AMIE(I) 
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A 
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Ap proach 
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Additional Course Material
Rectifiers
We know that the generation, transmission and distribution of A.C. is economical but at few places, we need D.C. supply, e.g. electronic devices and circuits. Here, we convert the available A.C. supply into D.C. supply. The process is called “rectification” and the devices used for rectification are called, “rectfiers ”. Diodes are used as rectifiers.
The rectifiers can be classified as :
_{} 
Half wave rectifiers 

Full wave rectifiers (i) Centre tap rectifiers (ii) Bridge rectifiers 
HALF WAVE(H.W.) RECTIFIERS
These circuits rectify only the half(positive) cycle of the A.C. supply and hence the name. The circuit use only one diode. The AC supply to the diodes is given through a step down transformer which steps down the voltage to be supplied to the diode. The output D.C. voltage is obtained across a load. (See figure).
A.C. to D.C. conversion
The stepdown voltage appears across secondary MN of the transformer. This becomes the A.C. input to the diode.
ÿ
When positive cycle of the A.C. input appears across the diode, i.e. the end M is positive and end N is negative, the diode becomes forward biased and is short circuited. As a result, the whole A.C. input of the positive cycle appears across the load.
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
When negative cycle of the supply appears, i.e., end M becomes negative and N positive. The diode is reverse biased and is open circuited. As a result, the whole A.C. input of the negative cycle appears across the diode and output across the load is zero.
Figure below shows wave form for A.C. input and D.C. output.
Efficiency of Half Wave Rectifiers
The ratio of D.C. power output across the load to the applied A.C. power input to the diode is known as “rectifier’s efficiency(h)”
i.e.
h =
D.C. power output
A.C. power input
Step 1 : D.C. power output
Let 

(i) 
voltage across secondary of the transformer be v = V _{m} sinq. 
(ii) 
resistance of diode = r _{f} (when forward biased). 
(iii) 
Load resistance R _{L} 
The instantaneous value of current through the circuit (see figure 11).
i =
v
=
V
m
sin q
r 
f 
+ 

Maximum current 
I 
^{m} 
= 
R _{L}
r
f
+
R
L
V
m
r
f
+
R
L
Hence i
=
I
m
sin
q
.
D.C. output power obtained across the load R _{L} = I _{d}_{c} ^{2} .R _{L} = I _{a}_{v} ^{2} .R _{L}
From the basic knowledge of electrical engineering we know that the DC or average value of a half retified wave is I _{m} /p.
i.e.
Hence output power = (I _{d}_{c} ) ^{2} .R _{L} = (I _{m} /p) ^{2} .R _{L}
I _{d}_{c} = I _{a}_{v} = I _{m} /p.
Step 2 : A.C. power input
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
Again, from the knowledge of electrical engineering, the Irms of a half rectified wave is given by
I _{r}_{m}_{s}
= I _{m} /2
Hence A.C. power input Pac = Irms ^{2} .(rf + RL) = (Im/2) ^{2} .(rf + RL)
Step 3 : Rectification efficiency
P
dc
P
ac
(I
m
/
p
(r
2
+
R
4I 
2 m 
.R 
L 
= 
4 
R 
L 
0.406R = 
L 

. 
p 
2 
I 
2 m 
(r 
f 
+ 
R 
L 
) 
p 
2 
. 
(r 
f 
+ 
R 
L 
) 
r f 
+ 
R L 

0.406R L 
= 0.406 
= 40.6% 
L
)
h =
R
L
)
.R
L
h =
=
(I
m
/ 2)
2
f
If diode resistance rf may be neglected then
Example
An A.C. supply of 230 V is applied to a halfwave rectifier circuit through a transformer of term ratio 10:1. Assuming the diode resistance as 10 W and the load as 800 W, calculate :
(i) 
I _{m} , I _{d}_{c} , I _{r}_{m}_{s} 
(ii) 
D.C. power output 
(iii) 
A.C. power input 
(iv) 
Efficiency of rectification 
(v) 
D.C. output voltage 
(vi) 
P.I.V. 
(vii) 
Frequency of D.C. output voltage 
Solution
See figure.
RMS value of the voltage that appeared across the secondary
V = (N _{2} /N _{1} ) x V _{1} = (1/10) x 230 = 23 V
Maximum value of applied voltage across the diode
Now,
mA
Vm = ÷ 2. V = ÷2. 23 = 32.53 V.
I _{m}
=
V _{m} /(r _{f} + R _{L} ) = 32.53/(10 + 800) = 40.16
Idc = Iav = Im /p = 40.16/p = 12.79 mA
I _{r}_{m}_{s} = I _{m} /2 = 40.16/2 = 20.08 mA
D.C. power output
P _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} ^{2} .R _{L} = (12.79 x 10 ^{}^{3} ) ^{2} x 800 W
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
= (0.01279) ^{2} x 800 x 1000 mW.
A.C. power input
P A.C. = I rms ^{2} .(r f + R L )
= (20.08 x 10 ^{}^{3} ) ^{2} .(10 + 800) x 10 ^{3} mW
= 325.3 mW
Rectification efficiency
h = P _{d}_{c}_{/}_{P} _{a}_{c} = 130/325.3 = 39.9 %
D.C. output voltage
V _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = R _{L} .I _{D}_{.}_{C} = 800 x (12.79 x 10 ^{}^{3} )
= 10.23 volts
P.I.V.
Vm =32.53 V.
In half wave rectification, there is only one output pulse for each complete cycle of the input A.C. voltage. Therefore, frequency of D.C. output is same as that of the A.C. input, i.e. 50 Hz. See figure.
FULL WAVE(F.W.) RECTIFIERS
In these circuits more than one diode is used. This enables the circuit to possess both the cycles of the A.C. supply. During both the cycles, current flows through the load in the same direction.
Centre Tap F.W. Rectifier
The circuit uses a stepdown transformer with the centre tapped secondary. In addition to this, two diodes are connected as shown in figure (a). One diode processes positive half cycle and the other negative half cycle.
During positive half cycle of the A.C. supply, diode D _{1} is forward biased as the end A is positive and B negative. This makes diode D _{1} forward biased and D _{2} reverse biased. As a result current flows through the diode D _{1} and through the load R _{L} as shown by arrows. The load D2 does not conduct during this period.
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
(a)
(b)
During negative cycle, end B becomes positive and A negative. This makes D2 forward biased and D _{1} reverse biased. The D _{2} conducts and current flows through D _{2} and load R _{L} as shown by arrows. The diode D _{1} does not conduct during this period. It can be seen that the current in both the cases flows through RL from S to K, hence we get a unidirectional(direct) current. Figure (b) shows the wave form for A.C. input and D.C. output.
F.W. Bridge Rectifier
As already mentioned, in the case of centre tap and rectifier circuit, it is difficult to locate D.C. correctly the centre point on the secondary of the transformer, and this may give distortion in the rectified D.C. output. Moreover, PIV value is also high in C.T. rectifier circuit. These drawbacks have been eliminated in bridge rectifier which employs 4 diodes.
(a)
(b, c)waveform (A.C.áD.C.)
By using 4 diodes, its output is twice that of the C.T. circuit for the same secondary voltage. As shown in the Figure (a), the load R _{L} is connected between the two ends P and R, the arrangement gives it the shape of the bridge hence the name.
During positive half cycle of the secondary voltage, the end A of the secondary becomes positive and B becomes negative. As a result the diodes D1 and D3 become forward biased which conduct. The direction of current is shown by solid arrows, i.e. AQPRSBA.
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
During the negative cycle, the end A, becomes negative and B becomes positive. The diodes
D _{2} and
BSPRQAB.
It can be seen that current in both the cases flow through R _{L} from S to K. Hence we get a unidirectional(direct) current. Figure (b and c) shows waveform for A.C. input and D.C. output, respectively.
D _{4} become forward biased and conduct in the direction shown by dotted arrows, i.e.
Efficiency of an F.W. Rectifier
Recall that the ratio of the output D.C. power to the input A.C. power is called the efficiency of rectification.
Let the A.C. voltage to be rectified be given by the equation
v 
= 
V _{m} sinq (secondary voltage) 
v 
= instantaneous voltage 
where forward resistance of diode = r _{f} and load resistance = R _{L} .
Now the instantaneous value of current is given by
i =
v
r
f
+
R _{L}
=
V
m
sin q
r
f
+
R
L
D.C. output power. From the basic knowledge of electrical engineering, the average current (I _{D}_{C} ) of a full rectified wave is given by :
I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = 2 I _{m} /p, where I _{m} is the maximum value of current.
Hence D.C. power output P _{D}_{C} = I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} ^{2} .R _{L} = (2I _{m} /p) ^{2} .R _{L} (i)
A.C. input power. Again from the basic knowledge of electrical engineering, we know that for FW rectified wave,
I _{r}_{m}_{s} = I _{m} /÷2
Hence A.C. input power,
PAC = (Irms) ^{2} .(rf + RL) = (Im/÷ 2) ^{2} (rf + RL)
Efficiency
h = P D.C. / P A.C. =
(2I
m /
p
)
2 .R
L
(I
m /
2)
2
(r
f
+ R
L
)
=
0.812 R
L
r
f
+
R
L
(ii)
The efficiency will be maximum, if diode resistance r _{f} is negligible.
i.e. 
h = 
Example 
0.812 R
L
R
L
= 0.812 = 81.2 %
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
Figure (a,b) shows C.T. and bridge rectifier circuits having the same load and transformer turn ratio. The primary of each is connected to 230 V– 50 Hz supply. Find in each case : (a) D.C. voltage output (b) Frequency of D.C. output.
Solution
Given that N _{1} /N _{2} = 10/1
Primary voltage = 230 V (rms)
The secondary voltage = 230/10 = 23 V(rms)
Maximum secondary voltage = 23 x ÷ 2 = 32.43 V
V _{m} across half secondary
V _{m} = 32.43/2 = 16.21 V
I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = 2 V _{m} /p.R _{L} [diodes are ideal, r _{f} = 0] = 2 x 16.21/(px200) = 0.05 ^{2} A
D.C. output voltage
V _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.}
.R _{L} = 0.052 x 200 = 50.4 V
PIV = 2 V _{m} = 2 x 16.21 = 32.43 V
Rectification efficiency h = 0.813 R _{L} /(r _{f} + R _{L} ) = 0.813 x 200/200 (as r _{f} = 0) = 81.2 %
I _{D}_{.}_{C} = 2V _{m} /p.R _{L} ,
[ rf = 0, since diodes are real]
Hence D.C. output voltage = V _{D}_{C} = I
_{D}_{.}_{C}_{.}
.R _{L} = (2V _{m} /p .R _{L} )R _{L}
= 2V _{m}_{/}_{p} = 2 x 16.21 /3.14 = 10.32 V
Bridge Circuit
Maximum voltage across secondary
V _{m} = 32.43 V
D.C. output voltage
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AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
.R _{L} = (2V _{m} /pR _{L} )R _{L} = 2V _{m} /p = 2 x 32.43/3.14 = _{2}_{0}_{.}_{6}_{5} _{V}
In F.W. rectification, there are two output cycles for each complete cycle of the input A.C. voltage; hence output frequency of D.C. voltage will be double that of the A.C. voltage = 50 x 2 = 100 Hz.
This is true whether the circuit is a C.T. or a bridge type.
I
_{D}_{.}_{C}_{.}
RIPPLE FACTOR
The output of a rectifier (Figure) as mentioned already is not pure but contains D.C. as well as A.C. components. The A.C. components are responsible for pulsations in the wave. These A.C. components are called ripples.
The ratio of RMS value of A.C. components in the rectifier output is called ripple factor (R.F.)
Ripple factor = A.C. Components/D.C. Components = I _{A}_{.}_{C}_{.} /I
If I _{A}_{.}_{C}_{.} is more than I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} , clearly ripple factor is more than 1; in other words, the output is
more of A.C. nature than D.C
For proper functioning, electronic devices require pure D.C. The ripples are undesirable and they badly affect their performance.
The frequency of ripples in D.C. output is as follows:
Inversely, the lesser the I _{A}_{.}_{C}_{.}_{,} the more pure is the D.C. output.
(i) 
In case of H.W. rectifier output, this is the same as the frequency of supply mains. 
(ii) 
In case of F.W. rectifier output, this is double that of the frequency of supply mains. 
i.e. if supply frequency is f, the frequency of H.W. rectifier output is also f, whereas the frequency of F.W. rectifier output is 2f.
Mathematical Analysis
By definition the rms value of total current is given by
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_{8}
Hence ripple factor =
AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
Now (I) For H.W. rectification
We know that I _{r}_{m}_{s} = I _{m} /2 and I _{D}_{.}_{C}_{.} = I _{m} /p
Ripple factor =
=1.21
As can be seen Ripple factor is more than 1, H.W. rectification is quite ineffective.
(iii) For F.W. Rectification
Ripple factor =
=
2
I
m
/p
If Ripple factor is less than 1, it shows that F.W. rectification is more effective than H.W. rectification.
Example
The load resistance of a centre tapped full wave rectifier, is 500 ohms and the necessary voltage (end to end) is 60 sin(100pt). Calculate (I) the peak, average and rms values of current (ii) ripple factor and (iii) efficiency of the rectifier. Each diodes has an idealised IV characteristics having slope corresponding to a resistance of 50 ohms.
Solution
Load resistance R _{L} = 500 _{W}
Output voltage VL = 60 sin(100p t)
Rf = 50 W
(i) 
Peak current I _{m} = V _{m} /(R _{f} + R _{L} ) = 60/(50 + 500) = 0.109 A 

Average cur rent = 2I _{m} /p = 0.0695 A 

RMS value of current = I _{m} /÷2 = 0.077 A 

(ii) 
Ripple factor 
r = 
2
Ê I
ˆ
Á
rms
˜
Á
˜
I
Ë
¯
dc

 
1 
= 
0.482 
(iii) 
Ratio of rectification is a measure of efficiency and is given by 
= DC power delivered to the load/AC input power from transformer secondary
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_{9}
AMIE(I) 
STUDY CIRCLE(REGD.) 

A 
Focused 
Approach 
=
I 2
m
p
2
R
L
I
m
2
4
(
R
f
+
R
L
)
=0.603/1.634 = 0.369
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_{1}_{0}
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