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Dire Dawa University

Institute of Technology
Department of Construction Technology and Management

Assessment of health and safety in the building construction sites of Ethiopia.

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree in master of construction
technology and management at Dire Dawa university, institute of technology, department of
construction technology and management.

By
Mukhtar Mohamed Saed

April 2020
Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
DECLARATION
I declare that this thesis proposal is my own, original work. Where someone else’s work was
used (whether from a printed source, the Internet or any other source) due acknowledgement was
given and reference was made according to departmental requirements, also it’s not been used
another students’ work whether from Dire Dawa university or any other universities.

Candidate

Mukhtar Mohamed Saed


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of all, I would like to thank almighty ALLAH for giving me this opportunity to learn master
program and ability to learn.

My deepest appreciate is to my cousin Kader Ahmed, who make possible to continue my MS


program and without him I can’t to do anything he was helping me financial and morally.

I also like to thank my teacher, adviser Prof. Emer Tucay Quezon, for his vigorous and tireless
effort to teach me and giving me a guidance till I have done my work.
ABSTRACT
A building construction site has many unsafe and dangerous factors such as an elevator pit, a slab
opening for lifting forms and materials. Accidents happen unpredictably though warning and
caution signs for the dangerous factors provide safe working environment to workers.
In this proposal it will be discussed causes of accidents in construction sites, assessed level of
health and safety in Ethiopian construction sites, will be suggested also the effective ways of
mitigating accidents and hazards of construction site, and finally recommendation about health
and safety.
Different literatures will be assessed to show that health and safety are a very important in the
successful construction project. Questionnaire and individual interview will be performed on
different workers, which will be selected form building construction companies in Ethiopia to
observe their awareness and how they deal with health and safety in their projects.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENTS page number

DECLARATION .......................................................................................................................... 2
ACKNOWLEDGMENT............................................................................................................... 3
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. 4
TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 7
1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 statement of Problem ........................................................................................................... 8
1.3 Objectives .......................................................................................................................... 10
1.3.1 General objectives ...................................................................................................... 10
1.3.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................................... 10
1.4 Research Questions ........................................................................................................... 10
1.5 Justification ....................................................................................................................... 11
1.6 scope .................................................................................................................................. 11
1.7 Significance of the study ................................................................................................... 11
1.8 Basic definitions: ............................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER TWO: RELATED LITERATURE .......................................................................... 13
2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 13
2.2 Related studies................................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Site health and safety in construction ................................................................................ 14
2.4 Construction health and safety responsibilities ................................................................. 14
2.5 Causes of accidents in construction .................................................................................. 15
2.6 Health and safety problems on construction sites ............................................................. 16
2.7 Construction Health &Safety Rules and Regulations ....................................................... 17
2.8 Construction health and safety rules in Ethiopia ............................................................... 17
2.9 Research conceptual frame work ...................................................................................... 18
2.10 SAFETY ANALYSIS BY MATERIAL LOCATION ................................................... 19
2.10.1 Material Stacking ...................................................................................................... 19
2.10.2 Visibility Ratio ......................................................................................................... 19
2.11 Summary of the literature review .................................................................................... 20
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................... 21
3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 21
3.2 Study area .......................................................................................................................... 21
3.3 Study period ...................................................................................................................... 21
3.4 Research design ................................................................................................................. 21
3.5 Sample Size and Selection ................................................................................................ 21
3.6 Population.......................................................................................................................... 22
3.7 data collection ................................................................................................................... 22
3.8 Study variables .................................................................................................................. 22
3.8.1 Dependent Variable .................................................................................................... 22
3.8.2 Independent variables ................................................................................................. 22
3.9 Software and instruments .................................................................................................. 22
3.10 Ethical Consideration ...................................................................................................... 22
3.11 Plan for Dissemination .................................................................................................... 23
WORK SCHEDULE /PLAN AND BUDGET ........................................................................... 24
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Construction is a vast and an active sector, which is a backbone of the world’s economy in general
and Ethiopia in particular; mobilizing an enormous amount of various resources and budgets and
embracing huge manpower by creating a large job opportunity.
On the other hand, Construction is widely regarded as an accident prone industry (as explained
in a study of 100 individual construction accidents by Haslam et al., 2005 and a textbook on
occupational health and safety in construction project management by Lingard and Rawlinson,
2005).
Construction is also a hazardous industry whether in developed or developing countries and
contributes to significant numbers of occupational accidents and ill health globally (Takala
1999).
The reasons construction is risky and prone to health and safety risks are because of the physical
environment of the work, nature of the construction work operations, construction methods,
construction materials, heavy equipment used, and physical properties of the construction project
itself (see a study on perceptions of 30 Latino American workers on construction risks by Menzel
and Gutierrez, 2010).
According to [Seifedin.s ,2014], the Safety of a construction is one of an essential component in
the processes of construction when it can have been preferred as a mitigation measurement before
an incidence occurring.
There are statutory instruments and legislative frameworks in many developed countries to
govern construction operations on site and help in minimizing health and safety hazards for
example, The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007/No. 320)
Regulations on Health and Safety in the UK construction industry. However, the characteristics
of construction in developing countries are not the same as characteristics of construction in
developed countries (as explained in characteristics of construction projects in developing
countries by Jaselskis and Talukhaba, 1998).
However, in all over Ethiopia, millions of daily laborers work in big constructions through unsafe
working environment and without supportive and protective equipment. They do not have
protective caps, hand gloves, eye glasses, working clothes, boots and others. They work on high
rise buildings standing on old and inclined wooden scaffolds and ladders; they even transport
heavy construction materials on them. Moreover, the constructions do not have safety nets,
restraint and fall arrest systems. As a result, a dozens of daily laborers get different serious
injuries. Many, in fact, lose their lives. Hence, the purpose of this research is that to assessment
of safety practice involving worker in building project in Ethiopia.

1.2 statement of Problem


A building constructions in the world are increasing day after a day, and these constructions
activities are mostly performed by manpower and machines. Once the building construction
increases their uncertainty also will increase if it’s not properly managed by construction
companies. This problem is globally studied by many researchers, according to KOSHA [3], the
number of workers and fatal injuries of all industries in 2011 is shown in Table 1. The fatal
injuries in the construction industry are 621 persons (29.38%) and they are very larger than those
of the mining industry (375 persons, 17.74%). FRTTY (number of a fatal rate per 10,000 workers
in a year) of the construction industry is 2.01, and it is larger than all industries (1.47) and
manufacturing (1.64). Table 2 shows fatal and non-fatal injuries in the construction industry.
Various types of safety accidents happened. Among them, the number of falls and drop (7,489
persons) is the highest, the second is slip and tip (4,191 persons), and the third is the flying object
(3,123 persons). The fatalities are 311 persons in fall and drop, 50 persons in a crush, and 33
persons in flying objects except for illness. Fall and drop accidents accounted for over 50% of
all fatalities.
Table 1: Fatalities in 2011
Industry No. of workers No. of fatalities FRITY Ratio
(persons) (persons) (%)
Construction 3 087 131 621 2.01 39.38%
Mining 12 088 375 310.23 17.74%
Manufacture 3 333 131 548 1.64 25.92%
Electricity, gas & water supply 54 759 4 0.73 0.19%
Transportation, storage and comm. 719 488 134 1.86 6.34%
Forestry 93 815 20 2.13 0.95%
Fishing 3 378 4 11.84 0.19%
Agriculture 40 017 9 2.25 0.43%
Financing & insurance 624 816 18 0.29 0.85%
Etc. 6 393 750 381 0.6 18.02%
Total 14 362 373 2114 1.47 100.00%
*FRITY : No. of fatal rate per 10,000 workers in a year

Table 2: Injuries/Fatalities and Accident Types in 2011


Type Injuries (persons) Ratio(%) Fatalities(persons) Ratio (%)
Fall and drop 7489 32.90% 311 50.00%
Slip and trip 4191 18.40% 32 5.20%
Collision 1971 8.70% 22 3.50%
Flying objects 3123 13.70% 33 5.30%
Crush 452 2.00% 50 8.10%
Impacted fracture 1856 8.10% 23 3.70%
Cut and puncture 1912 8.40% 1 0.20%
Electric shock 176 0.80% 22 3.50%
Explosion 49 0.20% 7 1.10%
Traffic accidents 222 1.00% 37 6.00%
Illness 595 2.60% 44 7.10%
Improper action 444 1.90% 0 0.00%
Etc. 302 1.30% 39 6.30%
Total 22782 100.00% 621 100.00%

Here in Ethiopian, the construction industries are increasing, and overall it takes ≈ 9% of GDP
registered remarkable average growth rate of 28.7% in the first growth and transformation plan
implementation years (GTP1, 2010-2015 national planning commission Ethiopia).
According to Addis-fortune journal [4], there is an article with the title (The Horror at Ethiopian
Construction Sites) which is published on nowadays may 26, 2019 (Poor occupational safety
situations in Ethiopia occur as a result of poor design of equipment and workstations, lack of
personal protective equipment and inadequate training of workers. Despite the statistical case for
emphasizing the problem, it remains neglected by employers and authorities who are mandated
to enforce workers’ rights. Taking a walk around Addis Ababa makes this evident.) However, in
most construction industry adequate measures for health and safety in the sites have not been put
in place and also various challenges are encountered in the management of health and safety.

1.3 Objectives
1.3.1 General objectives
The general objective of this research is to assess health and Safety in the building
construction sites of Ethiopia
1.3.2 Specific objectives
 To demonstrate kinds of hazard resulted during the working period within different
occasions.
 To examine health and safety problems in the building construction sites.
 To state effective ways of controlling health hazard.
 To identify the weaknesses and strengths of safety and health management in Ethiopia
construction sites.
 To identify ways of improving the safety and usage of specific Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE) to ensure their safety and health.

1.4 Research Questions


1. What are the kinds of hazards result from different activities of construction sites?
2. What are the factors that affects a safety practice in building construction sites of
Ethiopia?
3. How can health and safety measures in construction sites can be promoted?
4. What are effective ways of controlling health hazards?
5. what are health and safety problems which are mostly exist in construction sites of
Ethiopia?
1.5 Justification
This research is conducted to assess health and safety in building construction sites of Ethiopia
in general, it deeply focusing on how construction companies manage accidents which may arise
from construction site activities.
The target beneficiaries of this study will be
construction companies
clients
employee
contractors
society
government

1.6 scope
the study will focus on health and safety in building construction sites of Ethiopia both in public
and private buildings, workers in construction sites who are mostly susceptible to the risk.

1.7 Significance of the study


The findings of this study will help bring to the attention of the stakeholders in the building
construction industry and more so to the building construction firms the importance of
occupational health and safety culture in work places, in this case the construction sites.
The study also brings to light the fact that clients in a project do contribute significantly
towards the implementation of occupational health and safety measures in their building
projects when such requirements are included the tender documents.
The study will generally contribute to the body of knowledge in the subject of health and
safety in the building industry sector.
1.8 Basic definitions:
 Health – the protection of the bodies and minds of people from illness resulting from the
materials, processes or procedures used in the workplace.
 Safety – the protection of people from physical injury. The borderline between health and
safety is ill-defined and the two words are normally used together to indicate concern for
the physical and mental well-being of the individual at the place of work.
 Accident – defined by the Health and Safety Executive as ‘any unplanned event that results
in injury or ill health of people, or damage or loss to property, plant, materials or the
environment or a loss of a business opportunity’. Other authorities define an accident more
narrowly by excluding events that do not involve injury or ill-health. This book will always
use the Health and Safety Executive definition.
 Hazard and risk:
a hazard is the potential of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. Hazards take
many forms including, for example, chemicals, electricity and working from a ladder. A
hazard can be ranked relative to other hazards or to a possible level of danger.
A risk is the likelihood of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. A risk can be
reduced and the hazard controlled by good management.
It is very important to distinguish between a hazard and a risk – the two terms are often
confused and activities such as construction work are called high risk when they are high
hazard. Although the hazard will continue to be high, the risks will be reduced as controls
are implemented. The level of risk remaining when controls have been adopted is known as
the residual risk. There should only be high residual risk where there is poor health and
safety management and inadequate control measures.
CHAPTER TWO: RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
This chapter will present the findings from different reviewed literatures on the topic of
assessment of health and safety, include conceptual framework, related studies, site health and
safety, construction health and safety responsibilities such as the role of client, contractor,
regulatory agencies and employee. On the other hand, it will be discussed the causes of accidents
in the construction sites, rules and regulation towards the health and safety nationally and
globally.
The last part of the chapter it will demonstrated safety analysis by material location and then the
summary.

2.2 Related studies


Many safety accidents occur in a construction site. Fall and drop is a major accident so many
studies have focused on removing its causes.
A research [2] showed that fall and drop accident occurs most frequently according to the analysis
of scaffolding types and accident types. The research proposed a safety net, a joint between
scaffoldings and the building being constructed, and so on to reduce the accidents. A paper [3]
investigated severe fall accidents in temporary works, and indicated improper and inefficient
safety management system in construction sites. The paper suggested that the installation and
malfunction of temporary facilities, the method of temporary works, and the contents of the
contract should be improved. An analysis [4] found that the causes of fall accident were
employment status, period of continuous employment, when to work, tasks to work, unstable
behavior, and unsafe environment. But it didn't show a specific alternative. The influence
network [5] was used to analyze various causes of fall accidents, and found the paths between
effect factors in order to reduce the safety accidents. Recently, there are several efforts to prevent
safety accidents using information technology. Studies [6, 7] developed the warning systems
using real-time GPS (global positioning system) to warn workers when they were near dangerous
areas.
The studies need more accuracy of a worker's position in a construction site. RFID (Radio
Frequency Identification) based real-time locating system [8] showed that safety management
level could be raised by information technology and GPS, but jamming to locate a worker's
position might be a problem.
2.3 Site health and safety in construction
The main health and safety site requirements in construction relate to tidy sites and decent
welfare, falls from height, manual handling, and transport on site. Site operatives are normally
required to plan and organize their operations, ensure that they are trained and competent and
know the special risks of their trade and raise problems with their site supervisor or safety
representative (HSE, 2009).
The main personal protective equipment (PPE) in construction (including clothing affording
protection against the weather) which is intended to be worn or held by a person at work and
which protects him against one or more risks to his health or safety. PPE should be regarded as
a ‘last resort’ when considering control measures. Other methods should be considered and used
that will reduce or eliminate risk to injury. However, where PPE is the only effective means of
controlling the risks of injury or ill health, then employers must ensure that PPE is available. PPE
should be worn at all construction sites. A typical construction site may require workers to wear
a hard hat, coveralls, safety footwear, gloves, eye protection and high visibility vest. These must
be provided to all employees

2.4 Construction health and safety responsibilities


Construction health and safety should be of primary concern to employers, employees,
governments and project participants (Kheni, 2008). Thus the main parties responsible for
construction health and safety are the client, main contractor, regulatory agencies and employees.
The main duties of construction parties are summarized in Table 2 and explained.

Health and safety duties of state and regulatory agencies: Government regulatory agencies often
enact regulations to help ensure that a construction project is safe to build, safe to use, and safe
to maintain and delivers you good value. Good health and safety planning also helps to ensure
that a project is well managed and that unexpected costs and problems are minimized. Health and
safety duties of employer: Clients have a big influence over how work is done. Where potential
health and safety risks are low, clients are required to do little. Where they are higher, clients
need to do more.

Employers must assess the work being undertaken and the environment his employees will
operate in when determining the appropriate PPE to be worn.
Health and safety duties of main contractor: Main Contractors must check that all subcontractors
are conforming by providing PPE for all their employees (those who are self-employed for tax
reasons, but who otherwise work in an employee – employer relationship are also entitled to
receive PPE) free of charge. Health and safety duties of employees: Employees should be made
aware of their responsibility to wear the PPE appropriately, take care of equipment and report
any defects. They should also be informed that if they do not wear or misuse any PPE that has
been appropriately issued that this could lead to disciplinary action. This equipment is provided
for their protection.

2.5 Causes of accidents in construction


The underlying causes of construction accidents can be categorized under societal and
industrywide influences (macro); project and process factors (mezzo) and
worker/supervisor/workplace causes (micro). The causes of construction accidents at the macro
level were identified to include immature corporate systems, inappropriate enforcement, lack of
proper accident data, lack of leadership from ‘Government’ as a key client and a lack of influence
of trades unions in practice on most sites, especially for smaller projects. Mezzo factors include
immature project systems and processes, inappropriate procurement and supply chain
arrangements, lack of understanding and engagement by some of the design community, lack of
proper accident investigation/data and consequently, a lack of organizational learning. Micro
factors included a shortage of competent supervisors; a lack of individual competency and
understanding of workers and supervisors; the ineffectiveness or lack of training and certification
of competence; a lack of ownership, engagement and empowerment of, communication with and
responsibility for workers and supervisors. These factors were also exacerbated by poor behavior,
cost pressures; poor equipment or misuse of equipment, including personal protective equipment;
site hazards; poor employment practices; an itinerant workforce and inadequate management of
and provision for vulnerable workers such as younger, older or migrant workers. The study was
based on an international consultation with 15 overseas construction industry expert
stakeholders; phone/email interviews/consultation with 27 UK senior construction industry
expert stakeholders; in-depth face to face interviews with 15 practitioners from the UK
construction industry; and phone interviews with 15 workers representing the UK’s smaller
organizations/sole-traders (Brace et al., 2009).

2.6 Health and safety problems on construction sites


There are health and safety problems on almost all construction sites which relate to reporting
accidents, employing and subcontracting. Employing: all personnel who are employed to carry
out construction work on site must be trained, competent and fit to do the job safely and without
putting their own or others’ health and safety at risk; properly supervised and given clear
instructions; have access to washing and toilet facilities; have the right tools, equipment, plant
and protective clothing; educated about health and safety issues with them (or their
representatives); have arrangements for employees’ health surveillance where required.
Accidents: all accidents or work-related illness should be reported to the appropriate authorities
within a reasonable or stipulated timeframe. Subcontracting:
main contractors should ensure that they check the health and safety performance of the
subcontractors they plan to use; give subcontractors the health and safety information they need
for the work; talk about the work with them before they start; make sure that you have provided
everything agreed (e.g. safe scaffolds, the right plant, access to welfare, etc.); and check their
performance and remedy shortcomings.
2.7 Construction Health &Safety Rules and Regulations
Safe and healthy working conditions do not happen by chance. Employers need to have a written
safety policy for their enterprise setting out the safety and health standards which it is their
objective to achieve. The policy should name the senior executive who is responsible for seeing
that the standards are achieved, and who has authority to allocate responsibilities to management
and supervisors at all levels and to see they are carried out [6]. Nearly 6.5 million people work
at approximately 252,000 construction sites across the nation on any given day. The fatal injury
rate for the construction industry is higher than the national average in this category for all
industries. Potential hazards for workers in construction include:
 Scaffold collapse
 Falls (from heights)
 Trench collapse
 Electric shock and arc flash/arc blast
 Failure to use proper personal protective equipment and, repetitive motion injuries [5].

2.8 Construction health and safety rules in Ethiopia


The fundamental law of the state which is the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic
of Ethiopia, the Civil Code (Proclamation # 165/1960) together with the Labor Code
(Proclamation No 377/20003) are the general legal basis for health and safety rules in Ethiopia.
Numerous articles/provisions are provided under these general laws regarding health and safety
of people. Labor Code ensures worker-employer relations and enables workers and employers to
maintain industrial peace. It strengthens and defines the powers and duties of the organ charged
with the responsibility of inspecting labor administration, particularly labor conditions,
occupational safety, health and environment. The following provisions are set: Article 92 clearly
spells out the fundamental obligations of an employer with regard to putting in place of all the
necessary measures in order to ensure, workplaces are safe, healthy and free of any danger to the
well-being of workers. In the same article the employer is obliged to take, in particular the
following measures to safeguard the health and safety of the workers:

To comply with the occupational safety and health requirements provided for in the
proclamation; take appropriate steps to ensure that workers are properly instructed is notified
concerning the hazards of their respective occupations and the pre cautions necessary to avoid
accident and injury to health. Ensure that directive are given and also assign safety officer,
establishes an occupational, safety and health committee, provides workers with protective
equipment, clothing and other materials and instruct them of its use, obliged to register and
notify to the nearest labor inspection services occupational accident and diseases) arrange
according to the nature of the work at his/her own expense, for the medical examination of
newly employed workers, and for those workers engaged in hazardous work as may nearly,
take appropriate pre-executions to ensure that all processes of work shall not be a source or
cause of physical, chemical, biological, agronomical and psychological hazards to the health
and safety of the workers.
Article 93 provides the obligations of workers pertaining to the required co-operation and putting
into practice of the regulation and instruction given by the employer in order to ensure safety
health and working conditions at work places. The law has clearly stipulated about occupational
injuries with all other related provisions.

2.9 Research conceptual frame work


The conceptual framework of this study will outline the input variables, output variables and
moderating variables
2.10 SAFETY ANALYSIS BY MATERIAL LOCATION
2.10.1 Material Stacking
When a building is constructed, diverse materials are stored inside and outside the building. Steel
bars are stacked outside, and lifted to install. Some bars are prefabricated before lifting. A system
form like Gang form installed doesn't need a storage site because it is lift and re-installed by a
crane. Euro forms and temporary equipment’s are stacked and used inside the building, then are
moved to an upper floor through stairs or openings in the floor.
Bricks, blocks, or gypsum boards for interior walls are stacked inside the building. Windows and
doors are also stored inside. These materials are stacked so high that a worker cannot see dangers
behind the stacked materials.
Every space without paths and work places is used for storage. The storage sites with materials
may interrupt the paths and hide the dangerous positions and places.

2.10.2 Visibility Ratio


Dangerous factors can't be seen depending on the location of stacked materials and a worker's
position. Figure 1 shows an elevator hall partially hided by the stacked materials. This research
proposes a method to solve this blindness problem using a CAD (computer aided design)
software. After a worker's path and the location, height, and width of stacked materials are
arranged on a drawing, a perspective view at the worker's position provides how much the
dangerous factor is hided.

Worker’s View on a Site


An equation is suggested to analyze visual area depending the distance between a dangerous
factor and a worker's position. Visibility Ratio (VR) is defined as a ratio of visible part (PA) of
the dangerous factor over total area (TA) of the dangerous factor without any obstacle. The
further the distance of the worker's viewpoint and the dangerous factor, the less the visible area
of the factor is. So, this research uses the ration instead of the areas.
VR = PA / TA
VR = Visibility Ratio (%)
PA = Partially visible area of a dangerous factor hided by obstacles
TA = Total visible area of a dangerous factor without any obstacle
VR is calculated and changed by the dangerous factor, the stacked material, and the worker. The
locations of openings on a slab can be changed, but the elevator core cannot be moved. It is
slightly difficult to change a worker's position because it is on a path or a work place. Otherwise,
the location, width, and height of stacked materials is easily changed. If the materials are stacked
on a site, it is not easy to move them to other place until they are totally installed.
In order to raise VR, the location, width, and height of stacked materials should be determined
by a construction manager in a planning phase. This makes the construction site safer.

2.11 Summary of the literature review


From the literature review it is evident that health and safety measures are necessary in a work
place environment to ensure worker’s safety and wellbeing so as: To maintain and improve
productivity and quality of work; To minimize absenteeism and labor turnover; To reduce
indiscipline and accidents; To improve employee motivation and morale; To reduce spoilage and
cost operations and; To reserve the physical and mental health of employees.
But for this to be realized a good health and safety management system and program should be
put in place by providing; a written statement of safety policy, organization and allocation of
responsibilities for health and safety matters, train employees in health and safety matters,
establish safety committee, ensure first aid facilities, provide appropriate procedures and
documentations to minimize accidents and to regularly consult with employee representatives.
Construction firms should have training and induction to all employees so that they made aware
of potential hazards and given instruction on how to avoid the possible risks.
We have also discussed on the literature causes of accidents in construction sites poor equipment
or misuse of equipment, including personal protective equipment; site hazards; poor employment
practices; an itinerant workforce and inadequate management of and provision for vulnerable
workers such as younger, older or migrant workers.
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This chapter will cover most important part of this research which is include by the area will the
study be conducted, study period, research design, sample size and procedure of selecting it,
population and data collection, study variables, ethical consideration, way of disseminating this
this report paper.

3.2 Study area


The study area of this research will be Ethiopian construction buildings especially Dire Dawa
city.

3.3 Study period


This research will be conducted six months’ duration starting from the day of accepting this
proposal.

3.4 Research design


Structured individual interview and closed ended questionnaire will be used in this research. This
Questionnaire will be formulated by screening and comprehending the relevant literatures in the
area of health and safety practice in building construction.
The reason I will use this instrument of data collection are; it is cheap, it takes short time to
collate, analyze and present, it can also be conducted through mail or telephone when dealing
with interview.

3.5 Sample Size and Selection


The individuals who will participate the interview are engineer, client, contractor who will
represent different construction company in Dire Dawa and for other cities questionnaire will be
sent on E-mail.

The criteria for selection will be the level or category of company from the list of construction
companies in Ethiopian.
3.6 Population
The population of this study will be the employees of a construction site project in Ethiopia, who
consist of managers, supervisors, and workers involve both sites and offices of construction
companies.

3.7 data collection


there are two types of data that will be used in this research primary and secondary data.
The primary data collection of this study will be a questionnaires technique

The secondary data will be collected from engineering journal publications, websites,
construction companies’ documents if any, health and safety in construction sites books, previous
literatures from other authors like master’s theses, dissertation from PhD students etc.

3.8 Study variables


3.8.1 Dependent Variable
The dependent variables of this study is health and safety in building construction sites of
Ethiopia.

3.8.2 Independent variables


The independent variables of this study include;

 Health and safety of personnel on the site


 Use of personal protective equipment
 Formal contract agreement about health and safety between contractor and client
 Construction activities such as using equipment, tools, chemicals and so on.

3.9 Software and instruments


The software used in this research include; SPSS, Excel, and MS word there is also instruments
…………………………………….

3.10 Ethical Consideration


The scope of this study will be construction site workers such as construction managers, office
engineers, skilled and nonskilled labors.

After permission is taken from university department of construction and technology


management, most of construction companies will accept to be visit and assess what is going on
their sites during the works by the means of health and safety.
3.11 Plan for Dissemination
This research will be prepared for academic purposes that will be registered in the Dire Dawa
University; and the results will be presented to Dire Dawa University Institute of Technology,
Department of Construction Technology & Management.

Lastly, the document would be disseminated to Dire Dawa University library, all concerned
governmental and non-governmental offices.
WORK SCHEDULE /PLAN AND BUDGET
4.1 Proposed Work Plan/Schedule
Proposed budget plan.

Name of item/activity Rate ( item/birr ) Amount


1. Personal