SPE 24301
Integral Type Curves for Advanced Decline Curve Analysis
J.P. Spivey, J.M. Gatens, M.E. Semmelbeck, and W.J. Lee, S.A. Holditch & Assocs. lnc.
SPE Members
This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE MidContinent Gas Symposium held in Amarillo. Texas, April 1314, 1992.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper,
as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the authorfs). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect
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of PetroleumEngineers. Permission to copy is restrictedto an abstract of not morethan 300words. lllustiationsmay not be copied.The abstractshould m t a i n conspicuousacknowladgmnt
of where and by whom the paper is presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 750853836 U.S.A. Telex, 730989 SPEDAL.
ABSTRACT single set of axes. They pointed out that a simultaneous match of
the pressure and pressure derivative type curves provides a more
This paper introduces a new family of type curves for advanced reliable inte~retationof pressure transient test data than a match ol
decline curve analysis. The new type curves are obtained by the pressure type curve alone. Because of this advantage, recent
combining the dimensionlessproduction rate and the dimensionless pressure transient analysis papers have routinely included botb
cumulativeproduction on a single loglog scale. The new typecurve pressure and pressure derivative type curve^.^
offers two significant advantages: 1) observed cumulative
production data is much smoother than observed production rate The pressure derivative type curve suffers from at least one
data, making a match easier to obtain with the new type curve; and minor disadvantage in that the process of taking the derivative from
2) simultaneously matching both rate and cumulative production measured data amplifies anv noise inherent in the data. For thir
provides more confidence in the selection of the correct early and reason. las sin game, lohnstk, and Lee sugfested using the pressure
latetime stems. Plotting functions are presented to allow the new integral rather than the pressure derivative . This procedure has the
curves to be used for both oil and gas wells produced at eitfler advantage of reducing rather than increasing anyioise in the data.
constant or varying flowing bottomhole pressure. Use OF the new
type curves is demonstrated for both simulated and field data. Production data often contains much more noise than pressure
transient test data, making application of rate derivative type curvea
INTRODUCTION of little value. However, rate itiregral, or cumulative, type curves.
can reduce the effect of this noise and make analysis of production
In 1973, Fetkovich' proposed a dimensionless ratetime type data more reliable.
curve for decline curve analysis of wells producing at constant
bottomhole pressure. These type curves, shown in Fig. 1, were This paper presents cumulative type curves for wells producing
developed for slightly compressible liquids. These type curves a single phase fluid, from a finite, radial reservoir, at constanl
combined analytical solutions to the flow equation in the transient flowing bottomhole pressure. In addition, plotting functions are
region with empirical decline curve equations in the pseudosteady presented to allow the new type curves to be used with gas wells
state region. and with oil or gas wells producing at varying bottomhole pressures.
In principle, the concept of the combination rate and cumulative
' f i e analysis procedure provided estimates of formation typecurve may beextended to hydraulically fractured wells, to wells
permeability, k, and drainage radius, re, instead of the traditional in dual porosity systems, or to wells in arbitrarily shaped drainage
declinecurveanalysispararnetersqiandD,. This approach todecline areas.
curve analysis, now commonly referred to as "advanced decline
curve analysis", has become widely used as a tool for formation DISCUSSION
evaluation and reserves estimation. Fetkovich et aL2 presented
several case studies of the use of advanced decline curve analysis. Review of Fetkovich Decline C u r v ~
Bourdet, et al? introduced the use of derivative type curves for Fetkovich developed his type curves by combiningan analytical
transient well test analysis in 1983. By multiplying the pressure solution to the flow equation, describing transient flow, with
derivative by the time, (or equivabltiy, by taking the derivative of empirical decline curve equations describing pseudosteady state or
pressure with respect to the natural log of time), they were able to boundary dominated flow.'
display both the pressure and pressure derivative type curves on a
The transient portion of the Fetkovich type curve is based on
an analytical solution to the radial flow equation for slightly
compressible liquids with a constant pressure inner boundary and
References and illustmtioi~sst end of paper. a noflow outer boundary.
'ED DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS SPE 24301
Since h i s evaluated from Eq. 4 fort, 10.3 and from Eq. 6 fort,
> 0.3, the integral in Eq. 10 must be evaluated in two pieces:
q,, = exp(t,,) , b =0
where the dimensionless variables are
4
qDd = 
4i
,
0
dt'
'
are commonly used instead of pressure and time in analyzing gas For gases, the cumulative plotting function is QJAp, where Q,
well pressure transient tests using type curves de.velopedfor slightly is given by Eq. 17, the rate plotting function is qIAp, and the time
compressible liquids. plotting function is the colistant pressure analog adjusted time,
defined by
Fraim and Wattenbarger showed in 1985 that gas wells could
be matched using the b=O depletion stem of the Fetkovich type
curve, by defining an adjusted time based on average reservoir
pres~ure:~
'~AP
= d;:i: dt'
I I
I
Analysis Results
Simulator
Input
I
I
Runl 1
I
Run2 I
I
Run3
Gas Wells.
Variable Flowing ~ o m n Pressure
~ e l,,., , j%rII!dl"~9r
. q(1.) dl:
w
'wA~.
Q Q.
AP.wdg. R
., j~.(f')dW~.~~,
q(1') dl'
 
Table 3 Example 2 Texas Gas Well
Gasborosiw
Fokation iemperarm
Formation Properties
1
I
142
4.75
260
feet
%
'F
I
U
Gas gravity 0.678 (air = 1.0)
initial prcssm 4764 psia
Reference wellbore pressure 2572 psia
Wellbore radius 0.3 fect
Analysis Results
1 History March 1 Type
I I with
Simulator 1 Curve
Match f/
0.01 7
b d

Fig. 3 Cumbinalion decline and curnulalive productiun type curve, versiun 2. Fig. 4 Simulated gas well, Run 1, cunslant fluwing bollomhole pressure.

Fig. 5 Simulaled gas well, Run 2, cunslant rate producliun folluwed by cunslant fluwing boltomhule pressure.
Fig. 6 Simulated gas well, Hun 3, cumbinnliunuf constant rate and constant iluwing butiomhole pressure production. Fig, 7 Siniulated gas well, Run 3, alternate match.

Fig. H Pe'ennsylvaniaoil well.
ID,
I 
Simulated
Observed
TIME, days

Fig. 10 Delailed hislory malch of Texas gas well using finitedifference numerical simulator.
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