reduction of their load-carrying activities.
Cumulative effects of aftershocks
Allowable size of Cracks – equal or less than 1 mm (Temperature or hairline).
6. It is usually the only economical material available for footings (foundation), basement
walls(RC not CHB), piers, and similar applications.

7. Can be cast into variety of shapes from simple slabs, beams, columns to great
arches and shells.
8. Concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials (approved source of aggregates).
9. Lower grade of skilled labor is required for erection.


SW: Give two brief reasons in two sentences only of why steel and concrete are compatible.
Concrete and steel reinforcing work together beautifully in reinforced concrete
structures. Concrete is strong in compression, and weak in resisting tensile forces,
but tensile strength is one of the great advantages of steel. Reinforcing bars have
tensile strengths equal approximately 100 times that of the usual concretes used.
The two materials bond together very well so there is no slippage between the two,
and thus they will act together as a unit in resisting the forces. The excellent bond is
obtained due to the chemical adhesion between the two materials, the roughness of
the bars, and the closely spaced rib-shaped deformations rolled on the bar surfaces.
Reinforcing bars are subject to corrosion, but the concrete surrounding them
provides them with excellent protection. Finally, concrete and steel work very well
together in relation to temperature changes because their coefficients of thermal
expansion are quite close to each other. For steel the coefficient of thermal
expansion is 0.0000065, while it varies for concrete about 0.000004 to 0.000007
(average value 0.0000055 which is closer to that of steel).


The most important code for reinforced concrete design is the American Concrete
Institute’s (ACI) Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete .In the Phils’. setting design
of structures is also in accordance with the standard provisions of National Structural Code of the
Phils. (NSCP 2010).


1. Compressive Strength (fc’) – is determined by testing to failure 28-day-old 6” x 12”

concrete cylinders with ultimate strengths vary 2500 psi up to as high as 10,000 to
20,000 psi, most of the concrete used fall into the 3000-7000 psi range. For ordinary
applications, 3000 and 4000 psi concretes are used. For pre-stressed construction,
5000-6000 psi strengths are used. For some applications, such as the column of the
lower stories of high rise buildings, 9000 psi maximum is required.

2. Modulus of Elasticity – concrete has no clear-cut modulus of elasticity. Its values

varies with different concrete strengths, age, type of loadings, and the
characteristics of cement and aggregates. For concrete weighing from 90 to 155
lb/ft3, EC = wc1.533fc’, where wc is the weight of concrete in lb/ft 3. For normal weight
concrete approximately 145 lb/ft3, EC = 57,000fc’.

Values of Ec for normal weight concrete:

fc’ Ec

psi MPa psi MPa

3,000 20.7 3,160,000 21,760

3,500 24.1 3,410,000 23,503

4,000 27.6 3,640,000 25,130

4,500 31.0 3,870,000 26,650

5,000 34.5 4,070,000 28,090

3. Poisson’s Ratio – as concrete cylinders is subjected to compressive loads, it not

only shortens in length but also expands laterally. The ratio of this lateral expansion

to the longitudinal shortening is referred to as Poisson’s Ratio. Its value varies from

about 0.11 for the high strength concretes to as high as 0.21 for the weaker grade

concretes with average values of about 0.16.

4. Shrinkage – when the concrete has been cured and begins to dry, the extra mixing

water that was used begins to work its way out of the concrete to the surface, where

it evaporates.

As a result, the concrete shrinks and cracks. The resulting cracks may reduce the shear

strength of the members and be detrimental to the appearance of the structure. In addition,

the cracks may permit the reinforcing to be exposed to the atmosphere, thereby increasing

the possibility of corrosion. To minimize shrinkage it is desirable to a) keep the amount of

mixing water to a minimum; b) cure the concrete well; c) place the concrete for walls, floors,

and other large items in small sections (thus allowing some of the shrinkage to take place

before the next section is placed); d) use construction joints to control the position of

cracks; e) use shrinkage reinforcement and; f) use appropriate dense and non-porous


5. Creep - under sustained compressive loads concrete will continue to deform for long

period of time. The additional deformation is called creep or plastic flow. The amount of

creep is very dependent on the amount of stress. It is almost directly proportional to stress

as long as the sustained stress is not greater than about one-half of fc’. Beyond this level,

creep will increase rapidly.

Factors affecting the amount of creep:

a. The longer the concrete cures before loads are applied, the smaller will be the creep.

Steam curing, which causes quicker strengthening , will also reduce creep.

b. Higher-strength concrete have less creep than lower-strength concrete.

c. Creep increases with higher temperatures. It is highest when the concrete as at about

1500F to 1600F.

d. The higher the humidity, the smaller will the free pore water which can escape from the

concrete. Creep is almost twice as large at 50% humidity than at 100% humidity.

e. Concretes with the highest percentage of cement-water paste have the highest creep

because the paste, not the aggregate, does the creeping. This is particularly true if a

good limestone is used.

f. The addition of reinforcing to the compression areas of concrete will greatly reduce

creep because steel exhibits very little creep at ordinary stresses. As creep tends to

occur in the concrete the reinforcing will block it and pick up more and more of the load.

6. Tensile Strength – the tensile strength of concrete varies from 8% to 15% of its compressive

strength. A major reason of this small strength is the fact that concrete is filled with fine

cracks. The cracks have little effect when concrete is subjected to compression transfer.

7. Shear Strength – the shearing strength of concrete is not quite critical. It can be easily

resisted by stirrups in beams.


Reinforcing bars are referred to as plain or deformed bars. The deformed bars, which have

ribbed projections rolled onto surfaces to provide better bonding between the concrete and

steel. The number of the bar coincides with the bar diameter in eighths-of an inch.

Several types of reinforcing bars designated by ASTM:

1. ASTM A615, billet steel, Grades 40 and 60.

2. ASTM A615, billet steel, Grade 75 for # 11, # 14, and # 18.

3. ASTM A616, rail steel, Grades 50 and 60.

4. ASTM A617, axle steel, Grades 40 and 60.

5. ASTM A706, low-alloy steel, Grade 60.

Standard Size of Reinforcing Bars

Standard Size
Nominal Description SI (mm) FPS (inch)

#2 6 ¼

#3 10 3/8

#4 12 ½

#5 16 5/8

#6 20 ¾

#7 22 7/8

#8 25 1

#9 28 1 1/8

#10 32 1¼

#11 36 1 3/8

#14 43 1¾

#18 58 2¼


Number of Bars

Bar no. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4 0.39 0.58 0.78 0.98 1.18 1.37 1.57 1.77 1.96

5 0.61 0.91 1.23 1.53 1.84 2.15 2.45 2.76 3.07

6 0.88 1.32 1.77 2.21 2.65 3.09 3.53 3.98 4.42

7 1.20 1.80 2.41 3.01 3.61 4.21 4.81 5.41 6.01

8 1.57 2.35 3.14 3.93 4.71 5.50 6.28 7.07 7.85

9 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

10 2.53 3.79 5.06 6.33 7.59 8.86 10.12 11.39 12.66

11 3.12 4.68 6.25 7.81 9.37 10.94 12.50 14.06 15.62

14 4.50 6.75 9.0 11.25 13.50 15.75 18.0 20.25 22.50

18 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 32.0 36.0 40.0

Bar No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

4 2.16 2.36 2.55 2.75 2.95 3.14 3.34 3.53 3.73 3.93

5 3.37 3.68 3.99 4.30 4.60 4.91 5.22 5.52 5.83 5.14

6 4.86 5.30 5.74 6.91 6.63 7.07 7.51 7.95 8.39 8.84

7 6.61 7.22 7.82 8.42 9.02 9.62 10.22 10.82 11.43 12.03

8 8.64 9.43 10.21 11.00 11.78 12.57 13.35 14.14 14.92 15.71

9 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0

10 13.92 15.91 16.45 17.72 18.98 20.25 21.52 22.78 24.05 25.31

11 17.91 18.75 20.31 21.87 23.44 25.0 26.56 28.12 29.69 31.25

14 24.75 27.0 29.25 31.50 33.75 36.0 38.25 40.50 42.75 45.0

18 44.0 48.0 52.0 56.0 60.0 64.0 68.0 72.0 76.0 80.0

Minimum Beam Width (in) According to the 1977 ACI Code

Bar No. No. of Bars in single layer of reinforcement Add for each
added bar
2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4 6.1 7.6 9.1 10.6 12.1 13.6 15.1 1.6

5 6.3 7.9 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4 16.1 1.63

6 6.5 8.3 10.0 11.8 13.5 15.3 17.0 1.75

7 6.7 8.6 10.5 12.4 14.2 16.1 18.0 1.88

8 6.9 8.9 10.9 12.9 14.9 16.9 18.9 2.0

9 7.3 9.5 11.8 14.0 16.3 18.6 20.8 2.26

10 7.7 10.2 12.8 15.3 17.8 20.4 22.9 2.54

11 8.0 10.8 13.7 16.5 19.3 22.1 24.9 2.82

14 8.9 12.3 15.6 19.0 22.4 25.8 29.2 3.39

18 10.5 15.0 19.5 24.0 28.6 33.1 37.6 4.51

The purpose of reinforcing concrete with steel bars is to prevent tension and resist the

elongation that is developed in the section subjected by the loads. This is because concrete

alone cannot resist tension. Steel bars are placed in the section of the beam where tension

is mostly developed. In the moment diagram, the point in the beam where the magnitude of

the bending moment is zero is called point of inflection. Also at this point, the concavity of

the elastic curve changes from concave upward to concave downward and vise-versa. At

this point, the beam is not critical to bend and reinforcing bars are no longer needed.

Any loading

Point of Inflection



When reinforced concrete is subjected to deicing salts, seawater, or spray from these items,

it is necessary to provide special corrosion protection for the reinforcing. Should the

reinforcement be insufficiently protected, it will corrode; as it corrodes, the resulting oxide

occupy a volume far greater than that of the original metal. This reduce the bond or sticking

of the concrete to the steel is reduced. The result of these factors is a decided reduction in

the life of the structure.

The lives of such structure can be greatly increased if epoxy-coated reinforcing bars are

used. Such bars need to be handled very carefully so as not to break off any of the coating

and they do not bond as well to the concrete.


Aggregates used in the concrete occupy about ¾ of the concrete volume. The maximum

size of the aggregates that can be used in reinforced concrete are specified by the ACI code

as follows. The limiting values are as follows:

1. 1/5 of the narrowest dimension between the sides of the forms.

2. 1/3 of the depths of slab.

3. ¾ of the minimum clear spacing between reinforcing.

Structural Light-Weight Concrete – concretes that have 28-day strengths equal to or greater

than 2500 psi and air dry weights equal to 115 lb/ft 3. The aggregates used for these

concretes are made from expanded shales, clays, and slag.

All - Lightweight Concrete – when light-weight aggregates are used for both sand and

coarse aggregate.

Sand – Light – Weight Concrete – if sand is used for the fine aggregate and if coarse

aggregate is replaced with light – weight aggregate.


1. Dead Loads – loads of constant magnitude that remain in one position. They consist of

The structural frame’s own weight and other loads that are permanently attached to the
frame. For a reinforced concrete building, some dead loads are the frame, walls, floors,

roof, plumbing, and fixtures.

2. Live Loads – loads that may change in position and magnitude. Live loads that move

under their own power are said to be moving loads, such as trucks, people, and cranes.

Loads that may be moved are movable loads, such as furniture, warehouse materials,

and snow. Other types of live loads are rain, traffic loads for bridges, impact loads,

lateral loads such as wind loads and earthquake loads, soil pressures (such as exertion

of lateral earth pressures on walls or upward pressures on foundations), hydrostatic

pressure (as water pressure on dams, inertia forces of large bodies of water during

earthquakes, and uplift forces on tanks and basement structures), blast loads (caused

by explosions, sonic booms, and military weapons), thermal forces (due to chages

in temperature resulting in structural deformation and resulting structural forces), and

centrifugal forces ( such as caused on curved bridges by trucks and trains or similar

effects on roller coasters).


Type of Building LL (psf)

Apartment Houses

Corridors 80

Apartments 40

Public Rooms 100

Office Buildings

Offices 50

Lobbies 100

Restaurants 100


Classrooms 40

Corridors 80

Storage Warehouses

Light 125

Heavy 250

Singly Reinforced Beam - a beam which is reinforced for tension only.






Doubly Reinforced Beam – a beam reinforced for tension and compression. This usually

occurs in high rise building or when the moment due to the given loads exceeds the

moment capacity of the beam .


Module 2

When a small amount of transverse load is placed on a concrete beam with tensile

reinforcing and that the load is gradually increased in magnitude until the beam fails, the

beam will undergo three distinct stages before collapse occurs. These are:

1. The uncracked concrete stage – at small loads when the tensile stresses are less than the

modulus of rupture (the bending stress at which the concrete begins to crack), the entire
cross-section of the beam resists bending, with compression on one side and tension on

the other.

ec in compresion fc in compression

es for steel in fs/n for steel in tension

ec in tension ft in concrete

2. Concrete Cracked – Elastic Stresses Stage – as the load is increased after the modulus of

rupture of the beam is exceeded, cracks begin to develop in the bottom of the beam. The

moment at which these cracks begin to form , that is when the tensile stress in the bottom

of the beam equals the modulus of rupture- is referred to as the Cracking Moment, M CR.

Cracks occur at those places along the beam where the actual moment is greater than the

cracking moment. The steel must resist the cracking at the bottom. This stage will continue

as long as the compression stress in the top fibers is less than one-half of the concrete’s

compression strength, fc’ and as long as the stress in steel is less than its yield point.


ec fc

es fs

The straight-line stress strain variation normally occurs in reinforced concrete under

normal service load conditions because at those loads the stresses are generally less than
0.50fc’. To compute the concrete and steel stresses in this range, the transformed area

method is used. The service or working loads are the loads which are assumed to actually

occur when a structure is in use or service. Under these loads, moments develop which

are assumed to be larger than the cracking moments. The tensile side of the beam will be


3. Beam Failure – Ultimate – Strength Stage – as the load is increased further so that the

compressive stresses are greater than ½ of fc’, the tensile cracks move further upward, as

does the neutral axis, and the concrete stresses begin to change appreciably from a

straight line. For this condition, it is assumed that the reinforcing bars have yielded.

When failure occurs, concrete is crushed here


strain (steel has yielded)

Moment – curvature diagram for tensilely reinforced concrete beam


Myield Reinforcing bars yield

Mservice Service or working load range

MCR Tensile concrete cracks

Curvature, 
 = --------

 = the angle of change of the beam over a certain length

e = strain in the beam

y = distance from the neutral axis of the beam

The first stage of the diagram is for small moments less than the cracking moment,

where the entire beam cross-section is available to resist bending. In this range the

strains are very small and the diagram is nearly vertical and very close to a straight

line. When the moment is increased beyond the cracking moment, the slope of the

curve will decrease a little because the beam is not quite as stiff as it was in the

initial stage before the concrete cracked. The diagram will follow almost a straight

line from MCR to the point where the reinforcing is stressed to its yield point. Up until

the steel yields, a fairly large additional load is required to appreciably increase the

beam’s deflection. After the steel yields, the beam has very little additional moment

capacity and only a small additional load is required to substantially increase

deflections. The slope of the diagram is now very flat.


The area of the reinforcing as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a beam is

quite small (usually 2% or less), and its effect on the beam properties is almost negligible

as long as the beam is uncracked. Therefore the calculation of bending stresses is based

on the gross properties of the beam’s cross-section.

The tensile stress (f) in the concrete at any point a distance y from the neutral axis of the

cross-section is

f = ----------

The cracking moment of a section is determined by the equation (ACI Code) as:

fr Ig
MCR = ---------

M = Bending Moment

MCR = Cracking Moment

fr = Modulus of Rupture of concrete or flexural tensile strength of


fr = 7.5 fc’ for normal weight concrete, when fc’ in psi

fr = 0.62fc’ when fc’ in MPa

yt = distance from the N.A.of the section to its extreme fiber in


Ig = Gross Moment of Inertia of the section

Exercise No. 1

1. Assuming the concrete is uncracked, compute the bending stresses in the extreme

fibers of the beam illustrated in the figure below for a bending moment of 25 ft – k. The

concrete has an fc’ = 4000 psi and fr = 7.5 fc’ = 474 psi. Determine also its cracking


3 - # 9 bars 15”

2. Redo problem number 1 if the bending moment is 30 ft-k. All other data remain the same.

Module 3

Elastic Design:

1. Working Strength Design, WSD

2. Ultimate Strength Design, USD

WSD or Alternate Design Method: In this method, the dead loads and the live loads to be supported,

called working loads or service loads, were first estimated. Then the members of the structure were

proportioned so that stresses calculated by transformed area did not exceed certain permissible or

allowable values.

WSD is used for several reasons:

1. The design of some highway structures is handled by WSD, although the 1989 AASHTO

specifications permit the use of USD in a manner similar to that of the ACI code.

2. Some designers use WSD for proportioning fluid-containing structures (such as water tanks

and various similar structures). Stresses are kept at fairly low levelswith the result that

there is appreciably less cracking and less consequent leakage.

3. The ACI method for calculating the moments of inertia to be used for deflection calculations

requires some knowledge of the WSD procedures.

In this method, the maximum permissible concrete compressive stress in the extreme fiber of a

member is 0.45fc’. The maximum allowable tensile stress in the reinforcing steel is 20,000 psi or

138 MPa for grades 40 and 50 steels and 24,000 psi or 166 MPa for grade 60 steels and steels

with higher yield strengths.

In the alternate design method the most economical design possible is referred to as balanced

design. A beam designed by this method will, under full service load, have its extreme fibers in

compression stressed to their maximum permissible value fc = 0.45fc’ and its reinforcing bars

stressed to their maximum permissible value fs.

If a beam is designed in which the tensile steel reaches its maximum permissible tensile stress

before the concrete fibers reach their maximum allowable compressive stress, the beam is said to

be under-reinforced.


1. Plane section remains plane and normal to the longitudinal fiber stress before and after

bending and both materials are elastic. Strain varies linearly from the neutral axis.

2. Hooke’s Law applies, i.e., within the elastic limit stress is proportional to strain.
3 3. The tensile stress of concrete is negligible and only the steel carries tension.

Consider a section

b ec fc = 0.45fc’
d NA
d - kd
As d’ es fs/n T


t = total thickness/depth of the section fc = stress of concrete

b = width of the section fc’ = allowable stress of concrete

As = area of steel fs = stress of steel

d = effective depth n = modular ratio = Es/Ec

d’ = protective covering Es = modulus of elasticity of steel

ec = strain of concrete Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete

es = strain of steel T = tensile force of steel

Fc = compressive force of concrete fs/n = equivalent stress of steel

n M
1. k = -------------- 4. As = --------- 7. T = As fs
fs/fc + n fs j d

2. j = 1 – k/3 5. R = ½ fc k j

3. d =  M / Rb 6. Fc = ½ fc b k d

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams and Girders (WSD)


1. Calculate the loads.

P = PLL + PDL (concentrated load)

w = wLL + wDL (uniform load)

2. Calculate the designing moments.

a. Determinate Beams. Draw the shear and moment diagrams.

b. Indeterminate Beams. Use three-moment equation, moment distribution, slope

deflection method, etc.

c. ACI Moment Coefficient

A = D = F = G = I = L = ------------
1.15 w L
C = J = ----------------


w L2 w L2
A = L = - ----------- D =F = G =I = - ----------
24 11

w L2 w L2
B = K = ----------- E = H = ------------
14 16

w L2
C = J = - ---------

Limitations of the ACI moment coefficient method:

1. Two or more spans.

2. The dead load should be more than 3 times the live load.

3. The difference between the succeeding spans should be more than 20%.

4. The intensity of the uniform load should cover the entire span of the beam.

3. Calculate the value of the design constants: k, j, and R.

4. Design the section using the formula: d =  M/Rb

a. Assume at least three trials and select the section having the best proportion with

d/b ratio that ranges from 1.25 – 1.75. Try a value of “b” with corresponding “d”.

Check values of the trial b and d using the table.

b. Calculate the total thickness of the section, t = d + d’ (where d’ = cover + stirrup

dia. + ½ main bar dia. Minimum ACI cover is 1.5” or 40 mm ).

c. Calculate the total weight of the beam and solve for the additional moment plus

beam’s weight and check for bending.

To be safe: Allowable bd2 ≥ Actual bd2. If Allowable bd2( Actual bd2, then increase

the trial size of the section.

5. Design steel reinforcements and check no. of bars with corresponding steel areas

using the table.

As = ---------
fs j d

MT = Total Moment Including Beam’s Weight

N = --------

N = Number of Main Bars

Ast = Area of One Bar

6. Solve for the clear spacing of main bars, Sb . A major purpose of this spacing is to

enable concrete to pass between the bars.

ACI Specs for Sb:

1. Sb should not be less than or equal to 25 mm

2. Sb should not be less than or equal to the dia. of the main bar

3. Sb should not be less than or equal to 1 and 1/3 of the of the maxm. permissible

size of aggregate:

a. 1/5 of the narrowest distance between the side forms.

b. 1/3 of the slab depths

c. ¾ of the minimum clear spacing of bars.

ACI Specs. for Sb should be greater or equal to Sb as computed in step no. 6. If Sb

computed is less than Sb as specified by ACI Specs., then increase the size of the

bar or arrange bars into rows. If bars are placed in more than one layer, those in

the upper layers are required to be placed directly over the ones in the lower

layers and the clear distance between the layers must be not less than 1” or


7. Check for shear.

Allowable Shearing Stress, vall = 0.09 fc’

Actual Shearing stress, vact = --------

V = critical shear at a distance d from the maximum shear.

If vact ≤ vall, then the beam is safe in shear and no need to design stirrups. Use

temperature bars along the transverse section. Minimum area of temperature bars,

As = 0.002bt.

If vact ≥vall, then design stirrups.

Spacing of Stirrups, s

Av fs
s = ----------
v’ b

Av = area of stirrup bar

Av = 2 (π/4) (s)2

s = diameter of one stirrup

ACI Specs. for s:

1. s = d/2

2. s = 600 mm

Use whichever is the least value. Computed value of “s” should be less than or equal

the “s” as specified by ACI Specs.

8. Check for bond stress.

10.14√ fc’
Allowable Bond Stress, uall = --------------------
b = diameter of main bar
Actual Bond Stress, uact = ---------------
o j d

 o = sum of the perimeter of all the main bars

o = N b
If uact ≤ uall, then the beam is safe.

If uact ≥uall, then increase the size of the main bars or the number of main bars.

9. Draw the details.

Exercises No. 2

Design a singly reinforced beam using WSD and given the following data: fc’ = 25 MPa; fy = 276

MPa; fs = 138 MPa ; n = 12. Use 28 mm diameter main bars and 12 mm diameter stirrups.

PLL = 25kN
1. WLL = 14 kN/m
WDL = 18 kN/m

4m 1m 1m

PLL = 18 kN

2. 2m
WLL = 12 kN/m
WDL = 18 kN/m


3. Design a continuous beam using the data given in the previous example.

DL = 20 kN

3m LL = 18 kN/m
LL = 12 kN/m DL = 16kN/m
DL = 16 kN/m
5m 6m

wLL = 15 kN/m
wDL = 25 kN/m

6m 4.5m

Module 3




1. The derivation of the strength design expressions takes into account the

nonlinear shape of the stress-strain diagram. When the resulting

equations are applied, decidedly better estimates of load-carrying ability

are obtained.

2. With the strength design a more consistent theory is used throughout

the designs of reinforced concrete structures.

3. A more realistic factor of safety is used in strength design.

4. A structure designed by the strength design method will have a more

uniform safety factor against collapse throughout.

5. The strength method permits more flexible designs than does the

alternate design method. For instance, the percentage of steel may be

varied quite a bit. As a result, large sections may be used with small

percentages of steel or small sections may be used with large

percentages of steel.

Load Combinations:

U = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL

U = 0.75 (1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 W)

U = 0.9 DL + 1.3 WL but not less than 1.4 DL and 1.7 LL

U = 0.75 [1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.87 E]


U = 0.90 DL + 1.43 E but not less than 1.4 DL and 1.7 LL

U = 1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7 H

Strength reduction Factors:

Flexure without axial load = 0.90

Axial tension with flexure = 0.90

Axial compression with flexure:

Spiral = 0.75

Tied = 0.70

Shear and Torsion = 0.85

Bearing on concrete = 0.70

b ec = 0.003 fc = 0.85fc’

c a Fc

t d NA
d–c d – a/2
d’ es

Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Equivalent Stress

b = width of the section A s = Area of steel e s = Strain of Steel

d = effective depth T = Tensile Force of Steel

t = total thickness of the section F c = Compressive Force of Concrete

d’ = steel covering e c = Strain of Concrete = 0.003

a = Depth of Equivalent Stress Block = c

 = 0.85 when fc’ ≤ 30 MPa

 = 0.85 – 0.008(fc’ – 30) when fc’  30 MPa but   0.65.

USD Formula

0.85fc’ 600
1. As =  b d 6.  b = -------------- . ------------------
fy fy + 600
 d fy
2. a = --------------- 7. For steel to yield first:  min ≤  ≤  max
0.85 fc’
8.  min = 1.4/fy
3. Ru =  fy ( 1 – 0.59  fy / fc’)
9.  max = 0.75 b
4. M u =  Ru b d 2

5. c = ----------------
fy + 600

Derivation of USD Equations

Let :  = --------

As = bd

From the stress diagram:

Fc = T

Fc = 0.85 fc’ a b

T = As fy =  b d fy

0.85 fc’ a b =  b d fy

 b d fy  d fy
a = -------------------- = -------------
0.85 fc’ b 0.85 fc’

Let : Ru = coefficient of resistance

Ru =  fy ( 1 – 0.59  fy / fc’)

Mu = Ultimate Moment

Mu =  T ( d – a/2 )

Mu =  As fy ( d – a/2 )

 d fy
Mu =   b d fy ( d - ------------- )
0.85 fc’ 2

Mu =   fy b d 2 ( 1 – 0.59  fy / fc’ )

Subst. value of Ru:

Mu =  Ru b d 2

From the strain diagram:

ec es
---- = --------
c d–c

0.003 fy/Es
------- = ---------
c d-c

c fy = 600 ( d – c )

c fy = 600d – 600c

c fy + 600c = 600d

600 d
c = ------------------
fy + 600

Let :  b = steel ratio at balanced condition

 b = As / b d

Fc = T

0.85 fc’ a b = As fy b d ( but from NSCP: a =  c )

0.85 fc’  c b =  b b d fy

0.85  fc’ c
 b = -------------------
d fy

Subst. the value of c:

0.85  fc’ 600

 b = ------------- . -----------
fy fy + 600

Design of singly reinforced beam(reinforced for tension only) using the ultimate strength


1. Calculate the ultimate loads, using the most critical load combination.

2. Calculate the designing moment by analyzing the beam using equilibrium conditions for

statically determinate and moment distribution method for statically indeterminate beams.

3. Solve for the values of the steel ratios at minimum and maximum conditions and assume

value of the steel ratio to be 50% of the maximum value.

4. Design the depth of the section from flexural conditions by considering a section having

the best proportion of d/b which ranges from 1.25 – 1.75.

5. Check for bending.

6. Calculate the number of steel required.

7. Check for shear.

8. Draw the details of the section.


Design a singly reinforced beam using the ultimate strength design and using fc’ = 20.7 MPa

fy = 413.7 MPa.

1. Simple span of 10 m and uniform live load of 10 kN/m and dead load (excluding beam’s

weight) of 20 kN/m.

2. This is your bring home examination.

LL = 18 kN/m
DL = 12 kN/m LL = 12 kN/m
DL = 12 kN/m
3m 1m 2m

3. Design a continuous beam using fc’ = 25 MPa and fy = 345 MPa.

P LL = 20 kN P LL = 30 kN

w LL = 12.5 kN/m w DL = 7.5 kN/m

2.5m 6m 5m

Module 4

Design of Slabs
Types of Slab:

1. One-way slab – is a slab supported on two sides only, the loads carried is in the

direction perpendicular to the supporting beams. The ratio of the length of the

short span to the long span is less than 1.5.

2. Two-way slab – is a slab with beams on all four sides. The ratio of the length of the short

span to the long span is equal to or greater than 1.5.

3. Flat slab – is beamless but incorporates a thickened slab region near the columns and

employed a flared column tops.

4. Slabs on ground – is a slab used in ground level, hallway, streets or highway.

Design of a One-Way Slab

---- < 1.5 or ---- > 2.0

ACI Specifications for Design of One-way Slab

1. Minimum thickness of one-way slab for

for fy other than 415 MPa:

L fy
t min = ------- [ 0.40 + ------- ] for simply supported beams
20 700

L fy
t min = ------- [ 0.40 + -------- ] for one end continuous
24 700

L fy
t min = ------- [ 0.40 + -------- ] for both ends continuous
28 700

L fy
t min = ------- [ 0.40 + ------ ] for cantivered slab
10 700

for fy = 415 MPa

t min = ------ for simply supported slab

t min = ------- for one end continuous

t min = ------- for both ends continuous

t min = ------- for cantilevered slab

2. Minimum Covering = 20 mm

3. Minimum size of steel bars = 12 mm diameter

4. Spacing of main bars should be greater than 3t or 500m and not less than 100 mm.

5. Minimum size of temperature bars = 10 mm diameter.

6. Minimum spacing of temperature bars should not be greater than 5t or 500mm.

7. Area of temperature bars needed should not exceed the following steel ratio:

a. For garde 276 or 350 deformed bars,  = 0.020

b. For grade 400 deformed bars or welded wire fabric,  = 0.0018

c. Slabs were reinforcement with yield strength exceeds 400 MPa measured at yield

strain of 35%,  = 0.0018 x 400/fy

d. No. of bars needed in one meter width of slab = 1000/s

e. Thickness of slab should not be less than 75 mm.

f. When the slab is permanently exposed to the ground, minimu covering is 70 mm


Design of a one-way slab using USD:

1. Check whether the slab is one-way.

2. Solve for the minimum thickness of the slab using ACI specs.

3. Consider one meter width of the slab, calculate the loads, and the designing moments

using the ACI moment coeffiecients or moment distribution for continuous slabs.

A = D = F = G = I = L = ------------
1.15 w L
C = J = ----------------


w L2 w L2
A = L = - ----------- D =F = G =I = - ----------
24 11

w L2 w L2
B = K = ----------- E = H = ------------
14 16

w L2
C = J = - ---------

4. Solve for the steel ratios,  min,  max , assume value of , and R U.

5. Designt he thickness of the slab from flexure formula.

6. Design the main bars needed and the spacing of the main and temperarture bars.

7. Check for shear.

8. Draw the details of the slab.


1. The figure shown below is a floor framing plan of a three storey reinforced concrete

commercial building. Live load is 2874 Pa, the floor has a 26 mm thick floor finished

weighing 20 kN/m 3 and the slabs are supported by beams. Using fc’ = 17 MPa and fy

345 MPa, design the slab.






5m 5m

2. Design a one-way slab to carry a service live load of 10 kPa. Use fc’ = 21 mPa and fy

w (L 1 + L 2) 2
350 MPa. Use M A = M D = - wL 2/11 and M B = M C = - ------------------- and midspan
moments is wL 2/16.

3.6m 4.0 m

From ACI Codes:

1. If the span of the slab are not equal, then L 2 – L 1 ≤ 20%L 1.

2. --------  3.0
4 LL

Module 5

Design of a Two-Way Slab

Condition: If A / B ≥ 0.50 or B / A ≤ 2.0.

Steps in designing two-way slab:

1. Check for A/B.

2. Calculate the minimum thickness of the slab using the formula, t min = ---------------
3. Consider one meter width of the slab and solve the ultiomate loads.

4. Calculate the designing moment using the formula:

Along short span :

Mu = cac wu A2 (continuous edge)

Mu = caDL wuDL A2 + caLL wuLL A2 (midspan)

Mu = 1/3 positive momnent at the midspan

Along the long span :

Mu = cbc wu B2 (continuous edge)

M u = c bDL w uDL B 2 + c bLL w uLL B 2 (midspan)

Mu = 1/3 positive moment at the midspan

Use the biggest value of Mu as the designing moment.

5. Design the depth of the section from flexure.

6. Compute the spacing of the main bars. Spacing of the main bars within the

column strip is 1.5 times the spacing at the center strip.

7. Check for shear.

8. Draw the deatails.


1. Design a two-way slab of the given floor framing plan. The slab carries a total live load

of 4792 Pa and ha s40 mm thick floor finish weighing 479 N/m 3. Use fc’ = 21 MPa and fy

= 345 MPa.

5m S1

6m S2 OPEN


2m 4m 2m

2. Data:

Live Load = 3000 Pa

Movable Partition = 1500 Pa

Suspended Plaster Ceiling = 800 Pa

Floor Finished = 650 Pa

Fc’ = 23 MPa

Fy = 400 MPa

Required: Design all two-way slabs.

3m 3m 3m 2m 2m 2m

5m S1 S2 S2

1.5m OPEN


Module 6
Design of Stairway

L = nt

n = number of steps

r = riser

t = tread

wc = unit weight of concrete

s√ r2 + t2
wsl = weight of slab = ----------------- wc

wst = weight iof step = ------ wc

s = total thickness of the slab

The design of a stairway follows the same method as in the design of a one-way slab.


Design a reinforced concrete stairway having 13 - 178 mm risers and twelve 254 mm treads.
Live load is 4800 Pa and fc’ = 21 MPa and fy = 350 MPa.

Module 7
Design of Columns

Column – is a structural member that is subjected to an axial compressive loads. It is a

compression member.

Column loads can be

1. axially loaded

2. eccentrically loaded

Types of columns:

1. Tied Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

2. Spiral Column – the reinforcement is composed of longitudinal bars enclosed by closely

spaced spirals.

3. Composite Column – the reinforcement is composed of structural steel shape encased in

concrete reinforced with both longiltudinal and spiral reinforcement.

ACI Specs:

1. Tied Columns

a. steel ratio g = 0.01 to 0.08

b. minimum number and size of bar = 4 – 16 mm

c. Use 10 mm lateral ties for main bars smaller or equal to 32 mm and 12 mm for main

bars larger than 32 mm.

d. Spacing of tie bars

d.1. not more than 16 times the bar diameter

d.2. not more than 48 times the tie bar diameter

d.3. least dimension of the column.

e. When there are more than 4 vertical bars, additional ties shall be added so that every

longitudinal bars will be held firmly in its designed position, no bar shall be more than

150 mm from such laterally supported bar.

f. The reinforcement for tied column shall be protected by a concrete cover ing cast

monolithically with the core from which the thickness shall be not less than 40 mm.

g. Radius of gyration, r = 0.30 times the overalll dimension of the member in the direction

under consideration.

2. Spiral Coilumn

a. spiral ratio, g = 0.01 to 0.08

b. Minimum number of bars = 6 – 16 mm

c. Minimum size of spiral bar = 10 mm

d. Clear spacing between spiral (pitch of spiral,S) should not exceed more than 80 mm

and not less than 25 mm.

e. Ratio of the volume of spiral reinforcement to the volume of concrete core

Ag fc’
s = 0.45 [ ------ - 1] ------ (ACI Code)
Ac fy

s = ------- (actual)
Dc S

f. Radius of gyration, r = 0.25 times the diameter of the column.

3. Slenderness ratio, Lu/r

a. when Lu / r is less than 34 – 12 M1/M2, the effect of slenderness ratio is neglected and

the column is safe in buckling. M1 is the smaller end moment and M2 is the larger end


b. when Lu / r is greater than 34 – 12 M1/M2 the effect of slenderness ratio is considered.

4. Minimum eccentricity, e

a. Tied column, e = 15 + 0.03h

b. Spiral column, e = 15 + 0.03h

5. Po = service load

Pu = ultimate load

Pn = nominal load

Pu =  Pn ( = 0.70 for tied column and  = 0.75 for spiral column)

Pn = 0.80Po for tied column

Pn = 0.85Po for spiral column

Design of axially loaded columns:

1. Calculate the ultimate column loads.

2. Design the size of the column.

3. Determine the number of longitudinal bars and the spacing of the tie bars using ACI specs.

4. Check the capacity of the designed section.

5. Check the slenderenss ratio.

6. Draw the details of the column section.

Derivation of column formula:


Po = service load
Pc = force of concrete

Ps Ps = force of steel


Design a tied column to carry an axial load of DL = 1070 kN, LL = 980 kN. The column has an

unsupported length of 2.2m and carries no moment. Use fc’ = 27.5 MPa and fy = 415 MPa.

Design considering a
a. tied column

b. spiral column

CE 420a