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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING ASSIGNMENT


BY WAQAS ALI TUNIO (07ME34)
SUBMITTED TO SIR ZAHEERUDDIN MEMON SAHAB
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

QUAID-E-AWAM UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, NAWABSHAH - PAKISTAN

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

COUPLING MAINTENANCE
When it comes to coupling maintenance attention to detail is the key. Depending on the style of coupling, putting in the extra time is crucial to getting maximum life and performance. Insert and elastomeric style couplings can be viewed with a strobe and require little maintenance, if any. However, grid and gear in addition to spool types may need a little extra attention. If a coupling is only lubricated and not parted, things may get worse. When conducting coupling maintenance it is necessary to partially disassembled in order to remove as much of the old lubricant as possible. Inspect the components for signs of wear, looking for indications of improperly aligned equipment. Pre-lube the sliding surfaces of the coupling, ensure that components have the required freedom of movement prior to reassembly. Proceed with manufactures recommendations on lubrication of a new coupling. By following this routine you may extend the life of your couplings and increase reliability. Coupling maintenance is generally a simple matter, requiring a regularly scheduled inspection of each coupling. It consists of:

environments or in demanding operating conditions.

Documenting the maintenance performed on each coupling, along with the date.

Even with proper maintenance, however, couplings can fail. Underlying reasons for failure, other than maintenance, include:

Improper installation Poor coupling selection Operation beyond design capabilities.

The only way to improve coupling life is to understand what caused the failure and to correct it prior to installing a new coupling. Some external signs that indicate potential coupling failure include:

Abnormal noise, such as screeching, squealing or chattering Excessive vibration or wobble Failed seals indicated by lubricant leakage or contamination.

Performing visual inspections, checking for signs of wear or fatigue, and cleaning couplings regularly. Checking and changing lubricant regularly if the coupling is lubricated. This maintenance is required annually for most couplings and more frequently for couplings in adverse

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

CLUTCH MAINTENANCE
Clutches are prone to routine beatings and need to be checked and maintained on a regular basis. Clutch parts wear at different rates depending on the riders style and riding conditions. Here are a few basic tips that anyone with a torque wrench can easily handle. 1. Lets look under the hood: Start by either draining the engine oil, or laying the bike on its side (if you prefer to change the oil after working on the clutch). Drop the rear brake pedal by removing the screw holding it in place. Remove the clutch cover bolts and pop the clutch cover off. Careful not to damage the gasket. 2. Remove the center clutch screws and springs. You can now remove the pressure plate and access all the clutch fibers and drive plates. 3. Inspect the clutch fibers and drive plates. The service manual will give you minimum thickness specifications. If the plates are black and visibly shot, play it safe and replace them. The steel drive plates can warp when overheated. Inspect them for warp age by laying them on a flat surface such as a piece of glass. 4. Inspect the clutch basket for notches on the sides of the tangs. A well maintained basket should have smooth tangs. Notched tangs inhibit smooth clutch operation and can keep the clutch from functioning properly. The die cast aluminum baskets wear easily. Investing in a good aftermarket clutch basket will improve clutch feel, extend basket life, and improve oil flow through the clutch. Forgings are tougher and lighter than billet parts due to grain flow in the material that is aligned to the features of the part.

5. Inspect the inner clutch for notches on the sides of the drive splines. Like the clutch basket, the inner clutch can become notched after time. If the drive splines are notched badly, replace the inner clutch. The OEM inner clutches are relatively inexpensive, but aftermarket inner clutches like the Hinson will offer the same benefits as an aftermarket clutch basket. 6. If either the clutch basket or the inner clutch need replaced, you will need to remove the center nut from the transmission shaft that holds the inner clutch in place. An impact wrench works best for removing this nut. However, if you dont have an impact wrench, you will need a special tool to hold the inner clutch while you remove and install the center nut. DO NOT jam something in-between the inner clutch screw bosses to try and hold it. They WILL break off. 7. Assemble the clutch by first putting the basket on the shaft. MAKE SURE it drops down onto the shaft all the way. There are 2-3 gears that have to line up with the back of the clutch basket, so make sure everything meshes and the basket drops all the way onto the shaft. A splined washer goes on next, and then the inner clutch hub. The retainer washer goes on after the inner clutch, and finally the retainer nut.

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

While holding the inner clutch with the special holding tool, torque the center nut according to the torque spec in the service manual. (I usually snug the nut back on with the impact wrench, but this is NOT recommended, as you run the risk of over torquing and stripping the nut/shaft.) 8. Soak the new clutch plates in oil and then install them into the clutch. Always start with a fiber, and then alternate steel, fiber, steel, fiber, until you end with the last fiber. The clutch plates should stack up to about the same height as the top of the clutch basket. 9. Return the lifting post to its proper location in the end of the transmission shaft. Then install the pressure plate, followed by the clutch springs and bolts. Torque the spring bolts to the proper specification. 10. Install the clutch cover and torque the bolts to the proper spec. Lastly, install the brake pedal. 11. Ensuring the clutch cable is adjusted properly can have a large effect on the life span and operation of the clutch. The general rule is a nickels worth of play at the lever. Maintaining a clutch is not very complicated, but can have huge benefits to ensuring your ride or race is fun and trouble free. Torquing all the bolts according to the specs in the service manual is the most important step. Buy a good torque wrench and go for it!

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS


BATTERY MAINTENANCE Battery Maintenance is an important issue. The battery should be clean. Cable connection needs to be clean and tightened. Many battery problems are caused by dirty and loose connections. Serviceable battery needs to have the fluid level checked regularly and only at a full charge. The fluid level will always be higher at a full charge. Distilled water is best; tap water is loaded with chemicals and minerals that are harmful to your battery, but not as bad as any water. Don't overfill battery cells especially in warmer weather. The natural fluid expansion in hot weather will push excess electrolytes from the battery. To prevent corrosion of cables on top post batteries, use a small bead of silicon sealer at the base of the post and place a felt battery washer over it. Coat the washer with high temperature grease or petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Then place cable on post and tighten, coat the exposed cable end with the grease. Most folks don't know that just the gases from the battery condensing on metal parts cause most corrosion. The quickest way to ruin lead-acid batteries is to discharge them deeply and leave them stand "dead" for an extended period of time. When

they discharge, there is a chemical change in the positive plates of the battery. They change from lead oxide when charged to lead sulfate when discharged. If they remain in the lead sulfate state for a few days, some part of the plate does not return to lead oxide when the battery is recharged. If the battery remains discharged longer, a greater amount of the positive plate will remain lead sulfate. The parts of the plates that become "sulfated" no longer store energy. Batteries that are deeply discharged, and then charged partially on a regular basis can fail in less than one year. Check your batteries on a regular basis to be sure they are getting charged. Use a hydrometer to check the specific gravity of your lead acid batteries. If batteries are cycled very deeply and then recharged quickly, the specific gravity reading will be lower than it should because the electrolyte at the top of the battery may not have mixed with the "charged" electrolyte. Check the electrolyte level in wetcell batteries at least four times a year and top each cell off with distilled water. Do not add water to discharged batteries. Electrolyte is absorbed when batteries are much discharged. If you add water at this time, and then recharge the battery, electrolyte will overflow and make a mess. Keep the tops of your batteries clean and check that cables are tight. Do not tighten or remove cables while charging or discharging. Any spark around batteries can cause a hydrogen explosion inside, and ruin one of the cells, and you. It is a good idea to do an equalizing charge when some cells show a variation of 0.05 specific gravity from each other. This is a long steady overcharge, bringing the battery to a gassing or bubbling state. Do not equalize sealed or gel type batteries. With proper care, lead-acid batteries will have a

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

long service life and work very well in almost any power system. Unfortunately, with poor treatment lead-acid battery life will be very short.

An effective motor maintenance program boosts productivity, reduces unnecessary downtime, maximizes motor efficiency, and saves dollars. is harmful.

FACTORS AFFECTING BATTERY LIFE


OVERCHARGING

NEGLIGENCE IN WATER TOP-UP

It severely corrodes positive plate grids which weaken and finally disintegrate. Overcharging decomposes electrolyte into hydrogen and oxygen which causes excessive concentration of the electrolyte because of loss of water from the mixture of the battery fluid. This damages the plates and separators. High temperatures also show adverse effects on plates, separators and container. Excessive gassing creates the possibility of the active metal blowing away from the plate surface and fine acid spray escaping from the battery.
UNDERCHARGING

The concentration of the acid increases due to less amount of water and so damages are borne by the plates and separators. The plate areas above the electrolyte level get hard and lose capacity.

Perpetual undercharging results in sulphation of plates and running down of cells. Sulphate deposits are also seen on cell separators, which leak through and create short circuits between positive and negative plates. Undercharging also leads to buckling of plates.
IDLE BATTERY

If left idle and self-discharge takes place, sulphation is observed on battery terminals. Sulphation of the battery kills battery life sooner than normal.
HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY

High SG destroys positive and negative plates and also reduces battery life.
IMPURE WATER TOP -UP

Impure water introduces impurities in the battery every time it is added. Iron and chlorine attack the plates causing to shorten their overall life. Chlorine bleaches separators which

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

MAINTENANCE FOR MOTOR


Unscheduled downtime in modern plant operations results in high costs and possible loss of business. That's why a well-planned preventive maintenance program is key to dependable, long-life motor operation. However, a preventative maintenance program for motors won't work if you don't have the proper test equipment, tools, and training for the process. When developing a plan, consider the equipment you'll need, and allow adequate time for performing inspections and maintaining accurate records. A variety of maintenance methods may apply for each type of motor, controller, or related equipment in your facility. You should choose the best methods for your facility and then determine how best to apply those methods. For example, consider whether you should check for possible bearing trouble on a motor by feeling components for high temperature and listening for unusual sounds, or installing temperature-monitoring devices and making inspections using a stethoscope or an infrared scanner. The following presents basic guidelines to follow when implementing an effective motor maintenance program. MOTOR MAINTENANCE Lubricate regularly according to manufacturer's instructions. On sleeve bearings and other oillubricated machines, check oil reservoirs on a regular basis. For example, in poor environments, change oil at least once a month. Never over-lubricate; excess grease or oil gets into windings and deteriorates insulation. Be sure to use only the lubricant specified for the machine in question. However, check into the possibility of using modern lubricants, which have excellent life and lubricating qualities.

On essential motors, or those you frequently duty cycle, check bearings daily (or at least weekly) using a stethoscope, infrared scanner, or vibration analyzer. Check bearing surface temperature with a thermometer, electronic temperature sensing device, or stick-on temperature indicating labels. Compare the temperature of hot bearings with the temperature of normally operating bearings. Check oil rings and keep an eye on excessive endplay. Check air gap between the rotor and stator with feeler gages at least annually. Make the measurements at the top, bottom, and both sides of the stator. Differences in readings obtained from year-to-year indicate bearing wear. CHECK BELT TENSION Belts should have about 1 in. of play. Be sure to firmly seat sheaves with little or no play. Couplings should be tight within tolerances, and should operate without excessive noise. You should make an alignment check on all motor gensets and motor-load couplings when you suspect trouble. Inspect brushes and commutators of DC motors for excessive wear. Be sure all brushes are of the proper type, hardness, and conductivity and that they fit properly in brush holders. Check spring pressure of brush holders with a small scale. In most instances, pressure should be 2 to 2.5 lb/sq in. of brush cross-sectional area. Call manufacturers or a service company to solve

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

recurring problems of brush chatter, excessive brush wear, sparking, streaking, or threading of commutator. Check mounting of motors regularly. Inspect mounting bolts and steel base plates for possible warping and concrete base plates for cracking or spalling. Annually, perform vibration analysis tests. Excessive vibration may be hard to detect by hand; but it could be enough to shorten motor life significantly. You can accomplish field vibration analysis with portable instruments that identify vibrations and display their amplitudes and frequencies. Then, you can identify and correct the source of the problem. Keep the motor clean and cool. In dirty operating environments, blow out dirt with dry compressed air (no more than 50 lb) as often as needed. In high-temperature locations where high reliability is a priority, consider the use of oversized motors. Excessive ambient temperatures will shorten motor life. Pull and disassemble important motors during summer/holiday shutdowns for a thorough inspection, testing, cleaning, check of bearings, couplings or accessories, or complete reconditioning. KEEP ACCURATE RECORDS Perform annual insulation-resistance tests and other appropriate test. You should also visually inspect important motors, as well as perform voltage and current checks. Record and compare all values each year. The trend of the readings indicates the condition of the motor and offers a guide to its reliability. Motor control maintenance. Keep control equipment clean. In dirty operating environments, blow out dirt weekly, otherwise a quarterly or semiannual cleaning should be adequate. Check operation of contactors and relays by hand, feeling for any binding or sticking. Moving parts should operate without excessive friction. Look for loose pins, bolts, or bearings. If the control is dirty, wipe or blow it clean.

Check contacts for pitting, and signs of overheating such as discoloration of metal or charred insulation. Make sure contact pressure is adequate (see the manufacturer's specifications) and is the same on all poles. Watch for frayed flexible leads. On essential controls, perform contactresistance tests with a low-resistance ohmmeter on a regular basis. Proper contact resistance should be about 50 micro-ohms. Record the readings for future comparison to identify trends. Inspect, clean, and check overload relays for proper setting. In general, maintenance requirements for these relays include checking that: the rating or trip setting takes into account ambient temperature as well as the higher inrush currents of modern, energy-efficient motors; contacts are clean and free from oxidation; the relay will operate dependably when needed. To ensure reliable operation, test and calibrate relays every one to three years. You can use special equipment to perform these tests, such as OL-relay testers.

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS
MAINTENANCE TRAINING
MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR TRAINING SHOULD INCLUDE LEADERSHIP AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE STAFF MANAGEMENT.

SKILLS 1. General maintenance supervisors must have broad technical repair knowledge. Abilities vary by field, but can include carpentry, parts fabrication, masonry, welding and wiring. Maintenance supervisors must also know how to read blueprints, diagrams or schematics. They need to use time management techniques to coordinate a maintenance schedule and management skills to effectively lead the repair staff, including communication and conflict mediation. Some companies may require maintenance managers to develop and maintain a budget that considers supply and labor costs. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING

Aviation companies, educational facilities, local governments and commercial property owners often hire maintenance supervisors to oversee their repair departments. Maintenance supervisors direct staff in the maintenance of buildings, equipment and vehicles, including the installation and repair of cooling, electrical, heating, plumbing and other related mechanical systems. In addition to the technical and safety requirements, maintenance supervisor training should include accounting, budgeting, marketing and human resource management.

2. Many maintenance supervisors advance to their position by first working entry level maintenance jobs. There they learn the technical skills necessary to advance to a management position. Entry-level maintenance workers learn troubleshooting techniques, maintenance routines and tool usage. This training gives workers the underlying mechanical and procedural knowledge necessary for a maintenance supervisor position. SCHOOLS 3. Technical schools and community colleges offer training in repair and maintenance techniques. While a degree is not required for a maintenance position, an associate's degree or education certificate such as the Industrial Maintenance Technician Certificate from Marion Technical College will help a candidate's credibility. Formal courses in business practices, particularly accounting, leadership and human resources, may be required for a maintenance supervisor position. Colleges and universities often offer these business classes afterhours

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

and at a discounted rate for nontraditional students. CERTIFICATES 4. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, certification through the International Management Institute (IMI) may increase advancement opportunities for maintenance supervisors and workers. The IMI offers the highest industry standard certification, the Certified Maintenance Manager. Certification coursework covers technical skills along with mathematics and troubleshooting. CONTINUING EDUCATION 5. Organizations such as the IMI, the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals (SMRP) and the Association for Maintenance Professionals (AMP) offer workshops and conferences for advanced maintenance supervisor training. SMRP workshop topics include business management, manufacturing process reliability, equipment reliability, people skills and work management.

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES
INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY One of the most straightforward ways to cut carbon is to improve energy efficiency. The idea may be blindingly obvious the lower your consumption, the smaller your emissions but as one Inner Mongolian coal mining operation recently demonstrated, it is also highly effective. The upshot of this is lower fuel usage and significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions, along with smaller maintenance and repair costs and less spillage on the haul roads. GREEN OPTIONS Ever since the diesel engine rose to prominence in the mining industry, emissions have been the focus of some concern, though initially most of these were more about particulates and their effect on industrial health than the environment. More recently, contemporary concerns on issues of pollution and fossil carbon release have encouraged many mining companies to examine diesel usage and explore the potential of a range of alternative fuels. For coal mines at least, however, it is the growing trend towards gas-fired cogeneration that perhaps holds the most immediate potential. Not only can cogeneration provide on-site heat and power but it also helps minimize the obvious explosion danger and the more insidious

environmental threat posed by releasing methane to the atmosphere a gas with more than 20 times the greenhouse potential of CO2. Such results highlight the importance of a full lifecycle assessment to identify such specific hot spots, if any emission reduction is going to stand a chance of being meaningful. With much of mining and mineral processing predicted to face the specter of future increases in greenhouse gas emissions as ore grades fall, knowing where to channel your efforts and where emerging technologies can help will inevitably become increasingly vital. CARBON INNOVATION The mining industry is no stranger to technological innovation. Developments in catalysts and other advanced diesel engine technologies will, for instance, undoubtedly offer carbon-savings for loading and hauling applications, while the new generation of high-pressure rolls and stirred mills will do the same for grinding operations. A whole innovative wave of upgrades, improvements and energy efficiencies await their role in the future of carbon-compliant mining but on the global stage it is perhaps with carbon capture and storage that the industry may be best placed to take a major lead. Described by the Australian Coal Association as "one of the most promising long-term solutions for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions," the underlying idea behind carbon capture and storage could hardly be simpler: capture the CO2 from coal-fired power plants and other large, fixed sources, transport it somewhere safe and then store it deep underground permanently.

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

SUGGESTIONS

and then speak, something which has helped in lot of ways. The teacher encouraged sharing personal industrial experiences, which was also very Apart from that I used to match the topics demanded me to express the real-time industrial experiences that I have had during my three internships at TSML, FFBL and BOPL respectively, even that proved very handy. AREA OF IMPROVEMENT STUDENT INTERRUPTION SHOULD BE STOPPED Only thing which I observed in all four subjects of Sir Zaheeruddin Memon Sahab was that when any student is speaking, the so-called good students used to interrupt at small intervals, disturbing the tempo and mind-set of the student speaking and trying to degrade him. Everyone had the chance to speak, if someone finished then other student should have been allowed, and those who interrupt should have been strictly dealt, else those who spoke everyday will try not to speak, as foul practice of disturbing was always on. My personal experience was that whenever I spoke, few selected guys used to disturb, the only reason what I can see was that they were unable to digest the facts which I exposed in class, beyond their level of thinking and little knowledge, and mostly my points proved their statements wrong in-front of the whole class, so the only thing they could do was to disturb me by various means, and they were not compelled by the teacher to remain silent. Result was that I was always made to deviate from the real point. In future, at least this practice should be STOPPED and everyone should be given fair chance.

Alhamdulillah, the course syllable is very balanced covering all possible major topics, also teaching methodology, but as nothing is perfect and theres always room for improvement, so following areas may be of improvement, which I observed during the class. CURRICULAR Alhamdulillah the curricular taught was very much balanced and general, giving in-depth knowledge of the subject. Possible suggestion could be that ChainSprocket topics should not be taught generally, rather make them specific. When the term Chain-Sprocket was pronounced, most of guys used to limit it to one bicycle only. Advanced and overall applications of that power transmission system may be first taught in detail. TEACHING Alhamdulillah, the teaching methodology has been truly exceptional, to me at least. This was the only subject where every student was more than involved and class discussion has been a real confidence booster. Honestly speaking, I have benefitted from class discussion a lot for which I am very thankful to Sir Zaheeruddin Memon Sahab for providing such a conducive learning environment. I gained the confidence to speak with my natural LOUD vocals in class, and thats why I will always cherish all four subjects which he taught, the reason was that such class discussion compelled to brainstorm

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Maintenance Engineering Assignment By Waqas Ali Tunio

WHY TO PROVE WRONG POINTS MADE BY OTHERS? Discussion should be on the topic, rather than if a student makes an statement and then the teacher turns to other student and ask him to prove the statement of the first student, so that was more than harsh, because what I saw that mostly guys never knew of what is happening in the industrial backyards, and then other was made to prove a wrong point which an student made earlier. One example from my personal experience Once, a student said that theres no need of lubrication between Bearing and the Shaft. So, when I stood up, I told that lubrication between bearing and shaft in very critical, and its the key to reliable operation of the shaft, the teacher said that the other student has claimed that theres no need of lubrication. I straightforwardly said that why should I start proving wrong points made by others? Moreover I said that such students in-order to show off in class are making wrong points, and if they continue doing that, same theyll do in field, ultimately defaming the image of the university. In fact, the teacher should himself indicate at the very moment when any wrong point is made, otherwise if the class discussion stops without its clarification, therell be students wholl consider wrong points to be right.

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