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Company incorporation


Business enterprises can be broadly divided into two categories, namely, one which is
unincorporated and the other which is incorporated. The basic difference between the incorporated
and the un-incorporated form of organisation is that while an un-incorporated form of business may
be started without registration, corporate form of organisations cannot be set up without
registration under the laws which govern their functioning. Company form of organization is the
most popular form of corporate organization.

Formation of company is a process which results in incorporation of a company. In all jurisdictions,

company laws deals with fine details related to incorporation, objects, legal compliances, merger
amalgamation and winding up of companies. In India, we presently have the Companies Act, 2013 to
govern companies in India. We will discuss procedural part of formation of the company up to
incorporation in this book.


Company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous company
law; [Section 2(20)]
Following are the types of companies
1. Company limited by shares
a. One person company
b. Private company
c. Public company
2. Company limited by guarantee
3. An unlimited company


means a person—

(a) who has been named as such in a prospectus or is identified by the company in the
annual return referred to in section 92; or

(b) who has control over the affairs of the company, directly or indirectly whether as a
shareholder, director or otherwise; or

(c) in accordance with whose advice, directions or instructions the Board of Directors of the
company is accustomed to act: Provided that nothing in sub-clause (c) shall apply to a
person who is acting merely in a professional capacity.

in relation to a company, means—

(i) the subscriber to the memorandum of the company who shall be deemed to have agreed
to become member of the company, and on its registration, shall be entered as member in
its register of members; (ii) every other person who agrees in writing to become a member
of the company and whose name is entered in the register of members of the company; (iii)
every person holding shares of the company and whose name is entered as a beneficial
owner in the records of a depository.

The Companies Act, 2013 provides for the kinds of companies that can be promoted and
registered under the Act.

Formation of Company:

Section 3(1) of the Companies Act 2013 states that a company may be formed for any lawful
purpose by—

(a) seven or more persons, where the company to be formed is to be a public company;

(b) two or more persons, where the company to be formed is to be a private company; or

(c) one person, where the company to be formed is to be One Person Company that is to
say, a private company, by subscribing their names or his name to a memorandum and
complying with the requirements of this Act in respect of registration.

Memorandum of Association

The Memorandum of Association is a document which sets out the constitution of a

company and is therefore the foundation on which the structure of the company is built. It
defines the scope of the company’s activities and its relations with the outside world. The
Memorandum of Association is the charter of a company. It is a document, which amongst
other things, defines the area within which the company can operate.

Articles of association

In terms of section 5(1), the articles of a company shall contain the regulations for
management of the company. The articles of association of a company are its bye-laws or
rules and regulations that govern the management of its internal affairs and the conduct of
its business. The articles play a very important role in the affairs of a company. It deals with
the rights of the members of the company inter se. They are subordinate to and are
controlled by the memorandum of association.
Incorporation of a Company

Section 7(1) provides that at the time of incorporation of a company there shall be filed
with the Registrar within whose jurisdiction the registered office of a company is proposed
to be situated, the following documents and information for registration, namely:—

(a) the memorandum and articles of the company duly signed by all the subscribers to the
memorandum in such manner as may be prescribed;

(b) a declaration in the prescribed form by an advocate, a chartered accountant, cost

accountant or company secretary in practice, who is engaged in the formation of the
company, and by a person named in the articles as a director, manager or secretary of the
company, that all the requirements of this Act and the rules made there under in respect of
registration and matters precedent or incidental thereto have been complied with;

(c) an affidavit from each of the subscribers to the memorandum and from persons named
as the first directors, if any, in the articles that he is not convicted of any offence in
connection with the promotion, formation or management of any company, or that he has
not been found guilty of any fraud or misfeasance or of any breach of duty to any company
under this Act or any previous company law during the preceding five years and that all the
documents filed with the Registrar for registration of the company contain information that
is correct and complete and true to the best of his knowledge and belief;

(d) the address for correspondence till its registered office is established;

(e) the particulars of name, including surname or family name, residential address,
nationality and such other particulars of every subscriber to the memorandum along with
proof of identity, as may be prescribed, and in the case of a subscriber being a body
corporate, such particulars as may be prescribed;

(f) the particulars of the persons mentioned in the articles as the first directors of he
company, their names, including surnames or family names, the Director Identification
Number, residential address, nationality and such other particulars including proof of
identity as may be prescribed; and

(g) the particulars of the interests of the persons mentioned in the articles as the first
directors of the company in other firms or bodies corporate along with their consent to act
as directors of the company in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

The Registrar on the basis of documents and information filed under sub-section (1) shall
register all the documents and information referred to in that subsection in the register and
issue a certificate of incorporation in the prescribed form to the effect that the proposed
company is incorporated under this Act.

On and from the date mentioned in the certificate of incorporation issued under sub-
section (2), the Registrar shall allot to the company a corporate identity number, which shall
be a distinct identity for the company and which shall also be included in the certificate. The
company shall maintain and preserve at its registered office copies of all documents and
information as originally filed under subsection (1) till its dissolution under this Act. If any
person furnishes any false or incorrect particulars of any information or suppresses any
material information, of which he is aware in any of the documents filed wit the Registrar in
relation to the registration of a company, he shall be liable for action under section 447.

The Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 deals with incorporation of companies in India.
Presently, there are two routes to incorporate companies in India:

A. Incorporation of companies through Integrated Incorporation E-Form i.e. e-Form INC –

29: To simplify and fast track the procedure for company registration in India, the
Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has introduced E-Form INC-29 – Integrated
Incorporation Form. E-Form INC-29 deals with the single application for reservation of
name, incorporation of a new company and/or application for allotment of DIN-thereby
significantly reducing the time taken to start a company in India. This e-Form is
accompanied by supporting documents including details of Directors & Subscribers, MoA
and AoA etc. Once the e-Form is processed and found complete, company would be
registered. Also DINs gets issued to the proposed Directors who do not have a valid DIN.
Maximum three Directors are allowed for using this integrated form for allotment of DIN
while incorporating a company.
B. Incorporation of companies through various stage wise forms

Portals for filing of e-forms for incorporation:

A. MCA 21 portal under Ministry of Corporate Affairs

B. B. E-BIZ portal under DIPP, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

 Obtain digital signature certificate for the proposed directors

 Obtain director identification number for the proposed directors
 Select suitable company name and make an application to the Ministry of corporate
Affairs for availability of name.
 Draft Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association