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https://books.google.com
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THE LIBRARY
OF
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
DAVIS
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v THE .

ANN,UAL REGISTER,
on A VIEW OF THE

H I s T OR Y,
POLITICS,
AND

L I T E R A T U R E,

‘For the YEAR 1817.

LONDON:
PRINTTH) FOR IHXLDVVIN, CRAJDOCK, AIJD JQ11
J. ormncs; J. CUTHELL; LONGMAN, BURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN;
2. JEFFERY; LACKINGTON AND 00.; J. BELL; J- ASPBKNBB AN"
SHERWOOD, NEELY, AND JONES.
/
1818.
I FBRARY
UNIVERSHY OF CALIFORNIA
DAVIS

Banaley and Sons,


Bolt €ourt, Fleet Sum, London.
PR'EFACE.

ONE of the most remarkable occurrences in the


domestic history of the year 1817 was the double re
newal of the bill for the suspension of the Habeas Cor
pus Act, moved first in the two Houses near the close. of
February, and afterwards, upon a fresh alarm, in the
month of June. The majorities by which these mea
sures were carried sufficiently indicated the afl’right
which was spread through the most opulent, and the
most timorous, class of the nation; at the same time
the number was not inconsiderable of those who held
firmly to the maintenance of laws which were regard
ed as the palladium of English liberty. The termina
tion of these disputes threw a degree of discredit upon
the ministry, who, by the employment of spies, seemed
to aggravate the discontents which were already too
prevalent among the inferior ranks of the people.
The preceding year had afforded a happy augury to
the nation, in the union of the daughter of the Prince
Regent to Prince Leopold of Saxe Cobourg, which
promised a lasting source of domestic felicity. The ‘
connexion was blest with a hope of progeny, which
was brought to maturity early in November; but, to ‘
the unspeakable disappointment of the general expec
tation, the Princess sunk under the effort, and after
having been the mother of a dead child, became her
self the victim. The public feeling was scarcely ever
‘g marked
iv PREFACE.
marked by a more‘universal mourning; and the year
concluded with every expression ‘of regret and com
miseration from a people actuated by a congenial
sentiment.
In the rest of Europe little has occurred to disturb
the general tranquillity. By an otiicial note from the
allied courts presented to the Duke de Richelieu,
notice was given of their intention considerably to re
duce the army by which France was occupied, reckon
ing from the first of April of the current year; and
there is reason to expect that a similar diminution will
take place, till the French nation is entirely relieved
from the load under which it has long laboured.
Spain has partaken in some degree of the disorders
which, from the time of the king’s return, has kept
her in agitation. In January, the cry of the' constitu
tion was raised in the city of Valencia, said to have
been in consequence of a tax on coals. The vigour
of General Elio, however, soon brought it to ‘a close.
In Barcelona a much more dangerous conspiracy was
planned
Lacy andinMilans
the beginning
wereitheofApril,
leaders.ofThe
which the Generals
captain- general

of the province, having obtained timely notice of the


plot, put the'troops in motion, and a few hours were
sufficient to restore tranquillity. Lacy, who was taken
prisoner, was condemned by a court-martial, and was
sent as a captive to Majorca, where an attempt to
escape from his guard was the cause ofhis death.
The Brazilian government, now identified with that
of Portugal, during the course of the last year had
1sent an army to take possession of the Spanish terri- .
tory
' PREFACE. v
tory of Montevideo. The courts of Austria, Great
Britain, Prussia, Russia, and France, On being in
formed of this singular transaction, addressed a strong
memorial to the government of Portugal and Brazil,
in which they informed his most Faithful Majesty that
it was impossible for them to look upon the aggression
committed against Spain in any other light than as an
act of hostility. In the mean time an insurrection
broke out at Pernambuco, a province of Brazil, which
assumed a serious aspect, being chiefly encouraged
among the ofi‘icers of Olinda and Recife. A battle,
however, in which the royal forces entirely defeated
the insurgents, soon put an end to the insurrection;
and the result of the application of the European
courts has not yet been given to the public.
Some time after, Portugal itself was threatened
with a revolution, the purpose of which was to estab
lish a government for that country, independent of
South America. Its principal promoters were the
Lieutenant-general Gomez F-reres de Andrade, and
the Baron d’Eben; but before all the preparations had
been made,_the whole plot was discOvered, and an
arrest took place of the persons concerned. The
very slow procedure of the German states, and the
apparent reluctance of several of the members to join
in establishing the principles of free government, has
thrown back to another year the general result of
their deliberations; nor does it yet appear how soon
a desirable conclusion can be brought to effect. Fi
nancial difficulties occur in several of the states; and
till they are settled, it seems in vain to expect a satis
factory solution of their embroiled affairs. Prussia»
1n
vi PREFACE.
in particular, is said to be much incensed against
the excuses and tergiversations of France; and where
the stronger power is reduced to plead an impossibility
of fulfilling her engagements, the weaker power can
scarcely avoid a forced submission.
The King of Wurtemburgh has found it necessary
to dissolve the assembly of his states, in consequence
of their refusal to confirm a constitution proposed to
them by his Majesty; and he took into his own hands
the administration of the finances for the years 1817
and 1818.
The duchy of Saxe Weimar seems to have been the
only German state which has hitherto declared its
adhesion to the true principles of a free constitution;
and a proposition moved by the reigning Duke to the
diet of the empire sitting at Frankfort was formally
placed under the guaranty of the German Confedera
tion by a vote given by Austria, and afterwards con
Curred in by the other powers.
A speech delivered by the president Mr. Monroe to
the American Congress, on the second of December,
announced that the revenue arising from imports and
tonnage, with that from the sale of the public lands,
would be .fully adequate to the support of the civil
government, of the military and naval establishment,
and of the payment of the public debt, without the
aid of internal taxes; for which reason the President
recommended their repeal to the Congress. It was
perhaps scarcely expected, that so soon after a war,
the national balance would appear in a condition which
would admit of so favourable a statement.

CONTENTS.
CONTENTS.

GENERAL HISTORY.
CHAPTER I.
The Prince Regent’s Speech—Insults ofl‘ered him.—-His Message to both
Houses of Parliament.--Tahen into Consideration by the Houses of Lords
and Commons, and a Secret Committee appointed in each—Report from
the Committee in each House - - - - - - - [l

CHAP. II.

Singular Circumstance respecting the Committee of the Lords.-—Billjor the


SusPension Qflhe Habeas Corpus, moved by Lord Sidmouth in the House of
Lords.—Debates. -Protest.—Lord Castlereagh in the House of Commons
move:for Bills, for the more effectually preventing Seditious Meetings and
Assemblies; for the better prevention and punishment of attempts to seduce
persons in his Majest ’sforces by Sea and Landfrom their allegiance ; and
for making perpetua parts of an act, for the safety and preservation of his
Majesty's person and overnment, including those of the Prince Regent.—
Debates.—Dtfl'erent lauses of the Seditious Meeting: Act gone through.—
The same bill in the House of Lorin—Protest - - - - [20

C H A P. Ill.
War Salaries of the Secretaries of the Admiralty.-—Motion respecting 'the
Lords of the Admiralt .-—Motioufor a Committee on the Public Income and
Eapenditure, by Lori/Castlereagh—First Report of the Committee.—Bills
for abolishing the Ofices of Justice: in Eyre, and for a Compensation for
Civil Services.—-Pass both Houses.-—Irish Peace preservation Bill. [35

CHAP. IV.
Issue of Exchequer Bills for local and temporary ReliefZ—Mr. Tierney's
Motion renewed, for the Abolition of the Oflice of Third Secretary of State
for the Colonies.—Roman Catholic Question.--Houseqf Commorm—House
of Lords. - - - - - - - - - -CH 41-?
viii CONTENTS.
0 H A P. v.
Resignation of the Speaker, and subsequent Proceedings.—-Lord Sidmouth's
circular Leter discussed in both Houses - - - - - [57

C H A P. VI.
Prince Regent's flIessage to both Houses, and Proceedings in consequence [65

C H A P. VII.

The Budget - - - - - - - - - _ [34


C H A P. VIII.
Continuance of Irish Insurrection Act—Mr. W'ilberforce's .Motion for an
Address to the Prince Regent relative to the Foreign Slave Trade.—Par
liament closes.—Prince Regent's Spccch. - - - - '- [92

CHAP. IX.
Domestic Events.-Coursc of the Year.—Dauble suspension of the Hubcas
Corpus.—Celebration qfthe Queen’s and Prince Regent's Birth-Days.—
_'l'rials.—Special Commission held at Derby. - [100

CHAP. X.
France.—Decree respecting Slaves introduced in the Colonies.--Negociatiuns
with the Allied Pumas—Ordinance concerning the Debts of the City of
Paris.—Disturbances at Lyons.—Ro_z/al Ordinances for the creation of
JWajoratsw-Election for the Chamber of Deputies, and Royal SPeech.—
Project of a Law for the Press.—Law for the establishment of Re
ligion - - - - - - - - - - - [103

CHAP. XI.
Spain—Disturbance in Valencia.—Edict prohibiting Books.—-Conspirocy in
Barcelona.—Castanos and his Accomplices condemned—Papal Bull re
sPecting the ProPerly of the Church in Spain.— Queen of Etruria.—Decree
relative to the Culture of Tobacco in the Havannah.—Abolition qfthe Slave
Trade—Portugal.—1rruption of its Army into Montevideo.-—Part taken
by the Allied Powers.—-Defection of Pernambuco, and its Reduction.—
Plot in Portugal - - - - - - - — - [I 16

C H A P. XII.

Russia.--Regulation for the Discharge of the Public Debt.—b‘acilities


granted to lllercantile Men.—Thc Emperor quits his Capital, having first
published a Decree for the Regulation of PTOPTiElll7‘S and Colonists.—
Sweden—Conspiracy against the Crown Prince, and his Address to the
Citizensof Stockholm.—Proclamation by the King respiacting Economy.
——His Address to Prince Guam—Speech read by the Prince.-—Vienna.
--Beilin E r -,- '! P - r '- - - 128
CHAP.
CONTENTS. ix
C H A P. XIII.
Stutgard.—Sitting of the States.—Their Dissolution.—-The King takes upon
himself the Regulation of the Finances.—Duehy of Saxe-Weimar : Its
admission to the Germanic Confederation—Session qf the States-General of
the United Provinces.—-King's Speech—Dutch Tea-Trade.—Piedmontese
Gazette.-—Constantinople - - - - - - - [136

C H A P. XIV.

America, North and South—Message to the Senate and House of Repre


sentatives from President Madison.-—Votes taken for President and Vice
President.—M0nroe chosen for theformer Ofiee, and his SPeech.—-Second
Speech, on December the 2d.-State of Spanish Aflairs - [14-4

C H A P. XV.
East India Aflairs - - - - - . .. r- . - [162

CHRONICLE. Page 1.
Births - - - - - i - - - . .. . Q 134.

Marriages - - - - - - - - - .. - 13,7
Promotions ’- - - - - . - - . - 140
Deaths - - - - - - - - - . . 14.2
Sheri-HI: - - - - - - - .. - _ p 150

APPENDIX TO CHRONICLE.
ARTICLES FROM THE LONDON ‘GAZETTE.

Treat of Commerce and Navigation between his Britannie Majesty


an his Majest the King of the Two Sieilies - - - - 152
Dispatchesfrom ndia.--Insurrection of Trimhuelgjee Dainglia i- 154

REMARKABLE TRIALS AND LAW CASES.


3
The King v. Thomas Jonathan W'ooler.—Lil:el - - - - 16°
Ditto - - - - - - Ditto . - - - 167
The King v. James hVilliams.—-Ditto - - - - - - 161
The King v. William Hone.—Ditto - - - - - - 175
Hodvson v. Searlett.—-Freedom of Speech at the Bar - - - I79
Trafiieking in Slaves - - - - - 171
George Coo/rev. Colonel Mrwwell.—-Assault and False Imprisonment 180'
Fisher v. Jebb - - - - - - - - lllll
Bouquet v. Sherborne.—Lial:ility of Carriers - (I)
Oram v. Fremont and Others.—Non-Lial:ility of Carrierm ll' > on
Hartley v. Harriman - - - - - . 189
Fieldes v. Hooker - - - - - - - 191
The Rev. Edward Drake Free, Clerk, v. Sir Montague Roger Bur- ‘
goine.—Non-attendanee at Divine W'orship - - - - 199
2: CONTENTS.
The King, on the Prosecution of James Harris v. the Rev. Robert
PVoodward, Clerk, and others.—Conspiracy - - - 196
Trial of Roger O‘Connor, Esq. - - - - ~ - 203
The King v. Hamilton.—Child Stealing - - ~ - - 213
Preston v. Scarborough—Shah a Letter - - - - - 216
Arnhem—Setting Fire to Hay an Barley Stack: - - - - 219

PUBLIC GENERAL ACTS.


Passed in the Fifth Session of the Fifth Parliament of the United
Ki dam of Great Britain and Ireland, 66 George III
A. .1817 - - - - - - - - - 224
Patents - - - - - - _ - - - - 233
Bill of blortality - - - . - - - - 237
Price of Stocks - - - - - . _ - - _ 238
Table of Bankruptcies - - - - - - - - - 239
Average Price of Com - - ' - - - - - - 240
> Statement of the quantity of Porter brewed in London - - - 240
List of the Prince Regent’s Ministers - - - - - - 24-1
Meteorological Register - - - - - - - 242

STATE PAPERS.
Treaty between
Majesthisthe
Majesty thePortugal,
King of King of France and Aug.
concluded Navarre and
28, 1817 24-3

Translation of t e Bull Zgainst Bible Societies - - - - 244


Tables, Public Income, apenditure, 81'c. - - - - - 246

PARLIAMENTARY REPORTS.
Repart of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the
Poor Laws - - - - - - _ - - 263
oft/1e Committee on the Employment of Climbing Boys - 302
First Reportfrom the Select Committee on Finance - - - 307
Second Ditto . - - - - - - - ~ - 320
Extents in 4211‘ - - - - - - - ._ - 369

CHARACTERS.
Letters of Benjamin Franklin - - - - - - . 378
Character of the late Robert Fulton, Esq. - - - - -

CLASSES 011‘ PEQPLE


MANNERS, CUSTOMS 8zc. OF NATIONS

Description ofa Sertanejo - i- - - - - - - 400

The Indian Natives - - - - - - - - - 4‘13


Slavery ~ ‘ - . . . _ .. . .. . . 399
CONTVENTS. xi
I'oyage of his Majesty's late Ship Alceste, to the Yellow Sea, 9’0. 419
Narrative of the Shipwreck of ditto - - - - 432
An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands - - - - 44-9
Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand - - - - - 459
Travels in the Interior qfAmerica - - - - - - 4-65
James's Journal of a Tour in Germany, S’c. - - - - 479
Chinese Drama - - ~ - - - - - 489

' NATURAL HISTORY.


Narrative of a Journey from Chamouni to Mount Blanc 502
Notes of a Mineralogical Excursion to the Giant's Causew
Of Cinnamon as an Article of Commerce - - - - 511
On the Greenland or Polar .lce - - - - 529
Persian Cow—Discovery of Eight Islands - 561
Account qfa Rhinoceros Hunt in India -
Exploits of a Lion Shooting Party -
-
-
..
.
‘é
565
History of the Cocoa: Laccw, or Lac Insect -
Account of the Biddery Ware - - -
Use of the Cocoa-Nut Tree - - - -

MISCELLANIES.
Death of a Parsee at Bombay - - - - - - 577
Account of a Passage across the Bay of Bengal ~' - . - 579
Account of the Funeral Ceremonies of a Barman Pnest - - 582
Geography of Cochin China - - - - - - ‘ 585

POETRY.
Lalla Roohe - - - - - - _ .. . _ 592
The Burial of Sir John Moore - - - - - - .. 604.
Campbell‘s Ode on the Retirement of Mr. J. P. Kemble - - 605

THE
THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,
For the Year 1817.

GENERAL HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

The Prince Regent's Speech—Insults ofiered him—His Message to both


Houses of Parliament.—'Taken into Consideration by the Houses of
Lords and Commons, and a Secret Committee appointed in each.—
Report from the Committee in each House.

PRINCE REGENT’S SPEECH. of the honour of the country


against the government of Algiers,
N January 28th, his Royal have been attended with the most
Highness the Prince Regent complete success.
opened the Parliament with the “ The splendid achievement of
following Speech. his Majesty's fleet, in conjunction
“ My Lords ahd Gentlemen, with a squadron of the king of the
“ It is with deep regret that I Netherlands, under the gallant
am again obliged to announce to and able conduct ot'Adm. Viscount
you, that no alteration has occur Exrnouth, led to the immediate
red in the state of his Majesty‘s and unconditional liberation of all
lamented indisposition. Christian captives then within the
“ I continue to receive from territory of Algiers, and to the
foreign powers the strongest as renunciation by its government of
surances of their friendly dispo the practice of Christian slavery.
sition towards this country, and of “ I am persuaded that you will
their earnest desire to maintain be duly sensible ot' the importance
the general tranquillity. of an arrangement so interesting
“ The hostilities to which I was to humanity, and reflecting, from
compelled to resort, in vindication the manner in which it has been
VOL. LIX. [B] accomplished,
9] ANNUAL REGISTER, l8l7.
accomplished, such signal honour “ My Lords and Gentlemen,
0n the British nation. “ l have the satisfaction of
“ In India, the refusal of the informing you that the arrange
government of Nepaul to ratify ments which were made in the
a treaty of peace which had been last session of parliament, with a
signed by its plenipotentiaries, oc view to a new silver coinage, have
casioned a renewal of military been completed With unprecedent
operations. ed expedition.
" The judicious arrangements “ l have given directions for
of the governor-general, seconded the immediate issue of the new
by the bravery and perseverance coin, and I trust that this mea
of his Majesty's forces, and of sure will be productive of consi
those of the East-India company, derable advantages to the trade
brought the campaign to a speedy and internal transactions of the
and successful issue; and peace country.
has been finally established upon “ The distresses consequent upon
the just and honourable terms of the termination of a. war of such
the original treaty. unusual extent and duration have
“ Gentlemen of the House of been felt, with greater or less se
Commons 5 verity, throughout all the nations
“ I have directed the estimates of Europe ; and have been consi
for the current year to be laid be derably aggravated by the unfa
fore you. vourable state of the season.
“ They have been formed upon a “ Deeply as I lament the pres
full consideration of all the pre sure of these evils upon the coun
sent circumstances of the country, try, I am sensible that they are
with an anxious desire to make of a nature not to admit of an
every reduction in our establish immediate remedy; but whilst I
ments which the safety of the em observe with peculiar satisfaction
pire and sound policy allow. the fortitude with which so many
“ I recommend the state of the privations have been borne, and
public income and expenditure to the active benevolence which has
your early and serious attention. been employed to mitigate them,
“ I regret to be under the ne I am persuaded that the great
cessity of informing you, that sources of our national prosperity
there has been a deficiency in the are essentially unimpaired ; and I
produce of the revenue in the last entertain a confident expectation
year: but I trust that it is to be that the native energy of the coun
ascribed to temporary causes ; try will at no distant period sur
and I have the consolation to be mount all the difiiculties in which
lieve, that you will find it practi we are involved.
cable to provide for the public “ In considering our internal
service of the year, without mak situation, you will, I doubt not,
ing any addition to the burthens feel a just indignation at the at
of the people, and without adept tempts which have been made to
ing any measure injurious to that take advantage of the distresses
system by which the public credit of the country, for the purpose of
of the country has been hitherto exciting a spirit of sedition and
sustained. violence.
" 1 am
GENERAL HISTORY. [3
“ I am too well convinced of to his Royal Highness was agreed
the loyalty and good sense of the upon, congratulating him upon his
great body of his Majesty’s sub escape. '
Jects, to believe them capable of The further proceedings upon
being perverted by the arts which this subject will appear in the
are employed to seduce them ; but Chronicle of the present year.
I am determined to omit no pre On January 29th, the Speech
cautions for preserving the public ofthe Prince Regent was taken
peace, and for counteracting the into consideration by the House
designs of the disaffected. And I of Lords. The Earl of Dartmouth
rely with the' utmost confidence first moved an address of thanks,
on your cordial support and co which was in the usual form, and
operation, in upholding a system was seconded by the Earl ofRothes.
of law and government, from Earl Grey then rose, and began
which we have derived inestima withdeclaringhis full assent to that
ble advantages, which has enabled part of the speech which gave a
us to conclude, with unexampled tribute of applause to the noble
glory, acontest whereon depended admiral, and his officers and sea
the best interests of mankind, and men, who were engaged in the
which has been hitherto felt by expedition against Algiers ; at the
ourselves, as it is acknowledged same time he could not refrain
by other nations, to be the most from doubting how far the advan
perfect that has ever fallen to the tages arising from the enterprize
lot of any people.” Would be adequate to its expense,
His Royal Highness then re or to its future security. With
tired,and their lordships adjourned respect to the termination of a
till five o’clock. remote war in India, be conceived
After the Prince Regent had it rather too much to ask at the
withdrawn, present moment for an opinion
Lord Viscount Sidmouth rose and concerning the cause and necessity
announced, that before any other of a war, when, to the best of his
matter could be entered upon by knowledge, no information had
the House of Lords, he had one of been laid before their lordships on
the most important communica the subject.
tions to be made to them that had Passing over these topics, the
ever been laid before Parliament. Earl proceeded to take into his
Accordingly, after the strangers consideration the speech from
had withdrawn, he informed them, the. throne, and the speeches of
that when the Prince Regent was other noble lords, respecting the
returning from the House, and probable continuation of peace.
passing at the back of the garden The system of policy on which
of Carlton-House, the glass of the this confidence was founded, ap
carriage had been broken by a peared to him, instead of tending
stone, or by two balls from an air to secure this end, fraught with
gun, which appeared to have been the greatest danger to the peace
aimed at his Royal Highness. - In of Europe. This idea he pursued
the result, a conference was de through various consequences ; and
sired to be held with the House with regard to the policy which
of Commons, at which an Address we had adopted relative to the
[B 9] French
4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
French nation, he said, that in ing distresses of all classes of his
stead of having reduced its power Majesty's faithful subjects.
within moderate limits, we had “ That we are willing to indulge
generated in them an implacable the hope that these distresscs may
spirit of animosity, the end of be found, in part, to have ori
which would probably be, that ginated from circumstances of a
having placed and supported the temporary nature, and that some
present family on the throne of alleviation of them may be pro
France, that family must ultimate duced by the continuance of peace;
ly re-establish its power by going but that we should ill discharge
to war with this country. our duty to his Royal Highness,
_ His lordship then went on to and be guilty of countenancing a
consider, what be regarded as the most dangerous delusion, were we
most important subject of atten to conceal from him our opinion,
tion in our present circumstances, that the pressure w hich now weighs
our internal situation. This he so heavily on the resources of the
contrasted with all that had taken country, is much more extensive
place in former cases, in order to in its operation, more severe in
shew the much greater difficulties its effects, more deep and general
we vhad now to encounter; and in its causes, and more difiicult to
this led himeto the question of a be removed, than that which has
reduction of the national expen prevailed at the termination of any
diture. After various views on the former war.
subject, he said, this and the other “ That we are firmly persuaded
House of Parliament must impose that the same exemplary patience
on the ministers the duty of re and fortitude with which all ranks
trenchment. We must insist on have hitherto borne ,the difficulties
a retrenchment very different from under which they labour, will
that adverted to in the speech continue to support them under
y from the throne. We must insist such burthens as may be found
upon a rigid unsparing economy, indispensably necessary for the
an economy founded not on what unavoidable exigencies of the pub-
sound policy requires, but on what lic service; but that to maintain
necessity will admit ; not on what this disposition, it is incumbent
government Would have, but on on parliament, by a severe and vi
what the country can alford. If gilant exercise of its powers to
we cannot extend the means to prove that sacrifices, so painfully
meet the expense of the establish obtained, are strictly limited to the
ments, we must contract the es real necessities of the state.
tablishments to meet the means. “ That while we acknowledge
His lordship concluded a long the gracious dispositions announ
speech, by proposing the follow ced in his Royal Highness’s speech
ing amendment : from the throne, we cannot help
“ That we have seen with th'e expressing our regret that his
deepest concern the continued em Royal Highness should not have
barrassments of our agriculture, been sooner advised to adopt mea
manufactures, and commerce 3 the sures of the most rigid economy and
alarming deficiency of the revenue, retrenchment, particularly with re
and the unexampled and increas spect to our military establish
ments.
,GENERAL HISTORY. p
monts. That to prompt and effec ment a message to the following
tual reductions in this and every purpose:
other branch of the public expen “ His Royal Highness the
diture, this House must naturally Prince Regent, acting in the name
look, as the first step to relieve and on the behalf of his Majesty,
the distresses and redress the has given orders that there be laid
grievances of which the people so before the House papers contain
justly complain ; and that to ena ing information respecting certain
ble themselves to assist his Royal practices, meetings, and combi
Highness by their advice in the nations in the metropolis, and in
execution of a duty 50 imperiously difl'erent parts of the kingdom,
called for by the present situation evidently calculated to endanger
of the country, they will lose no the public tranquillity, to alienate
time in instituting a strict inquiry the affections of his Majesty’s sub
into the state of the nation.” jects from his Majesty’s person
The speakers who successively and government, and to bring into
followed were the Earl of Har hatred and contempt the whole
rowby, Earl Grosvenor, the Earl system of our laws and constitu
of Aberdeen, Lord St. John, Earltion. His Royal Highness recom
Bathurst, the Marquis Wellesley,mends to the House to take these
Viscount Sidmouth and the Earl papers into their immediate and
of Darnley. It will scarcely be serious consideration."
necessary to remark that the mi On February 4th, Lord Sidmouth
nisters and their Opponents widely 'rosc in the House of Lords to
differed in the conclusions they propose an answer to this commu
were led to draw from the pre-' nication. If the answer should be,
mises. The question was then as he did not question that it
put, and the amendment being would, an agreement with his
negatived without a division, the Royal Highness's proposal, it was
Address was agreed to. his own intention to refer the
In the House of Commons an message to a committee of secrecy;
amendment exactly of the same and all he had to desire, Was that
import was moved by Mr. Pon~ their lordships would abstain from
sonby, to an address to be pre making up their minds till they
sented to the Prince Regent. It were in possession of the informa
engaged many of the principal tion which was to be laid before
speakers on both sides, among them. One remark he further had
whom were Mr. Bathurst, Mr. to make, which was, that the
Lamb, Mr. Charles Grant, Mr. present communicatidn was in no
Curwen, Mr.liankcs, Mr.Canning, degree the consequence of the
Mr. Brougham, and Mr. Tierney. shameful outrage on the Prince,
The amendment was rejected by which was viewed, not only by the
264 to 112, and the original mo parliament, but by the great body
tion was then carried. of the people, with dctestation
and horror.' He concluded with
PRlNCE neoenr‘s Massacre. moving an address of thanks to
On Feb. 3d, the Prince Regent the Prince Regent for his mes
sent to each House of Parlia sa ge. In
6] ANNUAL (REGISTER, 1817.
In some of the subsequent been formed in the metropolis for
speeches, hints were pretty plainly the purpose of overthrowing, by
thrown out of a secret intention means of a general insurrection,
in the ministers to shackle the li the established government, laws,
berty of the subject. At present, and constitution of this kingdom,
however, they kept warily on their and of effecting a general plunder
ground, and the address was car and division of property.
ried unanimously. In the last autumn various con
Lord Sidmouth then moved that sultations were held by persons in
the papers on the table should he the metropolis engaged in this
referred to a committee of secrecy conspiracy. Ditlerent measures of
consisting of eleven lords to be the most extensive and dangerous
chosen by ballot ; which was nature were resolved upon ,- par
agreed to. tial preparations were made for
In the House ofCominons, Lord their execution, and various plans
Castlereagh made a parallel motion were discussed for collecting a
respecting the Prince Regent's force suflicient for that purpose.
message, which was carried with But at a subsequent consultation
out opposition ; as was likewise another plan was adopted, which
that of a secret committee consist was, to get a great number of
ing of twenty-one members. men together to see what force
On the 18th and 19th of Fe could be raised; and it was agreed
bruary, the secret committee in that the best way to get them to
each House made its report of the gether would be to call a public
contents of the papers communi meeting—Spa-Fields was fixed
cated by the Prince Regent. upon as the place affording the
The substance of each was near greatest facilities for entering the
ly alike; but it will probably be town, and attacking the most im
more interesting to our readers if portant points in the city. In
we place both of them in their view. pursuance of this design, and in
order to assemble in the neigh
House of Lords. bourhood of London a great num
By the Lords Committees appoint ber of the poorer classes of the
ed a Secret Committee to in community, and particularly of
quire into certain Meetings and those in whose minds the pressure
Combinations endangering the of the times might be supposed to
public tranquillity, and to re have excited disafi'ection and dis
port to the House as they shall content, advertisements were in
see occasion : serted in newspapers, and hand
Ordered to report, that the com bills were industriously distri
mittee have met, and have pro buted, inviting the distressed nia
ceeded in the examination of the nufacturers, mariners, artisans,
papers referred to them. and others, to assemble at that
Their attention was in the first place on the 15th of November.
instance directed to those which A large body of people accordingly
relate to the metropolis; and they assembled at the time and place
have found therein such evidence prescribed. The most inflamma
8' leaves no doubt in their minds tory language was there held to
that a traitorous conspiracy has the multitude, having a direct
tendency
GENERAL H 1 s T 0 R Y. [7
tendency to excite them to out the points of attack were distri
rage and violence : and the meet buted. It further appears that“
ing was in fact followed by some the interval between the two meet
acts of plunder and riot. A peti ings was employed with unre
tion to his Royal Highness the mitting assiduity by some of the
Prince Regent was agreed to at most active agitators in taking
that meeting, and an adjournment regular circuits through different
to Palace-Yard on the first day quarters of the town. In these
after the meeting of parliament they either resorted to the esta
was proposed; but the Qd of De blished clubs or societies, or la
- cember was subsequently fixed boured in conversations, appa
upon (on the proposition of one rently casual, at public houses, to
of the persons concerned in the work up the minds of those with
plans already described) for ano whom they conversed into such a
ther meeting in Spa-Fields ; and state of ferment and irritation as
that day appears to have been de to render them, when collected'in
termined upon for the execution sufficient numbers, for whatever
of their design. ostensible purpose, the fit and
Various schemes were formed ready instruments for the execu
for this purpose. Amongst them tion of any project, however rash
was ageneral and forcible lihe and desperate. In the course of
ration of all persons conlined in these circuits one of their chief
the difi‘erent prisons in the metro objects appears to have been to
polis; into some of which, in or take every opportunity of attempt
ing to seduce from their alle
dcr to facilitate its execution, an
address to the prisoners was in giance the soldiers of the different
troduced, assuring them that theirguards and at the barracks. The
liberty Would be restored under a principal persons concerned in
new government ; announcing the this plan actually proceeded to
intended attack upon all the pri Spa-fields on the second of De
sons i'or that day; apprizing the cember, some of them with con
prisoners that arms would be cealed arms, and with ammu
ready for them; exhorting them tion previously prepared; they
to be prepared with the national had also provided themselves
tricolor cockade, and to co-ope with tricolor flags, and with a
rate by the most violent and san standard bearing the following
guinary means'to ensure success. inscription : “ The brave soldiers
It was also proposed to set fire are our brothers ; treat them kind
to various barracks, and steps were ly;" and also with tricolor cock
taken to ascertain and prepare the adcs, evidently adopted as the sig
means of effecting this purpose. nal of revolution. After much in
An attack upon the Tower and flammatory language a direct in
Bank, and other points of importp vitation was by one of these per
ance, was, after previous consul sons addressed to the multitude
tations, finally determined upon. to proceed immediately to actual
Pikes and arms to a certain ex insurrection. And it appears quite
tent Were actually provided, and certain, that the acts of plunder
leaders were named, among whom which were perpetrated for the
purpose
8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
purpose of procuring arms, and were intended to be held on the
the other measures of open insur same day.
rection which followed, were not It appears manifest that the
accidental or unpremeditated, but persons engaged in various parts,
had been deliberately pre-con both of England and Scotland, in
certed, as parts of a general plan forwarding the plans of revolu
of rebellion and revolution. There tion, have constantly waited for
appears also strong reason to be the example of the metropolis.
lieve that the execution of those Intelligence of the event of the
projects at that particular time meeting there on the second of
was expected by some of the December was anxiously expect
associations in distant parts of the ed; and as the first report of the
country. The conspirators seem beginning of the disturbance ex
to have had the fullest confidence cited in a high degree the spirits
of success ; and a persuasion has of the disaffected, so its speedy
subsequently been expressed a suppression produced the expres
mongst them, that their plans sion of strong feelings of disap
could have been defeated only by pointment. Had it even partially
casual and unexpected circum succeeded, there seems much rea
stances. Even after the failure of son to believe that it would have
this attempt, the same plans ap been the signal for a more general
pear not to have been abandoned. rising in other parts of the king
Your committee are deeply con dom. Since. that time it appears
cerned to be compelled, in further to be the prevailing impression
execution of their duty, to report amongst the leading malcontents
their full conviction that designs in the country, that it is expe
of this nature have not been con dient for them to wait till the
fined to the capital, but have been whole kingdom shall, according
ilextended and are still extending to their expression, be more com
widely in many other parts of pletely organized, and more ripe
Great Britain, particularly in some for action.
of the most populous and manu What is meant by completely
facturing districts. organizing the country is but too
At the meeting of the second erident from the papers before
of December in Spa-Fields, that the committee. It appears clearly
part of the assembly which had that the object is, by means of
not engaged in the acts of plunder societies or clubs, established, or
and insurrection before men to be established, in all parts of
tioned, came to a resolution to Great Britain, under pretence of
adjourn the meeting to the second parliamentary reform, to infect
Monday after the meeting of Par the minds of all classes of the
liament, namely, the tenth of Community, and particularly of
February; and it appears by the those whose situation most ex
papers referred to the committee, poses them to such impressions,
that meetings in various parts of witha spiritof discontent and dis
the _ country, conformably to a. afl'ection, ot'insubordination, and
plan settled by the leading per, contempt of all law, religion, and
sons in London at an early period, morality, and to hold out to them
the
GENERAL HISTORY. [9
the plunder and division of all form, but under these words
property, as the main object of understanding universal suffrage
their efforts, and the restoration and annual parliaments : projects
of their natural rights; and no which evidently involve not any
endeavours are omitted to prepare qualified or partial change, but a
them to take up arms on the first total subversion of the British
signal for accomplishing these de constitution.
signs. l t appears that there is a Lon
. It is on these grounds that your don Union Society, and branch
committee have been led to look Unions corresponding with it,
with particular anxiety to the for and affiliated to it. Others of
mation, principles, and conduct these societies have adopted the
of those societies or clubs by name of 'Spencean Philanthro
which the ends of the disaffected pists ; and it was by members of
have been hitherto so much for a club of this description that the
warded, and are expected by them plans of the conspirators in Lon
to be finally accomplished. Many don were discussed and prepared
of these societies pass under the for execution.
denomination of Hampden Clubs. The principles of these last as
Under this title societies of very sociations seem to be spreading
various descriptions appear to have rapidly among the other societies
been formed, all professing their which have been formed, and are
object to be parliamentary reform. daily forming, under that and
This name and their professions other denominations in the coun
may have induced many persons try. Among the persons adopt
to become members of such so ing these principles, it is common
cieties who may not be aware of to disclaim parliamentary reform
the ultimate intentions of many as unworthy of their attention.
of their leaders; and the com Their objects are avowed in a
mittee would by no means ascribe hand-bill dispersed by the society
to all these societies the same ‘of that description in London,
practices and designs which they and in numerous other publica
have found to be but too prevalent tions. These objects are, “ A
amongst a large number of them; Parochial partnership in land, on
but they find that, particularly the principle that the landholders
among the manufacturing and are not proprietors in chief ; that
labouring classes, societies of this they are but the stewards of the
denomination have been most public, that the land is the peo
widely extended, and appear to ple’s farm ; that landed monopoly
have become some of the chief is contrary to the spirit of chris
instruments of disseminating doc tianity, and destructive of the
trines, and of preparing for the independence and morality of
execution of plans, the most dan mankind.”
gerous to the public security and The societies under these dif
peace. . ferent names are so numerous,
Others of these societies are and so various, that it has been
called Union Clubs, professing the difficult to obtain a complete view
same object of parliamentary re of all of them, or to compre
hcnd
10] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
hend them under any general de derable quantities, which can only
scription. have been done with a view to the
The country societies are prin use of force. Subscriptions are
cipally to be found in and in also generally required, which,
the neighbourhood . of Leices although the amount paid by each
ter, Loughborough, Nottingham, individual may be very small, may
Mansfield, Derby, Chesterfield, produce, from the large numbers
Sheffield, Blackburne, Manches of the contributors, no inconsi
ter, Birmingham, and Norwich, derable fund. ,
and in Glasgow and its vicinity; The destructive objects which
but they extend and are spreading, the leading members of these so
in some parts of the country, to cieties have in view are demon
almost every village. In addition strated by their publications and
to all the arts of seduction, resort by their proceedings, all equally
is also had to a system of intimi calculated to inflame the minds of
dation, and threats are held out the members, and in general of ‘
to those who refuse to join. Their the poorer classes of the commu
combinations are artfully con nity. At the ordinary meetings
trived to secure secrecy in their of these societies, which are often
proceedings, and to give to the continued to a late hour, their
leading members undisputed au time is principally employed in
thority over the rest. Oaths of listening to speeches tending to
secrecy have been frequently ad the destruction of social order,
ministered, some of which are of recommending a general equali
the most atrocious and dreadful zation of property, and at the
import. same time endeavouring to corrupt
They do not, however, trust to the morals of the hearers, and to
this security alone to prevent dis destroy all reverence for religion.
covery; their proceedings are sel The landholder has been repre
dom reduced to writing; they sented as a monster which must
pass and are communicated by be hunted down, and the fund
word of mouth. The more nu holder as a still greater evil; and
merous meetings delegate all au both have been described as ra
thority to a managing committee; paeious creatures, who take from
and by that committee, and by the people fifteen-pence out of
meetings of delegates from the every quartern loaf. They have
committees of different societies, been told that parliamentary re
every thing of importance is trans form is no more than a half—
acted. measure, changing only one set
The committees themselves are of thieves for another: and that
also cautious of reducing any of they must go to the land, as no
their proceedings to writing, com thing short of that would avail
municating with each other only them. Another principal employ
by delegates and missionaries. ment of their time is, to listen to
It appears that, in some parts publications of the same descrip
of the country, arms have been tion as the speeches, containing
latelyprocured by individual mem the same doctrines, and leading to
bers of these societies in consi the same purposes ; and the meet
ings
GENERAL H I S T O R Y. [11
ings are frequently terminated, even in the exercise of one of the
particularly in London, by pro most important parts of his royal
fane and seditious songs and pa functions.
rodies of parts of the liturgy, in it appears to be an essential
which the responses are chanted part of the system to take advan
by the whole company. By such tage of the opportunities afforded
means, and by the profession of by public meetings , convoked either
open infidelity in which some of by the leaders of these societies,
the members indulge in their or by others, in the metropolis, and
speeches, the minds of those who in populous places and districts,
attend their meetings are tainted to address the multitude in terms
and depraved; they are taught of unprecedented license and vio
contempt for all decency, all law, leuce, amounting even in some
all religion and morality, and are instances to an Open declaration
thus prepared for the most atro that, in case of non-compliance
cious scenes of outrage and vio with their petitions, the sovereign
lence. will have forfeited his claims to
Amongst the most effectual their allegiance. These proceed
means of furthering these dan ings are subsequently printed and
gerous designs, the committee circulated, and thus become a
think it their duty particularly to fresh vehicle for sedition and
call the attention of the House to treason.
the unremitting activity which has By the frequency of these meet
been employed throughout the ings, and by the new practice of
kingdom in circulating to an un— continuing them (under various
precedented extent, at the lowest pretexts) by frequent adjourn
prices or gratuitously, publications ments, the minds of his majesty‘s
of the most seditious and inflam well-disposed and peaceable sub
matory nature, marked with a jects are held in a state of per
peculiar characterof irreligion and petual agitation and alarm. The
blasphemy, and tending not only appointment of such public meet
to overturn the existing form of ings in a variety of different places
government and order of society, on the same day appears to be
but to root out those principles considered as'the most effectual
upon which alone any government means of accomplishing the de
or any society can be supported. signs of the disaffected, and must
The committee cannot but con evidently in a high degree em
sider the late attack upon his royal barrass and impede the exertions
highness the Prince Regent, on of all civil powers applicable to
his way from opening the present the 'suppression of disturbances,
session of parliament, as an ad distract the attention of govern
ditional and melancholy proof of ment, and oblige them so to sub
the efficacy of this system to de divide and harass the military
stroy all reverence for authority, force which it may be necessary
and all sense of duty, and to ex to call in for the assistance of the
pose to insult, indignity, and civil power, as to render it inade
hazard the person of the immedi quate to the maintenance of public
ate representative of the sovereign, tranquillity.
Such
12] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Such a state of things cannot existing establishments, and in a
be suffered to continue without division of the landed, and ex
hazarding the most imminent and tinction of the funded property of
dreadful evils; and although the the country.
committee do not presume to an This hope and prospect of spo
ticipate the decision of parliament liation have been actively and in
as to the particular measures to dustriously propagated by several
be adopted in the present emer societies, openly existing in the
gency, they feel it to be their duty metropolis, distinguished by the
to express their decided opinion name of Spenceans ; a title which
that further provisions are neces they have assumed in consequence
sary for the preservation of the of having revived the principles,
public peace, and for the protec with some variation, of avisionary
tion of interests in which the hap writer of the name of Spence,
piness of every class of the com which first appeared in a publica
munity is deeply and equally in tion of his near twenty years ago.
volved. It appears that at some of these
societies, held during the last
House of Commons. month,the question was discussed,
The Committee of Secrecy, to whether the meetings for parlia
whom the several Papers, which mentary reform are calculated to
were presented (scaled up) to mislead or enlighten the public.
the House, by Lord Viscount ]n the course of the debates upon
Castlereagh, on the 4th day of which question, it was strongly
February, by command of his urged “ that parliamentary re
Royal Highness the Prince Re form was only n half measure,
gent, were referred, and who that they must look to the land,
Were directed to examine the for nothing short of that would
matters thereof, and report the ever avail them : that we had no
same, as they should appear to constitution, there being no book
them, to the House ;—have una in which it could be found, nor
nimously agreed to the follow any man that could tell what it
ing Report : was." In another discussion upon
It appears to your Committee, the question, “ whetherthe prac
from the most attentive consider tical establishment of Spence‘s
ation of the several documents re plan bean effectual remedy for the
ferred to them, that attempts have present distresses," one of the
been made, in various parts of the doctrines maintained was, that
country, as well as in the metro “the. landholder was a monster
polis, to take advantage of the dis to be hunted down ; but that they
tress in which the labouring and should not suffer themselves to be
manufacturing classes of the com amused ; that there was a greater
munity are at present involved, to evil, namely, the fundholder; that
induce them to look for immediate these were the rapacious wretches,
relief, not only in a reform of that took fifteen-pence out of every
parliament on the plan of uni quartern loaf." '
versal suffrage and annual election, It further appears, that in these
but in a total overthrow of all meetings the most blasphemons
expressions
GENERAL HISTORY. 13]
expressions and docti'inesareopen by the individual exertion of the
ly and repeatedly advanced: that members of the committee,to dis
as the meetings are professed to cover and foment the prevalent
be of a convivial nature, the po distresses and discontents in the
litical debates and readings are metropolis and its vicinity. Re
usually followed by songs, in turns were made of those who
many of which the most inflam they thought were to be relied up
matory topics are introduced, on for daring and hazardous en»
some of a seditious and treason terprises.
able nature, and others under the The design was by a sudden
form of profane and indecent pa- I rising in the dead of the night, to
rodies of the liturgy and of the surprise and overpower the soldiers
holy scriptures. 7 in their different barracks. which
These societies appear to have were to be set on fire ; at the
extended themselves; and there same time (plans having been ar
are traces of the existence of a ranged, and some steps- taken
committee called conservative, with a view to the acco'mplishment
directing the operations of the of that object) to possess them
whole. The doctrines aboveinen selves of the artillery, to seize or
tioned have been systematically destroy the bridges, and to take
and industriously disseminated possession of the Tower and the
amongst mechanics and manufac Bank. In furtherance of this de—
turers, discharged soldiers and sign, a machine was projected for
sailors, and labourers of all de clearing the streets of cavalry. A
scriptions ; they have been incul drawing of this machine, fully au
cated at frequent appointed meet thenticated, and also a manuscript
ings,and at various places,by speak sketch or plan of various import
ers, who have made the distresses ant parts of the Tower, found with
of the times topics of excitement the drawing of the machine, have
and inflammation ; and they have been laid before your committee.
been circulated, with incredible This design was however re
activity and perseverance,in cheap linquished a short time before its
and often gratuitous publications. intended execution. It was thought
It has been proved, to the entire more prudent previously to ascer
satisfaction of your committee, tain what force the conspirators
that. some members of these socie could actually call together, and
ties, acting by delegated or as this it wastagreed could best be
sumed authority, as an executive done by convening a public meet
committee of the whole, conceived ing for the ostensible purpose of
the project, and endeavoured to obtaining a redress of grievances
prepare the means of raising an in a legal way. The map of Lon
insurrection, so formidable from don_was inspected, and Spa-Fields
numbers, as by dint of physical were selected as the most eligible
strength to overpower all resist spot, from their vicinity to the
ance. Bank and the Tower. Advertise
The first step towards the ac ments were accordingly prepared,
complishment of this object was, and written placards circulated, pf
t e
14] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
the most dangerous and inflam of placards and hand-bills: en
matory nature; of one of which deavours were used to raise sub
the following is a copy : scriptions; the expense hitherto
“ Britons to Arms ! i incurred in forwarding the object
“The whole country waits the of the conspiracy, and in support
signal from London to fly to arms ! ing such inferior members of it as
haste, break open gunsmiths and had relinquished their trades and
other likely places to find arms! occupations in order to devote
run all constables who touch a their whole time to the further
man of us; no rise of bread; no ance of the cause, having been
Regent; no Castlereagh, oil‘ with hitherto principally defrayed by
their heads ; no placemen, tythcs, one individual of the committee
or enclosures; no taxes ; no Plans for the seduction of the
bishops, only useless lumber! soldiers were now adopted and
stand true, or be slaves for ever." pursued with unremitting activity;
“ N. B.—Five thousand of these appeals were made to excite their
bills are up in the town, and sympathy, and induce them not to
printed ones, with further parti act against the insurgents; at
culars, will appear in due time." tempts were made to inflame their
At this time, if not before, the hopes by promises of rank and re
intended insurrection assumed the ward, and to alarm their jealousy
symbols of the French revolution; by the absurd fiction of the actual
a committee of public safety, con landing of a considerable foreign
sisting of ‘24, was agreed upon, army, for the purpose of control
including the names of several ling them.
persons, extremely unlikely to The barracks were again recon
lend themselves to such a cause. noitred with a view to attack.
A tricolor flag and cockades were The manufacture of tricolor-rib~
actually prepared; the flag was bon was encouraged, with a view
openly carried and displayed at of rendering it familiar to the eyes
the first meeting which took place of the public.
in Spa-Fields, on the 15th of No Visits were repeated to those
vember. No acts of violence were quarters of the town, where the
however encouraged on that day, distress was considered as the most
though some few instances of prevalent; and warehouses along
plunder occurred after the assem the river, as well as shops in other
bly dispersed, but care was taken places, which were known to con
to adjourn the meeting to the ‘zd tain arms, combustibles, and
of December, by which time it clothing, were examined and noted
was hoped that the preparations down, with the view of seizing
for insurrection would be fully those articles on the proper occa
matured. Not a moment was lost sion. Plans were also formed
in advertising the next meeting, for seducing the sailors on the
and great assiduity was employed river, by ofi'ers of advancement
in circulating the intelligence to high rank under the new
through all the great manufactur government, and for seizing and
ing towns in the country, by means equipping such ships as were ac
cessible.
GENERAL HISTORY. [l5
cessible. Immediately previous to ostensible business of the day
the day appointed for meeting, commenced in the other part of
arms were provided for the use of the field, the most inflammatory
some of the persons most actively speeches were delivered, tending
engaged. This provision was directly to excite insurrection,
deemed sufficient for the begin and concluded by an appeal to the
ning of the insurrection, as they multitude assembled, whether they
felt confident that if it should be were prepared to redress their own
successful for two hours, as many grievances. A tricolor cockade
arms might be procured as would was then exhibited, and the tri
be necessary, from the depots and color flag was displayed, and a
gunsmiths shops, which had been number of persons followed it out
reconnoitred with that view. of the field.
Your Committee have further The direction which they took
received undoubted information was towards that part of the town
previously designed; gunsmiths
that a large quantity of pike heads
had been ordered of one indivi shops were broken open, addresses
dual, and 250 actually made by and offers were made to the sol
him, and delivered and paid for. diers at the Tower to induce them
It was also undoubtedly intended to open the gates; but from the
to liberate the prisoners in the failure of the numbers expected
principal gaols in or about the to join the insurgents, no attempt
metropolis, in the hope of their was made to force the gates. An
concurrence and assistance in the attack was however made upon
intended insurrection. Addresses the city magistrates assembled in
were introduced into some of the Royal Exchange, a shot fired,
those prisons, and recommended and a tricolor flag and cockade
to be communicated to others, in openly displayed and seized on the
which the persons confined were otfender.
invited, in the name of the tri In reviewing the whole of the
colored committee, to rally round transactions of the 2d of Decem
the. tricolore'd standard, which ber, your committee are firmly
would he erected on Monday, De persuaded, that, however impro- ‘
cember the 2d, and to wear tri bable the success of such a plan
colored cockades themselves. It may appear, it yet was deliberately
was promised that the prisoners premeditated by desperate men,
should be liberated by force, and who calculated without reasonable
arms were stated to be provided ground upon defection in their
for them, and they were directed opposers, and upon active support
to be ready to assist in over from those multitudes, whose dis
powering the turnkeys. A \vaggon tress they had witnessed, and
was hired for the business of the whom they had vainly instigated
day, in which the flags and banner ' to revolt. That consequently it
or standard, which had been pre was not merely the sudden ebul
viously prepared, together with lition of the moment, or the un
some ammunition, were secretly authorized attempt of any un
conveyed to the place of meeting. connected individual.
From this waggon, before the Your Committee are further
convinced,
.16] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
convinced, that notwithstanding don, and are expected to assemble
the failure on the ‘Zd of Decem again early in March. Whatever
ber, the same designs still con may be the real object of these
tinue to be prosecuted with san clubs in general, your Committee
guine hopes of success. have no hesitation in stating, from
Your Committee having thus information on which they place
stated the general result of the full reliance, that in far the greater
evidence which has been laid be number of them, and particularly
fore them, respecting the state in those which are established in
of the metropolis, have now the no the great manufacturing districts
less painful duty of calling the of Lancashire, Leicestershire, Not
attention of the House to ,what tinghamshire, and Derbyshire, and
has been passing during the same which are composed of the lower
period in different parts of the order of artizans, nothing short
country, a subject of equally mo of a revolution is the object ex
mentous consideration. The first pected and avowed.
thing which has here forced itself Your Committee find, from
upon their observation, is theequally undoubted information,
widely diffused ramification of a that the doctrines ofthe Spencean
system of clubs, associated pro clubs have been widely difl'used
fessedly for the purpose of parlia through the country, either by the
mentary reform, upon the most extension of similar societies, or
extended principle of universal more frequently by the interven
suifrage and annual parliaments. tion of missionaries or delegates,
These clubs in general designate whose business it is to propagate
themselves by the same name of those doctrines throughout every
Hampden clubs. ()n the pro society to which they have access:
fessed object of their institution, it is the universal practice of these
they appear to be in communica societies, to require from the
tion and connexion with the club members a small weekly subscrip
of that name in London. tion, which provides a fund for
It appears to be part of the the expenses of these missionaries,
system of these clubs, to promote and also for the purchase of sedi
an extension of clubs of the same tious tracts, which are read and
name and nature, so widely as, if commented on at their meetings.
possible, to include every village Some of these tracts, now before
in the kingdom. The leading your committee, inculcate in the
members are active in the circu most artful manner, the necessity
lation of publications likely to of overturning what they call
promote their object. Petitions, “ the privileged class,” as dis
ready prepared, have been sent tinguished from the people, who
down from the metropolis to all are described as consisting of 1a
societies in the country disposed bourers, artizans, tradesmen, and
to receive them. The communi every profession useful to society.
cation between these clubs takes A new order is declared to be the
place by the mission of delegates ; will of the people ; rebellion is
delegates from these clubs in the justified by the assertion that a
country, have assembled in Lon nation cannot be a rebel 5 and all
religion
GENERAL H I S T O R Y. [17
religion is disavowed, as well as mon interest which they feel, if
loyalty, by the assertion, in answer
not of the connexion which is
to the question, “ would you live formed with the most implicated
without gods or kings,"-“ we in the outrages committed in the
abjure tyranny of every kind." metropolis, that about Manchester
it seems, indeed, to be a part and some other places, the great
of the system adopted by these so est exultation was manifested pre
cieties. to prepare the minds of vious to the meeting-in Spa-Fields
the people for the destruction of on the 2nd of December 5 and the
the present frame of society, by taking of the Tower, and the ruin
undermining not only their habits of the Bank, were publicly and
of decent and regular subordina confidently predicted. The news
tion, but all the principles of mo of the result was impatiently ex—
rality and religion. Your Com pected, the roads were crowded
mittee find, that there is scarcely during the night with a number
any very numerous society, in the of persons, many of them dele
parts above referred to, of whose gates from the different societies
proceedings they have obtained an in the country, waiting for the
account, in which some of the arrival of the mail coach, and the
leading speakers do not openly disappointment was not concealed,
avow the most seditious opinions, when it was ascertained that the
and do not excite their hearers to riot had been quelled without
be prepared for actual insurrec~ much serious or extensive mis
tion. Topics for discussion are chief.
selected with this view: amongst It appears, that the confidence.
others, the question, whether the of the disafl‘ected is such, that they
jacobin or the loyalist was the best represent the numbers enrolled
friend to his country ? Even where as amounting to several hundred
petitioning is recommended, it is thousand, and that their societies
proposed to be conducted in such are daily increasing ; that in their
a manner, by an immense number lists they distinguish by particular
of delegates attending in London marks those among their sub
at the same time, in several par_ scribers who are able bodied men,
ties, attached to each petition, as and ready to act when required;
might induce an effort to obtain and that they also keep a list of
by force whatever they demanded. those who refuse to join them in
A general idea seems prevalent what they call a “ black boo ,"
among those who compose these and threaten vengeance against
societies, that some fixed day, at these persons when the general in—
no very great distance, is to be surrectionshalltakeplace lnsome
appointed for a general rising. parts of one populous country,
They have been taught to look to where nearly every village has al
the meetings in London as the ready its Hampden club, the mem
signal for their operations, and bers make it no secret that they
have been in the habit of adjourn consider themselves as of no other
ing their own assemblies simulta use than as being ready to act
neously to the same day; and it is whenever they are called upon;
a lamentable instance of the com on their admission they are said
Von. LIX. [0] w
18] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
to be listed, and receive a secretdepend on the simultaneous rising
card with the words “ Be Ready, of the disaffected in England, with
Be Steady." some emissaries from whom occa
The habits and manncrs of sional intercourse appears to have
these persons seem entirely chang taken place; and that some provi
ed: they already calculate upon sion of weapons has been made by
the share of land which each is this association.
to possess, and point out the de Your committee have now sub
struction of the churches, as the mitted to the House, what they
necessary consequence of their conceive to be a fair, and not ex
success. It appears that prepara aggerated statement of the result
tions are in progress, in several of their investigation. They have
places, for providing arms; the thought themselves precluded from
demand upon gunsmiths, for every inserting, in an Appendix, the in
species of fire-arms, has been be formation from which it is drawn,
yond all former example; the in by the consideration, that unless
tention is professed, of having re it were extremely partial and in
course for a still larger supply to complete, they could not make it
those towns where arms are ma public without hazarding the per
nufactured, and where they are to sonal safety of many useful and
be obtained at a very low rate, many respectable individuals, and
from the general cheapness of la in some instances without preju
bour at this time; or in case of dicing the due administration of
necessity they are to be seized by public justice.
force. The facility of converting On a review of the whole, it is
implements of husbandry into of a great satisfaction to your com
fensive weapons, has been sug mittee to observe, that, notwith
gested; and persons have been standing the alarming progress
sent to observe the state of parti which has been made in the sys
cular places, where depots of arms tem of extending disafl‘ection and
for the public service were sup secret societies, its success has
posed to have been formed. been confined to the principal ma
Your committee find that a sys nufacturing districts, where the
tem of secret association has been distress is more prevalent, and
extended to the manufacturing po numbers more easily collected ;
pulation of Glasgow, and some and that even in many of these
other populous towns of Scotland ; districts, privations have been
and although these societies have borne with exemplary patience
availed themselves of the same and resignation, and the attempts
pretext, of parliamentary reform of the disaffected have been dis
on the broadest basis, your com~ appointed ; that few if any of the
mittee are firmly persuaded, from higher orders or even of the mid
the information which has been dle class of society, and scarcely
laid before them, that their ulti A any of' the agricultural population,
mate object is the overthrow by have lent themselves to the more
force of the existing form_ of go violent of these projects. Great
vernment; that the time for at allowance must be made for those
tempting this enterprise was to who, under the pressure of ur
gent
GENERAL HISTORY. [19
gent distress, have been led to seduced, and may seduce; the
listen to plausible and confident oaths by which many of them are
demagogues, in the expectation of bound together; the means sug
immediate relief. It is to be gested and prepared for the forci
hoped, that many of those who ble attainment of‘ their objects;
have eng ed, to a certain extent, the nature of the objects them
in the pro_]ects of the disaffected, selves, which are not only the
but in whom the principles of overthrow of all the political in
moral and religious duty have not stitutions of the kingdom, but also
been extinguished or perverted by such a subversion of the rights
the most profane and miserable and principles of property, as must
sophistry, would withdraw them necessarily lead to general con
selves before those projects were fusion, plunder, and bloodshed;
pushed to actual insurrection. \ without submitting, to the most se
But, with all these allowances, rious attention of the House, the
your committee cannot contem dangers which exist, and which the
plate the activity and arts of the utmost vigilance of government,
leaders in this conspiracy, and the under the existing laws, has been
numbers whom they have already found inadequate to prevent.

[c z] CHAP
20] ANNUAL REGISTER, l8l7.

CHAPTER ll.

Singular Circumstance respecting the Committee of the Lords.--Bill


for the Suspension of the Habm Corpus, moved by Lord didmouth
in the House of Lords.—Debatee.—Protest.—-Lord Castlereagh in the
House of Common: moves for Bills, for the more efi'ectually preventing
Sedition: Meetings and Assemblies; for the better prevention and
punishment of attempts to seduce person: in his Majesty's forces by Sea
and Land from their allegiance; and for making perpetual parts a an
act, for the safety and preservation of his Majesty‘: person an! govern
ment, including those of the Prince Regent—Debutea—Dtflerent
Clause: of the Sedition: Meetings Act gone through—The same bill in
the House of Lords—Protest.

swoon/m cracumnncs m humility, that your petitioner of


'rnn LORDS fers himself to the notice of, and
REMA RK A BLE circum prays for a hearing from your
stance occurred, respecting right honourable House; but that
the report of the Secret Committee your petitioner, though a very
drawn up by the House of Lords. humble individual, feels himself
Mr. Cleary, secretary to the Lon impelled by a sense of imperious
don Union Society, having seen in duty, to beseech your right ho
a report laid before their Lord nourable House to pause, and to
ships, a clause relative to the hear further evidence, before your
above society, which appeared to right honourable House proceed
connect it with the societies of to adopt legislative measures upon
Spencean Philanthropists, was in the report, now on the table of
duced to present a petition to the your righthonourable House, from
House, in which he gave a cor your late secret committee.
rected statement of the society and “ Your petitioner begs permis
its proceedings. This petition was sion humbly to state to your right
put into the hands of Earl Gros honourable House, that he has
venor, who, on February ‘Zlst, read in the aforementioned report
read it to the House, as follows : of the secret committee of your
lordships, the following passage,
“ To the Right Hon. the Lords to Wit :
Spiritual and Temporal of the " ‘ Others of these societies are
United Kingdom of Great Bri called Union Clubs, professing the
tain and Ireland in Parliament same object of parliamentary re
assembled. form, but under these words un
“ The Petition of Thomas Cleary, derstanding universal sufl’rage and
Secretary to the London Union annual parliaments-projectlwhich .
Society, evidently involve not any qualified
“ Humbly showeth, That it is or partial change, but a total sub
with great reluctance, as well as version of the British constitution.
It
GENERAL HISTORY. [21
It appears that there is a London so closely connected the ‘ London
Union Society, and branch Unions Union Society' with the societies
corresponding with it, and affi of ‘ Spencean Philanthropists;'
liated to it. Others of these so but your petitioner humbly begs
cieties have adopted the name of leave to assure your lordships, that
Spencean Philanthropists; and it he is ready and able to prove at
was by members of a club of this the bar of your lordships, that
description that the plans of the there never has existed, between
conspirators in London were dis these societies, the smallest con
cussed» and prepared for execu nexion of any sort, either in per
tion." ' son or design, the object of the
“ Your petitioner presumes not former being to obtain “ a parlia
to oppose his opinions against mentary reform, according to the
those of a committee of your right constitution," while that of the
honourable House; but he hopes, latter, as appears from the report
that he may be humbly permitted of your lordships committee, has
to state, that when a bill was been to obtain a common part
brought before your right honour nership in the land; and that,
able House by the late duke of the: efore, any evidence which may
Richmond, laying it down as a have been laid before the secret
matter of principle,,that annual committee of your lordships to
parliaments and universal suii'rage establish this connexion, is, as
were the inherent and unalienable your petitioner is ready to prove
rights of Englishmen, the noble at the bar of your lordships, wholly
duke was not accused of a desire destitute of truth.
to produt-c “ a total subversion of “ But the facts to which your v
the British constitution." petitioner is most anxious humbly
“ It is not, however, on mat- to endeavour to obtain the patient
ters of opinion, but on matters of attention of your right honourable
most important fact, that your pe House, relate to that affiliation
titioner humbly appeals to the can and correspondence. which your
dour, the wisdom, and the justice lordships secret committee have
of your right honourable House, been pleased to impute to the
and on matters of fact, too, with London Union Society, by observ
regard to which your petitioner is ing that “ it appears that there is
able to submit to your right ho a London Union Society, and
nourable House the clearest and Branch Unions, corresponding
most indubitable testimony. with it, and afliliated to it," a
“ Your petitioner‘s entire igno description which seems, in the
rance of the views of the secret humble conception of your peti
committee of your right honour tioner, to resemble that which was
able Honse, as well as his pro given of the London Correspondé
found respect and extreme defer ing Society, in 1795, and which,
ence for every thing done within as your petitioner humbly con
the walls of your right honourable ceives, point to measures of a
House. are more than sufficient to nature similar to those which were
~ restrain your petitioner from at then adopted; and your petitioner,
tempting eren to guess at the rea though with all humility, ventures
sons for your committee‘s having to express his confidence, that the
evidence
22.] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
evidence which he doubts not has correspondence, infusing life into
been produced to your lordships societies of Spencean Philanthro
secret committee to justify this pists, and producing, by these
description, is wholly and entirely means, plans of conspiracy, revo
false, as your petitioner is ready lution, and treason! and though
to prove, in the most satisfactory your petitioner is too well assured
manner, at the bar of your right of the upright views and of the
honourable House. justice of every committee con
“ Upon this important point sisting of members of your noble
your petitioner humbly begs leave and right honourable House not to
to represent to your right ho be convinced that very strong evi
nourable House, that the London dence in support of these charges
Union Society was founded in must have been produced to your
1812 by Mr. Edward Bolton Clive, lordships secret committee, your
Mr. Walter Fawkes, the late co petitioner cannot, nevertheless,
lonel Bosville, Mr. Montague refrain from expressing most hum
Burgoyne, the present lord mayor, bly his deep regret, that your
Mr. Alderman Goodbehere, Mr. lordships committee should not
Francis Canning, Mr. William have deigned to send for the
Hallet, sir Francis Burdett, major books and other testimonials of
Cartwright, Mr. Robert Slade, the character and proceedings of
Mr. Timothy Brown, Mr. J.J. the London Union Society; and
Clarke, and several other indivi your petitioner humbly begs leave
duals equally respectable; that it to observe, that this omission ap
continued to hold meetings but a pears singularly unfortunate for
very short time ; that it never did the London Union Society, seeing
any act except the publishing of that the secret committee of your
one address to the nation on the lordships appear, in another part
subject of reform; that it never of their report, to lament the want
had any one “ Branch," that it of means of obtaining the written
never held any correspondence proceedings of societies, and seeing
either written or verbal with any that it was natural to expect, that
society of any sort; that it never a society having branches, an
was affiliated to any society, or affiliation, and an active corre
branch, or any body of men what spondence, had also a copious col
soever; finally. that it has not lection of written documents.
met for nearly three years and a " Your petitioner is aware, that
half last past; and, of course, he has trespassed too long on the
that it is not now in existence. patience of your lordships ; but,
“ What, then, must have been well knowing that your lordships
the surprise and the pain of your seek only for truth as the basis
humble petitioner, when he saw, of your proceedings, he humbly
in the report of your lordships hopes that you will be pleased to
secret committee, this London excuse the earnestness of his pre- '
Union Society represented, not sent representation, and he also
only as being still in existence, presumes humbly to express his
but busily and extensively at hope, that your lordships will be
work, establishing branches and pleased, in your great tenderness
affiliations, carrying on an active for the character and' liberties of
his
GENERAL HISTORY. [as
his majesty‘s faithful subjects, to notice of the secret committee
consider whether it be not pos being omitted. No opposition was
sible that your secret committee accordingly made to its reception;
may have been misled, by what though not till several lords had
they may have deemed good evi taken the opportunity of discuss
dence, as to other parts of their ing the conduct of the committee,
recent report; and, at the least, by way of attack and defence.
your petitioner humbly prays that
BILL FOR SUSPENSION OF
your lordships will, in your great
HABEAS CORPUS.
condescension, be pleased to per
mit your petitioner to produce‘all On February 24th, a bill for the
the books and papers of the Lon suspension of the Habeas Corpus
don Union Society at the bar of act was moved in the House of
your right honourable House, Lords. It was introduced by
where your petitioner confidently Lord Sidmouth, who began his
assures your lordships that he is speech by an eulogy upon the
ready to prove all and singular manner in which the secret com
the allegations, contained in this mittee had laid its discoveries
his most humble petition. before the House. There were
“ And your petitioner will ever three principal features to which
pray. “ THOMAS CLEARY." he would advert: I. That no
Some words applied by the Earl doubt was left in the minds of
after he had read the petition, the committee, that a traitorous
produced a warm attack upon correspondence existed in the me
him for the violation of order, in tropolis, for the purpose of over
which other speakers defended throwing the established govern
him. At length, upon his motion, ment 5 2. That the committee are
that it should lie upon the table, deeply concerned to report their
a debate ensued, when Earl Grey full conviction, that designs of
moved for an adjournment to the this nature have not been confined
following Friday. This was dis to the capital, but are extending
posed of by Contents, 18; Non widely through the most'populous
Contents, 64. The motion for and manufacturing districts: 3.
laying the petition on the table, That such a state of things cannot
was then put and negatived. be suffered to continue without
On February 24th, Earl Gros hazarding the most imminent and
venor appeared again with Mr. dreadful evils. After descanting
Cleary's petition, respecting which upon these points, his lordship
he said, that the learned Lord on proceeded to set in a strong light
the Woolsack had declared, that the actual danger into which the
the petition could not be received, public welfare wiis'hrought; and
because it alluded to the report of he touched upon the riot in the -
the House, of which the petitioner capital on December 2d, and upon
could not be cognizant, neither his own active services in sup
had it as yet been brought before pressing it He was thence led to
the House. It was now tendered take into consideration certain
in such a shape as, he trusted, provisions of former legislatures,
would remove any objection, all to guard against public evils; and
he
94] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
he intimated the intention of the tion, namely, a comparison be
present ministers, to renew some tween the present day, with the
measures of this kind. In fine, period of 1795; of which there
he came to the direct point of the was the leading and undeniable
suspension of the Habeas Corpus, distinction, that in the first case,
of which he said he was sincerely all the mischiefs against which the
grieved to be the instrument, enlargement of the powers of the
especially in a time of profound crown went to provide, sprung
peace. But it was one extraor mainly from the French revolu
dinary quality of the British con tion. From France the dangers
stitution, that the powers of the were apprehended, and to the
executive government could be machinations of agents from that
enlarged, if by such means that country, the energies of the go
constitution would be better se vernment were directed. But to
cured. He required the suspen what were the principles of our
sion of the Habeas Corpus act, in modern system of policy directed,
pity to the peaceable and loyal in when our army in Spain was en
habitants of the country, for the gaged in a succession of triumphs,
protection of the two Houses of and when the nations of the con
Parliament, for the maintenance tinent, in imitation of our ex
of our liberties, and for the se ample, were resolved to make a
curity of the blessings of the con determined struggle for their in
stitution. It was not merely the dependence ? It was to this—that
lower orders which had united in we had actually extinguished the
these conspiracies ; individuals of spirit of Jacobiuism, and that the
great activity, resolution, and ‘ war had assumed a diderent com
energy, were engaged in the con plexion. The peace followed, and
test. it was one which the noble mar
The Marquis Wellesley said, that quis severely reprobated. To the
when parliament was called upon want of stipulations in favour of
to alter the existing laws of the England, he attributed the revival
land, ministers should be able to of Jacobinism; but how did it
lay before it a plain distinct case, happen, said he, that ministers,
founded upon powerful and irre when they had ascertained the ex
sistible evidence, in order that it istence of a presumed traitorous
should be justified in. doing that conspiracy in the metropolis, and
which in ordinary circumstances were aware, as they now profess,
would be a direct infringement of that the provisions of the law
the public freedom. Unless the were incompetent to control it,
ministers of the crown could un did not at once resort to measures
questionably prove, that such a to put it down ?
case cannot be restrained by the After variousother observations,
ordinary course of law, they are which it is unnecessary‘here to re
not warranted in demanding the peat, the Marquis concluded with
extension of extraordinary powers. affirming, that he must conscien
This subject led him to consider tiously declare, that up to the
what he must regard. as the grand moment he was then speaking, he
and prominent part of the ques had not seen such evidence as
convinced
GENERAL HISTORY. [25
convinced him that the danger be considered was, whether a
was so alarming as had been re sufficient cause now existed for
presented. Great discontents un the suspension of the Habeas
doubtedly existed ; seditious prac Corpus? ()n the present occasion
tices evidently prevailed; yet he government had the fullest proof
was not satisfied, that they existed (if they Were to believe‘the report)
in that shape and character which of a treasonable conspiracy in the
justified the suspension of the metropolis to overturn the consti
Habeas Corpus. tution, and that the same system
The Earl of Liverpool, in his was spread Over a great part of
reply to the Marquis, began with the country. Was it then too
absolutely denying, that the dis much to contend, that under such
content and distress under which circumstances it was proper to
we laboured, were attributable to recur to the course which our
the late peace ; and he believed it ancestors had pursued in similar
never entered into the heads of dangers? He felt all the import
any one to imagine that such was ance of the measure that was now
the consequence. So far from the proposed; but he would not allow
fact being such as the Marquis any imputations that might be in
stated, our trade and manufac sinuated to preclude him from the
tures were never so extensive as conscientious discharge of his
during the years l8|4 and 18l5. duty. What he asked of parlia—
The origin of our distress was to ment was to entrust the Prince
be traced to a totally different Regent‘s ministers with that
cause from that of foreign trade ; power for a short time—a most
in fact it might be originally odious one, he agreed—and which
traced to the distress of our agri ought not to be confided to any
cultural interest. The next topic man. or any set of men, except in
of the Marquis‘s complaint was such cases as now, he apprhended,
the meeting of parliament, and it justified him in calling for it.
was asked, why it was not earlier Earl Grey, after various preli
assembled, when ministers must minary remarks against the pro
have known the dangers of the posed motion, argued in the first
country: it did not however follow, place, that any conspiracy attended
that because there were clubs, with an utter improbability of
meetings, and publications of a success, as the present was al
dangerous nature, that therefore lowed 10 be, was not a case that
there were distinct proofs of a called for a suspension of the
conspiracy upon which govern Habeas Corpus. Who were the
ment might proceed capitally. In chief actors in this conspiracy?
fact, it was not till within three Were they persons of great con
weeks of the actual meeting of sequence and co .nexions in the
parliament, that ministers were country? No. They were miserable
in possession of that knowledge. wretches reduced to the lowest
The Earl then proceeded to poverty and distress. What was
touch upon the question more im their object? To produce insur
mediately before their lordships ; rection by calling persons toge
and he said, that the real point to ther on the pretext of parliamen
tary
26] ANNUAL REGISTER, l817.
tary reform, without any pre temporary suspension of the
vious concert and design, and Habeas Corpus act.
trusting wholly to chance for sti After these and some other
mulating their instruments in the lords had given their sentiments
work of sedition. This was the on the bill, the House divided for
whole extent of the plot, and the its second reading, which was
attempt was made in the way that carried by Content 84, Proxies 66,
was projected. Those formidable Total. 150; against, Not Content
rioters tied at the very mention of 28, Proxies 12, Total 85. Majo
a dragoon. They did not wait to rity 115.
see their horses’ heads at the top A protest was then entered upon
of a street, so admirable were the the Journals to the following
military arrangements of that able effect: “ Dissentient. liecause it
commander, general lord viscount does not appear to us that, in the
Sidlnouth. - report of the Secret Committee,
The Earl then took a review of there has been stated such a. case
the different societies designated of imminent and pressing danger
in the report, and observed that as may not be sufliciently pro
there were acts of parliament, vided against by the powers of the
chiefly of modern date, under executive government under the
which all these otfences might be existing IaWs, and'as requires the
prosecuted and punished. He suspension of the most important
would,_ however, have consented security of the liberty of the
to a new law for preventing meet country." It was signed by eigh
ings in the open air without a teen peers.
previous notice to a magistrate;
and would also cheerfully have BlLL FOR PREVENTING SEDITIOUS
MEETINGS.
agreed to a bill for the better secu
rity of the person of the Prince Re On the same day, February 24th,
gent. These two measures would, Lord Castlereagh rose in the House
he conceived, together‘ with the of Commons. He began with
existing laws, have been amply assuring that assembly, that in
sufficient to have met all the evils the whole course of his life, he
dwelt upon in'the report. had never performed a more
Lord Grenville considered the painful duty than that which he
question before their lordships to was then called upon to discharge.
be one of the most important that He should have hoped, that alter
had ever engaged the attention of the dreadful record which the
parliament He felt it his bounden French revolution had afforded of
duty to declare, that the present the destruction brought upon its
situation of the country appeared country, no individual could be
to him one of extreme danger, found in Great Britain so dead to
and that some extraordinary legis a sense of private feeling, or
lative measures were absolutely public duty, as to engage in
necessary. S\l('h being the serious schemes which would render the
conviction of his mind, he was immediate and powerful aid of
compelled to give his cordial, parliament necessary for securing
though reluctant support for the the public peace. Looking to the
~ ‘ history
GENERAL HISTORY. [27
history of the revolutionary spirit purpose of parliamentary reform.
in this country, it appeared to Such being t-hedangers against
have gradually descended from which parliament had to contend,
the higher and better informed they were now to be informed of
ranks in which it formerly be the measures which the King’s
trayed itself, to those lower orders ministers had thought proper to
in which it was now principally to propose to them for meeting that
be found. danger. These, after having been
After-some severe animadver— commented on by his lordship
sion upon those superior classes seriatim, were summed up in a
of reformists, who appeared to general statement;
his lordship to have excited the The measures, he said, which
lower ranks to mischief, he went he should propose as the wisest
on to give the House " a fair and which parliament could adopt,
not exaggerated description of the were, 1. The temporary suspen
dangers which now menaced the sion of the Habeas Corpus. 2.
country, and to direct its atten The extending the act of 1795,
tion to the remedies to be pro for the security of his Majesty‘s
posed by the ministers." He ob person, to his Royal Highness the
served, that although the conspi Prince Regent, as the person ex
rators had not been joined to the ercising the functions of royalty.
extent that they expected, yet that .3. To embody into one act the
the general means they had pro provisions of the act of 1795, re
vided, were sufficient to enable lative to tumultuous meetings and
them to make the attempt with a debating societies, and the pro
rational prospect of success. It visions of the act of the 39th of
would be confining the extent of the King, which declared the
the peril within too narrow limits illegality of all societies bound
to consider it as sprung from the together by secret oaths, or if not
meeting of December 2d alone. by secret oaths, which extended
Others were at that very moment themselves by fraternized branches
going on under the pretence of over the kingdom ; and to make
seeking parliamentary reform. it enact, that the nominating de
He would not deny that many in legates or commissioners, under
dividuals throughout the country any pretext, to any other societies
had such a reform actually in of the kind, should be considered
view ; but most of them looked at as sufficient proof of the illegality
it merely as a half measure, or a of such societies or associations.
veil to the prosecuting of their 4. To make such enactments as
designs. It had been clearly made should be thought most effectual
out, that a wicked conspiracy ex to punish with the utmost rigour,
isted in the country for the sub any attempt to gain over soldiers
version of the constitution and or sailors to act with any asso
state; and it appeared that the ciation or set of men, and with
individuals who were deeply im~ draw them from their allegiance.
plicated ‘in the crime of treason Lord Castlereagh concluded with
had been the most active to pro moving, “ That leave be given to
cure meetings for the apparent bring in a bill for the more etfec
. tually
as] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
tually preventing Seditious Meet pressions and doctrines were
ings and Assemblies." Openly advanced in the denounced
A considerable number of speak meetings. Blasphemy, he said,
ers r0se to give their opinions on was what he abhorred as much
the subject; but this being little as any man; but he thought our
more than a prelude to a closer present laws “ere sufficient for
engagement, we shall only men the purpose of restraining it.
tion at present, that on a divi The next thing to which he would
sion of the House, the leave re advert was that part of the report
quested was granted by 190 votes which stated, that the disatfected
against l4. looked out for those people among
Lord Castlereagh then obtained whom the greatest distress pre
leave to bring in a bill to rain vailed, in order to excite discon
and make perpetual an act for tent. If they looked for distress,
the better prevention and punish he was sorry to say they might
ment of attempts to seduce per too easily find it; but from what
sons serving in his Majesty's forces himself had seen. and many hon.
by sea or land from their alleg - members had described, there was
ance; and also a bill to make no other food for discontent ne
perpetual certain parts of an act cessary, nor any occasion for ha
for the safety and preservation of ranguingthe disafl‘ected to heighten
his Majesty's per-on and govern complaints, or to point out the
ment, includ.ng that of the Prince means of relief.
Regent. These three bills were After various other observa
then brought in and read a first tions, partly serious and partly
time. ludicrous, the hon. member was
Petitionswere in the meantime unwarily led to speak of ministers
pt‘epfll‘luy; n- the capital, and else who had “ already embruednheir
\\ here. against the suspension of hands in the blood of their coun
the Habe's Corpus act. They try. and who had been guilty of
were presented to the House of the most criminal cruelties "
Commons .on February 26th, the This charge called up Lord Castle
day when Lord Castlereagh moved reagh, \\ ho desired Mr. B. to state
the order For the first reading of which individuaLmeinber of the
the bill for suspending the Habeas present government he meant to
Corpus. accuse. The result was, _ that
Mr. Bennet said he Would oppose, after an. awkward apology, he de
in every Slflgt‘ this arbitrary, im clared that. he did not mean to
politic, and uncalled-for measure. pursue the subject.
After some serere' remarks upon The Lord Advocate of Scotland
the noble. lord‘s public conduct, thought it his duty to commuui
he entered into a brief examina cate to the House a circumstance
tion of some parts of the com which had lately come within his
mittee's report. and the alarm it knowledge. A secret conspiracy
was calculated to spread. The had been organized in Glasgow,
list thing that he would remark which had communications with
upon was that part which stated. so~ieties in the country. The
that the most blasphemous ex conspiracy was held together by
means
GENERAL a I s T o R Y. [99
means of a secret oath which he his character as a public officer,
would read to the House It ran that when these individuals were
as follows. “ In the awful pre taken, it was known to govern
sence of God, I, A. B. do volun ment that there were others mov
tarily swear, that I will persevere ing in a very difi‘erent sphere of
in my endeavours to form a bro life connected with the conspi
therhood of affection amongst racy, Some of whom, he trusted,
Britons of every description who would yet be apprehended.
are considered worthy of conii~ SIT Samuel Romilly spoke with
dence; and that] will persevere considerable severity of the negli
in my endeavours to obtain for all gence of the ministers, who had
the people of Great Britain and suti'ered all these libellnus and
Ireland, not disqualified by crimes blasphemons publications to be
or insanity, the elective franchise industriously circulated among the
at the age of twenty-one, with lower orders without instituting
free and equal representation and a single prosecution against the
annual Parliaments; and that 1 authors. Speaking of the infor
will support the same to the ut mation communicated by the lord
most of my power, either by mo atlvocate'of Scotland, he said,
ral or physical strength as the were ministers aware that the
case may require: and I do fur most severe punishment known to
ther swear, that neither hopes, the law might be inflicted upon
fears, rewards, or punishments individuals subs ribing that oath?
shall induce me to inform, or give Did they not know that it was
evidence, against any member or felony without benefit of clergy,
members, collectively or intlivi~ unless the person taking the oath,
dually, for any act or expression within fourteen days afterwards,
done or made, in or out of this or abandoned his associates, and be
similar societies,under the punish trayed their purposes. He con
ment of death, to be inflicted on cluded a vigorous speech by say
me by any member or members ing, that in every point of view
of such society. So help me God, he thought the suspension objec
and keep me stedfast." - tionable: the dangers might be
This oath (said the learned great, but the existing laws had
member) was administered to not yet been tried; and if tried,
many hundred individuals in the he was convinced that they would
city of Glasgow and its neigh be found sufficient for every pur
bourhood. Some persons to whom pose of national protection.
it was about to be given felt scru It is unnecessary to carry fur
' pulous about that part which re ther the debates on this subject,
lated to the using of physical since they were little more than
strength. A meeting was imme repetitions of the arguments on
diately called, and a motion was both sides of the question, which
made to leave out those words, have already been detailed in the
but it was rejected unanimously. sketch given from the House of
The result, however, had been Lords. After repeated calls for the
that a variety of persons were question, the House divided, when
now apprehended ; and he pledged there appeared for the first read.
mg
30] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
ing .of the bill, Yeas ‘278, Noes 98:irons, 810. which was negatived
Majority I75. without a division.
The order of the day for the Mr. William Smith next moved
third reading of the bill took place a clause, securing the right of
on the 28th of February. In the action against the persons who
speeches on the occasion, Mr. should issue warrants of commit
Lamb, as a member of the secret ment under the act, if the persons
committee, among other argu committed should be dismissed
ments said, that the ordinary without trial, provided the action
course of the law might be suffi were brought within a month
cient, if the law were suffered to after the expiration of the act;
take its course; but he believed which was also negatived without a
it to be stopped and arrested by division.
the system of threats and menaces Mr. Pomonby then proposed a
which intimidated jurors and wit clause, fixing the 20th of May for
nesses. the expiration of the bill, instead
Sir Arthur Pigott expressed him of the lst of July, on which the
self much surprised that the House divided: for the clause 97,
hon. gentleman should defend the against it 289.
suspension of the Habeas Corpus Sir Sam. Romilly brought in an
on the ground that the country amendment to the bill, the pur
was at present in such a_state that pose of which was to limit its
the existing laws could not be operation in Scotland, as well as
carried into execution. Were this in England, to persons committed
the real state of things, a point of to prison for treason, or suspicion
so much importance ought to be of treason, upon a warrant signed
established on evidence very dif by six privy counsellors, or one of
ferent from that which was laid the principal secretaries of state;
before the. committee of secrecy. whereas, as the bill now stood, it
How bad the hon. gentleman been extended in Scotland to persons
satisfied, that the situation of thecommitted by any subordinate
country was such as he had de magistrate.
scribed it to be? Had it appeared The House of Lords was moved
to the committee that such was by Lord Sidmoulh on March 3d,
the fact, they would not have to take into its consideration the
closed their report without ‘di amendments which the House of
rectly mentioning it. Commons had introduced into the
The whole of the question being Habeas Corpus bill. The Earl of
at length disposed of, the House Damley, as a final effort for set
divided on the third reading, ting the bill aside, made a motion
which was carried by 265 to 103: for referring it to that day three
majority 162. months, which was negatived
Sir Francis Burdett then pro without a division. Some further
posed a clause, that no person discussion occurred respecting the
detained under this act shall be rapidity with which it had passed
shut up in a dungeon, or other the House of Lords, after which
unwholesome place, or deprived the amendments in the Commons
of air and exercise, or loaded with were agreed to.
On
GENERAL HISTORY. [31
On March 3d, the second read be to suppress a particular so
ing of the bill, to prevent sedi ciety calling themselves .the Spen
tious meetings, was moved in the ceans, or Spencean philanthropists,
House of Commons by the Solici which, whether it employed de
tor General. Bef‘ore he made his legates or not, was condemned by
motion, he said he would briefly the very doctrines which it pro
explain the reasons of its passing, mulgated.
and the different enactments which After some severe remarks upon
it contained. Of the various parts of the proposed bill, it was
means employed by the fomentors read a second time, and ordered
of discontent, one of the most to be committed.
efficacious was to call together a On March 10th, on the motion
number of persons, to inflame of the Solicitor General, this bill
them by harangues, and to per was recommitted. When the
suade them that the evils of the clause was read, inflicting the
times would be remedied by their punishment of death on such per—
application to parliament, which sons as shall not disperse after
they had a right to force to com being required so to do; Mr.
ply with their demands. Those Gurney rose and declared it. as his
meetings the bill was intended decided conviction, that these
to control by some regulations clauses, being abhorrent to the
precisely of the same kind as those common sense and feeling of man
adopted at other critical periods. kind, so far from having any ten
In the committee, however, it was dency to secure the public tran
his intention to propose a clause, quillity, would tend‘to bring the
which he would now mention, as legislature into that hatred with
it partly involved new matter, the people which the act alluded to.
though by no means contrary to Sir James Mackintosh, following
the avowed spirit and purpose of up this idea, said that unless he
the bill. The object of the clause received a satisfactory answer, he
was to prevent such meetings, would move toysubstitute trans
convened by seven householders, portation to the punishment of
from being adjourned to any other death.
time or place than what should be The Solicitor General saw no
at first specified; for if that evil reason for the amendment sug
were not guarded against, it might gested by the hon. gentleman.
be contended that the original As—the object of the bill was to
meeting having been declared le prevent riot, it must be regarded
gal, an adjourned meeting would as wise and proper to put the
become equally so. Another ob offence contemplated in the clause
ject of the bill would be to prevent on the same footing as resist
the existence of debating societies, ance to a proclamation under the
lecture rooms, reading rooms, &c. riot act.
for admission to which money was Mr. W. Smith said, that there
received. A similar measure was was no comparison between the .
enacted in 1796 and 1799; but offence against which the riot act
neither of these touched the evil was directed, andthat which is now
as it existed in the societies now before the committee. The first
formed. A further object would supposed that those against whorr;
. 1
32] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
it was aimed were violating the persons offending as above de
public peace. and committing scribed, Sir Samuel Romilly pro
outragev The second subjected posed to leave it out altogether;
those who did not disperse within contending that as at present
an hour after proclamation, to the framed and understood, it might
same punishment as if they had give some officious magistrates a
been guilty of the most aggra pretence for denouncing the most
vated crimes. peaceable and constitutional meet
Sir James Mackintosh, after va ings, and would rather tend to
rious observations had been made, occasion riot and confusion, than
moved as his amendment, that to prevent sedition and rebellion.
instead of the words “ .~hall suti'er The clause was defended by the
death as in case of felony, without ministers, who carried it by 46
benefit of clergy," the words against 16.'
“ shall sufl'er transportation for Sir James Mackintosh next pro
the term of seien years," should posed, that the exemptions ex
be substituted in~ their stead. tending to lectures in the univer
The committee thereupon divided, sities, in the inns of court, and in
when there appeared. for the Gresham college, should also in
amendment ‘26; against it 70. clude the East India college, and
Sir James Mackintosh then said lectures in medicine, surgery,
that he had another amendment chemistry, and all others hona
to propose in that important title intended for the improvement
clause relative to public meetings. of learning, the sciences, and the
As it now stood, a power was arts. This amendment was also
given in the case of propositions, rejected. with the exception of the
stirring up the people to hatred East India college.
or contempt of the government or All the clauses being gone
constitution of this realm as by through, the House was resumed,
law established. No man in this and the bill was ordered to be
House would say that there was reprinted.
any intention of using the word On March 14th, the order of
government in any sense where it the day standing for the third
might be confounded with admi reading of the bill for the more
nistration. But if that were true, etl'ectually preienting Seditious
what was the use of inserting the Meetings and Assemblies, Sir M.
word "government?" The use of W. Ridley, aftera speech in “hlCl'l
the word in this clause could have he declared it to be his duty to
no tendency but to create the oppose the passing into a law an
most dangerous misapprehensions. act wholly uncalled for by the
He would therefore propose the isting circumstances of the coun
omission of the words “ or the try, moved as an amendment, to
government," leaving the passage leave out the word “ now," and
to run, "or the con-titution of insert after the words “ be read
this realm as by law established." a third time," the words “ this day
After some conversation, this six months."
amendment was negatived. This being the last day in which
On the reading of the next the two parties had an open field
clause, for the apprehension of for contention, the principal forcef
o
GENERAL HISTORY. [33
of each was mustered, though no should be inserted in the bill
doubt could be entertained how “ two or more justices," which
the decision would terminate. In was also negatived.
fact, nothing was left but the He next moved, that instead of
mere repetition of exhausted ar the words “constitution and go
guments ; and Mr. Canning found vernment," there should be in
it necessary to revert to former serted the word "constitution"
displays of oratory, by saying, “ It only; which was also negatived.
is in this view only that we re The bill was then passed.
commend to the House of Com On the 2 lst of March the House
mons to pass the present bill; of Lords went into a committee
not (as I have so often said, but on the bill relative to Seditious
as cannot be too often repeated) Meetings. 011 reading the clause
for the extinction of the sacred from the Commons concerning
right of petition, but for its pro whatwould constitute the assembly
tection and preservation." - unlawful, Lord St. John observed,
After the amendment had been that as the words now stood, if
disposed of, the third reading the clerk of the peace should neg
was carried by 179 to 44- A lect to communicate the notice re
clause having been introduced in ceived of an intended meeting,
to the bill by the Attorney Gene signed by seven householders, to
ral, enacting that it should not three magistiates, it might be
extend. to Ireland, 'Sir John New deemed an unlawful assembly,
port opposed it, with a view of although the persons calling it
keeping down the Orange men ; had complied in every respect
but the original question was with the enactments of the clause,
carried. and would, in consequence, be
On the introduction of the pre come subject to the punishment
amble of the bill, Sir M. W. Rid of death. The Lord Chancellor,
ley moved the following amend though he had no doubt that the
ment: “ \Vhereas assemblies of omission of the clerk of the peace
divers persons collected for the would not invalidate the legality
purpose of exercisingr their un of the meeting, said that he had
doubted right of ofl'ering petitions,
no objection to an amendment
complaints, remons‘rances, de which would render the clause
clarations, or other addresses to more clear; and it was agreed
his royal highness the Prince that the words “in such case"
Regent, or to both houses, or should be omitted.
to either house of parliament, Lord Holland moved that the
have of late taken place; and words “imposing the punishment
whereas riots may be apprehended of death" shouldbe left out, as he
from large meetings of persons considered it as glaringly dispro
suil'eriug under the pressure of portionate to the crime. This
distress at the present time." amendment was negative l .
This amendment was negatived. At a meeting of the committee
Mr. Ponsonby then moved, that on March 24th, when the clause
instead of the words “one or respecting licences to be granted
more justice or ju~tices,” there to lecture rooms and-debating so
VOL. LlX. LD] cieties
34] AN NUAL REGISTER, 1817.
cieties was read, the Earl cf.Lau such a question required, and
derdale observed, that the excep which was anticipated in the
tions from the operation of this House of Commons. We shall
clause did not extend far enough, therefore refer to the proceedings
and that there could be no objec of the latter House for all that we
tion to include among the excep have thought necessary to extract
tions lectures merely on physical upon the general ground of discus
science. He then moved a clause sion, from the field of debate.
to exempt from the operation of It was mentioned on the pre
the licencing enactments, lectures ceding day that Lord Sidmoulh had
on anatomy, astronomy, chemis introduced a clause into the bill
try, or other branches of physical for the prevention of meetings
science. The Earl of Liverpool within a mile of Westminster-hall.
opposed the clause, on the ground He had since considered that the
that it was not to be supposed that place for holding elections for
magistrates, from any private \Vestminster was within its pre
motives, would prevent the de cincts; and also that the borough
livery of such lectures. The of Southwark did not form any of
clause_was put and negatived. the usual avenues to parliament.
An amendment proposed by He therefore proposed to with
Earl Grosvenor to limit the du draw the clause, and add as an
ration of the bill to the first of amendment, “ saving and except
July 1817 was negatived. ing in St. Paul‘s Covent-garden,
Lord Sidmouth proposed a clause and the borough of Southwark."
to prohibit public meetings within This clause was adopted without
a mile of the tuo houses of par a division.
liament when sitting, or of the The Earl of Liverpool then
courts of justice when sitting at moved that the bill do pass; on
Westminster. Aftersomediscus which the House divided: Con
sion, this clause‘was agreed to; tents, lll ; Non-contents, 23 :
and all the amendments being Majority, 88.
gone through, the .bill was ordered The following protest of eight
to be read a third time to-morrow. peers was entered on the Journals.
On the 25th of March, the or “ Dissentient. ,Because it appears
der of the day standing for the to us that this statute, in inflicting
third reading of this bill, Lord the penalty of death, is unjustly
Erskine rose, and began with the severe; that it gives to magis
consideration, first, what evidence trates a formidable and unneces
the House had of impending dan sary power, improperly controlling
gers which justified the passing of the general expression of opinion,
an act of the kind now before and interfering both with the pub -
them 5 and secondly, whether ad lie and private meetings of they
mitting all the facts collected by people, in times of which we
the report, the bill was either a consider the danger. to be much
necessary or a proper remedy. exaggerated, and which we think
_ It is evident that this was the call for measures of conciliation
natural line oFCargument which and relief, and not for coercion.”

cnA'P
GENERAL HISTORY. [35

P
CHAPTER III.

War Salaries of the Secretaries of the Admiralty—Motion respecting


the Lords of the Admiralty—Motion for a Committee on the Public
Income and Expenditure, by Lord Castlereagh—First Report of the
Committee—Bills for abolishing the Ojices of Justices in Eyre, .and
for a Compensation for Civil Services—Pass both Houses—Irish
Peace preservation Bill.

sncnsnarzs or ran ADMIRALTY. made out to the sense of any man


that the time for which the in
0RD Milton, in rising '~ on creased salary had been given was
February 17th, to call the what could fairly be understood
attention of the House of Com as a case of War? Lord Ex
mons to the increase made in the mouth was sent to Algiers in the
salaries of the secretaries of the double quality of a negociator and
Admiralty, in consequence of the commander. When the attack
war with Algiers, began with ob was finally made and had succeed
serving the different light in which ed, what did Lord Exmouth say?
objects were regarded, according " Thus has a provoked warof two
to the difference of the mind and days existence been attended with
disposition of the person by whom a complete victory." A quarter's
they were vieWed. Having in salary on the war establishment
stanced the Prince Regent. and was claimed by the secretary, for a
Marquis Camden as those who war said by the commander who
could relinquish a part of their conducted it to be of two days du
salaries, when the public service ration. lt‘ the commencement of
required it, he said, with what this Algiers war was difficult to
difl'erent eyes must the admiralty be settled, and had been settled
or their secretary have beheld the wrong, its termination was no
symptoms of the times, when they less curious: it was dated from
conceived the autumn of 1816 the the reception of the treaty at the
most convenient opportunity for Admiralty. These dates of the
taking advantage of a single ex fitting out of the expedition and
pedition to bestow an increase of the arrival of the treaty in London
salary on their servants. The might tally with the duration of
ground on which this claim had the salary 3 but they could not be
been set up was an order of coun said to constitute the commence»
cil of January 1.5, 1800, by which, ment‘ and termination of a war,
on account of increase of duty in during the existence of which a
time of war, the secretary and war salary might be claimed. The
some other persons were to have navy pay-office, not thinking that
an increased salary. But the the attack on Algiers constituted
question was, had it been fairly this country in a state of war
L1) <1] within
as] ANNUAL REGISTER, l8l7.
within the meaning of the order fees of the secretaries of the Ad
of 1800, refused to pay the war miralty were very considerable,
salary till they had consulted with and in lieu of them it gave an in
the Admiralty. The nary-office crease of salary. He never de
by their question clearly thought manded this increase as a favour,
that there was no title made out but as a pure right.
to an increase of emoluments on Sir Joseph Yorke observed, that
account of the expedition to Al the question to be decided was ex
giers. The utmost duration of tremely simple. The salary of
the war, according to the admiral‘s the first secretary was fixed at
statement, was two days, which, 30001. per annum during peace,
computing the rate of increase, with an additional 1000l. in time
entitled the hon. secretary to of war : that of the second secre
5l. 3s. 9d. It might have happened tary was 1500]. in peace, and
that Lord Exmouth would have 200511. in war. The commissioners
found the Dey ready to comply of the navy did not send to the
with the demands of the British Admiralty to know whether this
government without coming to country was at war or not, but to
extremities; and what would have ascertain at what time the war
been the situation of the secretary salary should commence. The
then? There would have been no answer of the Admiralty was, that
war, nor any additional allowance. it should be paid from the 29th of
His lordship concluded with June to the 94th of September,
moving, "That the issue of the the day on which the treaty was
war salaries to the secretaries of signed. He had no hesitation in
the Admiralty, and certain other signing the paper for the increase
persons connected with the navy of salary, and should do the same
and dock-yards, in consideration thing if the paper were put again
of the expedition to Algiers, which before him.
terminated in hostilities with that Admiral Mar/diam said, that his
government, is uncalled for by opinion remained as at first, which
the order in council of January was, that the secretary was not
15th, 1800, and therefore an im entitled to the war salary. If
proper application of the public this was to be called a state of
money. ‘ war, what was am armament? in.
Mr. ‘rokcr said, that he was the case of Nootka Sound, had
quite above denying the part- he the order of council existed at that
had taken in this matter. He had period, was‘it to be supposed that
made the demand, because he the secretary of that time would
thought it a matter of right, and be entitled to demand an additional
due to the office. This right it salary? The expedition required
was his duty first to establish, and no additional trouble: there was
then he might come forward and nothing to be completed but the
give up what the necessities of the armament.
times might seem to require. The The essential point of argument
question rested upon the construc on this occasion was the question
tion of the order of council. That whether this was a case of declared
order stated, that during war the war, or only, till the time of the
commencement
GENERAL H’ISTORY. [37
commencement of hostilities, of would be graciously pleased to
a threatening armament? It was give directions, that the lords
decided in favour of the ministry, commissioners of the Admiralty
but by a majority considerably may be reduced to such a number
less than their usual numbers. as the exigencies of the public
Lord Milton's motion was de service may actually require."
feated by 169 to 114. This motion being evidently,
as the hon. baronet acknowledged,
MOTION RESPECTXNG THE LORDS
a trial of strength between the
OF THE ADMIRALTY. parties, it was 'argued chiefly up
On February 25th Sir Matthew on that ground ; the ministers and
W. Ridley rose to move an address their friends strongly resisting
to the Prince Regent, requesting any further attempts to limit the
him to remove such of the lords power of the crown; whilst it
commissioners of the Admiralty as was still considered as abundantly
could be spared without detriment too high in the nation at large, by
to the public service. After some the advocates for independence
observations respecting the former , The previous question being put,
conduct of government, when the House divided, when a majo
they were prodigal in their pro rity appeared for the ministers oi
mises of economy, and as prodigal 208 to 152.
in their waste of the public money',
he said that he did not expect MOTION ON THE PUBLIC INCOME
AND EXPENDITURE.
much from the measure he now
proposed, but it would be laying Lord Castlereagh, on February
the foundation of a system of re 7th, began his motion by causing
duction by which the undue in the clerk of the H ouseof Commons
fluence of the ministers might be to read such part of the speech of
abridged. He then went through the Prince Regent as was particu
a cursory view of the formation larly addressed to that House, and
and progress of the navy-board ; which referred to the distress con
and having attempted to shew that ‘sequent upon the war, and his
the present number of six lords of > own confident expectation that at
the Admiralty was much beyond no distant period the native energy
the wants of the otlice now that of the country would enable it to
the number of seamen was re surmount its (lifiiculties.
duced from 140,000 to l9,000, he The time, said Lord C. was
concluded with the following mo now come, when the House ought
tion : “ That an humble address to consider what would be a pro
he presented to his royal highncss per permanent system for a peace
the Prince Regent, to Ppresent establishment; and be trusted
to his royal highness, that his that gentlemen would bring to the
Majesty's faithful Commons, re subject that combination of firm
lying upon the gracious disposition ness and wisdom which they so
of his royal highness to make eminently exhibited in the course
' every reduction in our establish of that arduous contest in which
ments which the safety of the em Great Britain had been so long
pire and sound policy allow, hum involved. The House would go
bly pray, that his Royal Highness along with him when he. laid down
. as
as] ANNUA L REGISTER, 1.817.
as an incontrovertible maxim, that the number of the government
no country, especially one so much troops in India to be reduced from
involved in debt, could consider 20,000 to 17,000. In the esti
its prosperity in time of peace es mates there would appear a sum
tablished on a firm foundation, of 220,0001. to be provided for On
unless its expenditure was reduced account of regiments which had
not only to the level, but below not yet returned from abroad, but
the level, of its revenue. ' were on their way home, and in
It was not his intention to go a course of reduction. The whole
minutely through the several heads of the army estimates, with
of expenditure in the different certain contingent expenses, and
branches of our establishments that of the militia, would amount
for the present year; but he was to 7,050,0001. ; to which the com—
desirous to state, that in order to missariat in Great Britain will add
prevent the House from being 500,0001. The barrack establish
fettered by the votes which it ment has been reduced from
might be necessary to call for, 178,000 to 70 or 80,000. The
they would not be required to fur army extraordinaries for this year
nish sums for more than some will be 1,300,0001. Total charge
months, so that the public service for the army 9,230,0001. For the
might be carried on in the mean navy, the House had last year
time. To this circumstance, after voted 33,000 men, of which, as
some general observations, his 10,000 were in the progress of re—
lordship now proceeded. duction, it was understood that
He first requested the attention only 23,000 would be the perma
of the House to the subject of the nent establishment for the pre
army expenditure. The number sent year. But upon further con
of the land forces during the last sideration, it has been determined
year, (excluding those in France that a larger reduction was prac
and India, which were otherwise ticable, and 19,000 men have
provided for) was 99,000 men, been proposed as the vote of the
namely 53,000 for the home ser present year. The reduction of
vice, and 46,000 for the foreign the wear and tear, ship-building,
establishment. This was to be and other expenses, would, of
reduced in the present year by course, be very considerable. On
18,000; that at home by 5000, the whole,the aggregate ofcharges,
and that in the colonies, &c.lby comprehending all the various
13,000 : and thus the comparison branches of the public service, will
between the two years would stand stand thus: ‘
from 99,000 to 81,016. The total Army,. . . . . . . . :5 7,050,000
number for which a vote had been Commissariat and
taken in the former year was Barracks . . . . . 880,000
150,000 men ; and the total num Extraordinaries 1 ,300,000
ber for this year would be pro Ordinance. . . . . . . 1,246,000
posed at only 123,000. The reason Miscellaneous.
Navy . . . - . . o ,- .1 .s - 1,500,000
for this was, that by the conven
tion with France the number of
our troops there was to be reduced Gross total of charge 18,373,000
from 30,000 men to 25,000 5 and
This
GENERAL HISTORY. [39
This was the sum which. his times, he begged that they would
Majesty's ministers would pro always separate the charges which
pose to the House for the service were wholly unconnected with the
of the present year; but it would service of the present year.
be unfair to themselves not tode- . The right hon. member then
sire them to distinguish between passed an eulogium on 'the Prince
those items which might be. more Regent, who had resigned to the
durable, from those which, al public about a fifth of his whole
though voted for the present year, receipts, namely, fifty thousand
would in all probability not again pounds; and he stated that the
recur. For the army, for ex public servants of the crown were
ample, the sum of 220,000]. was also anxious to ofier their assist
for the purpose of defraying the ance by contributing what the
expense of regiments all which property-tax, had it been con
were actually in a progress of tinued, would have taken from
reduction. The extraordinaries, them. In conclusion, he proposed
as well as could be anticipated, the formation of a select cOmmit
would be reduced by 300,0001. tee to inquire into and state the
and the ordinance by 50,0001. In income and expenditure of the
the navy, he had stated, that united kingdom for the year ended
500,000l. of the sum proposed to the 5th of January, 1817; and
be. voted was for the liquidation of also to consider and state the
a transport debt. These several probable income and expenditure
items added togetherwould amount (so far as the same can now be
to 1,070,0001. which would di~ estimated) for the years ending
minish the future charge of the the 5th of January, 1818, and the
year to the same value. ~ 5th of January, 1819, respectively;
There was another view of the and ~to report the same, together
subject which he was desirous that with their observations thereupon,
the House should take—that be to the House; and also to con
tween charges which were for sider what‘ further measures may
services that had been performed, be adopted for the relief of the
and charges for services still to be country from any part of the said
performed. He had already stated expenditure, without detriment to
that the army estimates contained the public interest."
a sum of 2,551,0001. for services Mr. Brand said, that with re-,
that had actually been performed. spect to the first part of the noble
If charges of the same kind were lord’s motion he had nothing at
separated from the navy estimates, present to observe; but as to the
they would amount to 1,271,0001. second part, he thought that
Those in the ordnance service when, at such a conjuncture as
were 2‘28,00()l. ; and the three the present, the House was about
services put together would a to inquire what reductions ought
mount to 4,045,0001. \Vhen the totake place in the public expen
House was therefore occupied in diture, placemen and persons
contemplating the great existing holding siuecure-ofiices ought not
charge of the army and navy, to be on the committee. He should
compared with those of former therefore move as an amendment,
“ That
40] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
“That the select committee to be had therefore repeatedly supported
appointed, should inquire into the propositions brought forward
what reductions since the year by his friend the member for Corfe
1798 had taken place in the salaries ('astlc (Mr. Bankes). The system
and emoluments of the different was peculiarly liable to the charge
persons holding public oflices, and of'favouritism; and another strong
to consider what farther measures obiection to it was its being grant
might be instituted for further re— ed in reversion, which always ap
ducing the expenditure of the peared to him a great abuse. It
country." might be objected, that no great
The Speaker having suggested savings would result to the public
to Mr. B. that it would be neces from the abolition of those offices.
sary for him first to more, by wny The present savings indeed could
of amendment, that the second not be much, because it was ne
part of the noble lord's motion cessary that good faith should be
should be omitted, he shaped his kept with those who had vested
motion accordingly. interests; but in the course of a
After a considerable number (If few years a material benefit would
members, had given their opinions, be effected. When the committee
M r. Brand's motion was put, and recommended that certain offices
was negatived by 210 to UT. should no longer be sutfered to
exist, it was necessary that they
REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE,
should point out some other mode
The names of the members of by which his Majesty Could rc
the committee was at length ap ward meritorious services. With
pointed, when they slood as fol this view a system was recom
lows: Lord Castlereagh, Mr. mended, which, under certain re
Bankes, Mr. Tierney, the Chan strictions, would answer every
cellor of the Exchequer, Lord purpose. He alluded to the grant
Binning, Mr. Boolle Wilbraham, ing of pensions for services per
Sir John Newport, Mr. Peele, formed, the time during which
Mr. Hurt Davis, Sir George Clerk, individuals had occupied their
Mr. Frankland Lewis, Mr. Hus offices being one of the criteria by
ltinson, Mr. Tremaine, Mr- Ni which the crown was to be guided
cholson Calvert, Mr. Davies Gil in rewarding the exertions of pub—
bert, Mr. Cartright, Mr. Holford, lic officers. if the committee
Mr. F. Littleton, Lord Clive, Mr.‘ agreed to the motion with which
Gooch, Sir T. Ackland. he should conclude, namely,
On May 5th, the first report of "That the chairman should be
the Finance Committee, relating directed to apply to the House for
to the Abolition of Sinecures, be leave to bring in certain bills for
ing laid before the House, Mr. carryin into effect the recom
Davies Gilbert rose to address the mendations contained in the re
committee. He began with ob port," they would then have the
serving that he had uniformly con— subject introduced to them in a
sidered the existence of sinecure more detailed shape. After some
places as a great blot and blemish further explanations, he moved
in the system of this country, and “ That the chairman be directed
to
I
GENERAL HISTORY. '[h
to move for leave to bring in a. by which the noble lord supported
bill to abolish the offices of the the measure. lts recommenda
\Vardens, Chief Justices, and Jus tions were, that it did not in the
tices in Eyre, north and south of slightest degree affect the influ
Trent." ence of the crown; that it ef
Lord Castlereagh began by say fected no economy; but that it was
ing, that although on a former adapted to the cure of the poison
occasion he had stated his objec ed public mind. To the noble
tions to the principle and object lord, therefore, he must confine
of a measure somewhat similar to his congratulations; and he was
the present, he was now willing the more decidedly of his opinion,
to give his support to that laid when he recollected the purposes
before them. The power of the for which the committee had been
crown, he admitted, had increased appointed. At the first part of the
since the war began ; but on the session the noble lord hurried
return of peace, though they forward, so that he superseded
could not be restored to the state the chancellor of the exchequer;
in which they were left before and at length came an investiga
1792, it had been more than pro tion of the difliculties and re
portionally reduced. The patron sources of the country. For three
age of the crown was by no means months, excepting three days,
excessive; for which reason he had the committee been occupied
would support the present mea with this subject, and the result
sure, because it did not bear upon of their long and painful investiga
the influence of the crown. His tion was this report. They had been
lordship then went into a severe going over the ground that other
criticism upon Mr. Bankes's bill, committees had trod before them,
which he charged with tending to and recommending paltry savings
augment the burthcns of the instead of executing the business
country, and with seeming to before them. After a number of
countenance the delusion which remarks, partly serious and partly
had spread through the people, sarcastical, respecting what had
who regarded sinecurcs as the and what had not been done by
chief evils of the nation. Motives, the committee, Mr. G. concluded
however, had grown up which by saying, that with respect to
induced him to favour the abo the present motion, he certainly
lition of sinecures._ It was very would not oppose it: it was to
desirable to correct the false ex him a matter of perfect indif
pectations which had been che ference, and as such he was per
rished, and the present measure suaded it would be felt by the
would have that efiect. It would people, whose delusion, according
not, indeed, be a great saving; to the noble lord, it was destined
but sinecures being bad in_ princi to remove.
ple, it would operate as a cure. to the
Several other members spoke in
impression which had gone abroad. the debate, which assumed much
_ Mr. J. P. Grant said that he of personal attack. Mr. Gilbert‘s
could not congratulate the House resolution being at length agreed
or the country upon the reasons to, he moved various other reso
' lutions
I 42]
ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
lutions for the purpose of carrying Mr. Calcrqft moved a clause,
into efl'ect the objects of the re " That any person who may ac
port. The House having resumed, cept apension under this act, shall
leave was given to bring in the vacate his seat in parliament."
several bills. The House divided upon this
.clause, when it was rejected by
JUSTICE! IN EYRE.
64 against Q7.
On May 19th, the bill for abo It was then moved, that the bill
lishing the offices of Justices in be read a third time to-morrow.
Eyre was moved to be read a se The House again divided, Yeas
cond time. It met with no other 75; Noes 20: Majority 55.
opposition, except a speech from In the House of Lords, on
Mr. Boswell, on the ground of his June 80th, the bills for the aboli
unwillingness to stripthe crown of tion of certain offices, and the
a power to reward public services; compensation for civil services,
and after a reply from Lord Milton, were introduced by the Earl of
the second reading was carried. Liverpool. His lordship, in his
At the same time a motion was speech on this occasion, recom
made for the second reading of mended the bills to the attention
another bill belonging to this class, of the House, on two principles;
entitled the Civil Services Com lst, That whatever regulation of
pensation Bill. Various objections this kind might be adopted, there
were raised to this bill, and the was a necessity for reserving to
House was divided, when there the crown the means of rewarding
appeared, For the second reading public services: 2dly, That these
105; Against it 45 : Majority 60. means should be at the disposal of
On the 6th of June, the order the crown. These principles, he
of the day standing for a commit attempted to shew, were suffi
tee on this bill, Mr. Calcmft said, ciently secured by the present
that if he knew of a better plan bills. As to the sinecures bill, he
of getting rid of sinecures, he said it was fit they should be given
would be ready, as a member of up, on two grounds—that the
the committee who had recom crown should have the power of
mended this bill, to adopt it 3 but rewarding services by direct, in
he knew of none. Considering, stead of indirect, compensation;
however, that by its provisions and that the abolition would do
the crown gave up 90 or 100,0001. away much of the unreasonable
and received back only 492,0001. prejudice existing on this point.
he conceived it to be a good bar He then stated to the House the
gain for the public. saving which would accrue to the
The House then resolved itself public from the measures now
into a committee, in which a con proposed.
versation took place on the several The bills were opposed upon
clauses of the bill. diti'erent grounds; and especially
The report was brought up on because they seemed founded upon
June 10th, when Mr. D. Gilbert a forced concession in which the
moved several clauses, which were ministers were induced to act in
agreed to. ' direct opposition to the interests
of
GENERAL HISTORY; fiS
of the crown. 'I‘heiirst bill being tary force, that he now asked for
offered for committal, a division leave to amend- the act. As the
took place, in which it was carried law at present stood, it Was ne
by Contents 27 ; Non-contents 7. cessary on the appointment of a
certain number of peace Officers,
IRISH PEACE PKESERI'ATION BILL. to create a superintendent magis-_.
On March 11th, 'Mr. . Peel asked trate, who should act as the ma
for leave to amend an act of the gistrate of the newly disturbed
54th of the King, for enabling district. To prevent this accu
the ldrd-lieutenant of Ireland to mulation of magistrates, he should
appoint superintendant magis propose, that difl'erent bodies: of
trates and constables in those dis constables belonging to difi'erent
tricts of Ireland which might be districts, should be allowed to act
come the scene of disturbance. under the same magistrate. He
The object of that bill was to sup should next propose, that the
ply a deficiency in the civil power, lord-lieutenant and council should
and to introduce something like have the power of apportioning
an effective police, instead of hav what part of the expense incurred
ing recourse on every occasion to by a disturbed district should be
a standing army. In the year paid by the inhabitants, and what
1814, when the right hon. gentle should come out of the public
man brought forward the measure funds. This last amendment would
which he now wished to amend, direct, that in all cases where the
he proposed that the lord-lieute act was introduced, an account
nant in council should have the should be laid before parliament
power of placing in disturbed dis of the expense to be defrayed by
tricts magistrates specially appoint the public, and also of the ap
ed, and copstables to assist them pointments made under it. IVith
in preserving the peace. This mea respect to the objections relative '
sure met with the almost unani to expense which might be urged
mous approbation of the House, against the bill, if it were said
and it was in three instances car that it would be better not to pay
ried into execution, where it was constables to preserve the peace,
found to produce a most beneficial but to leave it for the population
efi'ect. Under this act, the whole in general to exert themselves to
expense was to be defrayed by the keep the peace, he should answer,
disturbed districts; a mode of that such a system could not at
proceeding which might operate present be effectual; in which
very well in some parts of Ireland; statement he'would be borne out
but others were so poor and ex by every gentleman connected with
hausted, that they were unable to Ireland. He had further the sa
bear this expense, and it was tisfaction of being able to» state
therefore impossible to carry it that a considerable reduction was
into effect in those districts. It proposed to be made in the army
was to provide against the recur of that country. Instead of 25,000
rence of cases of this kind, and men, it would be reduced to
to render it, as far as possible, 22,000; and the seven brigades
unnecessary to employ the mili of ordnance which now consisted
of
4+] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
of 400 guns, would be brought of the laws in Ireland, by appoint
down to 9.00 guns. Thus a great ing superintending magistrates
expense would be removed; and, and additional constables in cer
what was much more important, tain cases."
a foundation would be laid of im Mr. Carew, Mr. Chichester, and
spiring the people with an habi Mr. V. Fitzgerald, expressed their
tual obedience to the law. approbation of the proposed mea
The right hon gentleman con— sure. Leave was then given to
cluded by moving, “ That leave bring in the bill; and there is no
be given to bring in a bill to notice of its being opposed in
amend the act 54 Geo. 3d. c. 131. either House.
to provide for the better execution

CHAPTER
GENERAL HISTORY. [u

CHAPTER 1".
Issue of Exchequer Bill: for local and temporary Relief—Mr. Tierney's
Motion renewed, for the Abolition of the Oflice of Third Secretary of
State for the Colonies—Roman Catholic Question.—Ilouse of Common:—
House of Lords.

zxcuscuex BILLS. In this last resolution there was a


difl'erence as to form, on account
N April 28th, the House of of some circumstances which he
Commons having resolved should afterwards explain.
itself into a committee for the The right hon. gentleman then
purpose of considering the best went into an explanation of his
mode of issuing exchequer bills plan. In former cases a special_
for the relief of temporary dis committee had been appointed to
tresses, the Chancellor of the E1: inquire into the existing distress;
rhequer said, that before he pro but in the present case such a
ceeded to explain the object of the plan was unnecessary, as the House
proposition which he had to sub was but too well acquainted with
mit to the committee, he Would the extent of the prevailing evil.
read the two resolutions in which The commissioners who were to
that proposition was comprised. have the disposal of this money
The first was, “ That it is the would particularly consider the
opinion of this connnittee, that influence that the prosecution of
his Majesty be enabled to direct any public work would have upon
an issue of exchequer bills to an the employment of the present un
amount not exceeding 500,000l. employed population. There were
to commissioners, to be by them a great variety of such works which
advanced towards the completion had already received the sanction
of public works, now in progress, of parliament, of which many
or about to be commenced; to parts were finished, but were use
encourage the lisheries, and to less until the whole were com
employ the poor in different pa pleted. To these the attention of
rishes in Great-Britain, on due parliament had been intended to
security being given for the re be called in a direct manner;
payment of the sums so advanced." but it was now considered that
The second was, “ That the lord it would be more beneficial if
lieutenant of Ireland be empow the money were placed at the dis
ered to advance out of the conso posal of commissioners quite un
lidated fund of that kingdom a connected with government. He
sum not exceeding £250,000]. for Would propose that those commis
the completion of public works, sioners should be empowered to
or the encouragement of fisheries, advance sums, by way of loans, to
in Ireland, under condition of re corporations and other bodies- for
payment in a time to be limited." the purpose of making harbours
or
46] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
or canals, or to trustees of roads, for the use of the allies, which
or to any persons engaged in pub amounted to no less than three
lic works now in progress, or a millions during the war. That the
bout to undertake them. The as general demand of goods for the
sociations for the encouragement foreign trade had not suffered in
of the fisheries would likewise be an equal proportion, he concluded
a Very proper institution to receive from the official value of the ex
aid. In Ireland it would not be ports of steel and iron from the
practicable to nominate a similar year 1814. From the persons best
commission without such a delay acquainted with the trade of the
as would defeat the purpose of the country, he thought that a loan
grant. It would be necessary to of 80 or 40,0001. t0 the manfac
enter into a correspondence with turers of Birmingham would be
that country to know what gen of material service in the present
tleman would, undertake a duty exigence. The right hon. gentle
which would entail some trouble man concluded with proposing his
without any prospect of reward. first resolution.
To avoid that delay, the sum ap Several members found it ne
propriated to that country would cessary to desire explanations from
be placed at the disposal of the _ the Chancellor of theExchequer re
lord-lieutenant. - specting difl'erent subjects; whilst
With respect to advances on the others were very doubtful whether
security of the poor-rates, he had any good would be the result of
never thought that any thing could his project. The resolution was,
be done towards the relief of the however, put and carried; as was
agricultural population by the loan also the second concerning Ire
of any such sum as he then pro land.
posed to advance. He was also On the 14th of May, the Chan
afraid that loans to the agricultu cellor of the Exchequer rose to
ral districts in aid of the poor move the order of the day, that
rates, would encourage the prac the House would resolve itself
tice of curtailing the fair wages into a committee, to take into
of labour, and supplying the de consideration the bill for'the Em
ficiency from such asource. When ployment of the Poor. He said
the bill came before the House he had introduced a considerable
there would be found clauses number of amendments into the
which would guard against such bill, which he thought would re
an idea. The advance to be grant move some of the objections raised
ed to parishes was never to ex to it. He would not at present
ceed the half of therlast year's enter into the merits of these
rate, and ,no advance was to be amendments, as a better oppor
made to any parish except where tunity would hereafter occur.
the rate was double the average of Some additional observations
the two preceding years. Speak were made upon the bill; after
ing of the particular distresses of which the report was brought up,
Birmingham, he attributed a com and a day was appointed for a
siderable part of it to the falling far-ther consideration.
oil“ of the supply of small arms 'On the 21st of May, on the
motion
GENERAL H I s T o R Y. [41
motion for recommitting this bill, that he had the previous sanction
various objections were made to of his Majesty‘s ministers ; for
its principle, which were replied a committee of their own appoint
to by its friends. The House then ment had been namedin the last year
went into a committee, and a by the lords of the treasury for pur
desultory conversation took place poses under which this subject par~
on its several clauses; The bill ticularly fell. They were confined
afterwards passed. in their operations to all ofiices
In the House of Lords it was created since the commencement
introduced by the Earl of Liver of the war in 1793. The office of
pool, who briefly stated its objects, third secretary of state had been
on June 10th. The Earl of Lau created in 1794 ; and how it could
derdale spoke against it, but no escape the notice of the committee
division being proposed, the bill was to him quite unintelligible.
was read a third time, and passed. All (the right hon. gentleman
It is observable, that when the said) that he had now to do, was
first mention was made of an in to make out a case strong enough
tention of introducing such a bill, to refer the subject to the exami
by the Chancellor of the Exche nation of a committee. The in
quer, the sum of money which he crease of colonies since 1792, was
spoke of proposing was between all that be had to meet. These
one and two millions. But the .were, in fact, nine in number, for
actual sum contained in his two‘ he would not include Heligoland,
resolutions amounts only to nor yet St. Helena. Four of these
7 50,0001. and it does not'appear were in the West Indies, three in
that any thing farther was re the East Indies, and two in the
quired. Mediterranean. Those in the
West Indies were nowise con
THIRD SECRETARY OF STATE FOR
nected with those in the East
COLONIE$
Indies, and neither of them with
those in the Mediterranean. His
On April 29th, Mr. Tierney rose proposal was therefore to make
to renew, in point of substance, over the four first to the home
though not of form, a motion re department; the three next to the
lative to the abolition of the office board of control, and (said he)
of third secretary of state for the they might add St. Helena, though
colonies, in which he had been de it would not give much additional
feated during the sessions of the trouble; as it might rather be
last year. He now intended to considered as a gaol under the
move for asubject;
into thatv committee
not,to he
inquire
said, care of the police of Europe.
Malta should belong to the foreign
that there were any doubts in his secretary. As to the Ionian
own mind as to the propriety of islands, he scarcely knew how to
abolishing the oflice ; but because speak, whether they were our own
he saw that in questions of this or not ; but he apprehended that
kind, he had not the smallest the nature of Sir Thomas Mait
chance of success in any other land's connexion with them was
way. One great inducement for not colonial, but purely political.
him to undertake this subject was, After various other observations
Q
‘ on
4s] ANNUAL REGlSTER. 1317.
on the subject, partly serious and but the fact was otherwise; for
partly sarcastic, he concluded by the war had only made a differ
moving, “ That a committee be ence of about 500 pages pcl‘
appointed to take into considera annum, and the remainder was
tion the business now remaining occasioned by the ordinary influx
to be executed by the secretary of of business. This difl‘ercnce, in a
state for the war and colonial de~ great degree, was imputed by the
partment, and to report their opi right hon. gentleman to the ox
nion, whether the continuance of tcnsion of education in every quar
the same be any longer necessary; ter of the empire, which has af
and whether the dutics performed forded to almost every person in
by the said department may with public life, the opportunity of ad
out inconvenience to the public dressing the diii'erent oflices of
service be transferred to any other government. It was this which
ofiices, and with what diminution had created the necessity for a.
of charge." third secretary of state, and had
Mr. Goulbum said, that the increased the public business be
period which had elapsed between. yond all former precedent.
the first institution of the colonial Mr. Wilberforce declared, that
department in [768 and 178?, from all he knew and heard of
would form a lit subject of com the office in question, it was ever
parison with that which had loaded with business; and such,
elapsed between 1802 and 1816; from what he understood, was
for which purpose he would take the case in the home department.
the pages of entry in the books of The House then should duly con
office as a fair criterion. In the sider, whether the business of
14 years of the first period, the the colonies would be exposed to
number of pages for twelve colo any neglect by acceding to the
nies amounted to 3139, giving an proposed arrangement. He was
average of about 2‘24 for ca h of opinion that it required an in
year. The same twelve colonies dividual of great consideration to
in the second period filled a num look after concerns so important
ber of pages amounting to 6098, to the public interests: a person
forming an average of about 4:45 who should hold a high station in
for each year; so that the quan the public eye. The saving of
tity of business in these colonies 12,000]. a year was, doubtless, a.
was nearly doubled. But if the serious consideration ; but the
whole business of the North Ame question was, whether the saving
rican colonies be added to that of of 12,000l. a year would not be
the twelve above stated, and op much too dearly purchased by
posed to each other in the two liazarding the good government
periods, the disparity would be of the colonies. it appeared to
found infinitely greater. The num him, that the superintendence of
ber of pages written from 1768 our colonial concerns should con
to l78‘2, averages 446 per annum; stitute the business of a distinct,
Whilst that from 1802 to 1816 efficient, and dignified depart
rises to l994. it might be sup ment.
posed that the increase in the latter Mr. Ponsonby, in allusion to the
period was occasioned by the war; last speaker, and the compliments
he
GENERAL HISTORY. [49
he had bestowed upon the mover having been applied to by the
of the question, said he was one Roman Catholics of Ireland to
who would give any thing to a bring their case under the consi
man but his vote. He proceeded deration of the House, he now
to say, that there was only one proceeded to discharge the duty
solid reason that could be urged he had undertaken. The resolu
against the present motion, and tion which he intended to move
that was, that the departments was the same which was carried
among which the business of the in l8l3, and does no more than
colonies was proposed to be di to pledge the House to examine
vided, were already over-worked , the penal laws, with a view to re
with their own separate concerns. lieve the Catholics, to give every
But none of those persons stepped security possible to the Protestant
forward to make such a declara establishment, and ultimately to
tion, because they knew full well satisfy all ranks and orders of
that the state of the case would men in the empire. He proceeded
not bear them out. After all to say, that the present question
(said he) what was the motion? was not about the means by which
Did it invite the House at once to securities might be elfected, but
abolish the office? All his right whether any securities whatever
Hon. Friend wanted was, that they will be received. There is a com
should go into an inquiry whether munication between the Pope and
they could save 12,000]. a year to the Catholic clergy, which must
the country. end either in incorporation with
After some other speakers had the see of Rome, or connexion
delivered their opinion on both with the government of Eng
sides. the House divided, when land ; and if the latter be refused,
there appeared, For the mo will be dangerous to the safety
tion 87, Against it 190: Ma of England.
jority 103. The right hon. gentleman, who
reserved himself for a reply, now
ROMAN CATHOLIC QUESTlON. moved, “ That this House will re
solve itself into a committee of
On May 9th, Mr. Grattan, on the whole House, to take into
rising to submit to the House of its most serious consideration the
Commons his motion on the sub state of the laws affecting his
ject of the Roman Catholic claims, Majesty's Roman Catholic subjects
moved that the petition of the in Great Britain and Ireland, with '
Roman Catholics of Ireland to a view to such final and concilia—
the House, presented on April 26, tory adjustment as may be con
"£16, should be read. This being ducive to the peace and strength
done accordingly, Mr. W. Elliot of the United Kingdom, to the
next moved, that the petition of stability of the Protestant estab
the Roman Catholics of England lishment, and to the general satis
presented on May the 21st, l816, faction and concord of all classes
should also be read; which was of his Majesty's subjects."
done. The motion having been se
Mr. Grattan then said, that conded and put from the chair,
‘VOL. LIX. ' AMT
50] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Mr. Leslie Foster rose, and after treated by the difierent powers of
stating the character of the two Europe, which he. borrov'ved from
parties into which the Irish Ca the Work of Sir J. C. Hippaley.
tholics were divided during the He concluded, _We have thus, Sir,
last year, he proceeded to show looked around Europe, and seen
what the conditions are on which Calvinists, and Lutherans, and
they seem now agreed. The no Roman Gatholics, and Christians
mination of the Bishops has for a of the Greek communion, agree
long time been as practically do ing in two propositions: first,
mestic as any possible arrange that the patronage of the higher
ment can make its When a see stations of the Catholic clergy
is vacant, -a recommendation is must be vested in the state, and
forwarded to Rome from lrelsnd, secondly, that the most vigorous
and .within memory not more superintendence must be exer
than two or three instances have cised over all their communica
occurred of any diihculty in con tions with the see of Rome. And
firming this choice. Lately, itis therefore, when the right honour
fluid, the persons .thus nominated able gentleman asks, whether this
inilljelond have been the 'coadjus country will continue to be the
tors of the deceased bishop, who only great nation that shall per
has been selected by the bishop in sist in intolerance, I say, that his
his life-time. The transmission question rather ought to be, whe
of the episcopal rank has there .ther this nation will determine to
fore, in practice, been a mere be the only one in Europe which
matter of testamentary bequest. shall consent to place the Roman
Some persons, it seems, now pro Catholic religion in a situation so
pose that the elections shall here free from all practical control, as
after hemade by the deans and to form a complete imperium in
chapters ; but if they should, will imperio within its bosom.
this made be either loss domestic, Mr. Yorke said, that the great
or more conducive to give satis dificulty he had always found of
faction to .s Protestant, than the bringing this question to a satis
spresenti - -T>he proposition of do factory result was the foreign in
,mestic nomination is distinctly fluence ; and no consideration
',3hi5.1—-m‘ :the Protestants and could induce him to yield in any
litholics having. each much to material degree to the petitions of
:Jgwehlind muchtogive up, the .the Roman Catholics, but the pros
Jfrotgtontsare to cede ,all that pect of security to the Protestant
Jotriaifls, and ithc, Catholics are to establishment from such an influ
Jpake, the single concessionof re ence. ln formerly giving his
maining exactly as they are,as the opinion 0n,this subject, he had
ground of being admitted ,to a always said, that he thought it could
.complete participation of poli onlylbe usefully. taken up when
-ticsl power. ' . the Pope was master of himself.
, After some discussion of the ,This. was now the case; and the
principle of the veto, Mr. L. E. question appeared to stand upon
proceeded to the consideration of more favourable ground with re
,thegmiuincrinwhiah the Pope is spect to any communications that
"I: might
It
GENERAL HI ST 0 R Y. [51
might be necessary with the holy done. “In order to understand
see; it also appeared to stand' exactly the proposed plan of do
more favourably with respect to mestic nomination of all future
the petitioners themselves. First, bishops, it was ne'cesSary that the
they stated themselves to be will House should know the proceed
ing to acquiesce in the form of ings which now took place for
the oath proposed to them in the filling a bishop's see when vacant.
bill of 1813. Secondly, as to the‘ The bishops'of the province in
nomination of bishops, it was,'in which he had been situated as
his opinion, necessary to take away sembled together, and having con
from the Pope the virtual nomi sulted with the priest of the vacant
nation of the Catholic bishops in diocese, named certain persons as
this kingdom; and if this plan fit, to be chosen by the Pope for
were adopted, he was not inclined the new bishop. It had been
to forebode more danger to the nearly the constant practice of the
church establishment from hence, Pope to choose the person whose
than from the elections without name stood first on the list ; but
the inteiference of government in there was no law to compel him
the church of Scotland. There to do‘so. It was to exclude the
was a third point not taken notice possibility of any such proceed
of in the Catholic petitions, which ing, and to render all future ap
appeared to him of importance pointments entirely those of the
with regard to security; which Catholic Irish priests and bishops,
was that of the regium exequatur, that it was now proposed that the
or regium placitum, which ad Pope should issue a concordat by
mitted the right of all govern which he should bind himself to
ments to inspect every bull, re appoint no person to be a bishop
script, orother document coming in Ireland, except such as should
from Rome, previous to publica be in the first place elected by the
tion, and of authorising it (except Irish clergy themselves. It was
in cases relating merely to points then proposed by the Catholic
of conscience) . in the same manner bishops to have the following pro
as in all the other states of Eu visions inserted in every bill.
rope, Catholic or Non-Catholic. [These were provisos stipulating
This, be supposed, would not be that no Roman Catholic clergy
objected to by any rational Roman man shall be elected a bish0p who
Catholic as a measure of security, is not a native of his Majesty's
to which he, for one, looked for dominions, and who has not taken
ward as an essential part of any an elective oath guarding church
future arrangement. and state from any future dan
Sir Henry Parnell returned gers.] As the Pope had commu
thanks to Mr. Yorke for his very nicated his readiness to give his
valuable, cordial, and conciliating consent to this plan of electing
speech 3 and he hoped to be able the bishops by a larger number
to satisfy him that the Catholics of clergy than had hitherto been
were perfectly willing to do all concerned in the nomination, and
those things which the right hon. also to grant the necessary con
gentleman required should be eordatum to bind himself to give
[ E 2] institution
52] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18l7.
institution to the person so elected, curity, he declared that he found
all possibility of foreign influ himself, as on former occasions,
ence in the appointment would bound in duty to support his right
be completely excluded, and the honourable friend's motion . He was
selection of a proper person would persuaded that the question could
be secured by the oath above not be otherwise got rid of. He
mentioned. saw no danger in the measure;
Mr. Webber in a long speech and he did not believe that the
gave a detailed view of all that quantum of power which it would
had occurred respecting the Ro give the Catholics Would enable
man ('atholics of Ireland, from them to do mischief, even if they
which he drew the inference, that were so disposed.
the measure now proposed is Mr. Peel, after some prelimi
utterly hopeless as a plan of nary observations, said, that there
conciliation. are two systems possible to he
Mr. Bathzirst, in speakingagainst adopted in Ireland, between which
the motion, said, that one of the we must make our choice: the
most extraordinary assumptions one is that on which we are act
in the arguments on this occasion ing at present, the other that which
was, that things were now brought we are called upon to substitute
to such a state, that some change in its place. By the first we give
must be effected in the laws re every toleration to the faith of
specting the Roman Catholics. the majority, but maintain that
This he denied in toto ,- and main of the minority as the religion
tained, that unless the House was of the state. We exclude them
prepared to overtum the funda from ofiices which are immedi
mental principles of the constitu ately connected with the govern
tion, it was impossible to accede ment of the country, admitting
to the concession called for. them generally to all other offices
Lord Castlereagh said, that one and distinctions. This system it
of the difliculties which attended is proposed to replace by another,
this discussion was, that it was which shall equally profess to
scarcely possible to adduce one maintain the religion of the mi
new argument or new topic which nority, as the established religion,
was not already exhausted on each but shall open to the Roman Cu.—
side of the question. At the same tholics both Houses of Parlia
time it was not the less necessary ment, and every office in Ireland,
that Parliament should, with all exclusive of that lord lieutenant.
convenient speed, deliver itself It will be my purpose to prove
from the agitation of this painful that the law we are now acting
subject. It was, however, to be upon is preferable to that which
recollected, that there was no pro it is proposed to substitute in its
bability that this question could room. Do not suppose (said Mr.
be laid asleep, by persisting in a P.) that I think that they consti
system of permanent exclusion. tute in the abstract 8. perfect sys
After the noble lord had delivered tem, or that l rejoice in the ex
his opinion with respect to the clusions and disabilities which
subjects of concession and se they induce. I regret that they
are
I
GENERAL HISTORY. [53
are necessary, but I firmly believe whom it is placed ? This is a sys—
that you cannot alter them in any tem which cannot last: depend
essential point for the better. upon it that it cannot. If you
Mr. P. then entered into an exa exclude the people from connex
mination of the existing laws, ion with their own state, they
with those meant to be proposed will in the natural course of
to supply their places, and in things attach themselves else
every instance he attempted to where. One part of the Irish po
show, that remaining just where pulation is morbid and excluded ;
we are is the only safe and solid another is unnaturally vivacious.
ground of defence. Let a new order of things mark
Mr. Gratlan made a concluding the times in which we live; and
speech with much force and ani let an immediate and efl'ectual ter
mation. He began with posi mination be put to any clandestine
tively denying that there was any intercourse between the Catholics
general disposition in the Catho and the see of Rome.
lics to obiect to any security ; for The right hon. gentleman‘s pero
what is for the good of the whole ration was to the following effect:
is for the good of the Catholic. “ When I see Britain grown up in
After pursuing this idea to a con to a mightyenipire; when I behold
siderable length, he said, some her at the head of the nations of
honourable gentlemen speak of the the earth ; when] contemplate her
constitution, the state, aml reli power and majesty; I own that I
gion, asropposite to the motion. am deeply astonished to find her
Let them state in what the dan descending from her elevation to
gers consist. Until they do so, mix in the disputes of sehoolmen
their arguments are of no avail. and the wrangling of theologians,
Without the foundation of facts who, while they seek for their
they prophesy consequences, for own purposes to torture their
the purpose of perpetuating dis countrymen, endanger the secu
qualifications on their fellow sub rity of their common country."
jects. The Catholic claims have The question being at length
now been agitating for nine-and loudly called for, there appeared
thirty years. They have gone For the motion 221
through every kind of considera Against it. 245
tion, and their interest doubles at
every discussion. In these dis Majority ‘24
cussions no doubt individual irri
tation has occasionally appeared, On May 16, the Earl qf Don
and poison has occasionally been oughmore rose in the House of
infused into the minds of the Irish Lords to move for a committee
population. Is this state of things to consider the petitions of his
to he allowed to exist any longer? Majesty‘s Roman Catholic sub
Are we to continue that sort of jects. He said, that he had caused
English connexion in Ireland, to be placed upon their lordships
which is called a settlement, and table twv petitions which he had
which must be defended by an the honour of presenting to the
army paid by the people over House during the last session, (1)111
t I:
54] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
the same subject. One of these the present practice, yet a great
was that of the Roman Catholic deal is given in confirming for
nobility and other respectable ever the principle of domestic no
persons of the laity; the other that mination. As to the veto, his
of the prelates and clergy of the lordship acknowledged he cannot
Roman Catholic church. Both of oifer that, since he certainly dis
these parties were equally desirous approves of it as a member of
of again ofl'ering their petitions Parliament, being convinced that
to the view of their lordships; it it would commit the Catholic
is necessary, therefore (said the prelacy and priesthood 'most eil‘ec
Earl) that the House should be tually to the Irish provincial go
perfectly aware that they have now vernment. He objected also to the
before them the whole Catholic payment of the Catholic church
people of Ireland, represented by by the- state, as a mode which
these, their humble petitioners. would destroy the just reward
His lordship proceeded to say, which they receive for their reli
that thinking, it his duty to ab gious labours. My measure, said
stain as much as possible from all his lordship, is a direct and abso
generalities, he should prefer lay lute nomination, which is what I
ing the case of the petitioners mean to propose if you shall be
before the Phase in the shape of pleased to go into a committee.
a refutation of ithose calumnies The Earl then answered those
with which they have been so in arguments which he found scat
dustriously loaded. In the course tered here and there in different
which he had chalked out for publications relative to the sub-‘
himself, the first objection which ject. In general they seemed to
occurred might seem rather to require little attention; but one,
suit the period when their lord which bears hard on the Pope
ships had gone into a committee. for his anathemas against sending
The Catholics 'might previously forth the Scriptures among Catho
be asked, “ What is your object? lics without a commentary, re
\Ve will not go into a committee to ceived a retort which, as respect
grope our way in the dark, and ing the Pope, appears unanswer
seek out principles for you." But able. If it can be shown (says
it appears from the public press his lordship) that reverend divines
that securities of a threefold na of high rank in this country have
ture have been deviSed; namely, held a similar principle, then this
domestic nomination; the secu act cannot be alleged against the
rity called the veto ; and the pay head of the Catholic church as an
me'nt-by' government of the Ca intolerant one. There are, my
tholic church. With respect to Lords, two members of that re
domestic nomination, the enemies verend ' bench who are most
of the Catholics say that this is no
strongly opposed to the system of
new security at all, for such has disseminating the Bible without
been the ancient-mode of electing a suitable comment. I wish to
Catholic'<~bis'hops almost without avoid any possible misrepresenta
an exception. But though this is tion, and to pay every mark of
- giving nothing new, looking to respect to the right reverend pre-
late
TGENBRA‘L HISTORY. [55
lite opptiliiteiniéj afidhav'e there' With moving, " That this Home
fore copied: from the pamphlet, as resolve itself into a committee
published by him oh the subject of the time House, 06 consider
of Bible societies, his awn wards. the petitions of his Majesty's Ro
The Words made use of by the man Catholic subjects.‘! .
right rev. Prelirte, (the Bishop of The speeches on each side were
Landalf) are these. “ But his upon the whole so similar to those
urged, if you sail require that the delivered in the House of Com
Bible, hovinerer eitensively you mqiis‘, that little addition by Way
may wish to distribute it; should of argument can be expected from
be accompanied by the liturgy; them. It may, however, vbe de'-_
you must certainly suspect that sirable to givia'view of what the
there is danger is the calamities Earl of Liverpool, regarded as the
chureh' froth the distribution (if prime-minister at this country,“
the Biblelalon‘e. ; Here let the ask, doiiside‘réd asthe leading point. '
whether the was itself is not _ Inuit dams (saw- his‘ lordship)
capable of perversion? Whether to the main question: Are the
the best of books rhay not he Cathdiiesentitied to enjoy pri'vi
misapplied to thegworst of pure ieges squat. ts these enjoyed bg
poses. -Have 'we' not inspired the members bf ms e'st'ablishe
authority for answering this ques religidn 2‘; it htli ‘beén well 653
tion in'the aflirrnativeP—But if serVed, that in pbimsr abstrset
we neglect to pr0vide the poor of principle, no description or per:
the establishment with the book sons can complain of uneqws'l pri=
of Common Prayer as well aswith vileges Who Voluntarily place
the Bible, we certainly neglect themselves in a Situation by which
the means of preventing their they forfeit their right to equal
seduction from the established privileges. I ask, not only as it
church. The dissenters remain afi'ects the Catholics, but as it
dissenters, because they use not afl‘ects every other body of dis
the liturgy; and churchmen will senters from the establishment ; do
become dissenters if they likewise they, when they require equal pri
neglect to use it with the people. vileges, oii'er equal conditions?
Have the persons to whom Bibles If they do not, can it be con
are gratuitously distributed either tended that there is any injustice
the leisure, or the inclination, or in distinguishing between them?
the ability, to weigh the argu I have always considered that the
ments for religious opinions ? Do civil establishment was necessa
they possess the knowledge or the rily interwoven with the church
iudgment which are necessary to establishment. This will be found
direct men in the choice of their a leading and unalienable princi
religion ? Must they not learn it, ple in the earlier periods of our
therefore, from their instructors? history. lt-.was the leading prin
And can there be a better in~ ciple at the period of the Revolu
structor, in the opinion of church tion, when the connexion between
men, than the book of Common the state and the church was so
Prayer?" lemnly rerognized. On that I
The Earl concluded his speech rest: to that I will adhere. The
moment
56] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
moment you throw open the door the first time that I have heard
to equal and general concession, the name of a thing prized beyond
and say that the only difference the substance. The noble Earl
between the churches of the dis argues in this manner. He thinks
senters and the churches of the that though the Parliament would
establishment is the ecclesiastical be substantially the same, great
establishment of the latter, that danger is to be apprehended if
moment you will cease to possess two or three Catholic representa
the means of maintaining what is tives should be admitted into the
essential to the security of your other House, and two or three
establishment. Parliament will Catholic peers restored to their
immediately cease to be a Protes hereditary seats in this House.'
tant parliament. Surely never did the wit of man
To this strain of reasoning, devise a danger more futile and
Earl Grey made the following imaginary than this!
reply. The noble Earl opposite The House being at length di
has stated one danger, but it is of vided upon Lord Donoughmore‘s
a nature somewhat unsubstantial, motion, the numbers stood as
although he earnestly calls your follows:
Lordships attention to it. It is, Contents, present . . 54
that if the Catholics shall be ad Proxies . . . 86
mitted into full participation of —-—- 90
the privileges of the British con Non-contents, present 82
stitution, the Parliament of this Proxies . . . 60
country can no longer be called ——l4‘2
exclusively a Protestant Parlia
ment. Really, my Lords, this is Majority against the
motion . . . . 52

(illAl‘
GENERAL HISTORY. [57

CHAPTER V.
Resignation of the Speaker, and subsequent Proceedings—Lord Sidmouth
circular Letter discussed in both Houses.

srzixsa‘s RESIGNATION. no further duty to perform than


to return my heartfelt acknow
N May 80th, the following ledgments to the House for all
letter was read from the the favours they have bestowed
Speaker of the House of Com upon me, and to express my fer
mons, addressed to Jeremiah Dy vent wishes for tht perpetual
son, Esq. deputy clerkoftheHouse. maintenance and preservation of
SIR, its rights, its privileges, and its
IT is with the sincerest con~ independence. lam, Sir,
cern and regret that I feel myself always most truly your's,
obliged to request that you will CHARLES Annor.
inform the House of Commons at Lord Castlereagh then proposed
their meeting this day, of my in that the House should adjourn
abilityfrom continued illness, to at till Monday next, when it was
tend any longer upon their service. probable they would receive a
After holding the high oifice to communication from the Prince
which I have been raised by that Regent on the subject—Ad
favour in five successive Parlia joul'netl.
ments, it is impossible that I On June ‘2, there being an un
should resign so honourable and usually full attendance of mem
distinguished a situation without bers, Lord Castlereagh rose, and
feeling the deepest gratitude for said that he was commanded by
the constant kindness with which the Prince Regent to acquaint the
they have been pleased to accept House, that being anxious that
and assist my humble endeavours no further delay should arise in
to discharge its various and ar the progress of public business,
duous duties. he was desirous that they should
It was my earnest wish and immediately proceed to the elec
hope to have continued longer in tion of a new Speaker.
the service of the House, if such Sir J. Nicholl, addressing him
were their pleasures but the in self to the deputy clerk, then
terruption of public business which arose, and after paying a well
has been already occasioned by merited compliment to the Speak
my state of health, and the appre er, he presented the Right Hon.
hension of the same cause recur Charles Manners Sutton to the
ring, which might again expose choice of this House.
the House to the like inconve He was seconded by Mr. E. J.
nience, have made me deem it Litlteton. '
necessary that I should retire at Mr. Dickinson then rose to re
this time, and have left me now commend Mr. Charles Watkin
Williams
58] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Williams Wynn to the same post, adopted by the advisers of the crown
in which he was seconded by Sir on this occasion. No one could
M. W. Ridley. concur more willingly in a vote
The two candidates having paid of thiulks to Lord Colchester than
their proper respects to the himself 3 but why did the crown
House, each party proceeded to interfere to prevent the House
election, when Mr. Manners Sut from going further, and from ori
ton was chosen by 812 to 150. ginating any other reward which
On the following day the appro was due to his acknowledged me
bation of the Prince Regent was rits? His services had been per
signified to him by his Majesty's formedin that House; and from
commissioners in the House of it, therefore, ought their recom
Lords. pencev to proceed. It was not a
On the same day, Lord Castle matter 0f indifference that persons
reagh presented the following sitting in that chair should be
message from the Prince Regent. accustomed to look to the crown
“The Prince Regent, acting in for the reward of their exertions
the name and in the behalf of his in it. [Iliad the message been
Majesty, thinks it right to inform preceded by an address, every ob-l
the House of Commons, that hav jection would have been pre-,
ing taken into his consideration eluded ; but the services in ques
the eminent and distinguished ser tion were of that nature which,
vices of the Right Honourable for peculiar reasons, ought in the
Charles Abbot, during the long first instance to be fully recog
an eventful period in which he nized and appreciated by the
ha filled the situation of Speaker House.
of that House, has conferred upon Lord Castlereagh said, that the
him the dignity of a baron of the ri ht hon. person having been
united kingdom by the title of raised to the dignity of the peer
Baron Colchester, of Colchester, age, the ptnrport of the message
in the county of Essex; and the ought to be understood as inviting
Prince Regent recommends to the the Hpuse to make a provision in
House of Commons to enable him consequence of the title, and not
to make such provision for Charles of his services as Speaker. 7 H
Lord Colchester,,and for the heir , Mr.Pomonby was surprisedlat
male of his body who may next the nOble lord's explanation, who
succeed to the title, as shall under might find from the very Words, of
all the circumstances, be Judged the message, that it was, founded
just and reasonable." upon those services. .
Gnomes, P. R. After I several other observa
The Chancellor of the Exchequer tions, Mr. Wynn repeated his anq
moved, that the message of the xious wish that the motion should
Prince Regent respecting a pro be withdrawn, and another sub
vision for Lord Colchester be stituted that would meet the
taken into consideration on Thurs wishes of every member in that
day next. House.
Mr. Wynn expressed his asto The Chancellor of the Exchequer
nishment at the mode ofproceeding admitted the candour of the hon.
member‘s
GENERAL H I STORY. {59
member's intimation. He appre mark of the royal favour upon
hended that it might ‘be the most Charles Lord »Colchester, late
satisfactory course that he should Speaker of this House, for his
withdraw the motion he had al great‘and eminent. services per
ready made, and give notice of his formed to his country during the
intention to move an address to long and important period 'in
the 'crown on this subject on which he has,v With such distin
Thursday next. guished ability and integrity, pre
The motion was accordingly sided in the chair of this House;
withdrawn. ' a ' and to assure his Royall-Highness,
On June 5th, Lord Castlereagh that whatever' expense his Rb’ya'i
rose in the House, and after a Highness shall think proper to be
handsome compliment to the late incurred upoii that account, this
Speaker, he moved, “ That. the House will make good the same."
thanks of this House be expressed Mr. Ponsonby said, that the
to the Right Hon. Charles Abbot, House Was already in one diffi
now Baron Colchester, for his culty, and he‘Was afraid that the '
eminent and distinguished services wording of the address was cal
during the long and eventful pe culated to produce another. The
riod in which he discharged the objection on' a former day was
duties of Speaker with a zeal that the' crotvn should be the first
and ability alike honourable to proposer of the grant; and they
himself, and advantageous'to the were now told that the crown
service of this 'House: that he ought to determine the amount. ‘
be assured that the proofs he has After some discussion upon this
uniformly given of attachment to matter, the motion was agreed to
his King and Country; the exem am. elm; -'
plary firmness with which he has The Speaker, on the next day,
maintained the dignity and privi reportedl‘LOrd Colchester’s answer
leges of this House; the ability, to the resolution of the House of
integrity, and unremitting atten Commons.
tion to parliamentary business, Lord Castlereagh then laid be;
which have marked the whole of fore the House the answer of the
his conduct; justly entitle him to Prince'Regent to their address,
the approbation, respect, and gra which Was to the following pur
titude of this House." pose:
This motion was agreed to, “ The Prince Regent has the
and the Speaker was directed to justest sense of the long services
communicate the resolution to and great merit of Charles Lord
Lord Colchester. ' Colchester, late Speaker of the
Lord Castlereagh then moved, House of Commons: and in the
“ That an humble address be name and on the behalf of his
presented to his royal highness Majesty has already taken the
the Prince Regent, to beseech his same into his consideration. The
Royal Highness that he will be Prince Regent is desirous, ‘ in
graciously pleased, acting in the compliance with the wishes of his
name and on the behalf of his Majesty's faithful Commons, to
Majesty, to confer some signal confer upon the said Lord Col
cheater
60] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
chester some further signal mark extension of the reversionary grant
of his favour; but as the same to the late Speaker, to two lives 5
cannot be effectually granted and which was negatived.
secured without the concurrence
of Parliament, his Royal Highness LORD sinuoura's Ls-r'rsa.
recommends to the House of Com Lord Sidmouth, on March 27,
mons the adoption of such mea 1817, sent- the following circular
sures as may be necessary for the letter to his Majesty's lieutenants
accomplishment of this purpose." of counties throughout England
On the 9th of June, the House and Wales.
having resolved itself into a com My bord,—As it is of the great
mittee to take into consideration est importance to prevent, as far
the Prince Regent's answer to as possible, the circulation of
their address, the Chancellor of blnsphemous and seditious pam
the Exchequer entered upon the phlets and writings, of which for
subject of the provision which it a considerable time past great
was desirable to allow Lord Col numbers have been sold and dis
chester. His proposal was, that tributed throughout the country;
Mr. Speaker Onslow having at 1 have thought it my duty to con
the beginning of this reign retired sult the law servants of the crown,
from the chair with an allowance whether an individual found sell
of 3000l. a year, the depreciation ing, or in any way publishing such
of the value of money since that pamphlets or writings, might be
time, and the extraordinary aug brought immediately before a jus
mentation of duty which the tice of the peace, under a warrant
Speaker had to perform, would issued for the purpose, to answer
render the addition of one thousand for his conduct. The law officers
pounds not too liberal a vote. He having accordingly taken this mat
accordingly moved a resolution to ter into their consideration, have
that elfect. notified to me their opinion, that
This was regarded as an over a justice of the peace may issue a
payment by several members ; and warrant to apprehend a person,
Mr. Tierney humorously said, that charged before him upon oath with
“as to the anxiety that had been the publication of libels of the na
talked of, the Speaker felt less ture in question, and compel him
than any man in the House, or to give bail to answer the charge.
perhaps was the only man entirely Under these circumstances, I
without anxiety: he existed in a beg leave to call your lordship‘s
sort of middle atmosphere. to bend attention very particularly to this
his head to one side or the other, subject; and l have to request,
and enjoy the fray." that if your lordship should not
Mr. Lambton moved that the propose to attend in person at the
words 3000l. ayear be substituted next general quarter sessions of
for 4000l. ; upon which the com the peace, to be holden in and for
mittee divided: For the amend the county under your lordship's
ment, 4'2; against it, l26. The charge, you would make knowa
original motion was then agreed to. to the chairman of such sessions
Mr. Sumner then NOW“ for an the substance of this communica
‘ tion
GENERAL HISTORY. [61
tion, in order that he may recom scarcely to be found in any other
mend to the several magistrates to instance, against the powsr as
act thereupon, in all cases where sumed by justices of the peace of
any person shall be found offend committing or holding to bail for
ing against the law in the manner a libel, his lordship took under
above-mentioned. his consideration the conduct of
I beg leave to add, that persons the secretary of state, in issuing
vending pamphlets or other pub his circular letter to the lords
lications, in the manner alluded lieutenants of counties, for the
to, should be considered as coming direction of the magistrates in the
under the provisions of the Hawk administration of the law. He
ers and Pedlars' Act, and be dealt held that such a direction to the
with accordingly, unless they show magistrates, not being a general
that they are furnished with a exhortation to vigilance and care,
licence as required by the said act. but a specific instruction as to the
I have the honour to be, &c. way in which they are to construe
SIDMOUTH. the law, would have been, even if
c To this circular letter was sub the law had been clear and undis
joined a copy of that of the two puted, a high otfence against the
law officers, the attorney and so constitution. The character of
licitor-general, signed W. German this proceeding, therefore, he did
and S. Shepherd. The substance not hesitate to call most unconsti
of it was, that a. warrant may be tutional; and he brought two
issued to apprehend a party charged 'strikiug instances to show the
on oath for publishing a libel, danger that might arise from it.
either by the secretary of state, a In conclusion, Lord Grey moved,
judge, or a justice of the peace. “ That the case submitted to the
On May lQth the subject was law-officers of the crown, &c. be
brought before the House of Lords laid before this House."
on a motion from Earl Grey. His Lord Ellenborough, after com
lordship stated, as the principal plimenting the noble earl for his
topic which he had to discuss, the very able and elaborate speech,
question whether any justice of which proved that he had con
the peace may be called upon, by sidered this important question in
any common informer, to decide all its bearings, said that he was
at once what is or is not a libel, by no means convinced from any
and upon his sole judgment and of the authorities he had cited,
authority commit or hold to bail that the law was difl'erent from
the person accused. The know what he had always considered it
ledge which he displayed on the to be, namely, that justices ‘of the
subject was very considerable; but peace can arrest and hold to bail
depending entirely upon the opi in cases of libel. He then called
nions given by different lawyers, to his support some of the gravest
and his comments upon them, it and most venerable authorities of
will not allow us to enter into the law which spoke expressly and
particulars. After he had brought explicitly on the subject; and
together a degree of cumulative affirmed that if, from the time of
proof which, he contended, was the revolution to the present dag,
l e
62] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18l7.

the practice were not sufiieient to added in fine, that he was ready
establish this point, there could be to avvw all he had ,done. and
no safe guide for any man in the ex would take upon himself all re
ercise of hisjudicial or legal duties. sponsibility for his acts, be the
Lord Erskine assured the House, consequences what they might.
that during the whole time that Earl Grey begged leave to detain
he practised at the bar, he never the House with a few observa—
had the least idea that it was com tions. When he came down to
petent'to a. common justice of the the House, he felt of course con
peace to arrest before indictment siderable distrustas to the correct
for libel; and he prayed them to ness of his opinions, knowing that
remember, that the libel act was he was to be opposed by the high
adead letter, if this was held to est legal authorities; but having
bellaw 3 that any justice of peace listened to the noble lords with
might overhaul collections of books the utmost attention, he must say
in any shop or library throughout that all that fell from them rather
the kingdom, and upon his own strengthened than weakened his
authority pronounce the sellers or own opinions; for he had never
possessors to be criminal, and send in his life heard any thing more
them by his warrants to prison. jejune and unsatisfactory than the
. ,Viscount Sidmouth said, that arguments of those learned lords.
when he had the satisfaction of He called for law. and they gave
hearing it proclaimed in the House him authority; he called for de
that the measure which he had liberate discussion, and they had
thought it his duty to adopt was given him bare assertions.
conformable to the opinion of the After some further remarks on
highest legal authority in the this subject, he came to the speech
gountry; when he found it con of the noble secretary of state
formable to the opinions of the (Lord Sidinouth), who, he said,
greatest text-writers on the law, with a tone of great self-satisfac
,also to the recorded practice tion had taken to himself the
of; all the most eminent law ser credit of stopping the progress of
vants of the crown ; he felt it blasphemy and sedition. He sup
would be presumptuous in him to posed that- the noble lords on his
attempt to add any weight to this side of the House were as little
masskof living and dead authority. friendly to blasphemy and sedition
There was, however, another point as the noble viscount; but the
on which he should think it a mat question was, whether the latter
tei‘,,of ',great self-reproach if he had not overstepped the bounds of
couldngt vindicate himself to their law, and endangered the consti—
loi'glship's. It seems that he stood tut'ion, which he boasted of saving.
before their lordships charged with The House at length divided,
having. used his best endeavours when the Earl’s motion was re
to stop-the progress of blasphemy jected by Non-contents 75 ; Con
and sedition. To that charge he tents 19 : Majority :36.
pleadedguilty; and while he lived 3 It was not till the ‘25th of June
shouldbqvproud to have such a that the same subject was moved
charge bmught against him. He in the House of Commons by Sir
Samuel
GENERAL. .HISTORY. [as
Samuel Romilly. He began with mous or seditious libel, but all
saying, that he should' not other such as. have been charged with
any apology to the‘ House for expressions considered as equiva
bringing under their notice the lent; for it is well known, that
Circular letter of Lord Sidiu'outh .;words spoken are punishable
.what he felt himself most disposed equally with publications bearing
to apologise for, was thath: had the same character. Thus by the
80 long delayed in callingmhie at 'command of any magistrate, how
tenti :n- of parliament'toihat ex ever prejudiced 'or indiscreet, a
traordinary letter.‘ , The Secretary person might be held to bail or
of State, by the letter in questionI se'ntto prison, on the oath of an
communicates to the magistrates informer. No newspaper, in any
in all the counties of England and part of the country, could criticise
Wales, that by consulting the .law the measures of ministers, or
officers of the crown, he had as render itself obnoxious to some
certained that they .had. a right to busy magistrate, without the
issue warrants for apprehending danger of exposing its author to
persons charged upon oath with imprisonment or expense without
publishing blasphemousor sedi trial. ’ The tyranny of the reign of
tious libels, and tobcompel them Charles II. could not be greater
to give bail to answer the charge. .than this. He then entered into
The letter itself admits that do'ubt the consideration of legal argu
had been entertained whether-the ments, upon which, however, he
magistrates. had such 0 wer; would not detain the House long,
and the minister takes upon him after the admirable discussion
self to solve the 'doubt, and to they had received by a noble friend
declare,- upon the anthority'of the in another place, and which was
attorney and \snlicitdr ' general, now in print. Having finished
what the law is. ! lWhat' \more that topic, he concluded with
dangerous authoritywVas ever as moving “ That an humble address
sumed by a servant (Kathe crown, be presented to his Royal High
than to pretend to interfere with ness the Prince Regent, that he
the magistracy by suggesting to will be graciously pleased to give
.them how the diseretiohlwhieh by directions that there be laid before
law is vested in“ them ‘should be this House, a copy of the case
exercised 2 fit upon which the opinion of the
After the learned member had attorney and solicitor~general of
forcibly dwelt upon this'topic,.'and
the date of the ‘24th of February
had taken a;historical view of the last was taken."
political state of the country, he " dThe Attorney General began
procceded to examine thislegal opi .with saying, that no parliamentary
nion of the law officers on which ground had been laid for the adop
Lord Sidmouth's circular was tion of the motion of his hon. and
founded. The magistrates would learned friend, nor could he con
have the power of committing or ceive of any which would warrant
holding to bail, not onlyevery man the House in calling for the pro
who should be charged on oath duction of any case which govern
with having published a blasphe ment might submit to the con
sideration
64] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
sideration of the crown lawyers. supported. Sir S. Romilly in his
He then in strong language dis reply took notice of the circum
claimed any purpose of gaining stance, and observed, that the
the goodwill of ministers by sacri suffering the question to go thus
ficing to their interests. No quietly to a decision, shewed the
clamour or calumny, he said, little value that was set upon cases
should ever restrain him from the of importance to the liberty of the
declaration of his opinion; and in subject. The motion was nega
this case he had no hesitation in tived ; after which Sir S. Romilly
stating his deliberate judgment, moved the following two reso
that a magistrate could legally lutions.
commit and hold a man to bail 1. “That it is highly prejudicial
for the publication of a libel. He to the'due administration of jus
then went through an examination tice, for a minister of the crown
of the principal cases which had to interfere with the magistrates
been adduced for the contrary of the country in cases in which a
opinion; and in applying his doc~ discretion is supposed to be by
trine to the power granted to jus law vested in them, by recom
tices of the peace in cases of libel, mending or suggesting to them
he said that of course he meant how that discretion should be
that the justice must see and read exercised.
the libel, and not decide it to be ‘2. “That it tends to the sub
such on the mere oath of any man. version of justice, and is a dan
It had further been alleged against gerous extension of the preroga
the circular letter, that the secre tive, for a minister of the crown
tary of state had interfered with to take upon himself to declare in
the due and regular administration his oflicial character to the magis
of justice. But in what way could tracy, what be conceived to be the
such interference prejudice the law of the land; and that such
ends of justice, when there was exercise of authority is the more
no denunciation of persons by alarming, when the law so declar
name, but only a general recom ed deeply ail'ects the security of
mendation to be vigilant with re the subject and the liberty of the
spect to the progress of an existing press, and is promulgated upon
evil P no better authority than the opi
With the exception of the So nions of the law officers of the
licitor-general, who rose in de crown."
fence of his colleague, the other The - Attorney-general having
members spoke in reprobation of moved the previous question, the
Lord Sidmouth's circular letter, House divided, Ayes 49; Noes
and the opinion by which it was 157 : Majority 108.

CHAP
GENERAL HISTORY. [65

CHAPTER Vl.

Prince Regent‘s Message to both Houses, and proceedings in consequence.

rnmce anceur’s massacre. been brought down from the


' N the third of June, Lord throne, he said that the hands of
Sidmouth presented the fol parliament were not to be tied up
lowing message to the House of for want of such a precedent. All
Lords. they were now called upon to do,
His Royal Highness the Prince was to pledge themselves to an
Regent, acting in the name and immediate consideration of the
on the behalf of his Majesty, has subject; with which view he
given orders that there be laid be should move, That the papers be
fore the House of Lords, papers referred to a committee of secrecy.
containing information respecting After some conversation among
the continuance of practices, meet the lords, the motion was agreed to.
ings, and combinations, in difl‘er Lord Sidmouth then proposed
ent parts of the kingdom, to to continue the same persons who
which, at the commencement of composed the former committee,
the present session of parliament, with the substitution of the Earl
his Royal Highness called the at of Talbot for the Duke of Bed
tention of the House, and which ford who was indispescd by ill
are still carried on in such a man health; which was agreed to.
ner, and to such an extent, as are Earl Grey said, that as the'
calculated to disturb the public learned lord on the woolsack had
tranquillity, and to endanger the so much business to transact in
security of the established consti the court of chancery, he would
tution of these realms. move that his name should be
His Royal Highness recom omitted for the purpose of intro
mends to the House of Lords to ducing that of the Earl of Roslyn.
take these papers into their imme The motion was negatived. and
diate and serious consideration. the committee as proposed by
Gannon P. R. Lord Sidmouth was adopted.
The message having been read, On June i‘lth the second report
Lord Sidmouth proposed an address of the secret committee of the
of thanks to thq Prince Regent, House of Lords respecting certain
which was unanimously agreed to. dangerous meetings and combina
Lord Sidmouth rose a second tions was presented to their Lord
time, and after observing that he ships by the Earl of Harrowhy.
was not acquainted with any in
stances on the journals in which Rama-r or run Saran-r CoM~
a committee was moved for on the mr'ras appointed to take into
same day on which a message had consideration the Several Papers
V OL- LIX. [F] sealed
66] AN NUAL REGISTER, 1817.
sealed up in a Bag, and deli it is uniform in its general result,
vered by command of his royal and it is corroborated by a strik
highness the Prince Regent. ing correspondence in many mi~
By the lords committees appointed nnte particulars.
to take into Consideration the This intelligence must be con
several Papers sealed up in a sidered as resting in many of its
Bag, and delivered by command parts upon the depositions and
of his royal highness the Prince communications of persons who
Regent, and to report to the either are themselves more or less
House; and to whom were re implicated in these criminal trans
ferred several other Papers actions, or who have apparently
sealed up in a Bag, also deli engaged in them, but with the
vered by command of his Royal view ofobtaining information, and
Highness:— imparting it to the magistrates or
Ordered to report, That the to the secretary of state.
committee have met, and proceeded The testimony of persons of
in the examination of the papers both these descriptions must always
referred to them. be in some degree questionable;
It is their painful duty to report, and your committee have seen
that these papers afford but too reason to apprehend that the lan
many proofs of the continued ex guage and conduct of some of the
istence of a traitorous conspiracy latter may, in some instances,
for the overthrow of our esta have had the etl'ect of encouraging
blished government and constitu those designs, which it was in
tion, and for the subversion of the tended they should only be the
existing order of society. instruments of detecting. After
The attempts of the conspira making, however, to the best of
tors have indeed hitherto been their judgment, all due allowance
frustrated by the active exertions for these circumstances, the com
of the government, and particu mittee are fully persuaded that the
larly of the magistrates in differ following is a correct and not ex
ent parts of the country, in exe aggerated statement of the result
cution both of the general laws of the information which has been
provided for the maintenance of brought under their view.
the public tranquillity, and of the The Papers relate almost ex
special powers recently given by clusively to the principal manu
parliament for that purpose; but facturing districts in some of the
the information contained in the midland and northern counties of
papers referred to the committee, England; and although the dis
leaves no doubt in their minds, afl‘ected in the country appear still
that the same wicked and des to be. looking to the metropolis
perate designs are still actively with the hope of assistance and
pursued. The information from direction, it is to the parts of the
which they have drawn this pain country above referred to that the
ful conclusion, appears to have more recent projects of insurrec
been collected from many various tion seem to have been confined.
sources often unconnected with The committee think it their
and unknown to each other ; but duty here to remark, that although
"I
GENERAL HISTORY. [67
in many of these districts parti committee has seen) been the only
cular causes of distress have no places where meetings have been
doubt operated to expose the convened and assembled suffici
minds of the labouring classes ently numerous to create imme
of the community to irritation diate apprehensions for the public
and perversion, yet they are per tranquillity. At a meeting which
suaded that this distress must for was convened there on the 8rd of
the most part be considered rather March for the purpose of petition
as the instrument than as the ing against the suspension of the
cause of disafi‘ection. In some of Habeas Corpus act, and where
the places where these practices several thousand persons appear
have prevailed, they believe the to have been assembled, it was
want of employment to have been proposed and agreed to that ano
less felt than in many other parts ther meeting should be held on the
of the kingdom; while in other following Monday, viz. the 10th of
places, where the pressure has March, with the professed inten
been perhaps most grievous, it has tion that ten out of every twenty
certainly been sustained with a persons who should attend it
spirit of patience, loyalty, and should proceed to London with a
good order, which cannot be too petition to his royal highness th
highly commended. And your Prince Regent. ‘
committee cannot refrain from ex The interval was employed in
pressing their opinion, that it is almost daily meetings of the dis
chiefly by the means pointed out affected, which were uumerously
in the report of the former com attended. The real intentions of
mittee, by the widely extended the leaders were there developed
circulation of seditious and blas to their followers in speeches of
phemous publications, and by the the most undisguised violence.
elfect of inflammatory discourses One of them avowed that he was
continually renewed, that this a republican and a leveller, and
spirit has been principally exeited would never give up the cause till
and dimmed—By these the attach a republican form of government
ment to our established govern was established. The people were
ment and constitution, and the told by others, that if their peti
respect for law, morality, and re tion was rejected, they must force
ligion, have gradually been weak it : that the large towns in York
ened among those whose situations shire were adopting the same
most exposed them to this destruc plan, and Would meet them on the
tive influence; and it is thus that road, or at least march at the
their minds have been prepared same time to London : that there
for the adoption of designs and was reason to believe that the
measures no less injurious to their Scotch were then on their march :
own interests and happiness than that they should be one hundred
to those of every other class of his thousand strong, when joined by
majesty‘s subjects. the people of other manufacturing
Since the period of the former places upon the road ; and that it
report, Manchester and its neigh would be impossible for the army
bourhood have (as far as your or any. thing else to resist them.
[F 2] These
as] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
These speakers appearin a few in merous an assemblage was to have
stances to have been checked by passed; and which, if prosecuted
to its full extent, must have led
some of their associates, but their
sentiments were for the most part to consequences highly dangerous
received with strong marks of ap to the public tranquillity.
plause and concurrence. The discomliture of this attempt
Arrangements for the march does not, however, appear to have
were also pointed out at these materially discouraged those who
meetings. It was recommended had planned it: their measures
to those who intended to join were uninterruptedly pursued.
in it to provide themselves with \Vithin a very short time after
blankets, shoes, and knapsacks, as this failure, fresh meetings were
well as with money and food. held in smaller numbers; they
Those who remained to work were were composed, either wholly or
to assist with their subscriptions. in part, of delegates from the
Every ten men were to choose one neighbourhood of Manchester,
for aleader; and one was to be from the borders of Derbyshire,
set over every hundred. Strong and from the manufacturing dis
intimations were also given of the tricts of Yorkshire. At some of
propriety and necessity of their these meetings reports were made
providing themselves with arms ; of the quantity of pikes, or fire
but these do not appear to have locks, and of bullets which could
been acted upon, except perhaps be provided for the intended rising.
in a few instances. Communications were held about
On the 10th of March the pro this time with Nottingham, Shef
posed meeting took place, to the field, and Birmingham, by dele
amount, as is supposed, of from gates, who were to give intelli
10,000 to 12,000 persons at the gence of the plans in contempla
least. Although some of their tion, to excite the people of those
leaders had been previously ar places to similar attempts, and to
rested, and others were appre— ascertain the state of preparation
hended on the spot, the purpose to which they had advanced. In
was not abandoned; and large these proceedings the pretence of
numbers of these deluded people parliamentary reform appears to
marched off towards London. have been almost, wholly dis
A considerable body of them carded; they evidently point to
was stopped on the road to Stock nothing short of revolution; and
port: some hundreds are stated it affords a dreadful proof of the
to have passed through Leek: and extent to which the minds of many
one party proceeded as far as Ash of those who attended these meet
bourne; but the activity of the ings have been inflamed and cor
magistrates in dispersing the meet rupted, that in public speeches
ing, and in stopping the progress the necessity of doing away with,
of these bodies, effectually pre or disposing of (as they term it),
vented the execution of a design, the persons most obnoxious to
which could not probably have them, has often been openly and
failed to disturb the peace of the unreservedly announced ; and that
counties through which so nu on one occasion it is stated to have
been
GENERAL HISTORY. [69
been proposed, that Manchester to the proceedings of the disaf
should be made a Moscow, for the fected in that quarter; and all
purpose of strengthening their the subsequent intelligence which
cause, by throwing numbers of the committee has seen from thence
people out of employment. continues to be of a more favour
It was on the night of the 30th able character.
of March that a general insurrec During part of the month of
tion was intended to have com April an intermission appears in
menced at Manchester. The ma~ deed to have taken place gene
gistrates were to be seized; the rally, at least of the more open
prisoners were to be liberated; proceedings. Public meetings in
the soldiers were either to be sur large bodies could no longer be
prised in their barracks, or a cer convened, except under the regu
tain number of factories Were to lations of the recent act of par
be set on fire, for the purpose of liament. Numerous meetings of
drawing the soldiers out of their societies have been less frequently
barracks, of which a party sta held in public-houses. In some
tioned near them for that object districts clubs have been dissolved 5
were then to take possession with in others their meetings have been
the view of seizing the magazine. suspended, or have been held in
The signal for the commence— private houses, or in places remote
ment of these proceedings was to from observation. The neces
be, the tiringot' arocketorrorkets; sity of greater caution has been
and hopes were held out that felt and inculcated; communica
2,000 or 3,000 men would be tions by writing have been dis
sufficient to accomplish the first eountenanced; the concealment
object, and that the insurgents of the names of leading persons
would be 50,000 strong in the has been recommended; and it
morning. has been thought better that a few
At this period, and in other persons only should he. intrusted
parts of these proceedings, there with their plans, and should give
are traces of an intention to issue notice to the different delegates
proclamations, declaring the king's to have their partizans in readi
subjects absolved from their alle ness to act when required and as
giance, and denouncing death directed. These delegates ap
against all opposers ; but the com pointed from various places have
mittee have not found any e\i met in small numbers, and thus
dence of the actual preparation of kept up a general but verbal cor
such proclamations. respondence among the disafl'ected.
This atrocious conspiracy was Towards the end of April, and
detected by the vigilance of the during the month of May, this
magistrates, and defeated by the correspondence appears to have
apprehension and confinement of been carried on with increased
some of the ringleaders a few activity. As early as the fifth of
days before the period fixed for its that month a meeting is stated to
execution. The timely prevention have been held in one of the prin
of this desperate attempt appears cipal towns of the west riding of
to have given a considerable check Yorkshire, and to time been at
tended
’70] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
tended by persons calling them The latest intelligence from
selves delegates from other prin those quarters had made it highly
cipal towns of that district; and probable that the same causes
also from Leicester, from Bir which have hitherto thwarted the
mingham, and from Nottingham. execution of these desperate de.
At this meeting reports were signs, viz. the vigilance of govern
made by the difi'erent delegates of ment—the great activity and in
the strength which could be col telligence of the magistrates—the
lected from the districts which ready assistance afl'orded under
they represented. The numbers their orders by the regular troops
were stated as very large; but and yeomanry—the prompt and
the committee are well aware of efficient arrangements of the offi
the exaggeration to be expected in .cers entrusted with that service—
such cases. It was about this the knowledge which has from
time that the period for another time to time been obtained of the
general rising appears to have plans of the disaii‘ected, and the
been fixed for as early a day as consequent arrest and confinement
possible after the discussion of an of the leading agitators, would
expected motion for reform in occasion a still further postpone
Parliament. Nottingham appears ment of their atrocious plans.
to have been intended as the head Subsequent intelligence leaves no
quarters upon which a part of the doubt that the plan, in its full
insurgents were to march in the extent, has for the present been
first instance. They Were ex frustrated ; but the correctness of
pected to be joined there, and on the information which had pre
their march towards London, by viously been obtained has been
other bodies with such arms as confirmed by the recent appear
they might have already provided, ance of bodies of men in arms at
or might procure by force from the precise period which is stated
private houses, or from the dif to have been fixed upon, and par
ferent depbts or barracks of which ticnlarly in one of the districts,
the attack was proposed. which had latterly been repre
At various subsequent meetings sented as determined to act with
at different places, reports are out waiting for a general insur
stated to have been made of a. rection.
great increase of numbers, so The committee think it highly
great that it was said on one oc important to state, that the reports
casion that they were obliged received from many Qf the most
daily to extend their divisions, active magistrates, and'from per
and enlarge their committee. sons whose stations, both civil
Concurrent information from and military, have enabled them
many of the quarters from whence to collect the most extensive in
these delegates were said to be formation, and to form the most
deputed, confirms the expectation accurate judgment as to the state
of a general rising about the timeof the country, concur in attri
above mentioned, and states its buting in a very considerable
subsequent postponement t0 the degree the disappointment of the
ninth or tenth of June, for which attempts already made, and the
various reasons were assigned. hopes of continued tranquillity, to
the
GENERAL Hrsroavt [1'1
the actual exercise of the powers which had been reported to the
which parliament has entrusted to committee, and had induced them
the executive government, and to to lay their discoveries before the
the etl'ect of the known existence House. Having descanted upon
of such powers ready to be called the accumulated proofs that there
into action when necessity requires still subsisted very dangerous de
it,—and in representing the dan signs in ditl'erent parts of the coun
ger which would threaten the try, he said, that all which he
country were those powers to be asked was the adoption of the mea
withdrawn at the present moment. sure now proposed, if their lord—
And the committee feel that they ships would agree with him in
should ill discharge the trust re thinking it essential for the pre
posed in them if they did not servation of the constitution. In
declare their own entire agreement those places where the schemes of
in this opinion. With the fullest the conspirators had been most
confidence in the general loyalty advanced, the act had been put in
and good disposition, not only of execution, and the leaders were in
those portions of the kingdom custody, by which means their
which have hitherto remained in atrocious designs were defeated;
a great degree untainted, but of and government had received in
by far the most considerable part formation from Manchester and
of those very districts which are otherplaces, that they should gréat
the chief scenes of the operations ly deplore the withdrawing of
of the disaffected—a confidence these powers at the time they were
which very recent experience has most wanted. His lordship con
satisfactorily confirmed—they can cluded with moving, that the bill
not refrain from submitting to for continuing the suspension of
your lordships, as the result of the Habeas Corpus Act be now
all the information they have re read a second time,
ceived, that the time is not yet ‘ Lord Erskine asked, \‘Vhat Were
arrived when the maintenance of the causes of that disturbed state
the public tranquillity, and the of the country which was the sub:
protection of the lives and pro ject of the first report, and of the
perties of his majesty's subjects, renewed one now before them?
can be allowed to rest upon the The causes were nianifest in the
ordinary powers of the law. universal distresses of all classes
The order of the day for conti of people from the stagnation of
nuing the suspension of the Habeas trade and manufactures, increased
Corpus Act being read on the 16th and embittered by a devouring
of June in the House of Lords, revenue; and in the direction of
Lord Sidmouth rose, and after the public mind under the pressure
mentioning that the ministers of of such calamities, because the
the crown had been disappointed in people in their turns, when look
their hope of closing the operation ing to the removal of such dis
of the bill with the session of par tresses, examined the chase of
liament, and had thought it ne them, which they attributed to
cessary to propose a new enquiry, their not having that share in the
he went over the several facts public councils which they thought
themselves
72] ANNUAL REGISTER, lSlT.
themselves entitled to in the really ridiculous to decry the em
theory of the constitution. They ployment of such instruments un
might, said his lordship, be mis der such circumstances. That prac
taken in this reasoning, but it was tice was even more necessary now'
unjust to brand it as hostile to than on any former occasion, es
the government, when it had been pecially in 1798, for the secrecy
over and over again maintained in and caution of the conspirators
parliament by the most illustrious were so much greater.
statesmen, that a reform in the Earl Grey, touching upon the
representation was the only possi argument in his speech on the op
ble security for our invaluable posite side of the question, said that
constitution. This alone had been he had thought that this practice
the object of every one of the nu had been condemned by orators
merous meetings which had so and statesmen, and by great men
much alarmed his majesty's mi of every age and nation; that it
nisters, and which they had taken was a practice. sanctioned only by
such violent and dangerous mea the most despotic governments;
sures to suppress. that it poi=oned the sources of
Speaking of the suspension of confidence between man and man ;
the Habeas Corpus, his lordship and was destructive of domestic
said, the House might depend happiness and individual security.
upon it, and he spoke from an ex He regarded the employment of
perience which scarcely ever he such engines as the great distinc
longed to any other man, that the tion between a free and a despotic
administration of justice, instead government; but if these men,
of being strengthened by it, was sent to penetrate into the. designs
sure to suffer in the extreme from of others, were to impel them to
the odium attaching even upon the commission of crimes, what
just prosecutions; and govern must be the state of society to
ment might lay its account with sanction such a proceeding? He
being completely foiled in every was himself persuaded that these
attempt to produce order and obe disturbances might have been put
dience by judicial trials, as long as down without the use of any such
the Habeas Corpus Act remained means; and he lamented to see
suspended, and other measures of in that House, as well as in the
distrust and coercion were in other, and in the whole commu
force against the whole mass of nity, a sort of apathy and disre
the people. gard of the conduct of ministers,
Lord Redesdale, in his speech in and a disposition to fly to force as
favour of ministers, observed that a cure for those evils for which
a great deal had been said about the law had appropriated milder
spies and informers, and the in and more efficacious remedies.
famy of employing such charac The Earl QfLiverpool said, that
ters. But he would ask, whether the real question was, whether
in the history of the whole world there did not exist, in the judg
an instance of the detection of a ment of that House, an organized
conspiracy of this kind could be conspiracy for Overturning the
found but by such means. It was government, ,ln fact, it was not
confined
GENERAL HISTORY. ‘ .[73
confined to one town, one. county, observations particularly remarki
or one district. It pervaded seven able. The third reading was tarL
or eight counties; and the disaf ried by I ‘
fected were acting by associations, Contents, present . . . 73
by correspondence, and by send Proxies . . . . . 68
ing delegates from one meeting to
another. With respect to the em 141
ployment of spies, he affirmed,
that whatever might be the lan Non-contents, present ‘20
guage of orators or writers, the Proxies . . . . . . l;N
fact was, that in practice this wea
pon had always been employed. 37
He allowml that considerable dif
ficulty existed in the application Majority . : . . . 104
of this principle; but it was al On June 5th, Lord Castlereagh
most impossible, without such presented to the House of Com
means, to secure the information mons a message relative to se
necessary for the publie,tranquil ditious meetings, expressed in the
lity. He then resorted to the pe same terms as that sent to the
culiar character of tire present dis House of Lords, with a bag of
turbances, and concluded with papers accompanying it. His lord~
calling upon their lordships, in ship said, that he should now con
the name of eternal peace, of good fine lrimself to a motion of thanks
order, and of security and liberty, to the Prince Regent, assuring
to adopt the proposed measure. him, that the House would take
Some further observations were the papers into their immediate
made by difl't-rent lords, which it and serious consideration. After
is unnecessary here to repeat. The this motion was disposed of, he
question being at length called for, should submit that the papers
the resultwas, for the second read should be referred to aselect com
ing of the bill, mittee, to be confined to the some
Contents, present . . 109 persons as were members of the
Proxies . . . . . . 81 last, except the late attorney-ge
neral who had ceased to be a
Total 190 member of that House; and in
his stead he would propose the pre
Non-contents, present ‘27 sent solicitor-general. -
Proxies . . . . . . ‘23 Lord Castlereagh's first motion
being agreed to, he next moved
Total 50 for referring the papers to a com
mittee. Lord Folkestone moved,
Majority 140 by way of amendment, “ to ex
On June 19th, the third reading amine and arrange the same, and
of this bill was called for in the to report the substance thereof to
House of Lords. Several peers the House," which was negativcd.
took the occasion of ghing their It was then ordered that a com
sentiments on the subject, but mittee of secrecy, consisting of 21
nothing occurred to render their members, be appointed; after
which
74] AN NUAL REGISTER, 1817.
which Lord Castlereagh moved the disatfected in the counties
“ That such members as were of before referred to, viz. Lancashire,
the committee of secrecy appoint Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire,
ed on the 5th of February last, and Derbyshire (to which, part of
and who are now members of this Yorkshire and the towns of Bir
House, be members of the said mingham and Stockport, must
committee.“ Sir J. Newport ob now be added), from the period
jected to the proposal, and by way of that report down to the present
of amendment gave a nomination time.
almost entirely new. A discussion Your committee find in these
of some length followed, after papers, not only a complete cor
which the House divided; For the roboration of the justness of the
original Motion 126, For the apprehensions, which they then
Amendment 66 : Majority 60. The expressed, but proofs, equally de
main question was then agreed to, cisive of the continuance of the
and the solicitor-general was add same machinations, and designs,
ed to the committee. breaking out into fresh acts of
Lord Folkestonc then moved, violence and insurrection, up to
“ That it be an instruction to the the present moment.
said committee that they enquire Your committee stated in their
particularly into the origin, cha former report, that “ even where
racter, and extent of the disatl‘ec petitioning was recommended, it
tion supposed to exist in the coun was proposed to be conducted in
try, &c." which was negatived. such a manner, by an immense
Another motion was ofi'ered by number of delegates, attending in
the same noble lord, which was, London at the same time, in se
to make it an instruction to the veral parties, attached to each pe
said committee that they enquire tition, as might induce an etfort
into the particular case of every to obtain by force whatever they
person detained under the provi demanded; and that a general
sions of an act passed in the pre idea seemed prevalent, that some
sent session of parliament, 810.; fixed day, at no very great dis
which was also negatived. tance, was to be appointed for a
The Second Report from the general rising."
Committee of Secrecy of the House The first attention of your com
of Commons was to the following mittee has been directed to the
etfect. ' proceedings of the public meeting
ln forming an opinion on the held early in March, in the town
present internal situation of the of Manchester. At that meeting,
country, your committee could which consisted of persons as
not fail to bear in mind the infor sembled from various towns and
mation laid before them, at an populous villages in the vicinity of
early part of the session, upon Manchester, as well as of the in
uhich their first report was habitants of Manchester itself, it
founded. was proposed by the same leaders
The papers now communicated who had previously attracted the
to the committee, continue the notice of your committee, that
narrative of the proceedings of the petitioners should assemble,
at
GENERAL HISTURY. [15
at the same place, on Monday, pared, with a copy of which every
the 10th of that month, prepared tenth man was furnished 3 and
to set out.on a march to London, which concluded by stating to his
to present their petition themselves Royal Highness, that, Without the
to the Prince Regent in person ; change which they demanded,
that they should form themselves “ they could neither support him,
into parties of ten each (which nor themselves ;” and they were
arrangement was proposed with told, that if their petition was re
the professed view of not trans jected, they must demand it ; it'
gressing the law) ; and that they still rejected, they must force it,
should supply themselves with and say they would be righted. it
provisions for the march, and appears, that some of the persons
with blankets for the purpose of apprehended, were fully prepared
sleeping on the ground. to act up to these instructions;
At many other meetings pre though it is to be presumed, that
vious to the 10th, which, though many of them had no very defi
comparatively private, were yet nite idea of the way in which
numerously attended, it was re their services were to be employed;
presented to them, by their ora and that even among their leaders,
tors, that they would be sur some of the more moderate reck
rounded by the police and the mi oned rather upon intimidation,
litary, and that they would be an than upon the actual employment
easy prey if they proceeded with of force. At one of those more
out arms for their protection. private meetings, however, which
They were assured, however, that preceded the general assembly, one
their numbers, which, in the of those persOns, who appeared to
course of their progress, would have most influence, avowed him
amount to not less than 100,000, self a republican and leveller ; and
would make it impossible. ulti professed his determination never
mately to resist them. It was to give up till they had established
stated that all the large towns in a republican government : the
Yorkshire Were adopting the same examples of the insurrection in
plan, that the Scotch were actu the reign of Richard 2nd, and
ally on their march, and that if of the rebellion in Ireland in
the petitioners could once reach 1798, were held out, as objects
Nottingham, or Birmingham, the of imitation; and the most vio
business would be done. They lent of such declarations was ge
were advised to choose leaders nerally received with the strongest
over each subdivision of tens, marks of applause.
fifties, and hundreds, and to ap In consequence of these pre
point a treasurer to receive con parations, the public meeting pro
tributions, which were actually posed took place at the time ap
made in a great number of small pointed ; and was attended by
sums, out of which fund they probably near 12,000 persons :
were taught to expect that each many of these proceeded to the
man would be supplied with a ground in regular order, with
daily allowance. knapsacks on their backs; and not
A petition was accordingly pre- ' withstanding the assembly was
dispersed
76] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
dispersed by the military, acting fected places were present; and
under the orders of the magis at which it was resolved to pro
trates, and the principal leaders mote a general rising at Manches
were apprehended, under war ter, on Sunday the 30th of March,
rants from the secretary of state,or the following day. A meeting
a considerable number actually was appointed for the leaders at
marched oil' on their way to Lon Ardwick bridge, close to Man
don; many were intercepted be chester, on the Friday before that
fore they reached Stockport, but day; where they expected to re
several found their way as far as ceive information from Birming
Ashbourne. ham, Sheilicld, and other places,
The act for enabling his ma with which they were in conunu
jesty to detain suspected persons nication ; having previously learnt
had now passed; most of those, from an emissary, who had visited
who had rendered themselves most Huddersfield and Leeds, that the
conspicuous in exciting disall'ec disalTet-ted in that part of the
tion in this part of the country, country were all ready to begin
had either been apprehended, or at any time, and ,were preparing
had secreted themselves; and all arms for the purpose. The de
hopes were precluded of any im sign was, to assemble as many as
mediate result from the assem could be collected, in the night,
blage which had been so long at Manchester; to attack the
concerted; yet it appears to your barracks, the police office, the
committee, from a variety of con prison, the houses of magistrates
current testimony, on which they and constables, and the banks, in
rely, that the previous organiza separate parties; and to set fire
tion had been extended so widely, to the factories in the town. it
and the expectation of ultimate was even declared by one of the
success had been so confidently conspirators, that this last atrocity
entertained, that these circum was intended for the purpose of
stances produced no other effect increasing the prevalent distress,
on the great body of the discon in the hope of thereby adding to
tented, than to delay the explo the numbers of the discontented,
sion, which had so long been me by throwing the workmen out of
ditated; to occasion the discon employment. It was calculated
tinuance of the more open meet that two or three thousand men
ings of the association; and to Would be enough to commence
call forth the exertions of new these operations, as they reckoned
leaders, who were determined (in upon being joined by 50,000 at
their own phrase) to “ re-orga the dawn of day. A proclama
nize the party." Meetings were tion was sa‘d to be prepared, in
accordingly held in several of the order to be produced on this 0c
townships in the neighbourhood casion, justifying the revolt, and
.of Manchester, between the 10th absolving the insurgents from
and 2.3111 of March, with more their allegiance. Expectations
privacy, but under the established were held out, that a general in
system of delegation, at which surrection would take place, at
only the deputies from the disaf the same time, in different parts of
the
GENERAL HISTORY. [77
the counties of Lancaster, York, of a gentleman, who was acting
Warwick, Leicester, Nottingham, as a special constable. Shortly
Chester and Stafford ; and though after this period, it appears to have
some of these, particularly the two been discussed, whether it would
latter counties, may have been in not be more prudent to discon
cluded without any suflicient tinue the appointment of dele
ground, your committee seejust gates, and to rely only upon one
reason to apprehend, that a suc man in each town, who might call
cessful insurrection at Manches the disalfected together a short
ter would have been followed by time before the intended insurrec
partial risings, to an alarming tion, and seize on horses, prepara
amount, in each of the other tory to the attack on Manchester.
counties. Some preparations were But notwithstanding this proposi
made for providing ammunition, tion, the same system of connected
with a view to the arms, which it operation by means of delegates
was intended to seize. The exe was indefatigably persevered in.
cution of this plan was defeated Delegates from Manchester,
by the vigilance of the magistrates, Birmingham, Nottingham, Derby,
who being apprized of what was Leeds, Sheffield, Wakefield, Hud
in agitation, made a communica dersfield, and other places in the
tion to the secretary of state, by disturbed part of the country,
whom warrants were immediately either constantly or occasionally
issued, and the ringleaders, as attended these meetings. The
sembled at Hardwick bridge, were numbers assembled were not large,
consequently seized on the 28th. but the activity was unceasing ;
The magistrates of Manchester emissaries were continually pass
thereupon published an address to ing from one of those places to
the inhabitants, announcing the another, to compare their accounts
danger, and calling upon the of the state of the public mind; to
householders to be sworn as special foment the irritation among the
constables, and to assist in pre disaffected; and to combine some
serving the peace of the town. general plan of simultaneous, or
This plan of the disafi‘ected being connected insurrection ; the object
thus discovered, and deranged, of which was, after consolidating
they became more wary and a suflicient force, to march upon
secret in their proceedings; but London, and there to overturn
in the moment of disappointment, the existing government, and to
declarations were made, that it establish a republic. The same
would be impossible to prevent designs were continued of attack
the rising for a month longer. ing the barracks, and depOts, in
The assassination of persons most different parts of the country (one
obnoxious to their resentment was of which was particularly recon
suggested by some of the most noitered with that view) ; of plun
desperate of the conspirators ; an dering the houses of noble-men
attack was made upon the house and gentlemen, where arms were
of one of the magistrates ; the life supposed to be lodged; of seizing
of another was threatened; and the magistrates, and keeping them
a pistol was tired into the house as hostages, and as authorities for
levying
78] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18l7.
levying contributions on the coun the immediate attainment of their
try; of disarming the soldiers by object, or for the present relin
night, in their quarters, or se quish it, and return to their ae
ducing them from their duty ; and customed occupations. On the
of providing arms for themselves, 28th of May a meeting of dele
partly by these seizures, and partly gates in the neighbourhood of
by an easy method of forming Sheffield was dispersed, and some
pike heads out of common tools of the parties were apprehended ;
and utensils. and on the 6th of June, several
It appears to your committee, persons described to be delegates,
that the utmost confidence pre (and believed by your committee
vailed among the delegates, as to to be such), who were assembled
the ultimate attainment of their at another place in the same neigh
object ; that the successive arrests bourhood, were apprehended by
of several of the principal leaders, the magistrates of the riding, as
though they occasioned momen sisted by the military; and the
tary disappointment, did not ex final arrangement of the plan,
tinguish the spirit of insurrection, which was there to be settled,
or the hopes of success, in the was thus happily frustrated. It
parts of the country above men was confidently expected, that
tioned; ,and the utmost impati these arrests would disconcert
ence was manifested at the delays whatever measures were in pre
which had taken place in fixing paration, and they appear to have
the day for the general rising. had that elfect in the immediate
’ ‘his, after several postponements, vicinity of Sheffield ; but the spirit
was appointed for the Monday in which had been excited could not
Whitsun week, and was after be wholly suppressed. In the
wards again postponed to the 9th neighbourhood of Huddersfield,
of June, which was thought more in the night of the 8th instant,
favourable for a midnight insur several houses were forcibly enter
rection, as the moon would then ed and plundered of arms. A con—
be in the wane. Notice of this siderable body of armed men were
last appointment had been so approaching the town, when a
widely circulated, that it became small patrol of yeomanry cavalry,
almost of public notoriety; which, attended by a peace officer, fell in
while it awakened the attention of with them, and was received with
those whose duty it was to pre the discharge of several shot, by
serve the public peace, did not which one of their troop horses
appear to derange the preparations was wounded. The patrol having
of those who were disposed to ascertained, that they were too
disturb it. Even where the plan few to oppose such numbers,
ners of the insurrection suggested thought it prudent to retreat,
a farther delay, they found it inn- when several shots were fired after ,
possible to restrain the} impatience them without effect. On return
which they had excited among ing with an additional force to the
their followers, who had forsaken spot, they found that the whole
their ordinary habits of industry, of theinsurgentshad‘ disappeared ;
and who must either proceed to but guns fired as signals, in differ
ent
GENERAL HIST 0 R Y. [1.9
cnt directions, and lights shown fore magistrates. The character
on the heights throughout the of the danger remains the same as
country, sufficiently proved the was described in the former re
extent of the confederacy, and the port. It arises from the indefa
concert with which it was orga tigable exertions of persons in the
nized. In some populous villages lower ranks of life, or but little
of Derbyshirc, a more open in above them, of some popular ta
surrection took place on the 9th of lents, infiaming and aggravating
June. A delegate from this part the actual distress of a numerous
of the country had attended a pre manufacturing population, by ex
vious meeting at Nottingham, and citing hopes of an immediate re
an active emissary from thence medy to all their sufi'erings from a
had joined them in the course of reform in parliament, and pre
the night. The insurrection be paring them (in despair of attain
gan, according to the general ing that object) to attempt by
plan proposed, with attacks upon force the total subversion of the
houses, for the purpose of pro established constitution of govern
curing arms ; in one of which, a ment.
servant was wantonly shot 5 about Your committee stated, in their
200 insurgents were soon assem former report, that the mode of
. bled, mostly armed either with organization, practised with such
pikes or with fire-arms, and began mischievous success in the popu
their march towards Nottingham, lous districts, had been in very
in expectation of increasing their many instances conducted under
numbers as they went, and of the cover of associations, called
finding that place in full insurrec Hampden Clubs, formed for the
tion, and prepared to support ostensible purpose of procuring a
them. They were however inter reform in parliament; and they
cepted by detachments of cavalry now find that in many instances,
(under the orders of active and in~ where the open meetings of those
telligent magistrates), which came societies have been discontinued,
up with them in (lilfercnt direc several of the members of them
tions, and totally dispersed them. have assembled more privately,
Between 50 and 60 were taken and been the principal leaders in
and lodged in the different gaols ; the projected combinations.
many fire-arms and pikes were in their former report they did
taken at the same time, and a not think it necessary to advert to
quantity of ammunition was found that atrocious system of combina
upon the persons of the prisoners. tion, outrage. and hired assassi
Your committee have thus nation, which has prevailed in
stated the prominent points of the some of the midland counties,
information, which has been laid under the name of Luddism ; both
before them, particularly as affect because the trials ofpersons , charg
ing the manufacturing districts in ed with those crimes, were then
the Northern and Midland coun known to be depending,- and be
ties, and which has been substan cause the system itself did not then
tiated, in almost every particular, distinctly appear to your commit~
by depositions on oath, taken be tee to have any immediate appli
cation
so] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817'.
cation to political purposes. But lower order of the manufacturing
they have since found reason to population, in particular parts of
believe, that those who are con the country, many of whom are
oerned in instigating the people to labouring under considerable pri
insurrection, have availed them vations, from the low rate of
selves of this powerful engine for wages, and the increasing price
the more extended purposes of po of the necessaries of life ; though
litical innovation. your committee cannot but re
Upon the whole,‘ your commit mark that the most active and de
tee have been anxious neither to termined insurgents are in many
exaggerate, nor extenuate, the na instances to be found amongst
ture and extent of the danger. those, whose earnings, even in
They have not been insensible to the present state. of the manufac
the jealousy, with which the tes tures, would enable them to sup
timony of persons, originally im port their families in comfort.
plicated in the designs of the con They find that of the promoters of
spirators, or even of persons who these commotions, many have
never having engaged in those either left the country, or are pre
designs, have attended their meet vented from prosecuting their de
ings, in order to discover and re signs. The disafi'ected appear to
port their proceedings, ought to want leaders to conduct such en
be received; but the facts stated terprises as they have conceived ;
by your committee, rest not only are frequently disconccrtcd by
upon confirmatory evidence, but jealousy and distrust of each other,
on distinct, substantive, and satis and bythc consciousness that their
factory testimony; and although plans are watched; and by the
your committee have seen reason arrests of the ringlcaders. Great
to apprehend, that the language as the numbers probably are,
and conduct of some persons from among whom disafi'et-tion, to an
whom information has been de alarming extent, has made con
rived, may in some instances, have siderable progress, fomented at
had the efi'ect of encouraging those first by popular harangues, and
designs, which it was intended still by the more powerful and
they should only be the instru general excitement of seditious
ments of detecting; yet it is per publications, your committee are
fectly clear to your committee, fully aware, that the number of
that before any such encourage those, who are now prepared to
ment could lune been given, the take the lead in any project of
plan of a simultaneous insurrec open insurrection, is not to be
tion, in different parts of the estimated by the exaggerated re
country, had been *actually con ports of their delegates. Though
certed, and its execution folly de they have been all along taught to
termined on. look to London for countenance
Your committee have the satis and support, thoughsome of their
faction to continue to believe, as own immediate emissaries have,
they have before stated, that the from time to time, alieeteditto
danger, which they have described, bring them hopes of encourage
is.t0 be found only among the ment from that quarter, in case
of
GENERAL HISTORY. [81
of success ; and though it has been borders of Derbyshire and Not
stated to your committee, that tinghamshire, the mass of the
a delegate from'the country has population, through which the
recently been attending a meeting insurgents passed, evinced the
of delegates in London; no spe utmost abhorrence of their designs
cific information has been laid be and projects.—ln other instances,
fore your committee of the exist where the inhabitants have been
ence of any body of men, associ called upon to aid the civil power,
ated in the metropolis, with whom that call has been answered with
the disatfected in the country ap alacrity and zeal. Such conduct
pear to be acting in concert, or to increases the claim of the peace
hold communications. Their hopes able and loyal inhabitants of the
arise from their own numbers, disturbed parts of the country to
which if they could be excited to the most elficient protection.
simultaneous movement, would Your committee find that it is
distract their opponents, and the concurrent opinion of many
would procure the means for car of those entrusted with the pre
rying their utmost designs into servation of the peace, and bat
execution. It is hoped, by them, acquainted with the state of the
that the timid and irresolute would disturbed districts, as well as the
thus be encouraged to stand for admission of the disati‘ected them
ward ; and they flatter themselves, selves, that the suppression of the
that etiicient leaders would not be attempts at insurrection hitherto
wanting to put themselves at the made, may, in a great degree, be
head of a successful insurrection. ascribed to the existence of the
Your committee cannot con~ extraordinary powers entrusted by
template what has passed in the Parliament to. the executive go- ,
country, even since the date of vernment, .even in cases where it ~
their former Report, without the has not been found necessary to
most serious apprehension. Du call them into action; and that-‘
ring this period, the precautionary the tranquillity of the country
measures adopted by Parliament would be put to hazard, if those ‘
have been in force ; many of the, powers were now withdrawn. In
most active promoters of public this opinion your committee fully ,
disturbance have been apprehend concur; and, confidently as they
ed; the immediate projects of the rely on the _ loyalty and good dis
disalfected have been discovered position of the great body of his ,~
and deranged ; yet nothing has Majesty's subjects, (even in those
deterred them from.a steady pur parts of the country in which the
suit of their ultimate object. spirit of disatfection has. shown
Though hitherto checked, the . itself in the most formidable
least advance towards the attain shape) they cannot but express
ment of that object could not but their conviction, that it is not yet
be attended with the utmost ha safe to rely entirely, . for the pre
zard to the lives and properties of servation of the public tranquil- .
his Majesty‘s subjects. lity, upon the ordinary powersisrf
In the late insurrection on the [0] law.
of the w On
Von. LIX.

M _ MM m», es: s - :--~_- ~~~ M


as] ANNUAL- REGISTER, 1817.
On June 93d, the order of the posite side of the question, perhaps
day for the first reading of the the most forcible was Sir Samuet
bill for the suspension ofthe Habeas Romillp. He said, that this was a"
Corpus being .read in the House measure of much greater import
0! Commons, Lord Castlereagh ance even than that which the
nose, and began by protesting a House had before adopted. They
gni'nst the inference which had were then called upon to suspend
been drawn, that a bill of this kind the Habens Corpus only for four
was a libel on the whole country, months, while parliament was sitd
and preferring a bill of indictment ting. and might watch in what
against the people of England. manner the extraordinary powers
The adoption of such a measure given to government were exer
might alarm those who know cised ; now they were required,
themselves to be. guilty of treason just before they separated, to com
oble designs ; but he believed the mit this arbitrary power into the
loyal and peaceable part of the hands of ministers for an indefi
community- would be grateful for nite period of time, the duration
the passing of the bill, which they of which was to depend entirely
would regard as a measure of upon the pleasure of the crown.
protection. He then argued in The noble lord had talked of cir
opposition to those who were of cumstances of augmented danger;
opinion, that supposing treason if‘ such were the case, what did it
able designs to exist, those by prove, except that not only was
whom they Were entertained were the suspension bil'l ineflicient, but
too insignificant to merit the sc that it had increased the evil it
rious attention 05 parliament. was intended to prevent. There
Not only had' additional conspira was another evil no less grievous.
cies been discovered, but, in the ltwas now for the first timeavowed
late inquiry; the ibrmer conspi that spies Were in the regular pay
racies had been confirmed. This of ministers—spies who were the
circumstance led‘ him to consider promoters and the instigators ofthe
at some length the case of Oliver, crimes which they afterwards de
who was supposed to be the mov nounced. Surely here was enough
ing cause of all; and he endea to excite discontent and disgust
voured to show that his exertions through the House and the nation.
had materially contributed to pre Speaking afterwards ot‘ the dan
vent the intended explosion: of‘ gerous power entrusted to minis
June 9th. He said, in fine, that ters in the confidence that they
the. measure now- proposed to be would not abuse it, he said, 1 care
renewed had already rendered con- not in whose hands that power
sidemble service. In the judge may be placed. It is one of the
ment of nearly all the magistrates melancholy signs of‘ the times, that
it had- checked insurrection, and; while, day after day, encroach
had been more efl‘ective than any ments are making on public liber
of' the other measures adopted by ty, the answer to every complaint
parliament. ' is, that the power which was giv
Among the speakers on‘ the op en would be placed in gentle
hands
GENERAL HISTORY. [as
hands. Was there ever any de influence would be so usefully ex
spotic government which did not erted, might be a greater evil
claim the same right of exercising than the cessation of the act
power on this ground? I cannot itself.
(said he) reconcile myself to so The amendment was negatived,
light a way of speaking of the and the House went into the
Constitution, as to make the sus committee. Sir J. NeWport then
pension of its most valuable pri moved, that the duration of the
vileges a matter of indifi‘erence, bill should be limited to the lst of
because certain persons, of whom the ensuing December. The com
a favourable opinion is entertain mittee then divided, when there
ed, are to be invested with the appeared, For the amendment 45 ;
arbitrary authority which must Against it 7 8. ‘
be the consequence of that sus Mr. Douglas objected to the ex
pension. tension of the bill to Scotland,
On a division of the House, the and ‘moved the omission of the
numbers for the first madin were, clause by which that country was
Ayes 276, Noes 111 ; ajority included in its operation. The
165. House dividing on the question,
June 24th, the numbers were it was determined that it should
so much reduced by defections on be continued, by 129 to 48..
both sides, that the motion for the June 27th was the day appoint
' second reading of the bill was car ed for the third reading of the
ried by 80 against 30. bill. Several speakers on both
The order of the day for the parties took a share in the debate,
committal of the bill being read but scarcely any thing remained
on June 26th, Sir J. Newport rose except recapitulation of the seve
to propose a clause, “ that it be an ral events which had taken place
injunction to the committee to in the former part of the year.
limit the duration of the bill till On the division, the reading was
the lst of December next." Lord carried by 195 to 65. An amend
Castlereagh said that the motion ment was afterwards proposed by
.was altogether unnecessary, be Mr. S. Wortley, with the approba
cause it Was competent to the tion of Lord Castlereagh, to leave
committee to fix the duration of out the words “ six weeks after
the bill at any period it thought the meeting of parliament," and
proper. But, waving the point of insert as the term of the bill the
form, he should object to the mo 1st of March 1818. On this a
tion upon principle; for if the further amendment was proposed
state of the country should be by Mr. \Vynne to substitute the
such as to require the further con 25th of December, 1817. The
tinuance of the act at the period House divided on the question,
stated in the motion, he did not “ that the lst of March do stand
know but that the calling togetherpart of the bill," which was de
gentlemen to attend Parliament cided by Ayes 15‘2, Noes 50. The
from the districts in which their bill was then passed.

[G g] CHAP- _
as] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18l7.

CHAPTER Vll.

Tbe Budget.

N June 20th, the House hav committee in a more convenient


ing resolved itself into a and uniform manner than that in
committee, the Chancellor of the which they had ever before been
Exchequer rose, and said that it submitted to them. On this point
would not be necessary for him he alluded to the directions given
to trouble the committee at any by act of parliament for the dis
very great length. He was of this charging of all balances between
opinion because, in the first place, the English and Irish exchequers
he had reason to hope that the to the 5th of January last, and
measures which he should recom for cancelling all grants on the
mend wcre not such as were likely consolidated fund which had not
to call forth much opposition; been realized on that day, and
and, in the next place, the House were not likely to be realized
came to the subject with more in within any moderate period The
formation respecting it than they consequence was, that from the
usually possessed previously to the 5th of January 0. new account was
opening of the budget. In conse opened for the consolidated trea
quence of the recommendation suries, and the technical distinc~
made to them in the speech from tions which had hitherto subsisted
the throne at the commencement between them were no more.
of the session, one of the earliest The committee appointed by
proceedings ol’ the Househad been that House to inquire into the
to appoint a committee to inquire expenditure and income of the
into the revenue and expenditure country had not encumbered their
of the country; the reports made report with a statement of the
by which would enable him to various distinctions of consoli
spare those whom he had the ho; dated fund, war taxes, and other
nour to address, the trouble of details of parliamentary appro
listening to many dry statements priation ; but had on the one side
of accounts. The consolidation of set down the whole amount of the
the English and Irish exchequers finances of the country, and on
had added the concerns of Ireland the other the sum total of its ex
to those on which he had been penditure. He regretted to state,
accustomed to address them 3 and that it appeared from the report,
a very considerable portion of la that the deticiency of the revenue
bour had been directed to incor for England, compared to that of
porate the accounts of the two the year preceding, amounted to
nations. The arrangements which ten per cent. and for Ireland to
had been made would bring them twenty per cent. ; but at the ter
under the consideration of the mination of a war like that which
“as

4' “MM/40MP -MMF, .m-( V.


GENERAL HISTORY. [85
was just concluded, it could not Last year, under the same head,
be wondered at that part of the there had been required the sum of
population should be reduced to 1,613,1421. Here a reduction had
great distress. been effected of about 400,000l.,
Notwithstanding the unpleasant being about one fourth of the
circumstances to which he had whole. The miscellaneous ser
just referred, the means by which vices would call for a supply of
he proposed to meet the supplies 1,700,0001. including the sums
of the year, were, he thought, of already voted in the present ses
a nature perfectly unobjeetion sion. Last year, the" same. services
able, and amply sufficient. In the had required 2,500,000!. In this
usual form, he should first go instance, therefore, a reduction
through the supplies required in had been made of 800,0001. The
the present year, and then state total supply, therefore, that was
the ways and means to meet called for in the present year, ex
them. clusive of the interest of the fund
Army (including 1,500,0001. for ed debt, for the expense of the
extraordinaries, and exclusive of several establishments for twelve
troops in France,) 9,080,0001. months (not on the peace establish
For 1816, it would be remem ment. for he was far from think
bered the total sum granted on ing we had yet arrived at what
account of the army, amounted to might properly be so called,) would
10,809,713”. amount to l8,()01,000[., or what,
The grant last year on account speaking in round numbers, he
of the navy (exclusive of the grant would call 18,000,0001. It would
for the reduction of the navy debt) be remembered, that at the open
amounted nearly to 10,000,000l. ing of the present session, his no
(It was more exactly stated ble friend had estimated the ex
9,964,195l.) penditure of the year for the
In the present year the grant services he had enumerated at
required for the navy was 18,300,000l. The actual supply
6,000,000l.-exclusive of a grant called for came below the esti
of 1,660,000l. for the reduction mated sum by almost 300,0001.
of navy debt. Last year, the grants for the same
To the grant of last year a very services amounted to 24,887,000l.
considerable sum might also be The reduction effected in the pre
added, as in 1816 there had been sent year, it would therefore be
paid off 2,000,000l. of the navy seen, fell little shortof7,000_000l.,
debt. The sum appropriated to being considerably more than one
this purpose had been taken from fourth, and amounting to very near
the unapplied money remaining in one- third of the whole. In addition
the exchequer from the grants of to the 18,000,000l required for
1815. The whole sum, therefore, the proper service of the year, a
which had been applied to the further provision would be ne
service of the navy in the last year, cessary on account of the un
amounted to nearly '1'2,000,000L funded debt. In the first instance
The ordnance created in the pre there was a charge of 1,900,0001.
sent year a charge of 1,213,000]. for the interest on exchequer bills
1, e
861 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
the principal of which would be of exehequer bills of 2380,0001.
discharged in the course of the On winding up the accounts be
present year. This item, though tween the English and Irish ex—
large, the committee would look chequers an advance had been
upon with satisfaction, when they found necessary in order to clear
considered how much the im up all demands on the consolidated
proved state of public credit less_ fund of Ireland to the 5th of Ja
ened the charge thus incurred in nuary last, from which period they
providing for the ways and means had started on a new account. This
of the year. A'proper idea of this had caused a grant to be called
might be formed, when it was for (in order to make good the
considered, that what cost the permanent charges of Ireland up
country almost 2300,0001. for to that time), of 246,508!. To
the service of 1816, would in the wards the reduction of the navy
present year create but a charge and transport debt, a supply was
of 1,900,0001. upon an amount of demanded of 1,660,0001. There
principal considerably increased; was thus, it would be seen, a new
and when it was further borne in total of 4,136,508!. to provide for
mind, that a few years ago the the charges of unfunded debt, or
same operation would have occa to make good previously existing
sioned an expense of 2,500,0001. deficiencies, which formed no part
The sinking fund on the money of the supply necessary for the
thus kept floating as unfunded service of the year. The different
debt would amount to 880,000l. items and the grand total were as
making a total charge on amount follows : “4%

surrues.

Army (including 1,500,0001. for extra


ordinaries, and exclusive of troops in
France.....‘... . . . . . . . . . . . .. £9,080,000
Navy (exclusive of grant for the reduc- _
tion of navy debt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. , 6,000,000
Ordnance . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,221,800
Miscellaneous..... . . . . .. 1,700,000

Total supply for the service of the year


£18,001,300
Interest on exchequer bills. . . 1,900,000
Sinkin fund on ditto . . . . . . . 830,000
To magic good the permanent
charges of Ireland to Jan. 5,
1817.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 246,508
,Towards reduction of navy and .
transport debt . . . . . . . . . . . 1,660,000
4,136,508

. £22,;s7,sos
GENERAL HISTORY, [£7
He had now to call the attem 2,005,4081., and it was estimated
tion of the committee to the man' that before the 5th of April 1818
ner in which he proposed to meet they Would produce the further
the above demands. The first ar sum of 1,soo,oool.\ for which,
ticle which ,he should notice was therefore, he should take credit
the annual duties on malt, sugar, as the next item in the ways and
tobacco, and some other articles means of the present year.
which had been taken at the usual He should in the next place
amount of 300,0001. The com advert to the amount of the con
mittee were aware that those du» solidated fund remaining at the
ties always produced considerably disposal of parliament on the 5th
more than the sum of 300,000l. of April last. In this case also a
charged upon them, and that the surplus had been produced by the
surplus was carried into the con recent proceedings of parliament.
solidated fund. A considerable deficiency had ac
He next prop05ed to avail him crued in the produce of the con
self of the ways and means for solidated fund on the 5th of Ja
1815 and 1816 exceeding the a nunry, but that deficieracy having
mount of the supplies which re~ been nude good by subsequent
mained to be paid out of them. votes of the House, and all grants
The sum for the former year was Meeting the consolidated fund
15,7491. and for the latter having betncancelled by act of
1,849,8101. These sums formed parliament, its surplus produce on
what, in the language of the ox the-5th of April remained dis
chequer, was called surplus of posable for the service of the pre
ways and means. He did not, sent year. The sums now remaim
however, mama to take credit for ing in the eschequer of Great
them as a genuine surplus, as in Britain and Ireland, and which he
in fact they became disposable should propose to vote on this ac
only in consequence of parliament count, amounted to 1fi25,978l. or
having, since they were granted, in round numbers 1326,0001.
made a different provision for' The lottery was taken at
great part of the supplies charged 950,0001. and though this might
upon them ; whereby they became appear a larger sum than that of
applicable to the service of the last year, yet, when the whole ac
present year, instead of those for count was comparcd, it would be
which they were originally pro found that the lottery was re
vided. The whole, after retaining duced 50,000l. instead of be
a sufficient sum to pay the sup ing so much higher, as one. third
plies charged on them, amounted of the profit of the lottery had last
to 1,865,5591. arising in great year been reserved for Ireland,
part. from the temporary excise according to the practice which
duties, upon which 3,500,0001. had prevailed ever since the union,
had been granted in 1816, but of whereas this year the whole esti~
which sum only 1,494,59‘2i. had mated profit was carried to one
been received on the 5th of April account. The whole amount was
last. There remained, therefore, therefore taken at 300,0001. in
tov he received on that day 1816, and at only 9250,0001. in
the
88] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
the present year. The next item on the 5th of April 1818, was
be had to state to the committee 1,500,0001. These several items
was that arising from the sale of of ways and means amounted al
old naval stores, the amount of together to 9,541,537L; so that
which he estimated for the last there was required to make good
year at 400,0001. There was one the supply 12,600,000l. This he
item more he had to include in proposed to raised by Irish trea
the ways and means for the year. sury bills to the amount of
It was the arrears of the property 3,600,000!., and a new issue of
tax, of which a considerable sum 900,000l. of exchequer bills. Hav
was due on the 5th 01’ April last. ing concluded these statements,
The whole arrear estimated likely he would now recapitulate the dif—
to be receivedin the year ending ferent items of the
WAYS AND MEANS

£3,000,000—Annual Duties . £3,000,000


Disposable 1815 15,749
Ways and Means 1816. .0. . 1,849,810
1,865,559
3,500,000-—Excise Duties continued
(after satisfying the grant thereon for
the year 1816). . . . . .. . . . . . .. 1,300,000
Money remaining at the disposal of
parliament of the consolidated fund
at April 5, 1817.. ....... .. 1325,978
250000—Lottery..
Oldstores..... . . . . --b . . . . . . . . . . .. 250,000
400,000
Arrears of property tax received or to
be received between the 5th of April,
1817, and 5th of April 1818. . . .. . . 1,500,000

9,541,537
Irish treasury bills . . . . . . . 8,600,000
Ext‘hequer bills . . , . . . . . . . 9,000,000
-—12,600,000
22,141,537

The first total of the ways and expenditure. It was therefore


means which he had stated, name clear, that the above balance of
ly, the 9,541,5371. might be re 12,600,000l. was necessary to
garded as the ready money ac equalize the ways and means and
tually in the exchequer, or which the supply ; and he was convinced
would be received in the course that that sum could not be raised
of the year; but that was the in a way more advantageous to
whole ‘which the ordinary re the country than that which he
sources offered for covering» the had proposed, He should, in the
r
t ' first
GENERAL HISTORY. [89
first place, endeavour to explain thought it better not to avail him
to the committee how the account self of it, and to take the chance
of the 8,600,0001. Irish treasury of making a more advantageous
bills stood. The House would arrangement, in which he had,
recollect that before Easter there succeeded even beyond his expec
had been a grant of 4,9000,000l. tations. He had indeed found the
for repaying certain Irish trea state of the market such, that by
sury bills. Upon communication issuing exchequer bills gradually
with the bank of England and the in preference to borrowing in one
bank of Ireland (the whole of the sum upon the same sort of secu
treasury bills being held by them), rity, he had saved 300,0001. in
it was found that the directors of annual interests. The power of
those establishments were dis the money market to take ofl’
posed to exchange the hills they 9,000,0001. of exchequer bills, he
held for new bills. Two hundred thought could not be questioned,
and fifty thousand pounds had when it was considered, that of
however already been paid to the the 4‘2,000,000L previously grant
bank of Ireland, and as that ed by parliament '27 ,000,000l. had
body required 5 per cent. inte already been put into circulation
rest, it was not thought advise in the course of the present ses
able to renew the whole sum now sion. There were, therefore,
outstanding, but to pay ofi‘, as only bills to the amount of
occasion ofi'ered, such bills as 15,000,000l. further to be is
were held by the bank of Ireland. sued. The 9,000,000l. he now
Only a small part of the Irish proposed to add would make
treasury bills in their hands were “£4,000,0001. and, all things con
however due till December and sidered, he apprehended that there
January next, and it would there would not be more thrown into
fore be time enough to make ar the market than could be easily
rangements for paying them off absorbed. It ought at the same
after the next meeting of parlia time to be recollec'bed, that as the
ment. The remaining sum of interest had been reduced from
9,000,000l. he proposed, as he 5% per cent. to 35, there was a
had already stated, to raise by saving in that respect of H, per
exchequer bills; and he was the cent. From the measure he pro
more induced to take this propon posed, he therefore had reason to
tion of the deficiency in that way, expect great advantage both to
as the bank of England in its ne the agriculture and commerce of
gociations would be satisfied with the country, and he doubted whe
a more moderate rate of interest ther it would have been possible
than was paid in Ireland. Before to derive equal benefit from any
the meeting of parliament he could other arrangement. Although the
have borrowed twelve millions by revenue, from causes over which
an advance upon exchequer bills his Majesty's ministers could have
from one set of contractors, and no control, had fallen short six or
on terms which then appeared eight millions, there had been an
favourable; but from the appear evident improvement in our public
ance of the money market, he credit. It might be recollected,
that
901 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
that when he addressed the House had been for every practicable
last year on the financial situation purpose resumed. He could not
of the country, the three per but congratulate the House and
cent. consols. were only between the country upon the removal of
62 and 63; at present they were the doubts and alarms which had
above 74. This was an improve been entertained on this subject.
ment of twelve per cent. on 62. None of the evils which had been
which, calculated upon 100 l. so profusely foretold, had occur
stock, was equal to nearly 20 per red ; and this great change had
cent. The exchcquer bills were been accomplished without any
then at an interest of 5} per cent., shock or danger to public credit.
and were sold at par. Those now Those who had with regret anti
in circulation bore an interest of cipated these mischievous conse
only 3} per cent.; and on this quences, he was sure, would now
very day those bills bore 128. ioin with him in rejoicing at the
premium. These were circum state in which our country was
stances which proved the manifest now placed. The notes of the
advantage of the system he had Bank of England had even during
pursued, and now proposed to the restriction been preferred to
continue. But it was not in the those of every other bank in
money market only that the be Europe. What then must be the
neficial influence of that system efl'ect of the removal of that re
had been felt. A proportional im striction? A third circumstance,
provement was experienced in to which he could not but call the
every description of property in attention of the committee with
thecountly. Large sums had peculiar satisfaction, was that,
already been sold out of the funds, with regard to the public debt,
and applied in aid of the landed the expectations he held out last
interest, in purchases of real pro year had been more than ‘re
pei'ty.an(l advances upon mort alized. He had stated an expecta
gages. Similar accommodation tion that it would be reduced at
had been afforded to the commer least 3,000,000L: the balance of
cial interests of ~the country by debt repaid exceeded this sum.
the increasing facility and cheap The amount paid in 1816 had
ness of discount. Another most been stated by the committee on
important improvement in. the finance at 9,400,0001.; but from
situation of the country had taken this sum it might be fair to make
place since his last financial state a deduction of 6,000,000L, which
ment in the virtual resumption of formed part of the loans raised
cash payments by the bank. When for the service of 1815, but which
he had suggested that the bank had not been paid into the cx»-_
might be enabled to pay in specie chequcr till 1816; so that the
in the course of two years, his actual balance discharged was
statement was received with ridi 3,400,0001. This was most SatlS!
cule and incredulity. The sug factory: butitwas notall; forsince
gestion which he threw out had, the let of Nevember 1815, at
however, been~complete1y real which time the national debt stood
' ized; for the payments in cash at its highest amount, thirty-two
millions
GENERAL HISTORY. [91
millions of capital stock had ac steady restoration of our revenues
tually been purchased up. 11", and our former prosperity. He
instead of borrowing exchequer had taken the liberty of stating
bills, he had funded capital stock, this much, merely to impress on
it would have been impossible to the recollection of the committee,
have operated a reduction of the that even under the unfavourable
debt to the same extent. Whe circumstances of the last year,
ther there would be an equal di all the benefits which he had held
minution of debt in the present out as likely to result from the
year as in the last, was what he plans he had proposed had been
could not pretend to assert. He more than realized. He antici
did not wish to state a positive pated a still more sensible im
opinion on the subject; 'but be provement; but he sincerely
estimated that, with some addi trusted that the country would
tion to the 12,600,0001. he had never find it necessary to resort
already mentioned, he might to any of those desperate and dan
have to borrow altogther about gerous remedies which some per
14,000,000l., and that it was pro sons had thought it proper to re
bable there would be paid off commend. It 'was alone upon
about 16}. There might, there the firmness of parliament and
fore,- be a diminution, not of 8%, the loyalty of the people, that the
as in the last year, but probably security of public credit and the
of ‘l§ millions. restoration of national prospe
With the improvement of our rity depended. He had now only
finances, he looked forward to a to state, that he estimated the
speedy improvement in the inter amount of the interest of the ex
nal comfort and prosperity of the chequer and treasury , bills ne
country. [Hear, hear!] He did cessary to meet the supply at
not consider this expectation no 450,000!. and he contemplated
reasonable. A great part of the that that sum would be saved by
public distress arose, not from any the reduction which had taken
derangement in our domestic af place in the interest of unfunded
fairs, but from the general state debt since the last session of par
of Europe. At a time when all liament. Thus the public would
over the continent many were be subjected to no new charge
struggling for the mere necessa whatever. He concluded by mou
ries of life, it was not to be ex ing, “ That, towards making
pected that there could he a great good the supply granted to his
demand for our manufactures. Majesty, there be issued and ap
This country fortunately had’not plied the sum of 15,7491. 15s.
been reduced to so low a state as 2d. remaining in the receipt of
some others had, but we could the exchequer of Great Britain of
not expect to escape without shar— the surplus of the grants for the
ing in the general calamity. - If, year 1815." v
however, Providence blessed us The several resolutions were
with a favourable harvest, he agreed to.
should confidently hope to see a
' t?
CHAP
99] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.

CHAPTER VIII.

Continuance of Irish Insurrection Act—Mr Wilberforce's Molion for an


Address to the Prince Regent relative to the Foreign Slave Trade—Par
liament clown—Prince Regent's Speech.

IRISH INSURBIC’I‘ION ACT. or petit juries; and to sentence


persons guilty of no greater crime
N June 13th the order of the than being absent from their
day being on the subject of homes after sunset, to be trans
going into a committee on the ported for seven years. But the
bill for continuing the Irish In right hon. gentleman, in pallia
surrection Act, Sir Henry Parnell tion of his case, says, “ the law is
rose to more that it should be re not general; the House may de
ferred to a committee for this day pend upon the moderation of the
se'nnight, in place of this evening, magistrates in requiring its en
for the purpose of the appoint forcement, and upon the forbear
ment of a committee to inquire ance of government." But the
whether there existed any neces occurrence in the county of Louth
city for such a measure. The fully proved the disposition of the
chief secretary for Ireland had magistrates ; for they were led to
laid before the House, in the last apply to government in conse
and present session, certain docu quence of asingle outrage, which,
ments referring to disturbances though not of great enormity, had
in Ireland, the latter of which the ell'ect of producing a com
mentioned outrages which had pliance with their wishes. The
occurred in the county of Louth. continuance of the Insurrection
It was upon the last of these do Act appeared to the hon. member
cuments that the right hon. gen particularly objectionable, because
tleman had called upon the House it seemed to be one intended to
to continue these most severe complete the new system for the
and unconstitutional measures; future government of Ireland.
but it was incumbent upon the Though we were now in a state
House to exercise its inquisito of peace with all the world, the
rial powers, and to examine whe right hon. gentleman had pro
ther the disturbed state of only ceeded just as if we were in the
four baronies in one county of midst of a war. He had first ob
Ireland was a sufficiently strong tained an arms bill; he had then
case for such an expedient. The made his own particular law, the
law was one of uncommon sere peace act, stronger than before;
rity: it went to create six new and he now aims at the continu
transportable offences; to enable ance of the Insurrection Act. '
the magistrates at sessions to pro The hon. baronet Would not go
ceed to trial without either grand so far as to say, that the facts
produced
GENERAL HISTORY. [93
produced showed that the Insur be exercised on its responsibility
rection bill was not necessary; when the emergency arose. The
but they certainly proved the pro hon. baronet proposed that the
priety of making some inquiry bill should be suspended till fur
before the measure was adopted. ther inquiry should be made by a
If a committee were appointed, committee. For his own part he
he should himself be prepared to saw no reason for the appoint
point out some means for strength ment of such a committee. If
ening the civil power. He con there was a measure brought
cluded by moving, “ that the bill before Parliament on which it
be committed this day se‘nnight.” was competent to decide, without
Mr. V. Fitzgerald said he could the delay of a committee, it was
see no good ground for even a the present. There never came
day's delay. The act had been before Parliament a case in which
passed by several successive par government had more clearly
liaments, and no gentleman could offered the grounds on which it
be supposed ignorant of its con called for permission to act upon
tents; and being new near its its responsibility, and on which
expiration, it was thought neces the House had received better
sary to revive it, lest the govern means of judging whether it
ment of Ireland should be di ought to be granted. The hon.
vested of its present powers. The baronet had said that the lnsur~
government proclamation applied rection Act was an evil, in which
only to Louth, but the outrage he (Mr. Peel) fully concurred;
was to be considered as coupled but unhappily there was now only
with the general state of the coun a choice of evils; and was it bet
try. Every day produced fresh ter to give to government the
outrages ; and at length there was power of preserving tranquillity
an unanimous request from the even by a severe measure, or to
magistrates, and from a county allow the country to be converted
meeting, after which the procla into a scene of confusion by with
mation was issued. holding the present act ?
Mr. Peel said, that he was led Sir W. Burroughs entered into
to attend to the county of Louth an examination of the several
more particularly, because the clauses of the act, and commented
disturbances which called for its in strong terms on its severity.
exercise there, were more recently He particularly dwelt upon the
laid before the House, and the great disproportion between the
atrocities with which they were numbers apprehended and the
accompanied had made the deep numbers convicted in the several
est impression on the country. counties; and argued, that as it
His argument was, that thOugh was to be presumed that the petty
the country was generally tran sessions had done their duty,
quil, yet if there was one part of therefore all those acquitted had
it so disturbed that the laws could been justly acquitted, and had
not be executed in their usual consequently been wrongfully ar
course, it was necessary to arm rested.
the government with this act, to After some further discussions,
Sir
94] ANNUAL REGISTER, is”.
Sir H. Parnell's amendment was purposes fixed upon the very same
put and negatived. The House spot; and in consequence, great
then resolved itself into a com numbers of natives of Spain, or
mittee, when Sir W. Burroughs others who sailed under the Spa
proposed to limit the duration of nish flag. now frequented that
the bill to six weeks after the quarter. In places where schools
meeting of the next session of had been established, and efforts
Parliament; which was nega had been made to induce the
tived, and the duration was fixed Chieftains to supply their wants
at one year. by peaceful industry and legiti
It does not appear that any mate commerce, the Spaniards
further proceedings took place now came to persuade them to
during the passage of this bill return to their old habits by sell
through either of the Houses. ing their subjects, or making war
upon their neighbours. Ships are
FOREIGN SLAVE TRADI.
crowded beyond all precedent. As
On July 9th, Mr. Wilberforce the persons engaged in this illicit
rose to bring forward a motion, traffic were apprehensive of being
the object of which was to give taken, they constructed vessels
Weight to the executive power in not calculated for stowage, but
its negotiations with foreign coun for quick sailing, whence the mi
tries. He lamented to say, that series of these unhappy beings
among those powers which had were increased. In an instance
declared their intention of abo it had been stated, that of 540
lishing the Slave Trade, there negroes embarked, 340 had died.
were no appearances of being dis Of the slaves procured by the
posed to carry the purpose into Spaniards, the greater part were
etfect; and that the subjects of sent to the Havannah. By a paper
some of the powers were even which had been obtained by the
engaged in carrying on this odious Cortes, it appeared that there had
traffic. He Was sorry to be been imported into that colony in
obliged to state, that under the eleven years, from 1799 to 1811,
flag of America this trade was in about 110,000, or 10,000 per
some measure practised; that at year; and in the three last years
Goree and Senegal it was vigo the importation was much greater.
rously pursued ; that a charge had The Spanish and Portuguese flags
been brought in one instance formed also a 00ver for the illicit
against Holland; but that the traders of other nations. It had
great evil in which all others been decided by high authority to
sunk into insignificance, was the be law, that though Portuguese
trade now carried on for slaves by vessels might be found trading
Portugal and Spain. The latter for slaves in parts which they
power seemed as if they almost had renounced the right to trade
intended to ridicule our efl‘orts for to, they could not be made a
the amelioration of the state of prize unless they had intruded
Africa. When we had particu upon our possessions. The ships
larly chosen a part of the coast of Spain, when questioned, often
for our etforts in introducing ei defended themselves, or antici
vilization, the Spaniards for their pated attack by aggression. Tl‘lheiy
3- .v
GENERAL HISTORY. [95
had, indeed, committed acts of declaration which was promul
piracy of the most flagrant kind. gated by the plcnipotentiaries' of
They had driven away the native all the principal powers of Eu
merchants from the coast, to keep rope, assemblcd in their general
it clear for their horrible traffic. congress; a declaration which well
After some further observations, became the just and powerful 50¢
Mr. Wilberforce concluded with vereigns in whose names it was
moving, “That an humble address issued; proclaiming to their sub
be presented to his Royal High jects and to the world, their delibe
ness the Prince Regent, most rate conviction, that " the African
humbly to represent to his Royal slave trade is repugnant to the
Highness, that, in bringing to a principles of humanity and of y,
close the other business of this universal morality," and adding
session, a great and important to that avowal, the gracious and
duty stills remains to be perform solemn assurance of their earnest
ed by Parliament, that of again desire “ to put an end to a scourge
submitting to his Royal Highness, which has so long desolated Afri'
in the most dutiful but urgent ca, degraded Europe, and afiiictcd
terms, the expression of our con humanity:
tinued and unceasing solicitude "That we must indeed deeply
for the universal and final aboli regret, that practices acknow
tion of the African slave trade : ledged to be of such a character
“ That we are grateful for the should, even for an hour, be con
efi‘orts already made, and for the tinued, and even tolerated under
progress which we have had the the sanction of any civilized and
happiness to witness, in the Christian government; but that
achievement of this great work: it is impossible for us to doubt of
That we rejoice that, in all his that ultimate determination by
Majesty‘s dominions, this wicked which these crimes and miseries
ness is now for ever proscribed, will finally be terminated :' this
and that our laws have stigmatiz engagement has been deliberately
ed it by severe and ignominious taken, and publicly and unequi
punishment : vocally announced, and its per
“ That we have seen, with un formance is imperiously required
speakable satisfaction, that so by every motive of interest, and
many of the other nations, under of honour, of humanity, and of
whose flag this criminal traffic justice :
had formerly been protected, had “' That we beg leave, however,
now joined in the same prohibi with all humility, to represent to
tion, and have contracted with his his Royal Highness, that the an
Majesty, and with each other, the tual attainment of this great ob
obligation of persevering in it, as ject can alone discharge our coun
in a duty from which they never try from the obligation of purs‘u_
can be released: and that our ing it with unremitterl attention
confident expectations of the uni and with daily increasing earnest
versal adoption of that prohibition ness ; and that we cannot disguise
have been greatly confirmed and from ourselves the painful cer
strengthened by that memorable tainty, that the intermediate sus
peuse
96] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
pense and delay not only prolong, has led, by manifest and necessary
but greatly augment, the evil consequence, to a system of arm
which we are thus labouring to ed defiance and outrage, at system
remedy : utterly destructive of all peaceful
“ That it appears to us but too commerce, insulting to legitimate
notorious, that these crimes, bi authority, and, in its efl‘ects and
therto partially checked by the pro consequences, little, if at all, short
hibition of so many just govern of open piracy: that this system
ments, and by the abhorrence of also impedes, or rather it altm
all good men, are now again re gether frustrates, the just and
newed, and are carried on with benevolent endeavours of those
fresh, and continually increasing powers, who are labouring to in—
activity; that many of the sub troduce among the natives of
jects of those powers which have Africa the arts, and habits of civi
concurred in the abolition, are lized life ; is productive of perpe—
found, nevertheless, still to pur tual contest and irritation, leading
sue the some nefarious course; not unfreqnently to open violence
that the stipulations, by which between his Majesty’s ships and
other governments have consented subjects, and those of the sove
to put limits to this evil, stipula reigns in amity and alliance with
tions purchased by this country at this country; and continually en
the price of large sacrifices, are dangers even those relations, the
constantly, and almost openly maintenance of which is of the
disregarded ; while the protection utmost moment to their interests
of the only remaining flag under and to ours, as well as to the ge
which this wickedness can now neral repose and tranquillity of
be carried on without limit or re Europe :
straint, and the intervention of “ To represent to his Royal
the only nation to which its con Highness, that being deeply im
tinuance is indiscriminately per pressed with the magnitude of all
mitted, are used, not merely to these considerations, we earnestly
protect this horrible traffic in the entreat his Royal Highness, that»
extent to which that people for he will be pleased to pursue with
merly pursued it, but as a sane unremitted activity, those negoti
tion to its indefinite increase in ations into which he has already
their hands, and as a cover for entered on this most momentous
the breach of the laws by which subject ; that he will establish for
all other civilized communities this purpose the most effective
have restrained their subjects from concert with those sovereigns,
embarking in it : whose just and benevolent princi
“ That, in humbly submitting ples respecting it, have already
these painful circumstances to the been announced to the world in
humane and enlightened consider concurrence with his own; and
ation of his Royal Highness, we that he will leave no effort untried
are sure it cannot be requisite to to bring the present evils to a
dwell upon the other and great speedy and immediate termina
evils which they necessarily in tion, and thereby to prevent the
wlve: that this state of things future and still greater mischiefs
which

~ Mei
GENERAL HISTORY. [97
which their continuance must in not merely by the feelings of hu
evitably produce. manity, but by the poaitive dic
“ That we confidently hope tates of duty and conscience:
that his Royal Highness's urgent that it is by these motives, and not
but friendly representations will as claiming any superiority in
produce their desired etfect; yet point of humanity or of morals,
that in justice to the great in— that We are actuated in our earn
terests that are at stake, we can est desires to obtain the co-opera
not but feel it our indispensable tion of all other civilized nations :
duty, to express our confident ex that, rememberingr how long and
pectation, that if all his Royal how largely this country contri
Highness‘s amicable endeavours buted to augment the miseries,
should prove unavailing, the great and perpetuate the barbarism of
powers which, at the congress of Africa, we cannot but esteem our
Vienna, so honourably announced selves specially and peculiarly
to the world their abhorrence of bound, not to leave that vast con
the slave trade, as radically un tindtt in its present degraded
just and cruel, will deem them state, but to endeavour, so far as
selves compelled by an over-ruling we may be able, both by our own
sense of duty, to adopt, however conduct, and in concert with other
reluctantly, such a course of com powers, to repair the wrongs we
mercial policy, as, without in have inflicted, by opening the way
fringing on the just rights of any for the diffusion of those blessings
other nation, will alone prevent which, under the favour of Pro
their indirectly, but powerfully, vidence, a legitimate commerce,
contributing to the continued ex and a friendly intercourse with
istence of this inhuman trailic: the enlightened nations of Eu
“ That there is one important rope, cannot fail to introduce in
truth, which we beg leave most their train."
earnestly to press on his Royal Lord Castlereagh, while he com
Highness‘s most serious attention, plimented his honourable friend
a truth which painful experience on his steady perseverance in the.
has too fully taught us, that, great cause in which he had so
however strong may be the pro much distinguished himself, hinted
hibitions of the slave trade, and at the difficulty of coming to an
with how great sincerity 50ever understanding with the two re
they may be issued, they will prove luctant powers without a danger
practically inefficient, unless some of injuring pendent negociations.
general concert for ascertaining He therefore would not enter into
and bringing to punishment the the subject at greater length at
offending parties, be mutually es present, but would not oppose
tablished between the several pow the address, because it expressed
ers, tinder whose flags this trade the sentiments of his Majesty’s
has been, or may be carried on : government.
“ That we must once more de Occasion was then taken by
clare to his Royal Highness, that some members to give their opi
in enforcing these considerations nions; but the address was agreed
on his Royal Highness‘s most to without opposition. v;
serious attention, we are actuated The session of parliament con
VoL. LIX. [H‘l eluded
98] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
eluded on July 12th, ‘with the matter of deep regret; and you
following speech from his Royal may rely on my making a tempe
Highness the Prince Regent. rate but effectual use of them, for
“ My Lords and Gentlemen ; the protection and security of his
“ I cannot close this session of Majesty's loyal subjects.
parliament, without renewing my “ Gentlemen of the House of
expressions of deep regret at the Commons ;
continuance of his MaJesty‘s la “ I thank you for the supplies
mented indisposition. which you have granted to me;
“ The diligence with which you and for the laborious investigation
have applied yourselves to the which, at my recommendation,
consideration of the difl‘erent ob you have made into the state of
jects which I recommended to the income and expenditure of the
your attention at the commence country.
ment of the session, demands my " It has given me sincere plea
warmest acknowledgments; and sure to find that you have been
l have no doubt that the favour enabled to provide for every branch
able change which is happily of the public service without any
taking place in our internal situ addition to the burthens of the
ation, is to be mainly ascribed peeple.
to the salutary measures which “ The state of public credit
you have adopted for preserving afl‘ords a decisive proof of the
the public tranquillity, and to wisdom and expediency, under all
your steady adherence to those the present circumstances, of those
principles by which the constitu financial arrangements which you
tion, resources, and credit of the have adopted.
country have been hitherto pre “ I have every reason to believe
served and maintained. that the deficiency in the revenue
“ Notwithstanding the arts and is, in a great degree, to be as
industry which have been too suc cribed to the unfavourable state
cessfully exerted in some parts of of the last season ; and 1 look for- -
the country to alienate the affec ward with sanguine expectations
tions of his Majesty's subjects, to its gradual improvement.
and to stimulate them to acts of “ My Lords and Gentlemen ;
violence and insurrection, I have “ The measures which'were in
had the satisfaction of receiving progress at the commencement of
the most decisive proofs of the the session, for the issue of a new
loyalty and public spirit of the silver coinage, have been carried
great body of the people; and into execution in a manner which
the patience with which they have has given universal satisfaction;
sustained the most severe tempo and to complete the system which
rary distress cannot be too highly has been sanctioned by parliament,
commended. a gold coinage of a new denomi
“I am fully sensible of the nation has been provided for the
confidence which you have mani convenience of the public.
fested towards me, by the extra “ I continue to receive from'
ordinary powers which you have foreign powers the strongest as
placed in my hands: the necessity surances of their friendly disposi-
which has called for them is to me tion towards this country, and of
their
GENERAL HISTORY. [99
their desire to preserve the general “ I cannot allow you to sepa
tranquillity. rate without recommending to
“ The prospect of an abundant you, that upon your return to your
harvest throughout a considerable several counties, you should use
part of the continent is in the your utmost endeavours to defeat
highest degree satisfactory. This all attempts to corrupt and mis
happy dispensation of Providence lead the lower classes of the com
cannot fail to mitigate, if not munity; and that you should lose
wholly to remove, that pressure no opportunity of inculcating a
under which so many of the na mongst them that spirit of con
tions of Europe have been sufi‘er cord and obedience to the laws,
ing in the course of the last year; which is not less essential to their
and I trust that we may look for happiness as individuals, than it
ward in consequence to an im is indispensable to the general.
provement in the commercial re welfare and prosperity of the
lations of this and of all other kingdom."
countries.

[a a; case.
1001 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.

CHAPTER 1X.

Domestic Events—Course qf the Year.—Double suspension of the Habeas


Corpus.—Celebration of the Queen‘s and Prince Regent's Birth-Days.—
Trials.--Special Commission held at Derby.

nouas'rrc avssrs, 810. the present year has been the


double suspension of the Habeas
HIS year commenced with Corpus Act; which, after being
_ the distress spread through one of the first parliamentary
the greatest part of Europe, in measures at the beginning of the
consequence of the late and un session, was resumed near the
productive harvest of the last close of it, and voted to be conti
autumn. Although the British nued till the commencement of
islandsvpartook in a smaller de another session, in consequence
gree of the prevalent evil than of a renewed alarm. We refer to
most other countries, from which our view of the debates in Parlia
their free admission to all foreign ment for the particulars of this
ports afl'orded them important re remarkable contest; of the issue
lief, yet hardships fell heavy upon of which we shall only observe,
certain districts too remote from that whilst the ministerial mem
such tardy aid; and Ireland, espe bers expressed great regret at
cially, suffered severely from the being obliged to have recourse to a
want of the most essential articles temporary violation of the consti
of human sustenance. We are tution for the purpose of prevent
informed that the distress was ~50 ing the most urgent dangers,
great in particular parts, that the their opponents held that no dan
poor people could find no other ger was equal to the habit of en
resource than that of anticipating trusting ministers, at their own
their crop of potatoes by an un— convenience or pleasure, with an
ripe product. As the year ad expedient fatal to liberty.
vanced, however, better prospects
began to open; and it was the CELEBRATION or 'ras queen's
general opinion that corn and BIRTH-DAY.
other products seldom ofi'ered a Some months ago the Prince
more promising harvest to the Regent, with a view to relieve the
cultivator. Whether this promise distresses of the manufacturing
has not been exaggerated may be classes, by affording them employ
a matter of doubt; at least it ap ment, gave directions in the Ga
pears certain that the year has zette for the public celebration of
concluded with an advance in the the Queen’s birth-day, and of his
price of vwheat and barley which own; and, in order to make the
could hardly have been expected relief more effectual, notice was
at the time of their first decline. given, that it was expected, that
A distinguishing character of on both occasions all those who
should
GENERAL HISTORY. [101
should attend the Court would to do so till half-past three. The
appear in dresses entirely of Bri Prince Regent arrived in state
tish manufacture. In further about half-past three: his carriage
pursuance of this plan, his Royal was preceded, surrounded, and
Highness ordered all his state and followed by a party of life-guards.
household officers to Wear costly The procession passed along in
dresses of home fabrication, and perfect silence. Most of the Royal
those dresses were directed to be Family went in state. The Duke
made into three classes of uni and Duchess of York arrived first;
forms, according to the respective then the Princess Charlotte and
ranks of those officers. The first Prince Leopold,- next the Duke
class consists of suits for the Lord and Duchess of Glocester ; and
Chamberlain, the Lord Steward, lastly, the Duke of Sussex and the
and the Groom of the Stole. The Princess Sophia of Glocester. The
coats are of dark purple, with Speaker of the House of Commons
crimson velvet collars, richly or went in state, and also the Au
namented all .over with gold. Not strian and Dutch ambassadors.
only those persons who are imme— Her Maje'sty entered the draw
diately under the command of the ing-room about two o'clock, and
Prince Regent had complied with first received the congratulations
the laudable direction of wearing of the foreign ambassadors, of the
British dresses, but all the com Cabinet Ministers, and of all who
pany present yesterday showed had the privilege of entré.
that they had been equally anxi
ous to afford relief to their suffer
PRINCE ancsnr's BIRTH-DAY. la
ing countrymen by employment, April 23, being St. George‘s
which is the only permanently day, had been selected as the day
useful mode of relief. on which the birth of the Prince
The Court, in honour of the Regent was in future to be ob
Queen’s birth-day, was at first served, instead of the 12th of
fixed for the 6th of February; but August, and a drawing-room, and
her Majesty being at that time other splendours, were of course
unable, from the effects of her appointed : but a sudden indispo
late illness, to bear the fatigues sition of the Queen, which occur
incident to these occasions, it was red in the course of the preceding
postponed to the ‘20th, when her night, prevented the drawing-room
Majesty was entirely recovered. from taking place. Her Majesty
The day was announced, as was taken ill at an early hour of
usual, by the ringing of bells and the morning. Sir Henry Halford
the salute of artillery; and the was immediately sent for, and at
people reminded by these intima tended the Royal patient tn ice be
tions, flocked in great numbers to fore nine o'eloek. Communica
the vicinity of the Queen's Palace. tions of the unlucky occurrence
The weather, which had been weredispatched to all the branches
very dull and rainy, began to of the Royal Family; and, in the
clear up about 2 o‘clock, and the I course of the morning, the streets
scene became very gay and mag leading to Buckingham-house and
nificent. The company began to St. James‘s were placarded with p
arrive about one, and continued bills, announcing the indisposi
tion
102] ANN UAL REGISTER, 1817.
tion of her Majesty, and her ina Lancashire, Yorkshire, Notting
bility to receive company. hamshire. and Derbyshire. These
The morning was usheted in were for the most part speedily
with ringing of bells. 'l'he guards quelled; and from a considerable
mounted in white gaiters, and number sent for trial to Yorlt', the
wore new clothes. Carbon-house whole were either pronounced
was thronged dttring the whole of not guilty, or pretiously discharg
the day with all ranks, paying ed, with the exception of two, who
their respectful congratulations. “ere detained by a secretary of
’lhe Tower guns fired at one state's vttl'l'attt under the suspen
o‘clock ; the firing of the Park sion of the Habeas Corpus Act.
guns was dispensed with in con A more melancholy result ,suc
sequence of the indisposition of cecded the trial of a number of
the Queen. prisoners, who were committed to
the gaol of Derby on a charge of
TRIALS, &c. high treason. A special commis
()ne of the first trials upon an sion was issued to fourjudges,who
accusation of the crime of sedition in the month of October entered
was that o Niel Douglas, an uni upon their ofiice; and nothing
versul preacher in Glasgow, who could be more honourable to the
was charged with words spoken criminal justice of the country
in the pulpit in derogation of his titan the manner in which it was
Majesty, of the Prince Regent, executed. After the persons who
and the whole House of Coni had been adjudged worthy of death
mons. The trial took place iii the had undergone their trial, Mr.
high court of Justiciary in Edin Dentnan requested of the court
burgh on May 25 ; and the result that the prisoners remaining at
was, that after a due attention to the bar might be permitted to
the evidence produced on both withdraw their plea of not guilty,
sides, Douglas was declared not and substitute that of guilty. The
guilty, and was dismissed from attorney-general readily consent
the court. ing, nine prisoners were allowed
A ttial in which the public was to amend their plea, and ten more
much more interested was that were permitted to join them. It
of the elder \Vatson, Surgeon, at was generallyundei stood that their
the mutt of King's Bench, W'est punishment would be commuted
minster Hall, accused of high for some ligh‘el‘ sentence. Twelve
treason. It commenced on the more next appeared at the bar,
10th of June, and was continued whose names being called over,
till Monday the 16th, when the the attorney-general rose, and
jury pronounced a verdict of Not after a speech displaying much
guilty. The other persons impli feeling, made a declaration that
cated in the saute accusation “ere his painful task was now closed,
afterwards discharged by the law and that the hand of mercy was
0 ers. _ meant to be extended to all the
About the same time a disposi rest. The devoted number were
tion to tumult and outrage broke only three, Brztndreth, Turner,
out in several of the midland and and Ludlam, who were executed
northern counties, particularly at Derby on November 7th.
CHAP
m‘ ~w'

GENERAL HISTORY. [103

CHAPTER X.
France—Decree respecting Slaves introduced in the Colonies.—Negocia
tions with the Allied P0wers.—Ordinance concerning the Debts qf the
City of Paris—Disturbances at Lyons—Royal Ordinances for the
creation of Majorats.—Electi0n for the Chamber ofDeputies, and Royal
Speech.--P1‘0ject of a Law for the Press.—Law for the establishment
of Religion.

FRANCE nsoocu'rrons, &c.


HE following article made its Early in the year negociations
appearance in the French were carried on between the court
papers in the month of January, of France, and the four principal
by order of.his Majesty. allies, for the purpose of alle
viating the burden under which
Louis, &c. that country was severely op
_ Art. 1. Every vessel, whether pressed, in consequence of the
French or foreign, which shall foreign armies held by its prin
attempt to introduce into any of cipal towns. The result was the
our colonies purchased blacks, following oflicial note presented
shall be confiscated, and the cap to the Duke of Richelieu by the
tain, if a. Frenchman, shall be held several resident ministers of she
incapable of holding a command. powers in question.
The whole cargo shall in like
manner be confiscated, although OFFICIAL NOTE RELATIVE TO THE
not consisting of slaves : with re DIMlNUTION OF THE ARMY OF

spect to the negroes, they shall be OCCUPATION.

employed on public works of uti The Courts of Austria, Eng


lity in the colony. land, Prussia, and Russia, having
Art. 2. The contraventions for taken into consideration the desire
bidden in the preceding article manifested by his most Christian
shall be; tried according to the Majesty to have the numbers of
some forms as contraventions of the Army of Occupation dimi
the laws and regulations for fo nished, and proportionably the
reign commerce. As for the pro amount of charge occasioned by
duce of the confiscations pronounc its presence on the French terri
ed in conformity to the said arti tory, have authorized the under
cle, it shall be realized and sup signed to make the following
plied in the same manner as the communication to his Excellency
produce of confiscations pronounc the Duke de Richelieu, President
ed in matters of the contravention of the Council of Ministers, and
of the laws concerning foreign Secretary of State for the Depart
commerce. mentof Foreign Afl'airs :—
Given at the Thuilleries, 81¢. At the time when the King,
Jan. 8, 1817. re-eltablished upon his throne and
put
104) ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
put in possession of his legitimate the same wishes and the same in
and constitutional authority, en terests.
deavoured to discover, in concert The great result desired and
with the other powers, the most looked to by all Europe could be
efficacious means of consolidating neither the work of a moment,
internal order in France, and of nor the efl'ect of a single effort.
associating his kingdom to the The Allied Powers have observed
system of good understanding and with a constant attention, but not
general pacification interrupted by with astonishment, the difl'erences
the troubles which were scarcely of opinion which have prevailed as
put an end to; it was found that tothe mode of obtaining it. In
the temporary presence of an Al this attitude they have looked to
lied Army was absolutely neces the superior wisdom of the King
sary both to secure Europe against for the measures proper to fix un
the consequences of agitations, certainty, and to give to his ad
the renewal of which were threat ministration a firm and regular
ened, and to atl‘ord to the Royal march ; not doubtingthnt he would
authority the opportunity of ex unite with the dignity of the throne
ercising in tranquillity its bene and the rights of his crown, that
volent influence, and of strength magnanimity which, after civil
ening itself by the attachment discord, assures and encourages
and submission of all French the weak ; and, by an enlightened
men. confidence, excite the zeal of all
The solicitulle of his mostChris his other subjects. _
tian Majesty to render this indis Experience having already hap
pensable expedient the least one pily fulfilled, as far as the nature
rous to his subjects, and the wis of things will allow, the hopes of
dom which directed all the ar Europe upon this subject, the Al
rangements stipulated at that pe— lied Sovereigns, eager to contri
riod, led them to anticipate by bute to this great work, and to
common accord the case in which give to the nation the means of
the diminution of the Army of enjoying all the benefits which
Occupation might take place with the efforts and the wisdom of the
out weakening the- motives, or King are preparing for it, do not
injuring the great interests, which hesitate to regard the present
had rendered its presence ne state of atfairs as suflicient to de
cessary. termine the question which they
These conditions the under have been called upon to decide.
signed have great satisfaction in The good faith with which the
retracing; they Consist in the King‘s government has hitherto
firm establishment of the legiti fulfilled the engagements entered
mate dynasty, and in the success into with the Allies, and thev care
of the efi‘orts and endear/ours of which has been taken to provide
his most Christian Majesty to com for the diiferent services 'of the
press factions, dissipate errors, current year, by adding to the re
tranquillize passions, and unite all sources arising from the revenues
Frenchmen around the throne by of the state those of a credit, gua
4; ‘ ranted
qfi—‘v

GENERAL HISTORY. [105


ranteed by foreign and national joy all the advantages arising
banking-houses the most consi from the said reduction, conform
derable in Europe, have also re ably to existing treaties and con
moved the difficulties which might ventions.
otherwise have justly arisen upon In communicating so marked a
this point of the proposed ques testimony of friendship and confi
tion. dence to his most Christian Ma
These considerations have at the jesty, on the part of their august
same time been strengthened by masters, the undersigned have at
the opinion which his Excellency the same time to dvclare to his
Marshal the Duke of Wellington Excellency the Duke de Richelieu,
has been requested to give respec~ how much the principles of the
ing an object of such great im ministry over which he presides,
portance. and those which are personal to
The favourable opinion and the himself, have contributed to esta
authority of a personage so emi blish that mutual good will, which,
nent have added, to the motives directed by the spirit and the let
already stated, all those which ter of existing treaties, has hither
human prudence can unite to jus to served to arrange so many de
tifya measure demanded and con licate affairs, and which affords for
sented to with sentiments of sin the future the most satisfactory
cere and reciprocal kindness. ' pledges of a definitive and satis
The undersigned are therefore factory conclusion. '
authorized by their respective They seize this opportunity of
courts to notify to his Excellency renewing to the Duke de Riche
the Duke de Richelieu— lieu the assurances of their high
1. That the reduction of the consideration.
Army of Occupation will be car (Signed)
ried into elfect. The Baron Vmcaa'r.
2. That the amount of the di Cnaauss STUART.
minution of the whole army shall The Count Ds GOL'I‘Z.
be 80,000 men. Pozzo DI Boaco.
3. That this amount shall be Paris, Feb. 10, 1817'.
preportioncd to that of each con,
tinge nt; that is to say, it shall be' The session of the two cham
a fifth of each corps d'armée. bers closed on March 526, sine die.
4. That it shall take place from In May was published an ordi
the 1st of April next. nance from the King, relative to
5. That from that period the an obligation entered into by the
200,000 rations per day, furnished city of Paris for the payment of
for the troops by the French go its debts._ It is to the following
vernment, shall be reduced to efl'ect.
160,000, without, however, in
ORDINANCE OF THE KING RELA
any respect altering the 50,000
TIVE TO THE LOAN 01" THE
nations of forage destined for the
CITY OF PARIS.
feed of the horses.
6} Lastly, that from the same Louis, by the grace of God, 8m.
period France shall otherwise an ' The municipal administration of
' ' our
106] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Our good city of Paris, having quarter, by a drawing, which will
been placed under the necessity of take place at the Hotel-de-Ville, a
issuing negotiable bills for raising month before the day of payment
the funds of which it stood in arrives, in such a manner that, in
need, by the expences consequent the space of 1‘2 years from the
upon the military occupation of lst of October next, to the lst of
the city in 1815, and by those in July, 1829, there will be made by
curred in consequence of the in the city of Paris 48 quarterly pay
clemency of the seasons of 1816, ments, to liquidate the whole of
we had authorized, by our decrees the obligations and premiums, to
of the 18th of September and 4th gether with the interests conform
of October, 1815, and of the 15th ably to an annexed table.
of last January, the creation and Art. 4. The city of'Paris is au
alienation of 1,500,000 francs of thorized to negotiate the 83 mil
perpetual rent, the produce of lions of bills at the price and on
which was to be employed for li the conditions which have been
quidating the debts of our good accepted by the municipal council.
city of Paris. Art. 5. The funds arising from
But it having been represented this negotiation of bills will be em
to us, that the alienation of these ployed exclusively in withdrawing
1,500,000 francs of revenue has from circulation that portion of its
only proceeded to a small extent, rents already engaged, Bic.
and that the municipal admini Art. 0'. To guarantee the pay
stration of the city being con ment of obligations, premiums,
vinced of the difficulty which it and interest, there will be allotted
would have in redeeming it, pre to the budget of Paris every year
fers the adoption of another mode during the currency ‘of the 12
of extinguishing the debt, we have years, a sum of 4,848,000 francs
decreed : assessed upon its fixed or eventual
Art. 1. That our good city ofParis revenues. This assessment will
is authorized to create 33,000 obli form the first part of the extra0r~
gations to the bearer of the value dinary expenses of the city.
of 1,000 francs each, forming the Certain duties of tolls, markets,
sum of 38,000,000 of francs, pay 8w. are particularly specified as
able in, the space of 12 years from security for these payments.
the first of next October. Then follows the contract en
Art. 2. These obligations will tered into by the Prefect of the
be subjected only to the stamp Seine, acting for the city of Paris
duty, and will bear 6 per cent. in on the one hand, and MM. Domi
terest, payable every three months; nick André and Francis ottier,
enjoying besides a premium, the Basoni, L. Goupy, and Co. H. J.
amount of which will be deter Hentich, Blanc, and Co., J. M.
mined by a lottery, in the proper. Rosthchild, O. \Vorrns de Romilly,
tion which will be fixed by an an on the other; by which the for,
nexed table. mer agrees to the propositions ‘
Art. 3. The discharge of the made by the latter five mercantile
obligations and the payment of the houses, and receives from them
premiums will be efi'ected every an obligation to pay into the
treasury
GENERAL HISTORY. [101
treasury of Paris the sum of however, some machinations of
31,000,000 francs, by 19 instal greater importance appear to have
ments, the first of which to take been in agitation; and the fol
place on the lst of June, 1817, lowing proclamation, by the Comte
and the last on the lst of June, de Fargues, Mayor of Lyons, evi
1818. For the liquidation of this dently points out an intention in
sum of 81,000,000, the city of certain individuals of exciting a
Paris binds itself to pay to the political conspiracy.
contractors, in the course of 1‘2
years, the sum of 52,176,000l MAYORALTY OF LYON.
in 48 quarterly payments of PROCLAMATION.
1,087.000l. each, between the inhabitants of the City of Lyon.
lst of October l817, and the lst —-For severaldays sinister reports,
of July, 1829. The city of Paris which are but too frequently the
engages to make no loan during forerunner of storms, have awak
a year, to employ the sums con ened the attention of the authori
tributed by the contractols for the ties, and led to the developement
purposes mentioned in the ordi of the wicked designs of the dis
nance, and to create 33,000 obli afl'ected, the gloomy advances of
gations of 1,000 francs each, which, notwithstanding the shade
makin . . . . . . . . . 83,000,000 of mystery under which they en
These obligations deavoured to conceal them, could
will hear an interest not escape the penetration of the
of 6 per cent. each, magistrates.
per annum, which in A plot, as extravagant as cri
terest, in consequence minal, was contemplated; and its
of successive liquida ramifications extended to the sur
tion of capital on the rounding country,where misguid
same bills, \\ ill a~ ed individuals, seduced by falla
,mount, it the space cious promises, gave ear with con
of 12 years, to . . . . 13,094,770 fidence to the seditious discourses
In addition to this, of the vilest instigators.
the premiums, a Their aim was disorder, pillage,
mounting to . . . . . 6,081,‘280 and assassination ; it was to these
_—
that their wishes and efl‘orts were
Willraise the whole directed, and they were about to
sum to . . . -. . . . . . . 52,176,000 employ the most horrible means
for their purposes : but all the
_D15TURBANCES IN THE PRQVINCES.
details of this odious plot were in
In June it was announced in a. the hands of the authorities. Every
Paris paper that the disturbances means was taken to oppose a vi.
which had taken place in several gorous and legitimate resistance
parts of France had entirely sub to the attempts of these scoun
sided. They appear to have risen drels, whose criminal intentions
chiefly from the high price of pro were carried no farther than in
visions, and the leader of a band assassinating, in the most shame
who disturbed the markets at ful manner, the brave ofiieers of
Yonne was condemned to twenty the legion of l'Yonne.
years‘captivity in irons. At Lyons, Thanks to the wise and prudent
arrange.
nos] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1817.
arrangements of the worthy ma muons-rs.
gistrate to whom this depart On August 25th, two royal or
ment is confided; thanks to the dinances were published in the
able general who commanded the. Moniteur relative to the establish
19th military division; thanks to ment of majorats for "the Heredi
the courageous devotion of the tary Peerage which is to compose
national guard, who daily furnish the first order of the French
fresh reason for an addition to the Chambers. No person is in fu
praises they so richly deserve ; ture to be called to the House of
thanks to the faithful and valiant Peers, ecclesiastics excepted. who
troops which compose the garri has not previously obtained the
son; thanks at last to the Zeal of royal authority to form a majorat.
the Lyonnese, who always know Of the majorats there are to be
how to display that character and three classes; those attached to
that French heart which has so the title of duke, consisting of
eminently distinguished them — property producing not less than
the plot was baflled, tranquillity 80,000 francs annually; those to
has been maintained, and a great the titles of marquis and count
part of the insurgents have fallen producing not less than 20,000
into our hands. francs annually; and those to the
An exemplary punishment, not titles of viscounts and barons,
less prompt than severe and justly producing not less than 10,000
merited, will show, that although francs annually. The second ordi
indulgence is inexhaustible for er nance directs the manner in which
rors and wanderings, justice can the patents of peerage are to be
be inflexible in cases of crime, au made out, the precedency of peers,
dacity, and revolt. the titles of their eldest sons, &c.
Inhabitants of the City of Lyon.
ELECTION OF THE CHAMBER
—-Your magistrates know how to
OF DEPUTIES.
appreciate yin in case of emer
gency; they look to you with The election of the Chamber of ‘
confidence. You may continue Deputies took place in the month
peaceable; you have no occasion of September, conformably to the
for any fears—for any alarms; rule laid down by his Majesty in
and you may rest satisfied under the September of the preceding
their care. You will rally round year, which fixed the number to
them; you will give your efforts be returned by the 86 depart
to theirs to crown the success; ments of the kingdom at 258,
and you will sustain the honour and limited the age prescribed for
of a city always distinguished for the deputies to such as had passed
its courage, its zeal for the main their fortieth year. The speech
tenance of good order, and for the delivered by the King to both
love which it bears to its lawful Chambers was to the following
Sovereign—Vice le Roi .' purpose.
Done at the Hotel de Ville, Gentlemen,—At the opening of
June 9. 1817. the last session I spoke to you of
The Mayor of the City of Lyon. the hopes inspired by the mar
Le Comte de Faaouss. riageof the Duke de Berry.Though
b
' Providence
.u“.
GENERAL HISTORY. [109
Providence has too suddenly with which have fallen upon the vine
draWn the gift it bestowed, yet we yards, excite my paternal solici
cannot fail to behold in it assur tude for privations which, without
ances of the future accomplishment your co-operation, I cannot re
of our wishes. lieve. I
The treaty with the Holy See, l have ordered the budget of
which I announced last year, has the charges of the financial year
since been concluded. I have com on which we are about to enter to
manded my ministers, in commu be laid before you. If the ex
nicating it to you, to propose the penses resulting from treaties, and
project of a law, necessary to give from the deplorable war they have
the legislative sanction to such of terminated, will not permit any
its provisions as may be suscepti— immediate diminution of the taxes
ble of it, and to place them in voted in preceding sessions, I have
unison with the charter, the laws at least the satisfaction of think
of the kingdom, and those pri ing, that the economy 1' have pre
vileges of the Gallican church, scribed will preclude the necessity
the precious inheritance of our of requiring any augmentation,
fathers, of which St. Louis and and a vote of credit inferior to
all his successors were no less that of the last budget will suflice
jealous than of the happiness of for all the wants of the year.
their subjects. The conventions which I signed
The harvest of 1816, by its bad in 1815, in presenting results
quality, frustrated in a great de which could not then be foreseen,
gree, my hopes. The sufi'erings have rendered a new negotiation
of my people have afliicted my necessary. Every thing leads me
heart. ] have, however, beheld to hope that its issue will be fa
with emotion, that almost every vourable, and that conditions far
where they have endured them above our means will be replaced ,
with a touching resignation ; and by others more conformable to
if, in some places, they have equity, to moderation, and to the
broken out into seditious acts, or possibility of sacrifices, which my
der was soon re-established. In people support with a constancy
. order to mitigate the misfortunes that can add nothing to my love
of that period, I have found it for them, but which give them
.necessary to make great efforts, new claims to my gratitude, and
and to draw upon the treasury for to the esteem of all nations.
extraordinary sacrifices. The de Thus, as I had the happiness of
tails will be laid before you, and announcing to you in the course
the zeal with which you are ani of last session, the expenses re
mated for the public good will sulting from the army of occupa
not permit me to doubt that these tion are diminished a fifth, and
unforeseen expenses will have your the period is not far distant when
sanction. The harvest of this year we may be permitted to hope—
is more satisfactory over the thanks to the wisdom and energy
greatest part of the kingdom; of my government, to the love and
.but, on the other hand, some 10 confidence of my people, and to
cal calamities, and the blights the friendship of my allies—that
those
v-v www—

no] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.


those expenses will entirely cease ; l have detailed to you our diffi
and that our country will resume culties, and the measures which
among nations the rank and re they require: in conclusion, I
nown due to the valour of French shall direct your attention to ob
men, and their noble attitude in jects ofa more pleasing descrip
adversity. tion. Thanks to the peace re
To attain this end, I shall more stored to the church of France,
than ever stand in need of unani religion, that eternal basis of all
mity between the people and the felicity even on earth, will. I
throne; of that vigour, without doubt not, flourish amongst us;
which authority is powerless. ln tranquillity and confidence begin
proportion as that authority is to re-appear; public credit is con
strong, will the necessity be di solidating; agriculture, commerce,
minished of displaying itself in and industry, resume their acti
acts of severity. The manner in vity; new master-pieces of art
which the depositariesof my power excite admiration. One of my
have used what the laws intrusted children is traversing, at this mo
to them have justified my confi ment, a part of the kingdom ; and
dence. However, I feel great sa in return for sentiments so deeply
tisfaction in announcing to you, engraven on his heart, and mani
that I do not consider it requisite fested by his conduct, he is every
to continue the l’revotal Courts where greeted with benedictions ;
beyond the term fixed for their while I, who have but one feel
existence by the law which es ing—the happiness of my people;
tablished them. who am desirous, for their good
I have digested, conformably to alone, of that authority which
the charter, a law for recruiting. I shall defend from all attacks, of
I wish that there should be no whatever kind—know that I am
mom left for invoking privi beloved by them, and find in my
leges ,- that the spirit and dispo heart the assurance that this con
sitions of that charter, our true solation will never fail me.
compass, which calls all French
men indiscriminately to offices and PROJECT 01’ A LAW FOR
employments, should not be illu THE PRESS.
sory _= and that the soldier should
find no other limits to his honour On Nov. 17th, Baron Pasquier,
able career, than those of his ta keeper of the seals, made. a speech
lents and of his services. If the relative to the liberty of the press,
execution of this salutary law introductory to the project of a
should demand an augmentation law on the subject proposed by
in the budget of the war minister, the King to the Chamber of De
you, as the interpreters of the puties, and contained in the fol
sentiments of my people, will not lowing articles.
hesitate to sanction arrangements Louis, by the grace of God, &c.
which secure to France that inde \Ve have ordained that the pro
pendence and that dignity, with ject of a law of the following ten
out which there can be neither dency shall be presented in our
king nor nation. name to the Chamber of Depu
ties,
GENERAL HISTORY. [111
ties, by our Keeper of the Seals, ‘Zd. If the work, although the
Minister Secretary of State for the declaration be made, contains a
Department of Justice, by our tlirect incitement to crime
Minister of General Police, and 8. Excepting these two cases,
by the Sieurs Ravez and Simeon, there can be no prosecution for a
Counsellors of State. printed work, until a publication
Article I. The author, known shall have taken place, and the
and residing in France, ot' a print distribution of the whole or of part
ed work, is alone responsible for of the work, or the deposit made
its contents. in pursuance of the 14th article
2. The author, known and re of the law of the Qlst October,
siding in France, of a printed 1814, are considered a publication.
translation of a work, is respon 9. When a printed work shall
sible for it. have been seized by virtue of the
8. The editor of a work of 15th article of the 2d title of the
which the author has died before law of the Qlst ,October, 1814,
publication, or is not known, or the order of seizure, and the pro
is not resident in France, is re ces verbal, shall, under pain of
sponsible for it. - nullity, be notified within 24 hours
4. The printer is not respon to the party on whom the seizure
sible except when the author, the shall be made and transmitted,
translator, or editor, are not within the same time by theKing's
known, or do not reside in France; attorney to the Judge of Instruc
or where the author or translator tion.
has not consented to the printing 10. If in three days front the
of the work. notification of the proces verbal,
5. If the author, the translator, and in case the distribution of all,
the editor, or the printer of a or part of the work seized, may
work be not known, or do not not have been made, the respon
reside in France, the bookseller, sible accused person declares that
and all others who vend or dis he renounces the publication of it :
tribute the said work, are respon and if he consents that all the
sible for it. c0pies of it shall be destroyed, the
6. Nevertheless, the authors, suppression of the work, and the
translators, editors, and printers destruction of the copies seized,
ofawork, which would directly and of all those which may be
incite to crimes, and the booksel subsequently produced, shall be
lers, and all others, who sell or ordered by the tribunal, and the
distribute it, are all equally re pr0secution shall be no further
sponsible, and may be prosecuted continued, unless the printed work
at the same time for the said work. shall have directly provoked or ex
7. A prosecution may be insti cited to crimes.
tuted for every work given to be ' 11. The Judge of Instruction is
printed in the two following cases: bound, within eight days from the
lst. If the declaration pre reception of the proces verbal of
scribed by the law of the 4th of seizure, to make his report to the
October, 1814, be not made. Chamber of the Council.
12. If
112] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
12. If the Chamber be of opi the delays prescribed by the 184th
nion that there is no cause for article of the Code of Criminal
prosecution, it will decree the re Instruction.
moval of the seizure, and the If the documents be sent to the
freedom of the accused should be Attorney-General, and that the
be arrested. In the contrary case, Royal Court pronounces the ac
it orders, according to the im cusation, the case shall be tried
portance of the facts, either that at the next assizes.
the afl‘nir should be sent to the 15. The act of accusation shall
Tribunal of the Correctional Pm be closed by the following recapi
lice, or that the documents should tulation :——“ He is consequently
be transferred to the King's At accused of having committed by
torney-General, at the RoynlCourt, composition“ [the translation or
to he proceeded on as is laid down publication] “ of" [such a writ~
in the chapter of the Code of ing] or “ by the sale or distri
Criminal Instruction , entitled, The bution" [of such a writing, such
Trial of Accusations. and such a crime, attended with
13. In default of judgment, such and such circumstances ]
which within three days from the 16. The questions resulting from
report made by the Judge of In the act of accusation shall be put
struction, ordains the transmission in these terms z—lst. Does the
of the affair to the Tribunal of printed work present such or such
Correctional Police, or of the do a character, expressed in the re
cuments to the Attorney-General, capitulation of the act of accusa
or in default'of citation of the tion, with all the circumstances
party seized, before the Tribunal therein comprised ? 2d. Is the ac
of Correctional Police, within the cused guilty of having composed,
same period: increased by a day translated, or published this work,
in consequence of the three my or of having printed, or of having
riameters of distance, counting sold, or distributed it?
from the ordinance of transmis 17. If the declaration of the
sion, the seizure is null and with jury be affirmative only on the
out efl'ect. All the holders of the first question. in the whole or in
work seized, are bound to send it part, the seizure shall be main
to the proprietor, on the simple tained and the work condemned,
exhibition of a certificate of the and the accused shall be sentenced
register, stating that there has only to the costs.
been no judgment or citation in 18. The Correctional Tribunals
the time before-mentioned, which may, in cases of the abuse of the
certificate will serve for a dis liberty of the press, Command un
charge. der security, the provisional free
14. The citation before the Tri dom of the accused, conformably
bunal of Correctional Police shall to the 11th article of the Code of
be in every case notified to the Criminal Instruction. They may
Register within three days from also use their discretion, even on
the ordinance of remission, and the condemnation of a work, to
the cause shall be tried at the first pronounce only the payment of
audience after the expiration of costs.
19. and 20.
r—r—‘vfl‘w

GENERAL HISTORY. [113


19 and ‘20. [These articles ex tical subjects and intelligence,
tend to sentence pronounced a shall not, until the lst of January.
gainst a work, and to all future 1821, appear without the autho
impressions and publications of rity of the King.
the same.] (Signed) Lours.
21. In cases of crimes and mis
demeanours, the annulling of the LAW eon 'rns as'ranusumanr or
proces verbal of seizure for errors RELIGION.
of forms, shall not be an obstacle The important concern which
to a farther prosecution of the had been agitated between the
work. It. shall be the same with Papal court and that of Paris, rc
regard to the accused, if the facts lative. to the establishment of tne
imputed to him be otherwise prov Catholic religion in the latter,
ed by the process. was laid before the Chamber of
'22. Every individual who feels Deputies by M. Laine, minister
himself aggrieved by the abuse of of the interior in the form of the
the liberty of the press, may pre project of a law proposed by the
fer a complaint before the King's King in the following articles.
Attorney-General. or the Judge Lours, &c.
of Instruction, either in the place To all present and to come.
of his residence, if the work has greeting. We have ordained and
been there sold or distributed, or do ordain, that the projet of the
from the place of the residence of law, the tenour of which follows,
the accused, or one of them. shall be presented to the Chamber
28 and ‘24 refer to the jurisdic of Deputies by our Ministers Se
tion of Courts. _ cretaries of State for the Depart
25. The public action for an ment of Foreign Affairs, and of
abuse of the liberty of the press the Interior, by the Sieurs Count
is interdicted after the revolution Beugnot, Minister of State, and
of a year, reckoning from the day Count l’ortalis , Counsellor of State,
in which the writing shall have whom we charge to develope its
been deposited, in pursuance of motives, and support its discus
the 14th Art. of the law of the Qist 'siOn:-—- ' '
Oct. 1814. The public action, if' ' Article l.--Conformably with
there has been no deposit, and the -the Concordat passed between
civil action, in all cases, are not Francis I. and Leo. X., the King
prohibited until after the time ap alonc‘ appoints,‘ ‘by virtue of a
pointed by the Code of Criminal right inherent in-his crown, to the
Instruction. ' Archbishopri'clts -1and"Bishopricks
96. The law of the 28th of through the; whole extent of his
February, 1817, relative to writ kingdom. The‘Bish‘ops and Arch
ings seized, and all the disposi bishops repair to the Pope“ to ob.-.
tions of anterior laws contrary to tain canonical institution, accord
the present, are and remain re ing to the farms'eStabli'shed by
pealed. ancient usage. -" -' Y":
27. The journals and other pe-v ll The concordat of the 15th
riodical works which treat of pOli July, 1801, ceases to have its effect
Vot. LIX [I] from
114] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
from this day; saving, however, VII. The said acts shall be in
the effects which it has produced, serted in the Bulletin of Laws,
and the disp0sition in article 13 with the law or ordinance that has
of that act, which remains in its authorized the publication.
full force and vigour. [That ar VIII. The cases of abuse speci
ticle refers to the inviolability of fied in the Art. 6, and those of
the sales of church property.) disturbance, provided for by Art. 7,
111. Seven new Archbishopricks, of the law of 1802, shall be sub
and 25 new Bishopricks, are mitted directly to the Royal Courts,
erected. Two of the Episcopal the first Civil Chamber, on the
Sees at present existing are erect information of our attornies-gene
ing into Archiepiscopal Sees. The ral, or on the prosecution of the
boundaries of the 50 Sees already parties interested.
existing, and those of the 82 [re The Royal Courts shall decide
cently created, are determined ac in all cases not provided for by the
cording to the tables annexed to codes, conformably with the regu
the present law. lations anciently observed in the
IV- The endowment of the kingdom, saving appeal to the
Archbishopricks and Bishoprieks Court of Cassation.
shall be taken from the funds IX. All persons in holy orders
placed at the disposal of the King, approved by their Bishops, who
by article 148 of the law of the may be charged with crimes or
25th March last. ofl'ences, either out of their func
V. The bulls, briefs, decrees, tions or in the exercise of their
and other acts, emanating from functions, shall he proceeded
the Court of Rome, or produced against according to the disposi
under its authority, except the tions of Art. 10 of the law of the
indulgences of the Penitentiary 20th April, 1810, and the Arti
Court, so far alone as concerns cles 479 and 480 of the Criminal
the internal Ecclesiastical Court Code of Instruction.
cannot be received, printed, pub X. The Bulls given at Rome
lished, or carried into execution the 19th (1st) and 27th (9d) of
in the kingdom, without the au July, the former containing the
thority of the King. ratification of the Convention
VI. Such of those acts as con passed the 11th June last, between
cern the Universal Church, or the the King and his Holiness; the
general interest of the state, or second, concerning the boundaries
the church of France, their laws, of the dioceses of the kingdom,
their administration, or their doc are received, and shall be pub
trine, and which may necessitate lished without the approbation of
or may induce some modifications clauses, formulas, and expressions
in the legislation now existing, which they contain, and which
cannot be received, printed, pub are or may be contrary to the laws
lished, or carried into execution of the realm, the liberties, frau
in France, without having been chises, and maxims of the Gallican
duly verified-by the two Chambers Church. .
upon the proposal of the King. XI. In no case shall the said
receptions
GENERAL HISTORY. [115
receptions and publications preju- cerning the administration of reli
dice the dispositions of the present gious persuasions, not Catholic.
law—the public ri hts of the Given at the Castle of the Thuil
French, guaranteed y the Con- leries, the 22d November, in
stitutional Charter—the maxims, the year of our Lord 1817,
franchises, and liberties of the and of our reign the 23d.
Gallican Church—the laws and (Signed)
regulations concerning ecclesias
tical affairs, and the laws con- Louu.

U] Q CHAP
116] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.

CHAPTER Xl.

Spain.—Disturbance in Valencia.—1§dict prohibiting Rocha—Conspiracy


in Barrelona.—Castanos and his Accomplices condeinned.—Papal Bull
respecting the Property of the Church in Spam—Queen Etruria.—
Decree relative to the Culture of Tobacco in the Havannah.—Aboli
tion of the Slave Trade.--Portugal.—Irruption of its Army into Mon
tevideo—Part taken by the allied P0wers.—Defection of Pemambuco,
and its Reduction.—-Plot in Portugal.

seam. - possession during the whole of


‘HE following letter, dated the 17th. Elio had the prudence
from Murcia, on the 5th of to leave the rabble to itself. The
February, contains an account of people had the insolence to raise
a disturbance which took place in the cry of the constitution; and
Valencia on January 17th. ofi'ered a thousand insults to the
“The 17th ult. was a day of general and the troops. l have
judgment in Valencia. The peo the satisfaction, however, to tell
ple daringly rose against General you, that none but the rabble
Elio; and if divine Providence took any part in the disturbance :
had not taken pity on that afliicted the gentlemen and men of pro
district, we know not to what perty remained in their houses.
lengths the wild monster the At last the army triumphed ; and
mob (which a people are when General Elio is about to make
given up to their own violence) terrible examples. The judges of
would have proceeded. These tur the audience entered into disputes
bulent habits have been contract with his Excellency concerning
ed by past events, when the Li the limits of jurisdiction between
berales flattered the people that the civil and military authority;
they were going to destroy all the and Elio, who knows well his
authority of rank and power. The duty, immediately set out to
people are like children ; they Madrid to obtain from his Ma
never forget the indulgence a1 jesty full powers to hang, if it be
]owed them. The tumult took its found necessary, the members of
origin in a foolish dispute about the court itself. One soldier was
the tax on coals. General Elio, killed: on the side of the people
who allows no one to dispute his many were wounded. General
commands, found it necessary to Elio was wounded, but not se
exert his authority against certain verely.”
persons who called themselves the The following proclamation was
deputies of the people ; and thus subjoined to this letter.
was kindled that fire which had The Captain-General of thepro
nearly involved in flame the whole vinces of Valencia and Murcia, to
capital of the province. The power whom is intrusted the preserva
of the insurgents rose to such a tion of the public tranquillity,
height, that the city was in their desirous to fulfil his duty, and to
protect
GENERAL Hisro RY. [117
protect the peace of these dis published at Madrid on the 2d of
tr cts, commands as follows : March. These books are divided
1. According to the proclama into two principal classes: in the
tion of the ‘20th of March, and first are included those which are
the 4th of December last, that prohibited even to those individuals
every person bearing arms with to whom the Holy Otiice allows
out licence be treated with rigour particular licences or permissions :
if found with arms either about the other class comprehends works
his person or in his house; let which are forbidden only to those
him suffer the punishment which who have never obtained any li
the law decrees to such an offence. cence.
‘2. After dusk, and within the The works of the first class are
city, no person shall dare to go eight in number: they are pro
armed, except the patrol appoint hibited as defamatory of the su
ed to preserve the public peace, preme authority of the Roman
military ofiicers, noblemen, and Pontifi‘, and of the ecclesiastical
persons who are privileged by authority; as containing propo
their rank of cavaliers dc espada sitions scandalous, impious, false,
or sable. If any other persons are seditious, rash, erroneous, blas
found with arms, defend them phemous, schismatic, heretical,
selves, or fly at the name of the and injurious to the Roman Pon
King, the patrol shall be autho tiff, to the Bishops, and to the
rized to fire upon them, or to Holy Tribunal of the Inquisition:
pursue and apprehend them. If conducive to error, superstitious,
when so apprehended and impri ridiculous, contrary to the sacred
soned, it shall appear that they at Canons, to the evangelical doc
tempted to make resistance, they trine, and to the example of Jesus
shall be hanged within twelve Christ.
hours afterwards. Against this Although by the edict of the
sentence there shall be no appeal, 18th of August, 1762, the Works
whatever be their excuse or num~ of Voltaire were prohibited even
bers. to those who had obtained regular
3.Athousand reals shall begiven licenses ; and although, according
as a reward to those who shall in to the rule established on this
form against any of the authors of point, works prohibited in one
the late disturbances. language ought to be equally pro
From the apparently guarded hibited in another; it has been
manner in which this letter is ex thought convenient to renew the
pressed, and especially the hint prohibition of the Henriade, trans
given respecting the dispute be lated into Spanish verse by Drs.
tween the civil and military autho D. Pedro Bazar and Mendoza,
rities, it may be conjectured that with the prologue, printed at Alais
the disturbance was of greater (Gardi in the year 1816.
consquence than it appears to The prohibition of the second
have been. class falls on forty-seven works,
as containing a corrupt and revo
snicr rloaisirixc Boolts. lutionary Spirit_ propositions imu
An edict prohibiting books was rious to the Holy Ofiice and to the
Clergy,
us] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Clergy, oalumnious against true ror, depravity, and apostacy, wish
religion, blasphemous, tending to ing, by virtue of the apostolic,
idolatry, injurious toFerdinand Vll. royal, and ordinary authority
subversive of the monarchical Go with which they are invested, to
vernment, incentive of rebellion prevent the evil which might re
against legitimate Sovereigns, in sult from the reading of the works
jurious to the doctrine of the holy contained in this edict, hereby or
sacrament, and filled with satires dain their prohibition; and that
against husbands fond oftheir wives . those which are already distributed
In this second class are included over the nation shall be collected:
the following works: Principle of they also expressly forbid the read
Policy. applicable to all repre ing, selling, or keeping in pos
sentative Governments, die. by session, these books.
M. Benjamin de Constant, Coun
CONSPIRACY 1N IAICILONA.
sellor of State ; as containing max
ims and propositions false in poli On April the 5th a plan was laid
tics, and to the hierarchical order; for a conspiracy in the city of Bar'
contrary to the spirit of religion; celona, which. from the persons
captions, subversive of the power engaged in it, had the appearance
of the Church ; anti-dogmatic, of a deeply laid plan for effecting
tending to schism and to religious some important change in the
toleration, and pernicious to the state. The purpose was no less
State—(Literal translation.) than the re-establishment of the
Felix and Paulina; or, The Cortes and the constitution; and
Tomb of Mont-jura, by P. Blan the principal persons concerned
chard, translated into Spanish. were the generals Lacy and Milans,
Elements of the Rights of Na who had distinguished themselves
tions ; by Lacroix, translated into in the late war against the usur
Spanish ; as containing propositions pation of Buonaparte. Just before
inconsonant, subversive of good its intended eruption, the govern
order, false, reprobate, injurious ment obtained knowledge of the de
against the holy office, and con sign; and the Captain-gen. of the
trary to the rights of the church province made public the fbllow
and of the sovereign. ing account of the transaction :—
The Comedy Les Visitandines ; “ A horrible conspiracy, which
an opera, in two acts, and in verse, appears to have been formed by
translated into Spanish. individuals of ditferent classes, and
The Cousin of Mahomet; printed in which are implicated Generals
at Constantinople, as being in Lacy and Milans, who,at a former
decent. period had rendered signal ser
Adele and Theodore, or Letters vices to their country, was to be
on Education : printed at London, executed on the 5th at night.
in French, without the name of The object of the conspirators was
the author; as containing propo to overturn the government, to
sitions inconsonant, captions, false, restore the abolished constitution,
tending to error, and exciting bad and to deprive me of the authority
ideas. entrusted to me by the King.
The Apostolic Inquisitors of er But the energetic measures I
adopted
GENERAL HISTORY. [119
adopted at the moment when, by forward to co-operate with the ar
the particular favour of Provi rangements made by me to assure
dence, I had the first news of the the good order of the state, and to
conspiracy, have defeated the vain fulfil the good wishes of the King.
projects of the seditious. Pur I announce with satisfaction to the
sued on all sides, the greater part whole province and to the army,
of those whom public notoriety that the conspiracy having been
had marked as guilty, have been discovered, and the principal actors
arrested. The most active search in it having been arrested or pur
will soon discover their accom sued, there no longer remains any
plices. Those who have fled to cause of alarm: and the conspi
the mountains, and have found rators only await the punishment
there a temporary asylum, have which the laws shall award to such
been traced with so speedy a step criminals, after the result of legal
that they must be overtaken. In proceedings, which have been al
the midst of the painful sentiments ready commenced, and which will
which have afflicted my mind dur not be of long duration.
ing these days of trouble, 1 have “ Xavnsn Cas'rsnos.
had the consolation to see the in “ Barcelona, April 12, 1817."
habitants of Barcelona, and those General Lacy, with his principal
of the rest of the province, not accomplices, was capitally con
only renounce all alliance with the demned by a court martial assem
traitors, but testify a just indig bled near the end of April at Bar
nation against them, and enter celona. 1 Gen. Milans had not yet
with zeal into the execution of been apprehended. The project
those orders which have been is of an insurrection seems to have
sued to apprehend and punish the been more extensive than at first
guilty. The conduct of the troops appeared; and it'is asserted that
and of ‘ their officers has been three hundred ofliccrs were ar
equally praiseworthy. The dis rested at the same time with Lacy
cipline of all the corps has shown as participators in his designs.
itself to be deserving of the high Lacy, after his capture, was
est credit. Two companies only taken over to Majorca, probably
of the battalion of the light infan to prevent any designs in his fa
try ofTarragonahave been deceived vour. On arriving there, it was
and seduced by the second in com uncertain whether he would have
mand, Don Joseph Quer. No undergone the punishment of
other officer has taken part in the death, or have been indulged with
disafl'ection, which lasted only for a commutation; but finding him~
a few hours. self upon the beach with only his
“ Such was the foundation of the escort, he attempted to make his
foolish hopes of those wretched per escape by flight. The soldiers pur
sons,who, in spite ofall their efforts, sued him, and in striving to de
have not succeeded in interrupting fend himself, he was killed.
for amoment the pu blic tranquillity. ram. BULL.
“ Thereis no longer any subject A bull published by the Pope in
for alarm. All the first autho the month of April, which respects
rities of the province have pressed the property of the church in Spain;
afi‘ords
.1 \
120] ANNUAL REGISTER, NW.
afl'ords a strong proof of the accu good~will wherewith we are ani
mulation of wealth in that class, mated in favour of the said King
and of the necessity under which the Ferdinand, have. admitted the sup
state labours. It is of the follow plications he had addressed to us,
ing tenor. and which have been presented to
“ Pius, Bishop, Servant of the us by our dear son the Chevalier
Servants of God. Antonio de Vargas y Laguna, his
" The Roman Pontifi's, incited Minister Plenipotentiary: yielding
by their paternal love for the whole to these supplications, and con
Catholic flock, have never sufl'ered sidering the enormous expenses at
the Apostolic benignity to be ac~ the price of which we have had the
cused of having refused, in seasons satisfaction of seeing an extremely
of distress, to furnish assistance glorious victory obtained, as well
to the necessities of the Stat-2, for religion as the monarchy, and
even from the patrimony of the in regard to the calamity of the
Church. times, we have resolved, for the
“ Ourdearly beloved Son in Jesus weighty causes now enumerated,
Christ, Ferdinand, Catholic King to modify the dispositions of the
of Spain, intimately united by the Holy Canons.
bonds of love and veneration to us, “ Thus, from our certain know
and the. Holy Apostolic See, in his ledge, and after mature conside
present painful circumstances; ration, making use of the ple
being well persuaded that God nitude of the Apostolic power with
has committed to the Clergy which we are invested, we grant
alone, the care of managing the by these presents to the said King
property of the Church, as had Ferdinand an indulto, that validly,
been clearly and unanimously pub freely, and lawfully, he may, dur
lished in the declaration of the Fa ing the space of six years, exact,
thers assembled in Roman Coun but only for the purpose of suc
cil, under the Pontifi' Symmachus; couring the royal treasure, the ex
this~ Prince has solicited the neces traordinary subsidy of 30,000,000
sary power for the purpose of reals from all the property, fruits,
meeting the necessities of his trea rents, and products, of the Clergy,
sury, occasioned by the general as well regular as secular.
agitation of affairs. And as the “ By these presents we commis
means and fortunes of the laity sion and authorize our dear Sous,
are already oppressed with charges, the Prelates, &c. &c.
by reason of which the said King “ Let no one dare then to oppose
Ferdinand has not ventured to the execution of our present act of
make new demands, he has thought concession, power, indulto, com
proper to require an annual sum mission, mandate, establishment,
of 30,000.000 reals, money of that declaration, derogation, and will.
country, on ecclesiastical property, And if any one hate the temerity a
for only six years, in which time to commit such an attempt, let him
the number of pensions will be know that he incurs the indigna
diminished, and the value of the tion of the All Mighty God, and of
revenues augmented. the most blessed‘Saint Peter and
“ In consequence, we, with the Saint Paul, his apmtles.
“ Done
GENERAL HISTORY [121
“ Done at Rome at Saint Peter, Queen of Etruria, was connected
the 16th of April, in the with these interests. The King,
year of the Incarnation of her august brother, therefore,
our Saviour, 1817, and of could not regard with indifference
our Pontificate the 18th.” an object so essential and so wor
thy of his policy.
QUEEN OF ETRURIA. “ Don Pedro Gomez de Labra
It had been mentioned in our dor, his Majesty's Plenipotentiary
historical report of the year before to the Congress, conformably to
last, that certain reclamations had his instructions, endeavoured to fix
been made on the allied powers the lot of the Queen of Etruria,
relative to the claims of the Queen and to regulate other points con
of Etruria, and her son the infant nected with the rights of her Ma
Don Carlos Louis, in respect to jesty, exerting for that object his
the duchies of Parma, Placentia, talents and information in so far‘
and Guastalla. King Ferdinand as circumstances permitted. Fi
was now enabled to settle this im nally, the Duke of Casa Fernan
portant afl‘air, and at the same Nunez, his Majesty's Ambassador
time to announce the incorporation at Paris, having been charged to
olSpainto thegrand European alli continue this important negoti
ance ,by the following official article. ation, has succeeded in bringing
“The King, on being restored to it to a happy termination. His
the throne of his ancestors, could activity and zeal for the honour
not fail to take the deepest interest of the King have procured his
in the glory of a crown which Majesty 'the satisfaction of seeing
Providence had preserved for him, this afi'air concluded by solemn
in reward of the generous efforts treaties entered into with the said
and heroic constancy ofhis subjects. great Powers, and signed at Paris
His cares were constantly directed on the 7th, 8th, 9th, and lOth of
to the re-establishment of order, last June. By one of these trea
and for the purpose of repairing ties, his Majesty accedes to the acts
the evils of a devastating war. of the celebrated congress at Vi
Nevertheless his Majesty could not enna, and Spain is incorporated
be satisfied unless be fully co with the great European confe
operated with the other Powers of deracy. Another treaty sanctions
Europe in fixing the basis of a the reversion of the Duchies of
general peace, destined henceforth Parma, l’lacentia, and Guastalla,
to secure their repose, and the sa in favour of his Serene Highness
cred immunity of their rights. the Infant Don Carlos Louis ; and
This great work, which was in the surrender ofthe states of Lucca,
tended to be the result of the la with the stipulated assignments,
bours of the congress united for until the said reversion takes place,
that purpose, presented, however, in favour of her M ajestythe Serene
in its execution those obstacles infants. of Spain, Queen of Etruria,
which were the immediate effect of and mother of the Infant Don
the general confusion into which Carlos Louis.
tyranny and power had thrown the Thus is terminated an afl'air
interests of the diti’erent nations: equally complicated and essential
and the fate of the Infants, the to the high policy of his Majesty,
and
122] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
and whose paternal solicitude it has pose in it, and coinciding with its
constantly occupied since the year opinion respecting the abolition of
1 81 4 . the traflic in slaves, and co-ope
rating with the King of Great
DlCRlE RELATIVE TO TOBACCO. Britain by a solemn treaty, em
The Madrid Gazette of July the bracing all the points of reciprocal
3d, contains a long decree respect interest involved in this important
ing the culture of tobacco at the transaction, and determining that
Havannah. This article has been the time for the abolition was ar
long subject to a monopoly exer rived, the interests of my Ame
cised in the name of the govern rican States being duly reconciled
ment ; which at length proceeded with the sentiments of my royal
to such a degree of abuse, that the mind, and the wishes of all the
whole manufacture of tobacco in Sovereigns, my friends and allies,
the island of Cuba, noted for pro I have decreed as follows :—
ducing it in the greatest abun Art. l.—-From this day forward
dance, and of the best quality, was I prohibit all my subjects, both in
likely to become a mere object for the Peninsula and in America, from
home consumption. The king, at going to buy negroes on the coasts
the instance of M. Garay, minister of Africa, north of the line. The
of finance, has given almost full negroes who may be bought on the
liberty to every branch of agri said coasts shall be declared free
culture and industry connected in the first port of my dominions,
with this product ; and the expor at which the ship in which they
tation of the tobacco of the Ha are transported shall arrive. The
vannah to all foreign countries ship itself, together with the re
will be permitted, provided it be mainder ofits cargo, shall be confis
in Spanish vessels. cated to theRoyal Treasury, and the
purchaser, the captain, the master,
ABOLlTlON OF SLAVE TRADE.
and pilot shall be irrevocably con
The king of Spain has at length demned to 10 years‘ transportation
published an edict for the abolition to the Philippines. ‘
of the slave trade throughout his Art. ‘Z.—The above punishment
dominions, to commence north of does not attach to the trader, the
the line immediately, and south of captain, the master, and pilot of
the line on the 80th of May, 1820. the vessels, which may sail from
After an exculpatory report re any port of my dominions, for the
specting all previous traffic of this coasts of Africa, north of the line,
kind, which is said to have in_ before the 22d of November of the
creased prodigiously the number present year; to which I grant,
of indigenous as well as of free besides, an extension ofsix months,
negroes, his Majesty proceeds to counting from the above date, to
say,that “H aving collected all these complete their expedition.
copious materials, and having ex Article 3.-—Fr0m the 30th of
amined the proposition which the May, 18%0, 1 equally prohibit all
proper supreme tribunal laid be my subjects, as well in the Penin
fore me in its deliberation of the sula as in America, from going to
15th of February, 1816, answer purchase negroes along those parts
ing to the confidence which I re of the coast of Africa which are to
the
GENERAL HISTORY. [12's
the south of the line, under the intendants of the Indies, the ad
same penalties imposed in the first jacent islands, the Philippines,
article of this decree: allowing that they keep, fulfil, execute,
likewise the space of five months and cause to be kept, fulfilled, &c.
from the above date to complete this my decree," &c.
the voyages that may be under Madrid, Dec. 1817.
taken before the above-mentioned
PORTUGAL
30th of May, in which the trafiic
in slaves shall cease in all my do The union, during the last year,
minions, as well in Spain as. in of the kingdoms of Portugal and
America. Brazil, with the decided preference
Art. 4.—Those who, using the shown by the sovereign of the two
permission which I grant till the countries to his transatlantic pos
80th of May, 1820, to purchase sessions, has conferred upon the
slaves, on that part of the coast of latter at least an equal title to do
Africa which lies south of the minion; for which reason we shall
Line, shall not be allowed to_carry henceforth consider them as indi
more slaves than five to two tons visibly united undera single crown.
of the tonnage of their vessel : and The irruption of a Portuguese
any persons contravening this en army from Brazil, into Montevi
actment shall be subjected to the deo, was mentioned among the
penalty of losing all the slaves on events of the concluding month
board, who shall be declared free of the last year. In January two
at the first port of my dominions proclamations were issued to the
in which the ship arrives. Spanish inhabitants; one of them -
Art. 5.—This computation is by Carlos Frederico Le Cor, lieu
made without a reference to those tenant general of the army of his
who may be born during the voy most Faithful Majesty, addressing
age, or to those who may be serv the people of Montevideo, and
ing on board as sailors or servants. promising to them the guarantee
Art. 6.—Foreign vessels which of their property, and a free trade
may import negroes into any port with all nations, in the name of
of my dominions shall be subject the king of Portugal; another
ed to the regulations prescribed in from Sebastian Pintos de -Aranjo
this decree; and in case of con Correa, governor of Montevideo,
travening them, shall be subjected and superintendant of the provin
to the penalties contained in it. ces on the east side of the river
And my royal pleasure being, Plate, decreeing severe punish
that the above decree should cir ment against all who shall insult
culate in my dominions of America another for his former political
and Asia, for its punctual observ opinions, and assuring every in
ance l communicated it to my su dividual, whatever public office he
preme council of the Indies, sign may have held under the different
ed with my own hand, under date governments, of perfect security
of the 22d of September last past; under the protection of the Por
I therefore command all my vice tuguese army.
roys, presidents, audiences, com The conduct of the Brazilian
mandants, general governors, and government did not fail, howeVer,
of
124] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
of drawing the attention of the but meet with the entire approba
great powers of Europe, who tion of the cabinets to which the
thought themselves bound to in court of Spain has addressed her
terposc in favour of Spain, who self: and animated with the desire
was little able to protect itself of preventing the fatal consequen
from hostile aggression. Accord ces that might result from the
ingly, the several courts of Aus present state of affairs, the courts
tria, France, Great Britain, Prus of Austria, France, Great Britain,
sia, and Russia, presented a note Prussia, and Russia, equally the
to the Marquis d'Aguiar, secretary friends of Portugal and Spain,
of state to his most Faithful Ma after having taken into considera
jesty, to the following effect. tion the just claims of the latter
Paris, March 16. power, have charged the under
The occupation of a part of the signed to make known to the ca
Spanish possessions on the river binet of his most faithful Majesty—
Plate by the Portuguese troops of That they have accepted the
Brazil was no sooner known in mediation demanded of them by
Europe, than it was the object of Spain.
official and simultaneous steps That they have seen with real
taken by the cabinet of Madrid, pain, and not without surprise,
with the courts of Vienna, Paris, that at the very moment when a
London, Berlin, and St. Peters double marriage seemed to bind
burgh, in order to protest solemn more closely the family ties already
ly against this occupation, and to existing between the houses of
claim their support against such Braganza and Bourbon, and when
an aggression. such an alliance was to render the
Perhaps the Court of Madrid relations between the two coun
might have thought herself en tries more intimate and more
titled to recur at once to the means friendly, Portugal has invaded the
of defence which Providence has Spanish possessions on the river
placed in her hands, and to repel Plate, and invaded them without
force by force: but, guided by a any explanation whatever, and
spirit of wisdom and moderation, without any previous declaration.
she was desirous first of employ That the principles of equity
ing the means of negotiation and and justice which direct the coun‘
persuasion, and she preferred, not oils of the five courts, and the firm
withstanding the disadvantage that resolution they have adopted to s
might result to her possessions preserve, as much as is in their
beyond sea, addressing herself to power, the peace of the world,
the five undermentioned powers, purchased by such great sacrifices,
in order to an amicable adjustment have determined them to take cog-
of her difi‘erences with the court of nizance and part in this alfair, in
Brazil, and to avoid a rupture, the intention of terminating it in
the consequences of which might the most equitable manner, and
be equally disastrous to the two most conformable to their desire
countries, and might disturb the of maintaining the general tran
repose of both hemispheres. quillity.
So, noble a resolution could not That the said courts do not dis
sembl'e
' GENERAL HISTORY. [125
semble that a difl'erence between of Madrid received this intelligence
Portugal and Spain might disturb may be conjectured from the fol
that peace, and occasion a war in lowing announcement in the Ga
Europe, which might be not only zette of Madrid, on the date of
disastrous to the two countries, May 13.
but incompatible with the interests Letters from Gibraltar announce
and the tranquillity of other powers. that the Portuguese army of Rio
That in consequence they have Janeiro has possessed itself of the
resolved to make known to the fortress of Monte Video, which
government of his Most Faithful has for a long time groaned under
Majesty their sentiments on this the tyrannical yoke of the insur
subject, to invite him to furnish gents. Whatever truth there may
sufiicient explanations upon his be in this intelligence, the federa—
views, to take the most prompt tive system, whose object it is to
and proper measures to dissipate secure the peace of Europe, the
the just alarms which his invasion intimate union of the king our
of the American possessions of master with all the other sove
Spain has already caused in Eu reigns, the wisdom of the mea
rope, and to satisfy the rights sures taken by his majesty to sup
claimed by the latter power, as port the honour of his throne and
well as those principles of justice the inviolability of his states, the
and impartiality which guide the noble sentiments of the king of
mediators. A refusal to yield to Portugal, and the new ties that
such just demands would leave no have more intimately connected
doubt with respect to the real in together the two august houses-—
tentions of the cabinet of Rio Ja all these considerations taken to
neiro. The disastrous efi'ects‘ that gether, excite a hope that the pub
might result to the two hemi lic, in learning this intelligence,
spheres would be imputed entirely instead of feeling any disquietude,
to Portugal; and Spain, after will wait with entire confidence
having seen all Europe applaud the issue of an event which has
her wise and moderate conduct, become the object of paternal so
would find in the justice of her licitude to a Prince who equally
cause, and in the support of her loves all his subjects.
allies, sufficient means of redress Before this period, however, an
ing her complaints. event took place on the Brazilian
The undersigned, in acquitting territories which proved that the
themselves of the orders of their signal of revolt had extended to a
courts, have the honour to offer portion of that Country.
to his Excellency the Marquis In’ the government of Pernam
‘d’Aguiar the assurance of their buco, the governor, on the 5th of
high considerdtion. March, after having expressed
(Signed) VINCENT, much affection to the people of the
RICHELIEU, place, privately drew up a listofper
STUART, sons proscribed in his secret cabinet,
Gorxrz, which included the most spirited
Pozzo D1 Bonano. youths of the country, as well as
The manner in which the court some of the bravest otficers of the
K m‘my.
126] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
army. On the following day this began with the artillery, and th
order was to be put in execution; action lasted till night. in the
and the prisons were thrown open course of which the insurgents
for the reception of the most de dispersed, and were pursued by
termined leaders of the intended several royal detachments. In the
conspiracy. Of these, the Brazil morning were found on the field
ian officers of the regiments of of battle five pieces of cannon, a
Olinda and Recife were the most carronade, quantities of ammuni
distinguished. Several of these tion and provision, and the mili
were apprehended; but a colonel, tary chest with nearly a million of
going first to the barracks for the rein. Many prisoners were taken,
purpose of executing the order, and great numbers were killed
was killed by one of his own cap and wounded, of whom a con
tains. An aide-de-camp of the siderable part were officers.
governor met with the same fate ; After this action, intelligence
and the whole of the regiments having been received that the in
sided with their officers. The go surgent Martins was advancing at
vernor with his personal stafl' and the head of a column on Serin
a few other officers quitted the haem, a body of troops under the
town, and retired to Fort Bran, at command of a captain of militia
a short distance. On the follow was sent against him, which com
ing day the fort was delivered up pletely routed his force, taking
without resistance, and the go many prisoners, among whom was
vernor with his oflicers were made Martins himself, the celebrated
prisoners, and shipped for Rio leader of the revolution.
Janeiro. ‘ Not long after the intelligence
This insurrection was limited had been received of the entire de
to the district of Pernambuco; feat of the insurrection in Brazil,
and its triumph only lasted till a a plot was discovered for effecting
body of troops could be drawn to a revolution in Portugal, the pur
gether capable of resisting it. On pose of which was to make an
May 12th, intelligence reached entire change in the government.
Serinhacm that the insurgents in On the first of June, Lisbon Was
tended to attack the advanced made acquainted with the nature
guard of the royal army, posted and extent of this conspiracy,
near the works of Civiro Caval which we shall communicate in
cante. The army in consequence the words of the public paper in
marched, and took up its positions which it appeared.
. in the works of Pcndoba Grande "ThegovernorofPortugalhavmg
and Peguena. On the 15th Major been informed that there existed a
Salvador marched with a force conspiracy in the country, whose
destined to occupy the Pojuca, object was to overthrow the go
which he accomplished, but was vernment, and to substitute for it
exposed to all the fire of the cue a revolutionary government; and
my. At half- past five in the after that, in order to attain their
noon the main body of the army object, the conspirators employ
arrived, and came to action in a. ed such means as they thought
place called Guerra. The firing most calculated to mislead the
national
GENERAL HISTORY. [121
national mind, by transforming governors of the kingdom con
into proofs of his Majesty’s in ceived that they owed it to the
tention to abandon Portugal all monarch who had intrusted them
those political events which had with the government of the king
occurred for some time, and the dom, to the inhabitants themselves,
popular rumours consequent upon to their own characters, and to
them: and his excellency having the preservation of public order,
learnt from some of the accom to prevent without delay those
plices, that at the head of this in consequences with which all were
fernal plot was the Lieut.-Gen. threatened; and it was with this
Gomez Freire de Andrade, aided object that their excellencies de
by the Baron d‘Eben, and that termined to arrest, without loss of
they altogether had directed, and time, on the night between the
continued to direct, all their efforts 25th and 26th of May, not only
to seduce all they could of the the two general officers before
troops and other classes of the in named, but other persons also who
habitants : and as it was no longer were known to be acquainted and
possible to doubt the existence of implicated in the horrible project.
a plot after the fortunate seizure All possible efforts were made to
of some proclamations, all ready learn every circumstance, and to
printed, in the name of a self procure every proof, in order to
styled regenerating council (such proceed forthwith according to
was their assumed title) ; in con law, to execute justice on the
sideration of these discoveries, the guilty.

CHAP
128] AN NUAL REGISTER, 1817.

CHAPTER XII.

Russia.—Rcgulation for the Discharge of the Public Debt.—Facilities


granted to Mercantile Mela—The Emperor quits his Capital, havmgfirst
published a Decree for the Regulation of Proprietors and Colonic“.—
Sweden.—C0nspiracy against the Crown Prince, and his Address to the
Citizens of Stockholm—Pradomation by the King respecting Economy.
—His Address to Prince Oman—Speech read by the Prince.—Vienna.
—Berlin .

and without having injured the


RUSSIA
public credit. Now that peace is
NEW regulation has lately restored, finding that the gradual
been published at Peters extinction of the debts of the em
burgh by the committee created in pire is as necessary to the gene
1810, for the discharge of the ral welfare, as indispensable to
public debt of the state. The strengthen the confidence in the
ukase of his Majesty the Emperor engagements of the government,
which accompanies it is of the we have ordered our Minister of Fi
following tenor. nance to present to the Council of
“ We, Alexander I. by the grace State, for its examination, a plan
of God, Emperor and Autocrat of for additional measures, which
all the Russias, &c. &c. shall complete the regulations
“ The measures announced by made on this subject ; and after
the ukases of 1810 and 1812, for having examined it, with the ad
the successive payment of the debts vice of the Council of State, we
of the state were suspended by the have thought fit to ordain what
events of a war, as fatal in its follows:
origin, as glorious in its result: 1. For the payment of the debts
the taxes which were decreed of the state, the imperial treasury
solely for this purpose were divert shall, in the course of the present
ed from it by the indispensable year, place at the disposal of the
necessity of employing them to committee for the payment of the
wards the expences which the de debt, the sum of forty millions of
fence of the country required. It roubles.
was impossible, amidst the rapid 92 Dating from the year 1818
course of military events, to think there shall be annually assigned
of raising the credit of the state; for the same object sixty millions
the system of which had not yet out of the revenues of the domains
been able to consolidate itself : all of the crown, till the total extinc
that could be done was to main tion of the debts, and till the mass
tain it. By the aid of the Almighty, of paper currency shall be reduced
this war has been concluded with to the proportion of what is re
out an augmentation of the taxes, quisite for circulation.
3. The
GENERAL HISTORY. [129
8. The principles lately adopted, Imperial Commercial Bank. In
and lately completed, to make a consequence of this resolution, we
foundation for the extinction of have commissioned the minister of
the debts of the state, are laid finance to lay before the council of
down in the general regulation of state, for its consideration, all the
the committee of the sinking fund, plans necessary to be prepared on
which we have confirmed. This this subject. Now, having taken
regulation is to be carried into the advice of our council of state,
full eifect from the first of Sep we decree as follows :
tember in this year. I. Thirty millions of rubles of
4. As all the debts of the go_ the capital of the crown are placed
vernment are concentrated in the at the disposal of the Commercial
committee of the sinking fund, all Bank. [Here follows the state
the branches of the administration ment of the items of which this
are expressly prohibited, from this capital is to be formed]
day forward, from making by 1]. The Commercial Bank is to
themselves new debts under any be allowed to take money, 1. On
pretext whatever, and this under interest for circulation, according
the personal responsibility of those to the same principles as in the
who are at the head of them; but loan bank. ‘2. To deposit and
if there should arise in future some transfer from one person to an
unforeseen circumstances which other the sums inscribed by pri
would make it necessary to open vate persons, according to the
a loan to cover extraordinary de book of the bank.
mands, exceeding the usual re III. The Commercial Bank
sources of the public treasury, in gives loans on Russian goods, ac
this case the loan cannot be made cording to the principles of the
except in conformity with the discount office, and accepts bills,
principles laid down in the regu but in .this case taking the per
lation of the said committee. centage according to the course of
Given at Petersburg, commercial operations.
April 16, 1817'. IV. Half of the directors to
A subsequent operation of the consist of public officers, and half
imperial court was for the purpose of merchants.
of extending the facilities of mer V. The Commercial Bank shall
cantile men in their several deal be opened on the first of January
ings. The EmperorAlexander, in a next year.
paper dated from Petersburgh May VI. At the same time we here
7th, gives the following notice: by issue the regulations of the
Desiring to afford to the mer Commercial Bank, confirmed by
chants greater means for the faci us: we take it under our protec
litating and extending their com tion, and guarantee with our im
mercial operations, we have perial word the integrity of the
thought fit, instead of the new capitals which shall be intrusted to
existing discount bank, whose in— it by private persons ; as also that
fluence, on account of the small the rights of every person to the
ness of its capital, and the several same shall remain inviolate. 'vVith
defects observed in its constitution, the opening of the Commercial
is of no visible use; to establish an Bank, we shall not fail to increase
VOL. LIX. [K] the
J
1 so] ANNUAL REGISTER, ldl'i.
the resources of the loan bank, ‘2. That these colonists, who are
and to regulate it in a manner ignorant of our laws and language,
suitable to its destinatiop, in order, may not incur thc danger of con
by the united influence of those tracting too onerous engagements,
establishments on the strengthen and that. on the other hand, the
ing of private credit, to contribute proprietors may not be exposed to
to the extension of agriculture, the exaggerated pretensions of the
of industry, and of commerce, former, \ve ordain that all contracts
and in general to the advantage of made between them,and founded on
our dearly beloved country, in principles already existing and au
whose prosperity we place the re thorized, shall, after being ex
ward of our exertions and our amined by the competent authority,
glory. ALEXANDER. he submitted to the revision of
the Minister of the interior, who
It was announced ir. the month is charged with the duty of watch
of August, that the Emperor was ing over the colonists in general,
preparing to quit his capital on and is required in particular to
the first of September. lilis ab protect against evcrykind of vex
sence was intended to be from ation those who arc established on
fifteen to sixteen months. His the lands of the nobility.
Majesty was first to proceed to 3. These contracts are not to
\Vitcpsit, in order to inspect the exceed the term of twenty years.
troops of( leneral Barclay tlc 'l‘olly; They must clearly specify the con
whence he was toarrivc at Moscow ditions to winch planters submit,
in November. Remaining in that as well as the annual rent which
quarter till .lunc, he was then to they engage to pay to the landlord
visit the southern provinces of his in money or kind.
empire. From Astracun he was to 4. The reciprocal payments
go to the Crimea, and inspect the which at the term of the contract
troops of General Bennigsen ; and shall be exigible by the consent of
then cross into Germany, to assist the contracting parties, -on the
at the assembly fixed by the allied supposition that then the planter
sovereigns in 1815, to be held quits the .land, or the proprietor
either at Frankfort on the Maine, refuses to retain him, shall be de~
or at Aix~la‘-C'hapelle. After pay termined with clearness and pre
ing a visit to \Varsaw, he was to cision.
return to Petersburgh. 5. On the death of the proprie
Before the Emperor‘s quitting tor, his contracts shall be binding
Russia he published the following on his heirs, who shall not have
ukase concerning the settling of the power of making changes, ex
foreign colonists in the country. cept with the consent of the plant
1. Not only every noble pro— ers, and the permission of the au
prietor, but every individual who, thorities.
according to the decree of the l‘lth 6. The planters who may be
of December 1801, has the power established on the lands of the
of acquiring land by purchase or nobility shall enjoy during their
other title, may invite foreign cul residence in Russia a full and en
tirators. tire liberty of conscience, and shall
be
GENERAL HISTORY. [131
be exempt from all civil and mili on such princes as were known by
tary service, except by their own the services they had done to their
consent. country, and your choice was fixed
on me ; I resolved to accept it.
S\VEDEN.
The very idea of the dangers that
In the month of March a con surrounded you, made me feel
piracy was formed against the. life myself greater, and capable of
'of the Crown Prince, the parti the mightiest plans to merit your
cular purpose of which appears confidence. For you I consented
little understood, though it cannot to renounce the pleasures and
be doubted that the focus of it was tranquillity of private life, to which
chiefly among the nobility. The I had destined the rest of my days.
prince, however, met with the I gave myself wholly up to a peo
warmest attachment from the ple once so renowned, then so unv
general representatives of the na happy. I came among you, and
tion, and from the citizens of brought, as title and pledge, my
Stockholm ; and his answer to an sword and my deeds. If I could
address presented by the latter have brought you a series of an
deserves attention, from the spirit cestors from the time of Charles
by which it is distinguished. The Martel I could have wished it only
following were some of the most on your account: for myself, I
remarkable passages. am equally proud of the service I
“For some months loose re have done, and of the glory which
ports have been circulated in the has raised me. These pretensions
country. Sometimes they said that are still increased by the king’s
the king was dead; then my son adoption, and the unanimous
was dying; then my life was in choice of a free people. On these
danger: this was done to alarm I found my rights; and as long as
the country. Some later den-un honour and justice are not banish
ciations have attracted the atten ed from this earth, these rights
tion of the police and the govern must be more legal and sacred
ment. Judicial inquiries are in than if I had descended from Odin.
stituted; and the criminals, or History shows that no prince ever
the false informers, will be punish mounted a throne except by the
ed. I could forgive the authors of choice of the people, or by con
these reports if they only aimed at quest. ldid not open a way to the
my life ; but they seek to overturn Swedish succession by arms: the
your liberty, your constitution, free choice of the nation called
your national honour; in short, me ; and this is the right on which
every thing that is most sacred to I lean. Remember our condition
the honest. citizen. at my arrival, and see what we
“ They have ventured to mix are now. There are ill-disposed
the names of a family which you men in all countries ; but in
have excluded from the throne. Sweden their number is so small,
You know yourselves, Gentlemen, that no extraordinary measures
that I did not cause their fate. are necessary to repress them.
VWhen, in the distressed state to “ The interior peace of the
which a series of misfortunes had country is undisturbed : from
reduced you, you cast your eyes without there is nothing to fear
[K 2] We
132] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
We do not meddle with the con ject of prohibiting many foreign
cerns of other countries, and are articles, and of his decree of the
certain that they will not meddle same date as this proclamation,
with ours. Your rights are there forbidding the sale of boiled coffee,
fore secured within and without; and of various foreign wines. He
and every thing announces, that then observes, that notwithstand
we shall not for a long time be ing he sees with pleasure how
obliged to defend them: but much the sentiments of the nation
should the honour of the nation corresponds with his own princi
require it, I will go at the head ples, yet he willingly avoids im
of a faithful, tried, and disciplined posing any regulations on the dress
army, supported by the will of and way of living of private per
the king and the people, and ac sons, and trusts in the patriotism
companied by the omens of victory, of the Swedes for their doing their
to meet the enemy, and shed all utmost to second his paternal in
my blood in the defence of the tentions. He expects that the
country. I cannot express myself higher classes in particular will set
as I could wish in the Swedish a good example, and that every
language, but my son speaks it reasonable head of a family, who
for me. He is educated among has been as it were compelled by
you: on him your hopes must re the prevailing fashion to take a
POse: butl speak the language of part in the expenses of luxury,
honour and freedom; and every will be glad of the opportunity of
Swede who truly loves his country retrenchment which his gracious
understands rue." ' invitation affords them. The ma
y A long proclamation was made gistrates are bound to encourage
public by the King of Sweden, those who in certain places may
respecting the necessity of limiting wish to form societies against the
the use of foreign articles of lux use of foreign articles. His ma
ury. His Majesty observes, that jesty will regard with especial
the use of such articles far exceeds favour the zeal and exertions of
the ability of the~ nation to pay, every well-disposed subject to pro
. which has occasioned an unexam mote his gracious intentions, and
pled depreciation of the course of will be highly gratified at being
exchange, and consequent (lear thus dispensed from the necessity
nc'ss of goods: that it is important of enforcing his gracious will by
to find means to supply the king express commands.—This procla
dom entirely from its own resour mation is dated Stockholm, 30th
ces: that this end may be in future April 1817.
greatly promoted by encouraging His Majesty, on July 14, having
establishments to promote internal sent for the Hereditary Prince
. industry: that this, however, re Oscar, in order to take his seat
quires time, and therefore extra next to himself in the council of
ordinary measures are necessary state ; and in future to be present
to limit the expenses caused by at its deliberations, addressed him
the importation of foreign goods. in the following remarkable and
His Majesty alludes to his decree pathetic speech :
of the Slst of March, on the sub ,‘ My Grandson ! It is a solemn
and
GENERAL HISTORY. [133
and affecting moment for me, name the honour and the delight
when I see you take the place at of the earth !"
my side in which you are to wit The Crown Prince also made on
ness the deliberations upon the this occasion a solemn address to
welfare of the people whose future the King, and to the Prince his
fates I leaven has destined to be son.
your care. My age and infirm
health do not allow me to say on OPENING OF THE DIET.

this occasion all that my tender Nov. 28.—- Yesterday, as had been
ness for you, and my long experi announced, the solemn opening of
ence, make me desirous of ex the Diet of the kingdom took
pressing. I will merely remind place. The Court, the Supreme
you, that you will one day become Tribunal, the Council of State,
the chief of two free nations. &c. after attending Divine service
Show them, by your respect for in St. Nicholas church, proceeded
their rights, how you would have to the hall of the Diet, in the pa
them respect yours. It is the con lace, where the Minister of State,
stant equipoise between these Cou'nt Engstrotn, read a Royal
rights that in free states produces letter, announcing that his Ma
order and strength ; and it is the jesty, on account of indisposition,
part of the sovereign, by justice, ' was not able to attend the opening
humanity, courage, and judgment, of the Diet, but that he commis
to direct and develop this principle, sioned the Duke of Sudermania
for the highest object, the general (Prince Oscar) to read his speech,
welfare. Never forget, my grand by which his Majesty intended to
son, that I this day impose upon give a new proof of his love to
you a sacred and cherished duty, that Prince, and his confidence in
namely, that of paying, when I his people.
shall be no more, my debt to your The Hereditary Prince Oscar
father, for all the warm love, the hereupon read the speech, which
hind attention, and the unwearied contained a concise view of all
tenderness which he has shown that his Majesty had done for the
me, from the very first hour of his good of the country, and what he
connexion with this kingdom. still intends to do; and what re
Be to him what he is to me; be lated to the support of agriculture
his support, as he is mine; press and commerce, of the manufacto
your heart to his as he presses ries of cloth, &c. His Majesty has
himself to mine : my country, your aimed at improving the condition
father, and you: this, my son, is of the troops by sea and land ; he
what you shall read in my court- has endeavoured to open the way
tenanee as long as my heart shall to promotion to those who shed
heat; but when my voice, already their blood for their country, and
faint, shall have become for ever to remove all the obstacles which I
silent, may the Almighty protect must oppose the soldier whose for
thee; may he guide thy steps ac tune did not admit of his obtain
cording to his laws, and permit ‘ing the rank of colonel, or lieut.
thee, in the course of ages, to colonel. The pay of the general
behold from higher regions, thy has been increased, and PI'OVISiOH‘
made
__‘v v

134] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.


made for their widows, as well as the Crown Prince: they then re
the widows of other officers. The plied to his Majesty's speech, and
lazarettos and hospitals, the aca kissed the hand of the Crown
demies of music and the fine arts, Prince.
have received sums of money for
VIENNA.
their support; and the capital has
been adorned with several new An article dated from Vienna,
buildings. His Majesty has con May ‘28, announces officially from
stantly endeavoured to follow the the Lemberg Gazette, that his
general opinion and the spirit of the Majesty the Emperor of Austria,
times, not to suppress them. His King of Gallicia and Lombardy,
Majesty, proposing to the consi has resolved to establish, with
deration of the Diet a new and some modifications, the representa
very detailed plan of finance, is tive government of the kingdoms
far from thinking it so perfect as of Gallicia and Lodomeria in Au
he could wish, but he thinks the strian Poland, on the footing on
means he proposes are, for the which it was placed by Joseph II.
present, best adapted to circum There will be, as formerly, four
stances, and that it will be proper orders of the kingdom, namely,
to make a trial of them till the the Prelates, the Barons, the
next Diet. His Majesty will be Knights, and the Deputies of the
happy if this project can be useful cities. The last, and one of each
to the Diet; and if their own de of the three higher orders, will be
terminations should be found su elected for six years, the three
perior, he will thank Providence others for three years. There
for having given their meditations will be besides a secretary, and
on this important subject a more an archivist, who will be ap
advantageous direction. “ Let pointed by governmentl. and for
the slave," says his Majesty, life. The deputies will be elected
“ who sinks beneath the weight by the body of the States, which
of temporary embarrassment, seek will meet at the next Diet. They
in hope alone the possibility of will each have a salary.
relief; the free citizen himself, Thus (says the account) one of
thelfounder of the laws which he the most important articles of the
obeys, himself the defender of the Congress of Vienna is executed.
rights to which he appeals, meets
the most difficult conjunctures BERLIN.

with composure, sure of conquer The long protracted business


ing them, as his fathers have done of the constitution for the Prus
before him, sure of leaving the sian territories has still remained
fruit of his exertions. and of his in an indecisive state, though not
fulfilled duties, as an inheritance without indications of something
to his posterity." like progress. A Berlin paper of
Hereupon the Chancellor, Baron the 20th of August mentions it is
'Wetterstedt, read the Royal pro already known, that during the
posals, of which the Land Mar last days on which the council of
shal, and each of the speakers, State met, there was a sitting of
received copies from the hands of the Constitutional Committee,
over
GENERAL HISTORY. [136
over which the Prince Chancellor converse with and collect the opi
of State presided. On this occa nions of men of learning in the
sion the Prince delivered a long provinces on the subject. These
speech, in which he described the commissioners are to be chosen
manner in which the basis of the from the body of the Constitu
constitutional labours should com tional Committee, and to receive
nience.' He laid down the pro orders to complete their inquiry
position, that the constitution by the next meeting of the Coun~
ought to unfold itself as it Were oil of State, which is to take place
in a historical manner out of the in Autumn, in order that their
state of society; that therefore a labours may in that meeting be
correct knowledge of existing in made the subject of deliberation.
stitutions was necessary; and This proposal was generally ap
that what was now in existence proved ; and the minister of state,
ought first to be taken into con Von Altenstein, Von Boyme, and
sideration. He accordingly pro Von Klewitz, are nominated to
posed that commisioners should this commission, and have set out
be sent into the diiTerent pro~ for the provinces. Thus (says the
vinces, in order to obtain informa paper) one step more is taken to
tion on the spot respecting the wards the forming of a constitu
ancient constitutions ; and also to tion for Prussia.

CHAP
136] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18l7.

CHAPTER Xlll.
Stutgard.—-Silling of the Sta!es.-—Their Dissolution.-—The King. lakes
upon himself the Regulation Qflhe Finunrcx.—I)m-hy of Saxe- Weimar :
It: admission to the Germanic Confiuleruliom—Srssion of the Slates
Genernlqf the United Prorinres.—King‘xSpeech—Dutch Tea-Trade.—
Piedmontrse Ga:ette.--(‘omlnnlinople.

terpoise. are,‘ as you desire, ex


S'l UTGARD.
cluded from the deliberations or
N the first sitting of the states, the votes of your assembly, it is
this body presented an address too plain that the chiefs of the
to his Majesty, to which he re faction will not bring forward
turned an answer on the 16th of their strongest objections to the
March, assuring them that he views of government in the pre
would not permit the members of sence of the privy counsellors,but
his Privy Council to be present at in secret sittings; and that in
any discussion in which it should these, resolutions will be adopted
be proposed by the States to pre without allowing an opportunity
fer complaints to the throne of hearing orweighing the reasons
against them. The States, pro which government might state
ceeding in the commenced delibe against them."
rations on the constitution, voted In the further proceedings of
' an address to the king for his the States, difl'ercnces arose be
gracious assurances. At the same tween that body and the king ;
time they specify the ameli and on the 28th and 29th of May,
oration ot' divers laws since the in consequence of the decided
accession of his Majesty, express part which his Majesty had taken
ing the greatest confidence in his in the late discussions relative to
wisdom and good intentions, and the hereditary duchy, a set of
anticipating the brightest pros rioters, composed, it is said, of
pects of national happiness and the lowest class of people, at
improvement from his reign. tacked the house of the minister
On the same day the king Wangenheim, where they prac
caused to be read the answer of tised several outrages. They u ere,
the Privy Council addressed, by however, soon reduced to order
his order, to the States. “Nothing with the assistance of the usual
(said the council) can be more per patrols. A proclamation was in
nicious to an assembly composed of consequence issued against all
different elements, than the spirit seditious assemblies.
of faction, when it is not perpe The king, on the fourth of
tually qualified by a sufficient June, finding himself unable to
counterpoise. if those whom the control the majority of the States,
laws appoint to form that coun dissolved that body, and com
manded
GENERAL HISTORY. [137
manded all those members who ner in which the work of the con
were not domiciliated at Stutgard, stitution has been hitherto treated,
to repair to their respective habi will convince every impartial per
tations. . son', that we have done, to effect
On the following day he pub so desirable an union, everything
lished an additional rescript, ad that is compatible with the rights
dressed to all the subjects of his of our crown, and the principles
kingdom. of a good administration of the
“ We William," &c. state; and that the project of the
“ Dear and faithful subjects!— constitution, annexed to the re
The address of the Assembly of script of the 26th of May, con
the States of the 4th of June, ac tains every thing that could be
cording to which the majority has done to confirm the individual and
rejected in an inexplicable manner political freedom of the people of
the definitive ofi'ers which we \Vurtemberg.
made, in our rescript of the 26th “ We may confidently h0pe,
of May and its supplement, to that our cotemporaries and pos
conclude a constitutional compact, terity will do justice to our way of
has brought the negotiation to acting, and that they wili, with
such a point, that we must re us, recognize as real and prudent
nounce all hope of attaining our friends to their country, the 42
object by means of a convention members who have distinguished
with this Assembly. themselves by their proper and
“ However painful it be to our honourable conduct on this im
paternal heart to see the failure portant occasion.
of all our efforts for the establish “ But to do still all that de- -
ment of a constitution suited to pends upon us, that our faithful
all the difi'crent relations, and people may sufi‘er as little as pos
which might have consolidated siblc from the perverse conduct
tranquillity and order, and cause of their representatives, we add
general satisfaction, our duties in to what we said in our rescript of
the quality of sovereign, and our the 26th of May, the declaration,
relation with other states, do not that if themajority of our people
permit us to make to the demands signifies in the assemblies of the
of the States further sacrifices, bailliages, or by the organ of their
which would cause the throne to magistrates, that they accept the
lose its dignity, the government project of the constitution, under
its force, and the people the in the restrictions contained in the
dependence of their representa said rescript, we shall, on our
tires. side, consider the constitutional
“ In consequence, we have compact as concluded, and shall
found ourselves under the neces put it in force.
sity of dissolving our assembly, “ We also leave to the members
the operations of which could no who have virile votes, who have
longer make us hope for a happy not personally voted against the
issue. acceptance of the constitution in
“ The expose which we shall the assembly of the States now
lay before our people, of the man dissolved, the liberty of acceding
to
138] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
to it. We repeat at the same the pretext of its not being con
time the assurance that we will sented to by the states 5 and
let our people enjoy from this threatens all the severity of the
moment all the benefits of the law against the disturbers of- the
project of the constitution, in public peace.
every thing that does not relate to
SAXE WEIMAB.
a representation of the states.
“ On- the other hand, we expect, ThisDuchy appears to have taken
with full confidence, that the sub the lead of the other Germanstates,
jects of our united kingdom will with respect to the true principles
not sufi'cr themselves to be shaken of a free constitution. Its diet had
in‘the observance of their duties justdecided,in the month ofMarch,
as subjects and citizens, but that that the estates of the nobles, and.
they will persevere the more in those of the order of knighthood,
their fidelity and obedience, as all were henceforward to be liable to
opposition in every act tending to all the public burdens borne by
disturb public order and tranquil~ the rest of the people ; but at the
lity will be punished with all the same time it enacted, that the
rigour of the laws. actual proprietors should be in-.
“ Given at Stutgard, in his Ma deinnified for the loss of the im
jesty’s Privy Council, June 5, 1817 . munity from contribution which
By his Majesty‘s command." they formerly enjoyed, and upon
The ministry of the interior, by the faith of the continuance of
order of his Majesty, published a which they bought and held their
proclamation on the 6th, contain estates.
ing a recital of all that happened It has been generally observed,
at the late diet of Wurteinberg. that the greatest harmony and
The sudden dissolution of the good feeling reigns in the assem
assembly of states having put an bly of representatives of this
end to his Majesty’s hopes of being Duchy. The order of the peasantry
able to effect the introduction of sent deputies who defended their
the representative system, he found interests with moderation, but
it necessary to take upon himself with firmness. The attacks made
the regulation of the finances for upon the immunity of the estates
the years 1817 and 1318. Ac of the noblesse excited at first
cordingly, on the 4th of Septem~ some animated debates, but the
her, he published a report address representatives of the noblessc
ed to his Majesty by the finance yielded as soon as an indemnity
minister, in which the sum of was proposed.
2,400,000 fiorins, with the addi A proposition made by the
tion of one tenth to make good Duke of Saxe-lVeiular to the grand
the expense of the meeting of the diet sitting at Frankfort, that the
states, was charged upon the na constitution of his duchy should
tion. The king at the same time be placed under the guarantee of
orders all public otlicers to keep the Germanic Confederation, was
a watchful eye upon such as may formally confirmed by a vote de
endeavour to persuade their fel livered by. Austria, and after cer
low-hurghers to resist the law, on tain explanations, was concurred
in
GENERAL HISTORY. [1‘39
in by Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, to see the basis of them laid in
Hanover, \Vurtemberg, Baden, this session. Some measures will
Hesse, and Denmark. be proposed that experience has
shown to be useful to industry.
e sn'rn's GENERAL.
Nothing has been more injurious
On October the 20th the annual to this effect than the dearness of
session of the States General was provisions, which has checked
opened at the Hague with the the consumption of manufactured
usual solemnities. His Majesty goods among the most numerous
delivered a speech from the throne, classes of people. The govern
of which the following is the sub ment itself has felt the influence
stance. of this state of things, by the
His Maj esty began with noticing great increase of its expenses,
the happy event of the birth of a and the diminution of its receipts.
son to the Prince of Orange, add Besides this, a. great deficit has
ing, that his education would be been caused by the not levying a
so directed, as to inspire him from tax upon inherited property, or a.
his earliest childhood with a sense legacy tax.
of his duties, and with the most The law respecting the militia
ardent zeal for the freedom and has been put in execution for the
wellfare of his countrymen. first time, and has answered
The general peace, said his Ma every expectation. Agriculturejs
jesty, has been undisturbed; 'and flourishing. The fisheries, the
every day proves that the govern colonial trade, and all branches
ments, as well as the people, are connected with them, have im
unanimous in the desire of main proved; and the freedom of the
taining it. On my side i have corn trade by sea, while it secured
neglected nothing that can tend the kingdom from scarcity at
to ensure to this kingdom and its home, and kept the prices of bread
inhabitants the goodwill of foreign in the country lower than among
powers. its neighbours, has confined to the
His Majesty then noticed at ports. of the Netherlands the pri
length the difficulties caused by vilege of being the granaries of
the unfavourable season, but all Europe.
which the rich harvest of the year His Majesty then notices the
would put an end to. The dis— great expense caused by the forti
tresses, he said, had been relieved fication of the southern frontier.
partly by finding them work, and A great many public works, such
partly by affording them assist as harbours and the like, have
ance. The local authorities had been begun and continued, and
done their utmost; and private even completed. In some pro
charity, the fairest trait in the vinces great roads have been
national character, had kept pace made. which the most enlightened
with the increasing distress. His inhabitants have for years design
Majesty observed that some eEfec ed in vain.
tual regulations relative to the His Majesty speaks with satis
poor are necessary, and he hoped faction of the joy which has been
displayed
140] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
displayed at the installation of the an exclusive company for the
universities, from which he. ex trade to China, has not been at
pects the happiest results for the tended with the results which
whole kingdom. were expected; but that, so far
His Majesty concludes his speech from our mercantile or trading
in the following terms. subjects having subscribed for
“ Thus the number of objects shares in the said company, in the
is considerable on which we can books which have now been fully
look with satisfaction; am! we two years open for that purpose,
can with the more tranquillity at they have expressed a general
tend to the means of extricating wish that the trade in the article
ourselves from temporary difficul of tea should be thrown open :,
ties which were independent- of So we having heard our Coun
the human will. But the surest cil of State, and with the common
pledge of this is sought by the consent of the States-General,
nation in the cordial operation of have thought proper and resolved,
the King and the States-General. and by these presents do think
Neither 1 nor your High Mighti proper and resolve,
nesses, whose sentiments and ex lst. That all the laws now in
ample have so powerful an in being relative to the tea-trade
fluence, will disappoint its con shall be, and the same are hereby,
fidence; and the further confir withdrawn and abolished.
mation of a social system,founded 2d. That the holders of shares
on principles of liberty and order, in the aforesaid‘exelusive company
will be, with the blessing of God, shall be immediately reimbursed
the reward as well as the fruit, of the amount paid on their respec
our indefatigable efforts." tive subscriptions, together with
The following royal declaration the interest, at the rate of five per
respecting the tea-trade in Holland cent. per annum, from the day on
will probably be regarded as a which they were received until
curious document, and may_ be that of payment. ,
viewed as a dangerous inroad upon ‘ 3d. That under the following
the price of that article in'a neigh regulations the general law of the
bouring country. thief October, 1816, for the levy-»
ing of duties on imports and ex
DUTCH TEA-"TRADE.
ports,’ shall from henceforWard
We, \Villiarn, by the grace of apply to tea, and that every indi
God, &c. having taken into our vidual shall be permitted to impoi 1:
consideration the existing differ tea into this kingdom, and have
ences in the laws respecting the the uncontrolled possession there
tea-trade, as they apply to the two of, immediately after the payment
principal divisions of the king of the duties thereon; that is to say,
dom, judge it expedient that the On Bohea and low Congou tea,
same ought to be uniform; and florins 8 per 100lb.
seeing that the law of the Q3d of ()n all other kinds-of tea florine
March, 1815, for the establish 16' per 1001b.
ment in our northern provinces of 4th. That all teas of which
proof
GENERAL HISTORY. [141
proof shall be given that they are tlements in the East Indies, for
imported direct and in entire car the importation of a cargo of tea,
goes from China, or the Dutch but within the period of four years
possessions in the East Indies, for from the promulgation of this law,
the account of resident subjects, any foreign-built ships, which, at
in ships built in this kingdom, the ' the time of commencement of
duty shall be only, such voyage, shall fully appear to
On Bohea and low Congou, be the property of Dutch sub
florins 2 {0 per 1001b. jects.
On all other kinds 5 0 per 1001b. 9th. That the holders' of li
5th. That Bohea and low Con censes granted in consequence of
gou tea shall only be denominated I the resolutions of the lQth ofApril
such as are imported unmixed and 1815, on the importation of tea
in whole chests, and in which for the periodical public sales,
smaller chests or packages are not which were intended to have taken
included. place before the close of the pre
6th That low Congou tea, eyen sent, or during the course of the
in whole chests, shall be denomi next year, the tea so already im
nated such, if its current value ported, or which may be imported
here at the time of its entry shall on or before the 15th of October
be, or exceed one guilder per 1818, shall be delivered into the
pound ; and that all tea for which uncontrolled possession of the
entry is made at the low duties, consignees or importers, upon
may be taken over by any officer payment only of the same duties,
of the revenue at l florin per which, by the present law, are to
pound, adding 12 per cent. and be levied on tea imported direct
the duty of the tea thereto, in con from China, or from the Dutch
formity to the 2'-£3d and 224th settlements in the East Indies, in
articles of the law of the 3d of Dutch-built ships, for account of
October 1816, as far as these are resident subjects.
applicable to the case. On the payment of the same
7th. That with reference to duties all teas already imported,
irect importations of tea from and remaining unsold in the ware
China, or from the Dutch settle houses of the department of trade
ments in the East Indies, his Ma and colonies, shall be delivered to
jesty shall have the faculty of ex the importers.
tending the privileges of Dutch 10th. That tea exported shall
built ships to foreign bottoms, be subject to the duty (called Ta
which, after strict investigation, belle Regt.) of one-fifth per cent.
shall appear to be Dutch property, on the value, or 3i stivers pel
at the time of the promulgation of lOOlb. at the option of the ex
this law,and have since continued porter.
to be so. 11th. That transit of tea through
8th. That in case ships of the the kingdom 'shall not be allowed.
above two'descriptions should not 12th. That in computing the
offer in sufficient number, his Ma duty upon tea, the tares to be al
jesty may license for one voyage lowed, provided the packages are
only to China, or the Dutch set of the usual description, shall be,
Upon
1491 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
Upon chests, weighing 1101b. bility which may be conferred up
and upwards, 18 per cent. on them.
Upon chests, weighing under 4. It reserves to the sovereign
1101b. Q5 per cent. With reser the right of enacting, with regard
vation, however, of the same to the Duchy of Genoa, such pro
remedy as is prescribed in the visions as he may judge convenient.
sixth article of the law of the 3d This decree ,is introduced by a
of October 1816, in the case of preamble, of which the following
inadequate tares. is the most important passage:—
\Ve enjoin and command, &c. “Desirous to maintain in the
Passed the Second Chamber of class which, by their peculiar in
the States-General, on the 16th of stitution, stands nearest the throne,
December 1817', with a majority and whose especial duty it is to
of 85 against 7'. watch over its defence, that lustre
and inheritance of glory which
SARIHNIA. forms its noblest prerogative, we
have determined to return to the
(From the Piedmontese GazetteJ laws that existed with regard to
The King of Sardinia, by a primogeniture before 1797. But
decree of the 9th of Dec. has for the same end, other and more
abolished-— important provisions still are re
l. The prohibition against the quired, for the abuse of titles must
erection of primogenitures and feu be restrained (which must ema
dal rights, enacted by the 9th sec nate from us alone); and there
tion of the edict of the 29th of fore the rules of their concession,
July 1797, or by any other law; transmission, and extinction, shall
restricting, however, to those pri— be fixed with relation to their do
mogenitures and majorats only tatiou and prerogatives."
which shall be erected in favour of
persons to come in terms of our CONSTANTINOPLE.
laws, the capacity of establishing
similar limitations, and in favour (Letter from Constantinople, 20th June.
Printed in the Hamburgh Mall.)
of their descendants in the male
line, leaving in force the laws The. representations of the Rus
enacted before the £89th of July sian minister, Count Von Strogo
1797, in such matters. not}, _which were founded on the
2. When the person who erects most reasonable and just demands
such majorats, however, shall leave of Russia, seem not to have led to
four children or upwards, he shall any thing decisive in the Divan.
not have the power of entailing The influence of the Grand Vizier
more than a third part of his pa over the. Reis-Efi-‘endi and the
trimony ; and where he shall have Tefterdar had hindered it. The
less than four, he shall not be able Sultan, who, on the other hand,
to tie up more than the half of it. earnestly desired a good under-
3.. It shall always be allowed to standing with Russia, addressed
the person who erects such primo on the 3d of March to the Grand
genitures and majorats, to trans Vizier the following energetic and
mit through them the title of no remarkable rescript :—
“ BALTI
GENERAL HISTORY. [1'43
casion to a second, which was in
“ nuxrr-snmur. the following terms:—
“ There have been many and “ As my Ministers, after mature
long deliberations already held consideration of all the circum
upon the note which the Russian stances, have considered it neces
Ambassador has delivered 5 yet no sary to give up all thoughts of war,
journal of your sittings has yet and to embrace the wise part of
been laid beFore us. it is now reconciliation, it is absolutely ne
above 40 days since this business cessary that the conferences should
was laid before you for discussion. be immediately opened, and that
\Vhy have you not come to any the note in question should be de
resolution upon it? From this de livered without delay by the Reis
lay we must believe that you em EEendi to the Russian Ambassa
ploy yourselves in your sittingsonly dor; but the greatest care must
in things of no consequence. Will be taken that this note be well and
you then wait till the Russian Am clearly drawn up; and not like
bassador is angry, and proceeds to the first, in which there was no
threats? If you believe that war sense at all, in order to give
is unavoidable, think on the means Russia to understand that it is
of defence : show us minutely the our intention to arrange matters
necessary causes of war, and the amicably."
extent of the rcsmircss which you The inclination of the Grand
will employ. But on the other Seignor to peace, and this decisive
hand, if time and circumstance do language, were sufficient to cause
not allow us to undertake a war, the fall of the opposite party. The
prevent the discoutentof the Rus Grand Vizier received a severe
sian Ambassatbr as soon as possi reprimand; but his instrument,
ble by a suitable answer." the Reis Eifendi, was disgraced,
The impression which this re and his office given to the Djanil'
script made on the Divan was Efi'endi, a man who has already
easily to be foreseen. It gave oc frequently filled that place.

can'
144] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.

CHAPTER XIV.

America, North and South—Message to the Senate and House of Repre


sentativesfrom President Madison.—Votes taken for President and Vice
President.—-Monroe chosen for the former Oflice, and his Speech—.—
Second Speech, on December the 2d.—State of Spanish Afiairs.

N the 3d of February the fol British ports after the signature


lowing message was received of that convention, and been col
by the Senate and House of Re lected previous to the 17th of
presentatives, from the President August 1815.
of the United States :— Feb. 3, 1817'. James MADisou.”
“ The Government of Great This message was referred to
Britain, induced by the posture of the Committee of \Vays and Means,
the relations with the United States and ordered to be printed.
which succeeded the conclusion of
PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT.
the recent commercial convention,
issued an order on the 17th day On the 4th of February votes
of August, 1815, discontinuing were taken for the choice of per
the discriminating duties payable sons to fill the. offices of President
in British ports on American ves and Vice-President ; when James
sels and their cargoes. It was not Monroe was declared President,
until the 22d of December follow and Daniel D. Tomkins, Vice
ing that a correspondent discon President, by a large majority.
tinuance of discriminating duties On the same daythe President was
on British vessels and their car solemnly inaugurated, after which
goes in American ports, took effect, he delivered the following speech:
under the authority vested in the “ I should be destitute of feel
executive by the act of March ing ifI was not deeply affected by
1816. During the period between the strong proof which my fellow
these two dates there was con citizens have given me of their
sequently a failure of reciprocity confidence, in calling me to the
or equality in the existing regu high office whose functions I am
lations of the two countries. I re about to assume. As the expres
commend to the consideration of sion of their good opinion of my
Congress the expedience of paying conduct in the public service, I
to the British Government the derive from it a gratification, which
amount of the duties remitted, those who are conscious of having
during the period in question, to done all they could to merit it. can
the citizens of the United States; alone feel. My sensibility is in
subject to a deduction of the creased by ajust estimate of the
importance of the trust, and of the
amount of whatever discriminating
duties may have commenced in nature and extent of its duties:
with
GENERAL HISTORY. no
With the proper discharge of which marked by very extraordinary
the highest interests of a great and events, the United States have
free people are intimately con flourished beyond example. Their
, nected. Conscious of my own citizens, individually, have been
deficiency, I cannot enter on their happy, and the nation prosperous.
duties without great anxiety for Under this constitution our com
the result. From a just respon merce has been wisely regulated
sibility I will never shrink ; calcu with foreign nations, and between
lating with confidence, that in my the States; new States have been
best efforts to promote the public admitted Into our union; our tel"
welfare, my motives will always ritory has been enlarged by fair
'be duly appreciated, and my con and honourable treaty, and with
duct be viewed with that candour great advantage to the original
and indulgence which I have ex States; the States, respectively,
perienced in other stations. protected by the national Govern
“ In commencing the duties of ment, under a mild parental sys
the Chief Executive office, it has tem, against foreign dangers, and
been the practice of the distin enjoying within their separate
guished men who have gone before spheres, by a wise partition of
me to explain the principles which power, a just proportion of the
would govern them in their re sovereignty, have improved their
spective administrations. In fol police, extended their settlements,
lowing their venerated example, and attained a strength'and ma
my attention is naturally drawn to turity which are the best proofs
the great causes which have con tri of wholesome laws well admi
buted in a principal degree to pro nistered. And if we look to the
duce the present happy condition condition of individuals, what a
of the United States. They will proud spectacle does it exhibit?
best explain the nature of our On whom has oppression fallen in
duties, and shed much light on the any quarter of our union? Who
policy which ought to be pursued has been deprived of any right of
in future. person or of property? \Vho re
“ From the commencement of strained from ofi‘ering his vows, in
our revolution to the present day, the mode which he prefers, to the
almost forty years have elapsed; Divine Author of his being? It a
and from the establishment of is well known, that all these bless
this constitution, twenty-eight. ings have been enjoyed in their
Through this whole term the Go fullest extent: and 1 add, with
vernment has been what mzgl em peculiar satisfaction, that there has
phatically be called self-goverm been no example of a capital pu
ment ;' and what has been the nishment being inflicted on any
effect ? To whatever object we turn one for the crime of high treason.
our attention, whether it relates “ Some who might admit the
to our foreign or domestic con competency of our Government to
cerns, we find, abundant cause to these beneficent duties, might
felicitate ourselves in the excellence doubt it in trials which put to the
of our institutions. During a pe test its strength and efficiency, as
riod fraught with difficulties, and a member of the great community
VOL. LIX. [L] of
146] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
of nations. Here, too, experience political institutions, we have not
has afforded us the most satisfac been less so in other circumstances ,
tory proof in its favour. Just as on which our prosperity and hap
this constitution was put into ac piness essentially depend. Situate
tion, severai‘o‘f the principal states within the temperate zone, and
of Europe had become much agi extending through many degrees
tated, and some of them seriously of latitude along the Atlantic, the
convulsed. Destructive wars en United States all the varieties
sued, which have of late only of climate, and every production
been terminated. In the course incident to that portion of the
ofthese conflicts, the United States globe. Penetrating internally lib
received great injury from several the great lakes, and beyond the
~o‘f the parties. it was their inte sources of the great rivers which
rest to stand aloof frOm the con communicate through our
test, to demand justice from the interior, no country was ever hap
party committing the injury, and pier with respect to its domain.
to cultivate, by ‘fair and honour B‘lessed too with a fertile soil, our
able conduct, the friendship o‘fal'l. produce has always been very abun
War hecarne at length inevitable, dant, 'leav-ing even in years the
and ‘the result has shown that our least favourable, a surplus for the
‘Government is equal to that the wants of our fellow-men in other
greatest of trials, under the mostcountries. Such is our pecuiiu'
unfavourable circumstances. 0f felicity, that there is not a part of
our union that is not particulntij
the virtue of the;people, and of the
heroic exploits of the army, the interested in preserving it. The
navy, and the militia, 1 need not great agricultural interest of the
speak. Such, then, is the happy nation prospers under its protec
Government underwhich we live— tion. iLoca‘l interests are not less
a Government adequate to every fostered 'by it. Our fellow-citizens
purpose ‘for which the social com of the North, engaged in naviga
pact is formed—a Government tion, find great encouragement in
eledtive in all its ‘branches, under being made the favoured carriers
which 'every citizen may, 'by 'his of the vast productions of the other
'urerit, obtain the 'highest'trust re portions of _ the United States,
0
cognized by the constitution— while the inhabitants of (“these are
wiiich contains within it no cause amply rccompensed, in their turn,
‘ofdiscord, none to put at variance by the nursery for semen and
one portion of 'the community with naval forcethus formed and reared
another—ea Government which up for the support of our common
protects every citizen in 'the full rights. Our manufacturers find 1a
'enjoyment'df' his rights, and 'is able generous encouragement by the
to protect the nation against in policy which patronizes domestic
justice from foreign Towers. industry; and the surplus of our
“ Other considerations of the produce, a steady and profitable
highest irriportance admonislh us market by 'local wants, in less fa
“to cherish 'our union, and 'to cling voured parts, at home.
'to the-Governmentwhich supports “ Such, then, being the highly
it. Fortunate 'as ~we are in our favoured condition of our country,
it
GENERAL HISTORY. [141
it is the interest of every citizen to Let us, by all wise and constitu
maintain it. What are the dan tional measures, promote intelli
gers which menace us? If any gence among the people, as the
exist, they ought to be ascertained best means of preserving our li
and guarded against. In explain berties. '
ing my sentiments on this subject, “ Dangers from abroad are not
it may be asked, what raised us to less deserving of attention. Ex
the present happy state? How did periencing the fortune of other
we accomplish the revolution? nations, the United States may be
How remedy the defects of the again involved in war; and it
first instrument of our union, by may, in that event, be the object
infusing into the national govern of the adverse party to overset
ment sufficient power for national our government, to break our
purposes, without impairing the union, and demolish us as a na
Just rights of the States, or af tion. Our distance from Europe,
fecting those of individuals? How and the just, moderate, and pacific
sustain, and pass with glory policy of our government, may
through the late war? The g0 form some security against these
vernment has been in the hands-of dangers, but they ought to be an
the people. To the people, there ticipated and guarded against.
fore, and to the faithful and able Many oi" our citizens are engaged
depositaries of their trust, is the in commerce and navigation, and
credit due. Had the people of the all of them are, in a certain de
United States been educated in gree,- dependent upon that pros
different principles; had they been perous state. Many are engaged
less intelligent, less independent, in the fisheries. These interests
or less virtuous, can it be believed are exposed to invasion in the
that we should have maintained wars between other powers, and
the same steady and consistent we should disregard the faithful
career, or been blessed with the admonition of experience if we did
same success? While, then, the not expect it. Ve must support
constitution retains its present our rights, or lose our character,
sound and healthful state, every and with it perhaps our liberties.
thing will be free. They will A people who fail to do it can
choose competent and faithful re scarcely be said to hold a place
resentatives for every depart among independent nations. Na
ment. It is only when the people tional honour is national property
become ignorant and corrupt, of the highest value. The senti~
when they degenerate into a p0“ ment in the mind of every citizen
pulace, that they are incapable of is national strength. It ought
exercising the sovereignty. Usurp therefore to be cherished.
ation is then an easy attainment, “ To secure us against these
and an usurper soon found. The dangers, our coast and inland
people themselves become the frontiers should be fortified, our
willing instrument of their own army and navy regulated upon just
debasement and ruin. Let us then principles as to the force of each,
look to the great cause, and en be kept in perfect order, and our
deavour to preserve it in full force. militia be placed on the best prac
L2 ticable
14-8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
ticable footing. To put our ex ry thing dear to a free people,
tensive coasts in such a state of must depend in an eminent degree
defence as to secure our cities on the militia. Invasions may be
and interior from invasion, will made too formidable to be resist
be attended with expense, but the ed by any land or naval force,
work when finished will be per which it would comport, either
manent ; and it is fair to presume, with the principles of our Govern
that a single campaign of invasion ment, or the circumstances of the
by a naval force superior to our United States, to maintain: in
own, aided by a few thousand such cases, recourse must be had
land troops, would expose us to to the great body of the people,
greater expense, without taking and in a manner to produce the
into the estimate the loss of pro best efi‘ect. It is of the highest
perty and distress of our citizens, importance, therefore, that they
than would be sufficient for this be so organized and trained as
great work. Our land and naval to be prepared for any emer
resources should be moderate, but gency. The arrangement should
adequate to the necessary pur be such as to put at the command
poses : the former to garrison and of the government the ardent pa
preserve our fortifications, and to triotism and youthful vigour of
meet the first invasions of a fo the country. If formed op equal
reign foe ; and, while constituting and just principles, it cannot be
the elements of a greater force, to oppressive. It is the crisis which
preserve the science, as well as all makes the pressure, and not the
the necessary implements of war, laws, which provide a remedy for
in a state to be brought into acti it. The arrangement should be
vity in the event of war. The lat formed too in the time of peace,
ter, retained within the limits to be better prepared for war.
proper in a state of peace, might \Vith such an organization of such
aid in maintaining the neutrality a people, the United States have ‘
of the United States with dignity nothing to dread from foreign in
in the wars of other powers, and vasion. At its approach anover
in saving the property of their ci whelming force of gallant men
tizens from spoliation. In time of might always be put in motion.
war, with the enlargement of “ Other interests of high im
which the great naval resources portance will claim attention, a
of the country render it suscepti mong which the improvement of
ble, and which should be duly our country by roads and canals,
fostered in time of peace, it would proceeding always with a consti
contribute essentially, both as an tutional sanction, holds a distin
auxiliary of defence, and as a guished place. By thus facilitating
powerful engine of annoyance, to the intercourse between the States,
diminish the calamities of war, we shall add much to the conve
and to bring the war to a speedy nience and comfort of our fellow
and honourable termination. citizens; much to the ornament
“ But it ought always to' be of the country; and, what is of
held prominently in view, that the greater importance, we shall short
safety of these States, and of eve en distances, and by making each
part
GENERAL HISTORY. [149
part more accessible to and de tions. Equally proper is it to per—
pendent on each other, we shall' severe in our efforts to extend to
bind the union more closely toge them the advantages of civiliza~
ther. Nature has done so much tion. The great amount of our
for us by intersecting the country revenue, and the flourishing state
with so many great rivers, bays, of the treasury, are a full proof of
and lakes, approaching from dis the competency of the national
tant points so near to each other, resources for any emergency, as
that the inducement to complete they are of the willingness of
the work seems to be peculiarly our fellow-citizens to bear the
strong. A_ more interesting spec burdens which the public neces
tacle was perhaps never seen than sities require. The vast amount
is exhibited within the limits of of vacant lands, the value of which
the United States; a territory so daily augments, forms an addi
vast, and advantageously situated, tional resource of great extent and
containing objects so grand, so duration. These resources, be
useful, so happily connected in all sides accomplishing every other
their parts. Our manufactures necessary purpose, put it com
will likewise require the systema pletely in the power of they United
tic and fostering care of the go Statesto discharge the national
vernment. Possessing, as we do, debt at an early period. Peace is
all the raw materials, the fruit of the best time for improvement
‘ our own soil and industry, we and preparation of every kind. It
ought not to depend in the degree is in peace that our commerce
we have done on supplies from flourishes most, that the taxes are
other countries. While we are most easily paid, and that the re
thus dependent, the sudden events venue is most productive.
of warjun'sought and unexpected, “ The Executive is charged offi
cannot fail to plunge us into the cially in the departments under it,
most serious difficulties. with the disbursement of the pub
“ It is important, too, that the lic money, and is responsible for
capital which nourishes our ma the faithful application of it to
nufactures should be domestic ; as the purposes for which it is rais
its influence in that case, instead ed. The Legislature is the watch
of exhausting, as it may do in fo-' ful guardian over the public purse ;
reign hands, would be felt advan it is its duty to see that the dis
tageously on agriculture and every bursement has been honestly made.
other branch of industry. Equally T0 meet the requisite responsibi—
important is it to provide at home lity, every facility should be af
a market for our raw materials, forded to the Executive to enable
as, by extending the competition, it to bring the public agents. in
it will enhance the price, and pro trusted with the public money,
tect the cultivator against the ca strictly and promptly to account.
sualties incident to foreign mark Nothing should be presumed a
ets. With the Indian tribes, it is gainst them ; but if, with the re
our duty to cultivate friendly re— quisite facilities, the public mo
lations, and to act with kindness ney is suffered to lie long and
and liberality in all our transac uselessly in their hands, they will
not
150] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
not be the only defaulters, nor in accord with the principles of
will the demoralizing efi‘ect be our Republican Government, and
confined to them. It will evince in a manner to give them the most
a relaxation and want of tone complete efi'ect, and to advance in
in the administration, which will all other respects the best inte
be felt by the whole community. rest of our Union, will be the ob
1 shall do all that I can to secure ject of my constant and zealous
economy and fidelity in this im exertions. Never did a Govern
portant branch .of the administra ment commence under auspices so
tion 3 and I doubt not that the favourable, nor ever was success
Legislature will perform its duty so complete. If we look to the
with equal zeal. A thorough ex history of other nations, ancient
amination should be regularly or modern, we find no example, of
made, and I will promote it. a growth so rapid, so gigantic;
“ It is particularly gratifying to of a people so prosperous and
me to enter on the discharge of harry- “a
these duties, at a time when the “ In contemplating what we
United States are blessed with have still to perform, the heart of
peace. It is a state most consist every citizen must expand with
ent with their prosperity and hap joy, when he reflects how near
piness. It will be my sincere duty our government has approached
to preserve it, so far as depends to perfection; that, in respect to
on the Executive, on just princi it, we have no essential improve
ples, with all nations, claiming ment to make : that the great ob
nothing unreasonable of any, and ject is to preserve it in the essen
rendering to each what is its due. tial principles and features which
Equally gratifying is it to witness characterize it; and that it is to
the increased harmony of opinion be done by preserving the virtue
which pervades our union. Dis and enlightening the minds of the
cord does not belong to our sys people ; and, as a security against
tem. Union is recommended, as foreign dangers, to adopt such ar
well by the free and benign prin rangements as are indispensable
ciples of our Government, extend to the support of our independ
ing its blessings to every indivi ence, our rights, and liberties. If
dual, as by the other eminent ad we persevere in the career in which
vantages attending it. The Ame we have advanced so vfar, and in
rican people have encountered to the path already traced, we cannot
gether great dangers, and sus fail, under the favour of a gra
tained severe trials with success. cious Providence, to attain the
They constitute one great family, high destiny which seems to a
with a common interest. wait us. .
. “.Experience has enlightened , “ In the administrations of the
us on some questions of essential illustrious men who have preceded
importance to the country. The me in this high station, with some
progress has been slow, dictated of whom I have been connected by
by a just reflection, and a faithful the closest ties from early life,
regard to every interest-connected examples are presented which will‘
with it. To promote this harmony, always be found highly instructive
and
GENERAL HISTORY. [151
and useful to their successor. by the experience of all nations
From these I shall endeavour to We ought not to expect to be ex
derive all the advantages which empted, are advancing under a
they may afford. Of my immedi Well-digested system, with all the
ate predecessor, under whom so dispatch which so important a
important a portion of this great work will admit. Our free g0
and successful experiment has been vernment, founded on the interest
made, I shall be pardoned for ex and affections of the people, has
pressing my earnest wishes that gained, and is daily gaining,
he may lon enjoy in his retire strength. Local jealousies are ra
ment the a ections of a grateful pidly yielding to more generous,
country, the best reward of ex enlarged, and enlightened views
alted talents and the most faithful of national policy. For advantages
and meritorious services. Rely so numerous and highly import
ing on the aid to be derived from ant, it is our duty to unite in
the other departments of the go grateful acknowledgments to that
vernment, I enter on the trust to Omnipotent Being from whom
which I have been called by the they are derived, and in unceasing
sulfrages of my fellow-ciiizens, prayer that he will endow us with
with my fervent prayers to the virtue and strength to maintain
Almighty that he will be gracious and hand them down in their ut
ly pleased to continue to us that most purity to our latest posterity.
protection which he has already “ I have the satisfaction to in
conspicuously displayed in our form you, that an arrangement,
favour." which had been commenced by
my predecessor, with the British
razsmsnr’s szconn srszcn. Government, for the reduction of
Washington, Dec. 2. the naval force, by Great Britain
This day at 1% o'clock, the Pre— and the United States, on the
sident of the United States trans Lakes, has been concluded; by
mitted to both Houses of Con which it is provided, that neither
_ gress, the following Message, by party shall keep in service on Lake
Mr. Joseph Jones Monro, his Se Champlain more than one vessel;
cretary: on Lake Ontario more than one ;
“i Fellow CitizensofofRetheresentatives,
Senate, and and on Lake Erie and the Upper
of the House
Lakes more than two; to be armed
“ At no perio of our political each with one cannon only 5 and
existence had we so much cause that all the other armed vessels of
to felicitate ourselves at the pros both parties, of which an exact
perous and happy condition of our list is interchanged, shall be (lis
country. The abundant fruits of mantled. it is also agreed, that
the earth have tilled it with plenty. the force retained shall be re»
An extensive and profitable com stricted in its duty to the internal
merce has greatly augmented our purposes of each party; and that
revenue. The public credit has at the arran ement shall remain in
tained an extraordinary elevation. force unti six months shall have
Our preparations for defence, in expired, after notice given by one
case of future wars, from which, of the parties to the other of its
desire
152] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
desire that it should terminate. tions, it remains for Congress to
By this arrangement, useless ex decide whether they will make
pense on both sides, and, what is any other regulations, in conse
of still greater importance, the quence thereof, for the protection
danger of collision between armed and improvement of our navi
vessels in those inland waters gation.
which was great, is prevented. , “ The negotiation with Spain,
“ l have the satisfaction also to for spoliations on our commerce,
state, that the Commissioners, and the settlement of boundaries,
under the fourth article of the remains, essentially, in the state
treaty of Ghent, to whom it was it held, by the communications
referred to decide, to which party that were made to Congress by
the several islands in the bay of my predecessor. It has been evi
Passamaquoddy belonged, under dently the policy of the Spanish
the treaty of 1788, have agreed Government to keep the negotia
in a report, by which all the tion suspended, and in this the
islands in the possession of each United States have acquiesced,
party before the late war have from an amicable disposition to
been decreed to it. The Com wards Spain, and in the expecta
missioners acting under the other tion that her Government would,
article of the treaty of Ghent, for from a sense of justice, finally ac
the settlement of the boundaries, cede to such an arrangement as
have also been engaged in the would be equal between the par
discharge of their respective du ties. A disposition has been lately
ties, but have not yet completed shewn by the Spanish Govern
them. The difference which arose ment to move in the negotiation,
between the two Governments which has been met by this Gavern
under that treaty, respecting the ment, and should the conciliatory
right of 'the United States to take and friendly policy, which has in
and cure fish on the coast of the variably guided our Councils, be
British provinces north of our reciprocated, a just and satisfac
limits, which had been secured by tory arrangement may be expect
the treaty of 1783, is still in ne ed. ]t is proper, however, to re
gotiation. The proposition made mark, that no proposition has yet
by this Government, to extend to been made, from which such a re~
the colonies of Great Britain the sult can be presumed.
principle of the convention of “ It was anticipated, at an early
London, by which the commerce stage, that the contest between
between the‘ports of the United Spain and her colonies would be
States and British ports in Eu come highly interesting to the
rope had been placed on a footing United States. It was natural that
of equality, has been declined by our citizens should sympathise in
the British Government. This sub events which affected their neigh
ject having been thus amicably bours. It seemed probable, also,
discussed between the twoGovern that the prosecution of the conflict
ments, and_it appearing that the along our coast, and in contigu
British Government is unwilling ous countries, would occasionally
to depart from its present regula interrupt our commerce, and
otherwise
GENERAL HISTORY. [153
otherwise affect the persons and the ocean on every side, and has
property of our citizens. These been a subject of negotiation with
anticipations have been realized. the Government of Spain, as an
Such injuries have been received indemnity for losses by spoliation,
from persons acting under the au or in exchange for territory of
thority of both the parties, and equal value westward of the Mis
for which redress has, in most in sissippi, a fact well known to the
stances, been withheld. Through world, it excited surprise that any
every stage of the conflict, the countenance should be given to
United States have maintained an this measure by any of the colo
impartial neutrality, giving aid to nies. As it would be difficult to
neither of the parties, in men, reconcile it with the friendly rela
money, ships, or munitions of tions existing between the United
war. They have regarded the States and the colonies, a doubt
contest, not in the light of an or was entertained whether. it had
dinary insurrection or rebellion, been authorized by them, or any
but as a civil war between parties of them. This doubt has gained
nearly equal, having as to neutral strength, by the circumstances
powers, equal rights. Our ports which have unfolded themselves
have been Open to both ; and every in the prosecution of the enter
article, the fruit of our soil, or of prise, which have marked it as a
the industry of our citizens, which mere private unauthorized ad
either was permitted to take, has venture. Projected and counte
been equally free to the other. nanced with an incompetent force,
Should the colonies establish their reliance seems to have been placed
independence, it is proper now to on what might be drawn, in de
state, that this Government nei fiance of our laws, from within
ther seeks, nor would accept from our limits; and of late, as their
them any advantage, in commerce resources have failed, it has as
or otherwise, which would not be sumed a more marked character
equally open to all other nations. of unfriendliness to us, the island
The colonies will, in that event, being made a channel for the illi
become independent states, free cit introduction of slaves from
from any obligation to or con Africa into the United States, an
nexion with us, which it may not asylum for fugitive slaves from the
then be their interest to form on neighbouring States, and a port
a basis of fair reciprocity. for smuggling of every kind.
“ In the summer of the-present “ A similar establishment was
year. an expedition was set on made, at an earlier period, by per
foot against East Florida, by per sons of the same description in
sons claiming to act under the the Gulph of Mexico, at a place
authority of some of the colonies, called Galvestown, within the li
who took possession of Amelia mits of the United States, as we
Island, at the mouth of St. Mary’s contend, under the cession of
river, near the boundary of the Louisiana. This enterprise has
state of Georgia. As this province been marked in a more signal
lies east of the Mississippi, and is manner, by all the objectionable
bounded by the United States and circumstances which characterized
. the
v 7 \'—v

1543 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1317.


the other, and more particularly course with each, due attention
by the equipment of privateers, continues to be paid to the pro
which have annoyed our com tection of our commerce, and to'
merce, and by smuggling. These every other object in which the
establishments, if ever sanctioned United States are interested. A.
by any authority whatever, which ntron - hope is entertained, that,
is not believed, have abused their by ad ering to the maxims of a
trust, and forfeited all claim to just, a candid, and friendly poli
consideration. A just regard for cy, we may long preserve amica
the rights and interests of the ble relations with all the pOWero
United States required that they of Europe, on conditions advan
should be suppressed: and orders tageous and honourable to our
have accordingly issued to that country. ‘
eifect. The imperious considera~ “ With the Barbary States and
tions which produced this mea~ the Indian tribes our pacific rela_
sure will be explained to the par tions have been preserved. I
ties whom it may, in any degree, “In calling your attention to
concern. the internal concerns of our coun
“ To obtain correct informa try, the view which they exhibit
tion on every subject in which the is peculiarly gratifying. The pay
United States are interested; to ments, which have been made into
inspire just sentiments, in all per the treasury, show the very pro
sons in authority, on either side, ductive state of the public reve
of our friendly disposition, so far nue. After satisfying the appro
as it may comport with an impar priations made by law for the
tial neutrality ; and to secure pro support of the civil Government,
per respect to our commerce in and of the military and naval esta
every port, and from every flag; blishments, embracing suitable
it has been thought proper to provision for fortifications and for
send a ship of war, with three the gradual increase of the navy,
distinguished citizens, along the paying the interest of the public
southern coast, with instruction debt, and extinguishing more than
to touch at such ports as they may 18,000,000 of the principal, with- '
find most expedient fbr these pur in the present year, it is esti
poses. With the existing authori mated thatabalance of more than
ties, with those in the possession 6,000,000 of dollars will remain
of, and exercising the sovereignty, in the treasury on the lst day of
must the communication be held : January, a plicable to the current
from them alone can redress for service of t ensuing year.
past injuries, committed by per “ The payments into the trea
sons acting under them, be ob sury during the year 1818, on ac
tained: by them alone can the count of imposts and tonnage,
commission of the like in future resulting principally from duties
be prevented. which have accrued in the present
“ Our relations with the other year, may be fairly estimated at
powers of Europe have expe 20,000,000 of dollars; internal
rienced no material change since revenues at 2,500,000 5 public
the last session- In our inter lands at 1,500,000 , bank di
vidends
GENERAL HISTORY. [155
vidends and incidental receipts at part of this force is armed, and
500,000; making, in the whole, measures are taken to arm the
24,500,000 dollars. whole. An improvement in the
“ The annual permanent ex organization and discipline of the
penditure for the support of the militia is one of the great objects
civil Government, and of the army which claims the unremitted at
and navy, as now established by tention of Congress.
law, amounts to 11,800,000; and “ The regular force amounts
for the sinking fund , to 1 0,000,000; nearly to the number required by
making in the whole 21,800,000; law, and is stationed along the
leaving an annual excess of re Atlantic and inland frontiers.
venue beyond the expenditure of " Of the naval force, it has
2,700,000 dollars, exclusive of the been necessary to maintain strong
balance estimated to be in the squadrons in the Mediterranean,
treasury on the 1st day of J anuary, and in the Gulf of Mexico. '
1818. “ From several of the Indian
“In the present state of the tribes inhabiting the country bor
treasury, the whole of the Loui dering on Lake Erie, purchases
siana debt may be redeemed in have been made of lands, on con
the year 1819 3 after which, if the ditions very favourable to the
public debt continues as it now is, United States, and, as it is pre
above par, there will be annually sumed, not less so the tribes them
about 5,000,000 ofthe sinking fund selves. By these purchases, the
unexpended, until the year 1825, Indian title, with moderate re
when the loan of 1812, and the servation, has been extinguished
stock created by funding treasury in the whole of the land within
notes, will be redeemable. . the limits of the State of Ohio,
“ It is also estimated that the and to a great part of that in the
Mississippi stock will be dis Michigan territory, and of the
charged during the year 1819, State of Indiana. From the Che
from the proceeds of the public rokee tribe a tract has been pur
lands assigned to that object ; chased in the State of Georgia,
after which the receipts from and an arrangement made, by
those lands will annually add to which, in exchange for lands be
the public revenue the sum of yond the Mississippi, a great part,
1,500,000 dollars, making the per if not the whole of the land he
manent annual revenue amount longing to that tribe, eastward of
to 26,000,000 of dollars, and leav that river, in the States of North
ing an annual excess of revenue, Carolina, Georgia, and Tennesse,
after the year 1819, beyond the and in the Alabama territory, will
permanent authorized expendi soon be acquired. By these ac
ture, of more than 4,000,000 of quisitions, and others that may
dollars. reasonably be. expected soon to
“ By the last returns from the follow, we shall be enabled to ex
Department of War, the militia tend our settlements from the in
force of the several States may be habited, parts of the State of Ohio,
estimated at 800,000 men, infan along Lake Erie, into the Michi
try, artillery, and cavalry. Great gan territory, and to connect our
settle
156] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
settlements, by degrees, through “ Among the advantages inci
the State of Indiana and the Illi dent to these purchases, and to
nois to that of Missouri. A simi those uhich' have preceded, the
lar, and equally advantageous security which may thereby be af
eli'ect will soon be produced to the forded to our inland frontiers is
south, through the whole extent peculiarly important. With a
of the States and territory which strong barrier, consisting of our
border on the waters emptying own people, thus planted on the
into the Mississippi and the Mo— Lakes, the Mississippi, and the
bile. In this progress, which the Mobile, with the protection to be
rights of nature demand, and no derived from the regular force,
thing can prevent, marking a Indian hostilities, if they do not
growth rapid and gigantic, it is altogether cease, will henceforth
our duty to make new efforts for lose their terror. Fortifications in
the preservation, improvement, those quarters, to any extent, will
and civilization of the native in not be necessary, and the expense
habitants. The hunter state can attending them may be saved. A
exist only in the vast, unculti people accustomed to the use of
vated desert. It yields to the fire-arms only, as the Indian tribes
more dense and compact form, are, will shun even moderate
and greater force, of civilized po works, which are defended by can~
pulation; and of right it ought non. Great fortifications will,
to yield ; for the earth was given therefore, be requisite only, in
to mankind to support the great future, along the coast, and at
est number of which it is capable, some points in the interior, con
and no tribe or people have a nected with it. On these will the
right to withhold from the wants safety of our towns, and the com
of others more than is necessary merce of our great rivers, from
for their own support and comfort. the Bay of Fundy to the Missis
It is gratifying to know, that the sippi, depend. On these, there
reservations of land made by the fore, should the utmost attention,
the treaties with the tribes on skill, and labour, be bestowed.
Lake Erie, were made with a “ A considerable and rapid aug
view to individual ownershipamong mentation in the value of all the
them, and to the cultivation of public lands, proceeding from
the soil by all, and that an annual these and other obvious causes,
stipend has been pledged to supply may henceforward be expected.
their other wants. It will merit The difficulties attending early
the consideration of Congress, emigrations will be dissipated even
whether other provision, not sti in the most remote parts. Several
pulated by the treaty, ought to be new states have been admitted into
made for these tribes, and for the our union, to the west and south,
advancement of the liberal and and territorial governments, hap
humane policy of the United pily organized, established over
States towards all the tribes within every other portion in which there
our limits, and more particularly is vacant land for sale. In ters
for their improvement in the art minating Indian hostilities, as must
of civilized life. soon be done, in a formidable
shape
GENERAL HISTORY. [151
shape at least, the emigration, tentof territory, within the United
which has heretofore been great, States, the great amount and value
will probably increase, and the of its productions, the connexion
demand for land, and the aug of its parts, and other circumstan—
mentation in its value, be in like ces on which their prosperity and
proportion. The great increase happiness depend, we cannot fail
of our population throughout the to entertain a high sense of the
union will alone produce an im advantages to be derived from the
portant sheet, and in no quarter facility which may be afforded in
will it be so sensibly felt as in the intercourse between them by
those in contemplation. The public means of good roads and canals.
lands are a public stock, which Never did a country of, such vast
ought to be disposed of to the best extent offer equal inducements to
advantage for the nation. The improvements of this kind, nor
nation should, therefore, derive ever were consequences of such
the profit proceeding from the vast magnitude involved in them.
continual rise in their value. Every As this subject was acted on by
encouragement should be given to Congress at the last session, and
the emigrants consistent with a there may be a disposition to re
fair competition between them; vive it at the present, I have
but that competition should ope brought it into view, for the pur
rate, in the first sale, to the ad pose of communicating my senti
vantage of the nation rather than ments on a very important cir
of individuals. Great capitalists cumstance connected with it, with
will derive all the benefit incident that freedom and candour which
to their superior wealth, under a regard for the public interest,
any mode of sale which may be and a proper respect for Congress,
adopted. But if, looking forward require. A difference of opinion
to the rise in the value of the has existed, from the first forma
public lands, they should have the tion of our constitution to the
opportunity of amassing, at a low present time, among our most
price, vast bodies in their hands, enlightened and virtuous citizens,
the profit will accrue to them and respecting the right of Congress
not to the public. They would to establish such a system of im
also have the power, in that de provement. Taking into view the
gree, to control the emigration trust with which 1 am now ho
and settlement in such manner as noured, it would be improper,
their opinion of their respective after what has passed, that this
interests might dictate. I submit discussion should be revived,
this subject to the consideration of with an uncertainty of my opinion
Congress, that such further pro respecting the right. Disregard
vision may be made in the sale of ing early impressions, I have be
the public lands, with a view to stowed on the subject all the de
the public interest, should any be liberation which its great import
deemed expedient, as in their ance, and a just sense of my duty,
judgment may be best adapted to required ; and the result is a
the object. settled conviction in my mind, that
“ When we consider the vast ex Congress do not possess the right.
It
158] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
It is not contained in any of the in them is considerable, and the
specified powers granted to Con knowledge acquired in the ma
gress; nor can I consider it in chinery and fabric of all the most
cidental to, or a necessary mean, useful manufactures is of great
viewed on the most liberal scale, value. Their preservation, which
for carrying into effect any of depends on due encouragement,
the powers which are specifically is connected with the high inte
granted. In communicating this rests of the nation.
result, I cannot resist the obli “ Although the progress of the
gation which I feel to suggest to public buildings has been as fa
Congress the propriety of recom vourable as circumstances have
mending to the States the adoption permitted, it is to be regretted
of an amendment to the consti that the Capitol is not yet in a
tution, which shall give to Con state to receive you. There is
gress the right in question. In good cause to presume that the
cases of doubtful construction, two wings, the only parts as yet
especially of such vital interest, it commenced, will be prepared for
comports with the nature and that purpose at the next session.
origin of our institutions, and will The time seems now to have ar
contribute much to preserve them, rived when this subject may be
to apply to our constituents for an deemed worthy the attention of
explicit grant of the power. We Congress, on a scale adequate to
may confidently rely, that if it ap national purposes. The comple
pears to their satisfaction that the tion of the middle building will
power is necessary, it will always be necessary to the convenient ac
be granted. In this case I am commodation of Congress, of the
happy to observe that experience Committees, and various offices
has afforded the most ample proof belonging to it. It is evident that
of its utility, and that the benign the other public buildings are al
spirit of conciliation and har together insufficient for the ac
mony which now manifests itself commodation of the several execu
throughout our Union, promises tive departments, some of which
to such a recommendation the are much crowded, and even sub
most prompt and favourable re jected to the necessity of obtaining
sult. I think proper to suggest it in private buildings, at some
also, in case this measure is distance from the head of the
adopted, that it be recommended department, and with inconve
,to the States to include in the nience to the management of the
amendment sought, a right in public business. Most nations
Congress to institute, likewise, have taken an interest and a pride
seminaries of learning, for, the in the improvement and ornament
all-important purpose of diffusing of their metropolis, and none were
knowledge among our fellow more conspicuous in that respect
citizens throughout the United than the ancient republics. The
States. policy which dictated the estab
" Our manufactories will re lishment of a permanent residence
quire the continued attention of for the national government, and
Congress. The capital employed the spirit in which it was com
menced
GENERAL HISTORY. [159
menced and has been prosecuted, provision which may be made will
show that such improvement was not be great.
thought worthy the attention of “ It appearing in a satisfactory
this nation. Its central position, manner that the revenue arising
betWeen the northern and southern from imports and tonnage, and
extremities of our union, and its from the saie of the public lands,
approach to the west, at the head will be fully adequate to the sup
of a at navigable river which port of the civil government, of
inter ocks with the western wa the present military and naval
ters, prove the wisdom of the establishments, including the an
councils whiCh established it. No nual augmentation of the latter,
thing appears to be more reason to the extent provided for, to the
able and proper than that conve payment of the interests on the
nient accommodations should he public debt, and to the extinguish
provided, on a well-digested plan, rnent of it at the times authorised,
for the heads of the several depart without the aid of internal taxes ;
ments, and for the Attorney I consider it my duty to recom
General; and it is believed that mend to Congress their repeal.
the public ground in the city, To impose taxes, when the public
applied to those objects, will he exigencies require them, is an ob
found amply sufficient. I submit ligation of the most sacred cha
‘this subject to the consideration of racter, especially with a free
Congress, that such furtherpro people. The faithful fulfilment
vision may be made in it as to of it is among the highest proofs
them may seem proper. of their virtue, and capacity for
“ In contem lating the happy self-government. To dispense
situation of the nited ‘States, our with taxes, when it may be done
attention is drawn, with peculiar with perfect safety, is equally the
interest, to the surviving o‘fiicers duty of their representatives. In
and soldiers of our revolutionary this instance we have the satis
a'rmy, who so eminently contri faction to know that they were
buted, by their services, 'to :lay its imposed when the demand was
foundation. Most of those very imperious, and have been sustained
meritorious citizens have paid the with exemplary fidelity. I have
debt of nature, and gone to repose. to add, that, however gratifying
It is believed that among the sur it may 'be to me, regarding the
vivnrs there are some not provided prosperous and happy condition
for ‘by existing laws, who are re of our country, to recommend the
duced to indigence, and even to repeal of these taxes at this time,
real distress. These men :have a. fl sha‘ll nevertheless be attentive to
claim on the gratitude of their events, and, should any future
country, and it will do honour to emergency occur, be not “less
their country to provide ,for them. prtnnPt to suggest such measures
The lapse of a few years more, and burdens as may then be re
and the opportunity will ‘be for quisite and proper.
ever lost: indeed, so long already “ James Mormon.
has been the interval, that the “ Was‘hiqgton, D202, 1817."
munber to be benefited 'by any
SPANISH
160] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
SPANISH cotomzs. land, with a crew composed of the
The state of affairs in the Spa natives of dilferent countries 5 but
nish Colonies of North and South it was generally suspected that his
America appears to have under motive was chiefly to secure a
gone little change in the present good port, whence he might carry
year; one cause of which has been on a kind of piratical traffic with
the mutual debility of both par the persons with whom he was
ties, which may be ascribed to the connected. After continuing for
weakness induced upon each by a considerable time at Amelia,
the savage manner in which war being disappointed, it is said, of
has been carried on. aid which he expected from Balti
Buenos Ayres, which from the more, M‘Gregor and his wife left
beginning of the contest has con the island on the 5th of Septem
stituted the principal strength of ber, and sailed away in a brig.
the patriot or insurgent cause, The Mexican (patriotic) flag was
sent out a force under General hoisted in the same month, and
San Martin, which was designed proclamations were issued, sign
to recover the province of Chili. ed by Aury, Commander-in-Chief,
The General fell in with the Roy and R. Hubbard, Governor.
alists near Chabuco, and defeated The Buenos Ayres government
them in a general action on the having felt themselves aggrieved
12th of February; after which a by the numerous complaints made
new government was organized in by foreign nations against the
Santiago, the capital of Chili. The robberies committed by South
former Spanish governor of the American privateers upon their
province, Marco del Pont, was commerce, published, on Aug. 16,
captured by the Patriots. San the following official notice, ad
Martin, who arrived' at Santiago dressed to all such complainants .—
on April 11, was employed in “ For some time past the foreign
completing his conquest. The re papers have been filled with com
maining royal forces were strongly plaints against our cruisers, for
posted in the harbour of Talcahu acting contrary to the laws of
ano, where five vessels were detain nations; but as those complaints
ed for the removal of the troops, must refer to other parts of
should it be found necessary. South America as well as to
The Portuguese troops were ours, this government waits for
still at Montevideo. information less vague as to the
Early in the year there arrived authors of those excesses, in order
by sea a person named Gregor to give entire satisfaction to neu
M‘Gregor, a native of Scotland, tral and friendly 'powers. The
who took possession of an island injustice of Spain has placed us on
called Amelia, and entitled himself a precipice, and involves our name
General of Brigade of the Armies in acts repugnant to our feelings.
of the United Provinces of New The evil originated from little
Granada and Venezuela, and Ge caution used by the former G0
neral-in-Chief of the Armies des vernment in granting letters of
tined against the Floridas. He marque, little suspecting then that
established himself in Amelia is bad use would be made of them;
but
GENERAL HISTORY. pm
but the present administration has island of Margaretta, and sent a
taken care to regulate every thing column of his troops to attack
according to the law of nations. Porlamar, of which they took
Latterly, one of our privateers possession, after a desperate re
captured two Portuguese vessels sistance. Three hundred of the
under the mistaken idea that we Patriots were killed, and many
were at war with that power. were wounded and made pri
They shall be immediately re soners. The survivors fled to the
stored, in order to show that We mountains.v The island was sur
have no other interest in the Pri rounded v'vit'h mahty‘spahish ships '
vateers than in so far As they con of ; and several of the insur
tribute to our national _defence'; gent ‘famili'és Who endeavoured
and that we have no other'en'em‘ies to escape had already been taken.
b'ut Spaniards, against when; our A dispareh from nah Francisco
whole esarts are to be aireé'tea. d'é omen ‘tb Viceroy nah {than
At present, the Saprerh‘e Govern; Ruéz dé spouses, dated _S'i-‘
ment has appointed a caramtss'ios, lab, October 27,‘gd‘v'érhinen't er account
in “the
which is acting incessantlyin"order
_ to Put a Stop to the future 'abhses of thehis'hbvingfikén are calcitrat'ed' gli
of our private'ers. We hold n'q ner'al ’thie _‘iFreI‘icli',’ with
thing more sacred than Honour,
and no time shall be lost in re; warty-nee other "efshhs, in the
moving all occasion for those ca pass (if Vdfiadito," has Miss was
lumni‘e's raised by our enemies. at the_ “he's/def 260 nearly the
Neit'h'e'r anarchical n'or sdns culotte half of wliom are Killed. This Cap
ideas exist in South America, _We ture appears to have been con-
did not declare our itidépéfidéwe th‘e sidered
S'panis‘h‘governrne’nt,
as of great ,w'liich
un'til interior order was completely
established." I could not ismaih indifferent als- to
_ the poiusiblié's‘iiéce's‘s of the enter
The Royal General Mbrillo, on
the 14th of July, lar'ided on the prise.

VOL. LIX. CHAP


' wv-w

1 62] ANNUAL, REGISTER. 1817‘ '

CHAPTER XV.

East India Aflairs.

N the close of December, 1816, space of ten miles, that their loss
a dispatch was sent from Ma in killed and wounded was com
jor Lushington, commander of the puted at not less than 7 or 800
4th regiment of Madras light ca men, besides a great number ren
valry, to the hon. Mr. Elphinstone,dered incapable of following their
British resident at Poonah, giving plundering excursions for want of
an accountofhis expedition against horses. The only casualty left for
the Pindarces. These people had the Major to report was, that of
made their appearance at Sogaurn Captain Drake, a gallant officer,
early on the 25th, on which ac who fell by a thrust of a spear.
count the Major had advanced his _ A Calcutta Government Gazette
regiment towards that place on of the 10th of April states, that
the ‘26th. He reached Sogaum at accounts from the banks of the
seven in the morning, where he Nerbudda of the middle of March
learned that a body of Pindarees, mention that the intrepid Captain
cons-sting of between two and Caulfield had again distinguished
three thousand, had attacked So himself in a successful attack on
gaum on the morning of the 25th, the Pindaree's. Having received
and being beat off, had taken the accurate information of the en
road to Kaine. Major Lushington, campment of their leader, Shoikh
after making the necessary ar Doleah, at the head of a’large
rangements for the protection of body of horse, he marched to the
his gun-troops and rear-guard, spot with two companies of the
proceeded with 330 rank and file tenth infantry, and a squadron of
to Kaine, where he arrived at cavalry, and came upon them um _
noon, being a march of twenty perceived near Hendia. The Pin
miles. He halted for a short time darees immediately rushed into
to refresh his men and horses, and the Nerbudda with the hope of
then pushed on to Pepree, where fording that river; but in the at
he was informed that the Pindarees tempt a very considerable number
were at Cowah, taking their meal. were cut to pieces or drowned,
Moving on at a brisk pace, the and the chief was supposed to have
Major surprised the enemy when fallen on this occasion.
within a thousand yards of them ; The immediate cause of these
and though they were on horse disturbances appears to have been
back, within two minutes, they the irruption of a party of ma
were instantly flying in all direc rauders, supposed to have been
tions. The pursuit was conducted from the Mahratta frontier, which
with so much ardour during a had entered the Cuttack district
l through
GENERAL HISTORY. [168
through Goomsir; andbeing joined by the son of the Dewau of the
by a multitude of vagahonds from Khorrdah Rajah ; but having lost
the Pergunnah of Khoordah, the in the action seventeen killed and
insurrection soon assumed an about a hundred wounded, they
alarming character. They took again hastily retired, and were
the town of Khoordah, and. then pursued to the end of the town.
proceeded to Piply, situated mid Six were taken prisoners, from
way between Cuttack and J agger whose account it, appeared that
naut, with a view of cutting off the Rajah was the mainspring of
'the communication between those the disturbance. “in:
two places, and particularly of se Jugbundoo being informed of
curing the person of the Rajah of the defeat of the parties which had
Khoordah, who is high-priest of been sent against Captain VVal
the temple, and hereditary sweeper lington, immediately pushed out
of the great idol to Jaggernaut at the head of some
The same Gazette on April the thousand insurgents; and having
24th proceeds to communicate in— surrounded the fort and placed
formation respecting Cuttack and picquets in every direction, he be
its district. After its conquest by gan to erect a battery with two
the British, the pergunnah of great guns. Captain Wallington
Khoordah was remarkable for its thinking it impossible with his
hostility to the English govern small force to make any impres
ment ;‘and it was found necessary sion upon so formidable a mul
for the purpose of securing tem titude, retired in the middle of the
porary tranquillitytto take charge night, and reached Cuttack with
of the person of the Rajah, then his treasure on the 16th.
a young man, and retain him in The Bombay Courier of April
custody at Midnapore. When all the 26th conveysinformation, that
opposition was subdued, the Ra a large body of freebooting horse,
jah was restored to his functions who were encamped on the banks
in the temple, and was allowed a of the Peira, about ll miles N.VV.
malikanu of twenty-four per cent. of Soonje llamaney, were sur
being more thandouble the amount prised in their camp by a detach<
given in ordinary cases. ment of the Madras army, under
Since the above was drawn up, the command of Major Smith.
further accounts have been re Two companies of the first of the
ceived from Cuttack up to the third, and the first of the second,
16th. Captain Wallington had and the flank companies of the
fortified a bungalow at J aggernaut, 14th Madras Native Infantry,
and surrounded his small camp marched from the banks of the
with a mud wall about seven feet Beema in pursuit of a body of
high ; and had thrown out wickets horse; and continuing the chace
on every side, and was prepared with extraordinary perseverance
against attack. ()n the 13th se for four days and five nights, came
veral columns of insurgents rushed up with them. just as they were
forwards to assault him, but were preparing for a march on the 17th
soon obliged to retreat with loss. of April. > The nature of the
They made a second attack, led on ground preventing the infantry
- A ‘ " ~- ' from
' '~"'v—w—

164] ANNUAL REGISTER, 18'1‘7.


from immediately forming a line, threatened to shake the amity sub
they poured a volley into the camp, sisting between the two States, the
and then broke into divisions, and Governor-General in Council has
marched through the camp. The the satisfaction to announce the
freebooters got on their horses execution of a new treaty between
with uncommon rapidity, and the Honourable Company and his
formed behind their camp. As Highness the Peishwa, explaining
soon as the infantry had got through and amending the articles of the
the camp, Maj.Smith concentrated treaty of Bassein, with the addi
his detachment. The horse then tion of certain provisions calculated‘
exchanged a few shot with the to improve the alliance, and to pro
foot, and made otf, leaving about mote and render permanent the
60 men, and many more horses, harmony which both Governments
dead on the field. are solicitous to maintain.
By command of his Excellency
Fort William, July 10. the most Noble the Governor
Discussions having occurred be General in Council,
tween the British GQVernment and J. ADAM,
the Government of Poona, which Act. Chief Sec. to Gov.
July 5.

cunnmeLE.
CHRONIC-LE,
JANUARY. persons came forward to identify
the deceased, and among the rest
1. HE number of students last an old man, who swore that the
, year at the University of deceased was his daughter, and
Gottingen was greatly increased ; that she was the wife of Israel
it amounts already to 1,159; of Friday, an out- pensioner of Green~
these only 386 are natives of Ha wich College. He then went into
nover, 566 are from other Ger a long account 'of a quarrel which
man States, and 180 foreigners ; took place between Friday and his
of the latter, 36 are Russians, 17 wife, on Wednesday the lst, of
Swiss, 63 Danes, 10 English, 6 ‘ January, and of their fighting in
French, 25 Hungarians, 4 Ame his house with a knife and a
ricans, 2 from the Greek isle of hatchet, which fight he with diffi~
Chios. culty suppressed; and that soon
On Thursday, the 9d inst. the afterwards both parties left his
body of a woman was found tied house, and he had not been able
to a boat near the landing-place to hear of either of them since,
of the Royal Hospital at Green except that he now believed the
wich, on which an inquest was deceased to be his daughter, and
held on the following Saturday, that she had been murdered by
before Joseph Carttar, Esq. one somebody, and laid on the spot
of the coroners for Kent. The where the body was found. Other
evidence being very vague, the co witnesses also swore to the de
roner said he should not then ceased being the daughter of the
close the inquest, but adjourn till old man., The surgeons proved
the Tuesday following, in order that there were marks of violence
that every exertion might be made on the head, &c. of the deceased,
to procure better information, as but not sufiicient to be deemed
there was much suspicion in the mortal. This evidence, however,
case, and it was but seldom that a induced the coroner to adjourn a
woman was found dead without second time; and he directed the
somebody being able to give an constables to make diligent search
account of her death. He also di after Friday, the husband, and
rected, that the body should be bring him before the jury on the
examined by a surgeon, that his 10th instant, to account for his
opinion might be given on certain wife's death, if possible. Thejury
external marks which appeared on accordingly met again on the 10th
it. The jury accordingly met a instant, when the constables re
ain on Tuesday, when several ' ported that they had not been able
VOL. LIX. B '0
2 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817'. LIAN.
to find Friday, but that they had Campbell, Esq., Drumsaynie, a
found his wife alive and hearty; daughter of Archibald Smith, Loch
whereupon the father was sent for, goilhead.—-Saved, John Campbell,
and the other witnesses, all of Duncan Smith, Duncan M‘Glas
whom were greatly but agreeably ban." Another letter says, that
surprised at the sight of the wo Duncan M‘Glashan d ied after be
man, and acknowledged their er ing got on shore. .
ror in having sworn to the de 7. \Ve observe, with pleasure,
ceased. The coroner reprimanded that the condition of the nume
the witnesses severely for their rous body of nailmakers in Staf
want of discrimination; but every fordshire is improved by a meeting
one allowed, that the great like of their employers, held at 'Wes't
ness there was between the living Bromwich, when' it .was unani
woman and the deceaSed might mously agreed to restore their
have deceived better judges than rate of wages, which had been,
the witnesses seemed to be, par- from the depression of that trade,
ticularly as both the women had partially and considerably reduced.
similar private marks on each arm. —-Birmingham Gazette.
Under these circumstances further 8. For- several hours this morn
proclamation was made for evi ing, the fog throughout the whole
dence to identify the deceased, and of the metropolis was so intense,
discover how she came by her that candles were used in every
death; but none' appearing, the shop and counting-house.
jury returned a verdict of “ Found 11. From the crowded state of
dead, under suspicious circum the foreign seamen in the Helder,
stances, and with strong marks of lying off the Tower, Government
violence on her person; but who has given directions for another
ther? inflicted by accident or by de vessel to be prepared for their re
sign, they could not ascertain." ception. The Holder was calcu
A letter from Lochgoilhead, da lated to be capable of containing
ted the 3d of January, 1817, to a nearly 800; but as more than
gentleman in Glasgow, says—“ On that number have been sent on
Monday last a' boat left this, in board, sickness has made its ap
order to to Greenock; when pearance, from the crowded state
sailing dow'n’Lochgoil, they were of the miserable objects.
hailed by a person that wanted to On Monday week; Dennis Mur
cross; they condescended, and, phy, of Limerick, sawyer, assist
being upon the lee-shore, gave ing a constable in executing a
the boat the two sails, which be sessions decree at Rathmore cas
fore had but one: half way over, tle, in that county, was attacked
opposite the Waninan, came on a by a number of fellows, who in
squall, and run the boat down by the most savage manner beat him,
not relieving the sheets. Eight and inflicted several wounds on
persons were ,on board ; those his body, of which he died on
that were drowned are, Archibald \Vedncsday. Thursday an inquest
Campbell, Dugald Weir, Archi was held on the corpse, and a
bald Walker, Thomas Thomson's verdict of wilful murder returned
wife, the ploughmun to Archibald against the perpetrators. Two men
charged
hm CHRONIGLE 3
charged with this outrage, Thomas received a shot which broke his
Stubbins and Darby Fennell, are left arm near the wrist, and the
lodged in gaol by David Roche, same moment it was broken above
Esq—Waterford Mirror. the elbow by a blow with a fire
From the Westnieatli Journal.— lock; he also received a shot in
Qn Saturday the 11th instant, at the other arm that quite disabled
six o'clock in the evening, the him. Both he and his wife were
house of the Rev. Mr. Serjeant, then so dreadfully beaten as to be
curate of the parish of Castlere left for dead; when the villains
han, and an active magistrate of proceeded to plunder the house,
the county of Cavan, was entered and decamped, after having robbed
by a party of ten persons, who him of more than 801. in gold,
tied the servants, and collected all besides much other property.
the property worth carrying away ; Drogheda, Jan. lS.-Our feel
after which they deliberately boil ings are again outraged, in being
ed the tea-kettle, and passed the under the painful necessity of re
evening in drinking tea and punch, cording a transaction of the most
waiting the arrival of Mr. Ser diabolical nature, which took place
jeant. On Mr. returning he on Thursday evening near Ardee.
heard a noise, and on asking, The following particulars we have
“ who is there 2" two men imme learned from a gentleman. Mr.
diately fired at him, which he at J. Rath, a respectable and wealthy
tempted to return, but his pistol farmer, and an excellent member
missed fire. Fortunately the arms of society, returned on the above
of the robbers were so injudi evening, from the quarter-sessions
ciously loaded, that fire slugs of Ardee, to his house at Irish
which hit him in the body, and town, on the Dunkald road, and
perforated his two coats, waist about a mile and a half from the
coat, and shirt, did him very little former place. Having sat down
injury. On Mr. S. falling, the in his parlour with two friends to
fellows supposed he was killed, dinner, the table lay in front of
and immediately joined their party the window 3 one of his guests sat
in the dwelling-house, and carried a little distance on his right, the
oil all the clothes, house linen, other on his left; it was then be
and 301. in money. The same tween seven and eight o‘clock, and
' party then proceeded about three the shutters were not closed. In
miles to the deer-park of Lord this situation some hellish mis
Farnham, and entered so quietly creant discharged the conterits' of
through the thatch of the house of a blunderbuss loaded with slugs,
Robert Morrow, permanent ser which carried ofl‘ the upper part
geant of the 1st Ballyjamesdufi' of his head, and scattered the
corps of yeomanry, as to be at his brains of the unfortunate victim
bedside before he was apprized of about the room; neither of the
their being in the house. He then other persons, we understand, were
seized a firelock which was near injured. One of his friends short
his bed, and knocked down two ly afterwards went to Ardee and
of the party, and his wife gal informed the police, who, with
lantly tumbled another, when he the military, were in pursuit of
B 2 the
4 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. Unit.
the murderer during the night, intestines had protruded. This
but unfortunately did not come up wound would have been mortal in
with him. Friday an inquest was most cases, from the subsequent
held by Dr. Blackwell, one of the inflammation, but was not consi
coroners of the county, and a ver dered so in the present instance,
dict of wilful murder found against owing to the profuse discharge of
_ persons unknown. blood. On dissection after death,
15. Coroner‘s Inquest on the late by order of the coroner, the blad
John Harriott, Esq. of the Thames der was found highly ulcerated,
Police (Mice—Au inquest was held and filled with coagulated blood,
before J. W. Unwin, Esq. one of which, by the able practitioners
the coroners for Middlesex, on who attended, was considered as
the body of this lamented and re the immediate cause of death.
spected magistrate, of which the It was proved, that during the
following are the leading facts and hist- fortnight, the faculties of the
circumstances :— deceased were greatly impaired,
Mr. Harriot for nine months and his mind overcome by dejec
past had been afflicted with a dis tion, from a continued series of
ease in the bladder, which sub pain and sufi'ering.
jected him to continual paroxysms The coroner called the attention
of excruciating pain, often attend of thejury, in the first place, to
ed with profuse hemorrhage. On the statement which had been
Friday morning last, about four given as to the situation of the de
o'clock, his medical attendant (Mr. ceased's mind and understanding,
Holloway) was sent for, who and left it to them to decide, whe
found him in such exquisite pain, ther he had contributed to his
that the deceased requested this own death, or had come to his
gentleman to relieve him at all end by natural means from the
events, even if the means should efl’cct of his complaint—Verdict,
terminate in death. Mr. Harriott Natural Death.
was then placed in a warm bath. ‘20. The number of vessels
At eight o‘clock the same morning which entered the port of Ham
this gentleman was again sent burgh in the course of last year
for ; he found Mr. Harriott bleed amounted to 1,615; of these 702
ing from several self-inflicted were from England, 84 from
wounds in different parts of his France, 3 from the East Indies,
body. On the left temple was a 37' from the “’est Indies, 40 from
slight wound, which had divided North America, 9 from South
a branch of the temporal artery. America, &c. The number of
In the left arm, below the elbow, ships which passed the Sound
was another wound, about two. during the same period was 8,871 ;
inches long, and about the fourth of these 1,848 were British: the
of an inch deep. The veins only Swedish were next in point of
of the arm were injured, and the numbers, the French only 16, the
artery untouched. The last, and Americans 168.
most serious wound, was in 21. The elder Watson was put
the abdomen, over the stomach, upon his trial at the Old Bailey,
through which a portion of the upon the charge of having stabbed
Joseph
Jam] CHRONICLE. 5
Joseph Rhodes with a sword con Wednesday morning, about one
cealed in astick ; when it appear o'clock, the Leicester cavalry, and
ing that Rhodes was not able to a regiment of dragoons, war:
swear that the wound was inflicted called out to quell a riot at Oadby,
by design, but rather in a noctur near Leicester. There were about
nal scufile, Watson was brought in 400 rioters, who dispersed them
Not guilty. selves nfter three of the leaders
The grand jury afterwards re were secured : these have since
turned a true bill against James been sent to the gaol of the latter
Watson the elder, John Hooper, place. Several corn and hay
Thomas Preston, and Thomas stacks were set on fire, but were
Cashman, on a. charge of con extinguished by the military.
spiracy and riot. Her Royal Highness the Duchess
27’. The following letter has of Cumberland having been for
been sent by the Secretary of some time past in daily expecta
State for the Home Department to tion of giving birth to a child,
the Lords Lieutenants of several the two physicians, Sir Henry
counties :— Halford and Dr. Clarke (the latter
Whilehall, Jan. 11. of whom is an eminent accoucheur)
My Lord—It being deemed ex have been constant attendants
pedient, under present circum upon her Royal Highness. In
stances, that the civil power should compliance also with the formality
be strengthened in the county maintained at a royal birth, the
under your grace's charge, I have Archbishop of Canterbury and the
to request that you will recom Bishop of London have remained
mend it to the magistrates in the in town, that they might, when
principal towns within the same called upon, be present at the
(in which the measure is not al shortest notice. The proper ar
ready adopted), to encourage the rangements being thus settled, it
enrolment of respectable house was announced yesterday morning
holders, to act, as occasion may between nine and ten o'clock, that
require, as special constables, for her Royal Highness was taken in
a fixed period of time, not less labour. Summonses were pre
than three months; and I, have sently forwarded to the Archbishop
further to request that your grace of Canterbury, the Bishop of Lon
will communicate to the command don, the Lord Chancellor, and the
ing officers of the several yeomanry rest of the Cabinet Ministers.
corps within the county of Leices The Duke of Cumberland sent his
ter, the wish of his Majesty's go own chariot for the Lord Chancel
vernment, that they would hold lor ; and here some delay was
themselves, and the corps under occasioned by the coachman driv
their respective commands. in a ing to Bedford-square, instead of
state of preparation to afford the Court of Chancery, where the
prompt assistance to the civil au learned lord was of course sitting,
thorities, in case of necessity. it being term-time. In the mean
lhave, Sac. SIDMOUTH. while, the Archbishop of Canter
The Lord Lieutenant of the bury, who had kept a carriage in
county of Leicester. readiness for the occasion, made
such
5 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [Jam
such haste as to be at Cumberland kingdom of Great Britain and
house by twelve o‘clock, within Ireland, in the name and on the
twenty minutes after his receipt of behalf of his Majesty,
the summons. In a few miniites A rnoennsrion.
the Bishop of London also ar George, P. R.
rived, and immediately after him Whereas, by an act passed in
came the Lord Chancellor and the 56th year of his Majesty‘s
the Cabinet Ministers. The same reign, entitled “ An Act to provide
ceremonies vvere observed as at for a new silver coinage, and tb
the delivery of a queen of England, regulate the currency of the gold
and about one o'clock her Royal and Silver coin of this realm," it
Highness has delivered of a still is amongst other things enacted,
born cliild. , that from and after such days, and
_ In a short titne tile follo'Wihg ddring such period of time, as
bulletin was draWn,up, and is shall be named and appointed iii
sued; for the satisfaction of the and by any proclamation or pro
public :-'- _ chmati'ons which shall be inade
“ St. John's, Monday, Jail. 27. and issued for that purpose, by Or
“ Her Royal Highness the on behalf Of his Majesty's Privy_
Duchess of Cumberland Was de Council, it shall dnd may be lawful
livered at one o'clock this day of for any person or persons to bring
a' still-born female child, and is as and deliVer into his Majesty's
well as chn be expected. Mint any silver coin of this realm
" HENRY HALrosn, heretofore coined and current,
“ Cnsnuss M. Ctssxs." which shall by anyoiiicer or officers
of the said Mint, to be appointed
Johanna Southcbte.-—l‘he d'e'lu for that purpose by the Master of
sion at this time practised upon the Mint, be judged and deemed
the Believers in- the predictions to be such silver coin of this realm,
and doctrines of the late prophetess and that there'shall be delivered
'is matter of great astonishment. out of the said Mint to every per
An interdict arrived at Newark oh son bringing in and delivering
Sunday, the 19th instant, _ from "a subh old silver coin, a sum in new
disciple of the 'cbnclave at Leeds, silver built, of erovvns,half-crovvns,
inhibiting those of the faith, shillings, and sixpences, to be
amongst other things, from at coined, pursuant to the directions
tending to their ordinary business of the said act, equal to the amount
during the ensuing right or nine of the silver coins brought in and
days; and a mahuficturer‘s shop delivered as- aforesaid, seem-ding
in that place is at this time en to the respective denOmin'ations of
tii'ély deserted, and the business such silver coins : and whereas,
of 'many small defilers suspended We; have thought iii in the name
inconsequence—Ltfit-olhMeiburg. and on the behalf of his Majesty,
and by and with the advice of 'his
From the Ldndon Gazette, Timidu'y Majesty‘s Privy Council, to name
Jailu'ar’ 28. and appoint the 8d day of Feb.
By his Royal ne'ss the Prince now next ensuing, as the day
of Wales, Regent of the united from and after which, and from
thence
Jam] CHRONICLE. 7
thence until the 17th day of Feb. in different places in the city of
then next ensuing, as the period Westminster, proceeded to com
of time during which it shall and mit certain daring and highly
may be lawful for any person or criminal outrages, in gross viola
persons to deliver into the said tion of the public peace, to the
Mint any such old silver coin of actual danger of our Royal Person,
this realm, and as the day from and to the interruption of our
and after which, and as the period passage to and from the Parlia
of time during which, there shall ment : We therefore, in the name
be delivered out of the said Mint, and on the behalf of his Majesty,
new silver coins equal to the and by and with the advice of his
amount of the silver coins that Majesty‘s Privy Council, in pur
shall be so brought in, pursuant suance of an address from the two
to, and under the directions of the houses of Parliament, do hereby
said act ; We do for this purpose, enjoin all magistrates, and all
in the name and on the behalf of other his Majesty's loving sub
his Majesty, and by and with the jects, to use their utmost endea
advice aforesaid, publish this pro vours to discover and cause to be
clamation, and do hereby name apprehended the authors, actors,
and appoint the 3d day of Feb and abettors concerned in such
ruary now next ensuing, as the outrages, in order that they may
day from and after which, and be dealt with according to law:
from thence until the 17th day of And we do hereby promise, that
February then next ensuing, as any person or persons, other than
the period of time during which those actually concerned in doing
it shall and may be lawful for any any act by which our Royal Per
person or persons to deliver into son was immediately endangered,
his Majesty’s said Mint any such who shall give information, so as
old silver coin, and the said 3d that any of the authors, actors,
day of February now next ensuing, or abettors concerned in such out
as the day from and after which rages as aforesaid, may be appre
and from thence until the 17th hended and brought to justice,
day of February then next ensu shall receive a reward of one
ing, as the period of time during thousand pounds, to be paid on
which there shall be delivered out conviction of every such offender ;
of the said Mint new silver coins, which said sum of one thousand
as in the said act is mentioned, pounds the Lords Commissioners
pursuant to the regulations and of his Majesty‘s Treasury are here
directions thereof. by required and directed to pay
Given at the Court at Brighton, accordingly: And we do further
the 18th day of January, 1817, in promise, that any person or per
the 57th year of his Majesty‘s sons concerned in such outrages
rsign, as aforesaid, other than such as
PROCLAMATICN. Were actually concerned in any
George, P. R.—\Vhereas 0n the act by which our Royal Person
twenty-eighth day of this instant was immediately endangercdnvho
month of January, divers persons, shall giv‘e information, so that
riotously assembled, and stationed any of such authors, actors, or
abettors
_w__

8 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [FEB.


abettors as aforesaid, shall be ap-‘ sons, the military prisons and
preliended and brought to justice, guard-houses, the quartermaster
shall, upon conviction of such general‘s-ofiice and store-houses,
ofl‘ender or oiTenders, receive his the out-houses of the government
Majesty's most gracious pardon. house, the great cooperage, the
Given at the court at Carlton timber and mast-yard, the weigh
house, the twenty-ninth day of ing-yard, the guard-house in front
January, 1817', in the 57th year of the military hospital, and the
of his Majesty's reign. guard-house of the marine. A
detailed account of the names of
proprietors whose houses have
FEBRUARY. been destroyed may, it is an
1. A dispatch has been received nounced, be inspected at the C0
from Governor Farquhar, contain lonial Department.
ing a detailed account of the late 6. A murder was committed
destructive fire at the Mauritius, near Saltley, near Birmingham,
from which it appears that 19 on the body of Mr. Pennington,
streets of Port Louis were entirely of the firm of Pennington
consumed, and that the sections and Bellchambers, wine-merch
of that town, numbered 1, 2, 3, ants, of London. Mr. Penning
13, l4, 15, 16, 17', 28, 29, 30, ton was on his way to Coventry,
31, 32, 33, 35, 86, 87, as, 89, via Castle-Bromwich, in his gig,
90, 91, 9%, 93, 94, 95, were and was waylaid on the road about
either totally or partially destroy a mile beyond Birmingham. He
ed. The fire was purely accidental, was found with a pistol-shot
and its destructive ravage is to be through his temple, and quite
attributed to its having occurred dead. The assassinating villains
at the dry season of the year, and had taken his gold watch and the
to the prevalence of a strong contents of his pocket of silver,
breeze, veering with violent gusts &c. but fortunately abandoned the
from time to time during the con object of their fury without dis
flagration. Fortunately, from its covering his pocket-book, which
breaking out early in the evening, contained bank- notes of several
' few lives were lost; but a popula hundred pounds' Value. The horse
tion of 20,000 persons have been and gig went several miles before
reduced to want-and ('beggary by it stopped, and then it was by over
the loss of every thing belonging turning. The doleful tidings were
to them. Among the public build communicated to Mrs. Penning~
ings destroyed are, the Catholic ton byia friend‘in London, who
church, the barracks for the bore it with as much fortitude as
blacks, hospital for the blacks, could possibly be expected, under
prisons for the blacks, large grain the afflicting circumstances. She
, magazine, the colonial marine is left a widow with six children,
"store-house, the public bazaar, (the eldest is only 13) and is far
the commercial exchange, and advanced in her pregnancy of
1. building called the Bourse, the another.
government printing-office, the A murder was committed at
former post-office, the police pri Ledbury, accompanied by circum
' stances
Fen] CHRONICLE. 9
stances of the most barbarous and minated from the horizon to the
savage ferocity. William Harris, zenith, extending east and west for
hostler at the New Inn, got up a considerable distance. ‘ Broad
about 4 o'clock in the morning to streaks of light, of various sizes,
brew, and was in the act of light rose from the horizon in a pyra
ing a fire, it is supposed, when midical undulating form, and shot
some villain who had concealed with great velocity up to the ze
himself unexpectedly rushed upon nith; they changed their forms
him, and with a hatchet, which he very frequently and rapidly, and
found on the premises, almost split broke out in places where none
his head in two! It was evident were seen before, shooting along
that the wretch must have repeated the hearens, and then disappearing
his blows, and he afterwards cut in an instant. The sky in various
the throat of the hapless victim places was tinged for a consider
from ear to ear! The smock able space with a. deep purple, and
frock the deceased wore, and a the stars shone very brightly dur
silver watch, maker's name B. Bal ing the whole time through the
lingford, Liverpool, No. 1818, clouds which formed the Aurora
were taken from his person, and Borealis. A short time after this
with this booty only the murderer singular phenomenon had ceased,
decamped. The body of the poor the rain began to descend, and con
suiferer Was discovered about five tinued to do so most of the night,
o'clock, still warm, with some though not violently.
signs of respiration, but he ex
pired soon afterwards. He was Supplement to the London Gazette.
stretched at length on the brew Wednesday, Feb. 12.
house floor, with his feet under the By his Royal Highness the Prince
copper furnace. He was a very of Wales, Regent of the United
industrious and careful man, and Kingdom of Great Britain and
had the preceding day paid the Ireland, in the name and on the
rent of his mother‘s house; and behalf of his Majesty.
the idea that this money was about A PROCLAMATION
his person, it is imagined, led to George, P. It.
the perpetration of the murder. Whereas, by an Act passed in
A nian was on Friday apprehended the 56th year of his Majesty's
in a public-house, at Worcester, reign, intituled “ An Act to pro
on suspicion of being concerned vide for a new silver coinage, and
in the horrible crime, and con to regulate the currency of the
veyed to Ledbury, where several gold and silver coin of this realm,"
others are in custody. the Master and \Vorker of his
8. A rare and beautiful ap Majesty's Mint in London was an
pearance of the Aurora Borealis, thorized and empowered to coin,
or Northern Lights, was observed or cause to be coined, silver bul
in Derby and its neighbourhood. lion into silver coins, consisting of
This singular phenomenon took crowns, half-crowns, shillings,
place about eight o'clock, and con and sixpences, of the standard of
tinued without intermission for a 11 ounces and ‘Z pennyweights of
full half hour, during the whole fine silver, and 18 pennyweights
of which time the sky was illuv allay, to the pound troy, and in
‘ weight
10 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [F335

weight after the rate of 66 shil current and lawful money of the
lings to the pound troy. said kingdom, that is to say, such
And whereas, in virtue of the halfecrown pieces as of the value
powers so given, a coinage of half of two shillings and sixpence ;
crowns, shillings, and sixpences, such shilling pieces as of the value
at the rate of 66 shillings to the of one shilling ; and such six
pound troy, and of the standard of penny pieces as of the value of
fineness aboVe-mentioned; every sixpence, in all payments and trans
such half-croWn piece having for actions of money.
the obverse impression the head of And we do hereby, in further
his Maiesty, with the inscription, pursuance of the powers given to
“ Georgina lll. Dei Gratin," and his Majesty by the said Act, in the
the date of the year; and for the name and on the behalf of his Ma
reverse, the cnsigns armorial of the jesty, and by and with the advice
United kingdom, contained ‘ in a of his Majesty‘s Privy Council,
shield, surrounded by the garter, further proclaim. ordain, and de
bearing the motto, “ Honi soit clare, and name the said 13th day
qui mal y pehse," and thefcollar of of this instant February 93 the day
the garter, with the inscription, from and after which so much and
“ Britanniarum Rex Fid. Def." such parts of the Act made in the
with a netvly~inrented graining on 14th year of his Majesty's reign,
the edge of the piece, every such entituled, “ An Act to prohibit the
shilling and siitpenny piece having importation of light silver coin of
for the obverse impression the head this realm from foreign Countries
.of his Majesty, with the inscrip into Great Britain or Ireland, and
tion, “ Georgins II]. D. G. Brit. to restrain the tender thereOf be
Rex F, D.’~’ and the date of the yond a certain sum," as enacts or
year; and for the reverse, the en provides, or may be construed to
signs armorial of the united king enact or provide, that any tender
dom, Contained in a shield sur in silver coin of the realm shall be
rounded by the garter, bearing the legal to the amount of ‘25 pounds,
motto, “ Honi soitqui maly pense," or a tender for any greater sum
with a newly-invented graining according to its value by weight ;
on the edge of the piece, has been and also so much of any Act or
completed, and is now ready to be Acts whereby the said last reéited
delivered for the nee of his Ma Act is continued, revived, or made
jesty‘s subjects; we have therefore, perpetual, shall be repealed, and
in the name and on the behalf of the same are by virtue of the said
his Majesty, and by and with the first recited Act, and this our pr0~
advice of his Majesty‘s Privy Coun clamation, repealed accordingly.
cil, thought fit to issue this pro And we do hereby, in further
clamation ; and we do hereby or pursuance of the pewers given to
dain, declare, and command, that his Majesty, by virtue of the said
the Said pieces of silver money .first recited Act, in the name and
shall from and after the 13th day ;on the behalf of his Majesty, and
of this instant February, be cur by and with the advice of his Ma
rent and lawful money of the King jesty's Privy Council, proclaim,
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, oi‘dain, declare, and name the said
and shall pass and be received as 18th day of February as the day
from
Fen] CHRONICLE. ' 11
from and after which no tender or man alive, but insensible: his flesh
Payment of money made in the had been torn away from the head
silver coin of this realm of any downward to the lOWer part of the
sum exceeding the sum of 40 shil back, and a wound also on the
lings at anyonetimeshall be reputed thigh; in all 19 wounds. A half
a tender in law', or allowed to be eaten buffalo was found in the
a legal tender within the United jungle: luckily for Wilson the tiger
Kingdom of Great Britain and had dined. We are happy to add,
Ireland, either by tale or 'weight that the wounded gentleman is now
of such silver coin, or otherWise living and well: both the sports
howsoever. men will be rather more cautious,
Given at the Court at Carlton in future, how they go snipe-shoot
house, the twelfth day of Fe ing in India—Calcutta Paper.
bruary, one thousand eight 13. A most shocking murder
hundred and seventeen, in the was committed between 9 and 10
fifty-seventh year of his Ma o'clock, upon the person of the
jesty's reign. Rev. Mr. Longuet, at Pangbourn,
1%. In the march of a detach near Reading, in Berkshire. Mr.
ment of our Indian army, under Longuet was a Roman Catholic
the command of Sir Geo. Holmes, priest, and a teacher of the French
from Baroda to Palempoie, in the language, residing at Reading.
territories of his Highness the On Thursday last he paid a visit
Guicawar, tWo young officers of to the family of Thomas Morton,
the 56th regiment 'vvere amiising Esq. who resides about six miles
themselves, duringa halt, b'y snipe from Reading. Mr. Longuet
shooting'. vThey had been beating quitted Mr. Morton’s house be
the jungles on the banks of a river, tween 8 and 9 o'clock: previous,
'and onejuri-gle they had repeatedly however, to his quitting it, Mr.
tried in vain. They Were, how Morton came to the door with him,
ever, surprised by a tremendous and, observing that it was a very
roar, and the sudden spring of an dark night, endeavoured to per
enormous tiger from this very jun suade him to continue there all
gle. Lieutenant Wilson, on whom night. This hospitable offer, how
the animal sprung, upon his reco ever, was unfortunately for the
very st'ated, that he neither saw, poor gentleman rejected, accom
nor heard, nor felt more, than panied by these words—“ 1 know
that the monster‘s mouth was close the road very well; and although
to his own. His companion, Lion it appears very dark now, it will
tenant Smelt, saw the tiger spring; be much lighter to me when l gle‘t
he gave a backward cat-like stroke from the light of the candle." c
with his paw, and on Wilson's fall, then bade Mrs. Morton a good
he smelt to him, pauéed for a mo night, and pursued his journey.
ment, and then leapt olf as a cat He had not proceeded many miles
would have done if disturbed at a before he was attacked by some
meal. Smelt eXpeeting Wilson villains, who barbaro'usly mul
had been killed, reached the camp, dered him, apparently with same
and immediately sent 'the dooley sharp instrument; for, when he
8:11 sort of palanquln) bearers to Was Found on Friday morning, his
t e spot. They found the gentle head was nearly severed from his
’ body,
'_-_'-~-~‘w__.v

l2 ANNUAL REG$TER,|MZ [FEB.


body, and he was dreadfully man wounding the said Richard Platt:
gled, cut, and stabbed in various and whereas a billofindictment has
parts of the body. His body was since been preferred and found by
cut open, and in his heart were the grand jury of the city of Lon
no less than five stabs, supposed to don, against the said James Wat
have been inflicted by a bayonet: son the younger, for the said
this circumstance, it is hoped, will offence : and whereas the promise
lead to the detection of the per of the said reward of 5001. for the
petrators. It does not appear that apprehension of the said James
the unfortunate gentleman had Watson the younger, was, by and
much property about him. The under our authority renewed, on
magistrates in the neighbourhood the sad day of January last ; but
have been very active in publish the said James \Vatson has not
ing handbills of the circumstances, yet been apprehended : and where
and in ofi'ering rewards for the ap as the said James \Vatson the
prehension of the inhuman delin younger, and Arthur 'l'histlewood ,
quents. late of No. , Southampton
14. Commitments to the Tower buildings, Chancery-lane, stand
for the crime of high treason charged upon oath with high
against Watson, senior, Preston, treason, committed by them and
Hooper, and Keen, alias Kearns, sundry other persons, now in cus -
were drawn up and signed by tody in the Tower of London:
twelve Cabinet Ministers and We, therefore, in the name and
Privy-Counsellors, and they were on the behalf of his Majesty, and
accordingly sent to the place of by and with the advice of his Ma
confinement. jesty's privy council, do hereby
enjoin all magistrates, and all
From the London Gazclte, Tuesday, other his Majesty's loving sub
February 18. Jects, to use their utmost endea
By his Royal Highness the Prince vours to discover and cause to be
of Wales, Regent of the United apprehended the said James Wat
Kingdom of Great Britain and son nnd Arthur Thistlewood, in
Ireland, in the Name and on order that they may be dealt with
the Behalf His Majesty. according to law. And we are
A rnocssus'rxou. hereby pleased to renew the said
George. P. R. promise of a reward of five hun
Whereas on the 6th day of 'De dred pounds, so made on the said
cember last, a reward of 5001. 6th day of December, and renewed
was, by and under our authority, on the said 22d day of January
offered for the apprehension of last, to be paid upon the said
James ‘Walson the younger, late James Watson the younger being
of Hyde-street, Bloomsbury, sur apprehended and lodged in any
geon, who then stood charged one of his Majesty's gaols. , And
upon oath on a violent suspicion we do hereby promise to any per
of having wilfully and feloniously son or persons who shall discover
attempted to kill and murder and apprehend, or cause to be
Richard Platt, on Monday the 2d discovered and apprehended, the
day of December last, by firing a said Arthur Thistlewood, the like
loaded pistol at, and desperately sum of five hundred pounds, to be
paid
i
Fen] CHRONICLE. 13
paid in like manner, upon the said mouth, and shows his teeth (which
Arthur ThistleWOod being appre are very black) when he laughs;
hended and lodged in any one of he sometimes wore a brown great
his Majesty‘s gaols: and we do coat, black under coat, black
hereby strictly charge and com waistcoat, drab breeches, and
mand all persons upon their alle long gaiters; and at other times
giance, not to receive or harbour he wore a black coat and waist
the said James Watson and Arthur coat, blue pantaloons, and Hes
Thistlewood, or either of them: sian boots: his appearance shab
all persons offending herein will by genteel; he formerly lodged in
be thereby guilty of high treason. Hyde-street, Bloomsbury.
And we do hereby promise a. like Arthur Thistlewood is about
reward of five hundred pounds to 45 years of age, 5 feet 11 inches
any person who shall discover and high, has a sallow complexion,
apprehend, or cause to be disco long visage, dark hair (a little
vered and apprehended, any per grey), small whiskers, dark hazel
son so receiving or harbouring the eyes, and arched eyebrows, a wide
said James Watson and Arthur mouth, and a good set of teeth,
Thistlewood, or either of them: has a. scar under his right jaw, is
to be paid upon the conviction of slender made, walks very upright,
the person or persons so receiving and has much the appearance of a
or harbouring as aforesaid ; which military man; was born in Lin
said several sums of five hundred colnshire, and apprenticed to an
pounds the Lords Commissioners apothecary at Newark, and has
of his Majesty's Treasury are been a lieutenant in the army:
hereby required and directed to he usually wore a French grey
pay accordingly. coloured coat, buff waistcoat, grey
Given at the Court at Carlton Coloured \Vellington pantaloons,
' house, the lSth day of Fe with Hessian boots under them,
bruary, one thousand eight and at times a dark brown great
hundred and seventeen, in cost.
the fifty-seventh year of his 19. So rapid and extensive has
Majesty's reign. been the exchange of the old silver
The above-named James \Vat for the new coinage. that the large
son is a surgeon by profession, hall given exclusively by the
and has been employed in that Bank of England for the public'
capacity on board a Greenland accommodation was yesterday
ship: he is a young man, appa nearly empty, and three»fourths
rently about twenty - three or of the persons employed for the
twenty-four years of age, but is purpose of exchange were left en
only twenty; dark hair, rather tirely idle. No old coin appears
pale complexion, five feet five in circulation. Thus, in a few
inches high, has a mark or mole days, an extensive coinage has
with a few hairs on it, on his left been put into circulation, without
cheek bone near the eye, the left creating the least confusion.
eyelid rather dropping over the Particulars of the wreck and
eye, very faint remains of small plunder of the Inverness, Captain
pox, in his face, has rather a wide Lcitch, in the river Shannon,
loaded
14 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [Fee
loaded at Limerick with a cargo becn taken from them, and of
of provisions, on account of Mr. the arms of the police: the police
E. D. Hanmer's contract with the formed into one body, and, Show
Victualling Board, and bound to ing three fronts, endeavoured to
i London. .keep them at bay, but in vain: >
they assailed them with stones,
From Captain Miller of the Police to sticks, scythes, and axes; and
Mr. Spaight, Merchant, Limerick. gave some of our men some severe
Kilrush, Feb. 94. blows, which exasperated them so
Dear Spaight.—-As I_ am now much, that they were under the
in possession of most of the par necessity of firing in self-defence,
ticulars of the wreck of the Inver and four of the assistants fell vie
ness, 1 shall detail them to you, as tims, two of whom Were buried
follows :— yesterday. During their skirmish
She went on shore on Wednes ing, which began about 7 o’clock,
day night, the 19th instant, mis~ one of the men, mounted, was
taking Rinevaha for Carrigaholt, dispatched to this town for a re
and would have got oil by the inforcement, when Major War
next spring-tide, had the peasantry hurton, in half an hour, with 20
not boarded and rendered her not cavalry and a few infantry mounted
sea-worthy, by scuttling her, and behind them, left this, and in one
tearing away all her rigging: hour and a half were on board
they then robbed the crew of all the wreck, and took 12 men in
their clothes, tore their shirts, the act of cutting up the wreck:
which they made bags of, to carry one of them made a blow of a
away the plunder ; and then hatchet at Major Warburton,
broached the tierces of pork and which he warded oil, and snapped
distributed the contents to people a pistol at him ; the fellow imme
on shore, who waited to convey diately threw himself overboard,
them up the country. The alarm when Troy charged him on
having reached this on Thursday, horseback up to the horse's knees
a serjeant and 12 of the police in water, and cut him down. The
were sent down, with the chief fellows then flew in everydirection,
constable at their head, and they pursued by our men, who took
succeeded in re-taking some of many of them, and wounded seve‘
the provisions and securing them, ral. Nine tierces of pork had been
driving the mob from the wreck. saved. Her bowsprit, gaff, and
The police kept possession of what spars, are all gone, with every
they had got during the night; stitch of canvass, and all the run
but very early on Friday morning ning rigging. The shrouds are
the people collected in some thou still left: two anchors and their
sands, and ,went down to the cables are gone, and even the
beach, where they formed into ship's pump. A more complete
three bodies, and cheered each plunder has seldom been witness
other with hats off, advancing ed. Yesterday the revenue-Wherry
with threats, declaring that they went down to Rinevaha, and re
defied the police, and would pos turned in the evening with the
sess themselves again of what had Major and a small party, with
thirty
MAIL] CHRONICLE. l5
thirty-five prisoners, who now are Oudensk near 400 of these fero
all lodged in Bridewell. The cious animals were killed.
women, in multitudes, assembled mors 1N SOMERSETSHIRE.
to supply the men with whisky to (From a private Letter.)
encourage them. Nothing could Radstock, near Bath, Marchil.
exceed the coolness of On Friday last, the colliers in
Baltic-e and his party, who cer the neighbourhood of Radstock
tainly made a masterly retreat to and Paulton collected in a number
the slated store at Carrigaholt, of about three thousand, and ma
where I found them. He and nifested some very serious symp
Fitzgerald were wounded, but not tons of riot and destruction to
severely: Fitzgerald had a mirar the pits and the buildings an
eulous escape, and would have nexed to them, which spread the
been murdered, but was pre greatest consternation through
served by a man he knew, from the whole neighbourhood. Sir
Kerry, who put him under his John Hippisley, accompanied by
bed, &c. &c. (Signed) his brother magistrates, and seve
J. MILLER. ral gentlemen, repaired to the
spot, where he pointed out to
them, in an impressive speech,
MARCH. the enormity of their offence. He
read the Riot Act: it had no
1. Treves.—The 29th of Febru effect. They then proceeded, and
ary was a day of terror to us. took possession of several of the
About 1p. m. a dreadful storm works, and sent persons down
arose, accompanied with thunder, into the pits to compel those who
lightning, snow, and rain. A worked in them to be drawn up,
thunderbolt fell perpendicularly and then administered an oath
on the church of St. Paulinus, not to work any more until their
one of the finest in Germany, and grievances were redressed, and
in less than an hour the whole threatened that night to demolish
building was in flames. The the works. Sir John and the
steeple, and the whole of the magistrates sent immediately for
roof, which was of combustible a troop of the 23d Lancers at
materials, were consumed: the Bristol, and the North Somerset
interior of the church happily Yeomaury, part of which arrived,
escaped. and kept order for that night, and
The bears have appeared in by day-break the whole of the
much larger number than usual, North Somerset Yeomanry were
between Irkutsk and Nerischinsk, on parade at Stone- Easton-house,
in Siberia, 12 or 1,500 leagues and other places pointed out to
from the capital of Russia. They them, so as to render assistance
penetrated with fury into the at every point where danger was
hamlets and remote habitations, apprehended. About nine o’clock
the inhabitants of which had for a Sir John Hippisley, accompanied
time much difiiculty in repelling by a numerous assemblage of
their attacks. About Werehne magistrates and gentlemen, pro
ceeded
16 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [Mara
ceeded to Paulton, where these detachment of the North Somerset ‘
men were said to be, who, on yeomanry cavalry, when the re
hearing of the approach of the mainder dispersed. '
military, retired to Clandown ]t has been deemed necessary
coal-pits, and being pursued, re to station part of the 23d dra
tired to Radstock, where they goons at Paulton and Radstock,
made a stand, well furnished with and the yeomaury will be kept on
immense bludgeons, and on seeing duty for a few days longer on their
the cavalry approaching, gave three respective parades.
cheers, and called out, ‘ Bread or Sir John then, in a speech to
Blood; Hunt for ever!’ The the yeomanry, by the request of
cavalry here came up, and filing the magistrates and gentlemen
05‘ to the right and left, surround present, returned them sincere
ed them, when Sir John Hippisley thanks for the alacrity with which
and the magistrates came into the they assembled, and expatiated on
centre, and addressed them to the the utility of this valuable descrip
following effect :—-He wished to tion of force; and was happy in
know
replied,vwhat theywages,
‘full wanted?
and They
that being able to assert from the first
authority, that the yeomanry
they were starving.‘ Sir John would be considered as forming a
informed them, that the mode part of the peace establishment:
they had now adopted, by thus ‘ To you, Gentlemen of the North
unlawfully assembling, was the Somerset Yeomanry, it would be
very way to prevent any grievances utterly imposible for me to give
they complained of being attended that well-earned and merited
to: that he and his brother ma~ praise you are so justly entitled
gistrates were determined to do to on this as on all former occa
their duty, and do it they would. sions; your appearance and stea
Sir John stated to them, he was diness under arms has been ac~
well informed, and knew, that knowledged by all the general of
their minds were inflamed by the ficers under whom you have done
disafl'ected, not only in speeches, your duty. The thanks you have
but by parodies on the liturgy of so often received from the general
the church, endeavouring not only of the district, the corporations
to seduce them from their King, of Bath and Bristol, the lieute
but from their God. nancy and magistrates of this
Previous to Sir John Hippis county, are a convincing proof of
ley‘s reading the riot act, he in your value.‘
formed these infatuated men, that Another Account.--A tumultu
if they continued and remained ous and disorderly proceeding
one hour after the act was read, commenced on February 28th, a
it would subject every person re mongst the colliers at Paulton,
maining to the sentence of death. who, in consequence of an ar
He then read the riot act, when rangement amounting to a reduc
four of the principal of these de tion of one-tenth of their wages,
luded men were secured, and sent refused to work. This irregular
to llchester prison, escorted by a step was but too readily followed
by
MAL] CHRONICLE. l7
by the miners in several of the lst instant, occasioned by the air
neighbouring collieries, who, be being rendered impure from the
ing assembled in considerable num smoke of a fire-engine, placed a
bers, Were collectively and most bout 100 feet under-ground. As
impressively addressed by that ac soon as the danger was ascertain
tive magistrate, Sir J. Cox Hip ed, two miners and the company’s
pisley, Bart. but they did not seem blacksmith descended to the relief
disposed to separate until the. riot of their neighbours below, when.
act had been read; in consequence unfortunately the twa miners pe
of which they dispersed, and order rished in the humane attempt.
seems completely restored. A re Many of the miners who were at
ward of ‘20 guineas is oifered for work at the time were violently
the discovery of the principal aifected, almost to suffocation, but
mover of this most ill-advised are now out of danger. We have
procedure—Bath Chronicle. since learned, that in all seven
Paulton, Tuesday night, March 4. lives have been lost by this me
—-It is with great pleasure we lancholy accident.—Edin. Paper.
state, that all the colliers in this Fatal Duel.——Of [the duel be
and the neighbouring mines are tween Lieut. Hindes and Lieut.
pursuing their usual employment Gilbert Conroy, of the 90th regi
with great satisfaction and con ment, in garrison at Plymouth,
tent ; and it is hoped and believed the Plymouth paper contains the
that their late misconduct is now following further particulars :—
become matter of most serious “ It took place near Plympton
regret. A number of most in Mary Bridge, the 8th inst. about
flammatory publications had been seven o'clock in the morning, and
sold by a higgler at Paulton the former officer received awound
(where the mischief originated.) that terminated his existence in
The leaders were arrested; but the early part of the following
the poor wrctches who followed day, at the London Inn, in Plymp
them, we believe, were perfectly ton Eade, whither' he was con
innocent of any bad design. We veyed after the duel. It appeared
would, however, caution them to on the investigation before the
avoid those blasphemous and se mayor of that borough, who sat
ditious\publications which have as coroner virtute qflicii, and a
caused their riotous conduct; and very respectable jury, that the af
recommend them to look to their fair had been a long time in agi
masters as their best friends. We tation; but the cause of the dis
are assured that there is not a pute did not transpire; This in
collier-master in Somerset who vestigation occupied two days,
at present puts a penny a year in when the jury brought in a ver
his pocket ; they must lose at the diet of wilful m'urder against Mr.
reduced prices, but they look for .G. Conroy and Mr. Alexander
ward to better times.“-Ditto. Stewart, who attended the deceas
6. A melancholy accident hap ed to the field. There was nothing
pened in the lead mines belonging to implicate Mr. Conroy's second,
.m Messrs. Horner, Hurst, and Co. whose name the jury ‘could not
Leadhills, in the forenoon of the discover. The duel Was fought at
VOL. LIX. C the
18 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [MA R4
the short distance of nine paces. wards of 401. The premises were
The ball entered the right side of insured. The cast wing of the
the deceased, between the tenth Excise Oil’ice once caught, but the
and eleventh ribs, and penetrated wind changing, it was not seri
to the convex surface of the right ously injured. The Green Dra—
lobe of the liver, where it lodged, gon lnn sustained some damage.
carrying with it a piece of the Mr. Mellish, who lives on the spot,
great coat worn by the deceased. was very active in his exertions on
Notwithstanding the severity of this unfortunate occasion.
the wound, it is remarkable that 10. State Prisoners—The fol
the deceased did not fall, but with lowing regulations are adopted in
little assistance he walked to a the Tower, respecting the persons
gig in waiting; and on arriving confined under charges of high
at the London Inn, Plympton, treason :—Each prisoner is kept
even walked up stairs to the bed in a separate apartment, and night
room, by merely leaning on the and day two yeomen, or warders,
shoulders of two persons, one on continue in the room, the door
each side of him. Being asked of which is locked, and on the
why he had not fallen, he bravely outside a sentinel is placed to pre
'replied, that it required a good vent the approach of any one, ex
knock to put him down ; and that cept those in the governor's esd
he was not a white feather. He\ tablishment. Their beds and board
spoke in the highest terms of his are provided by the government.
adversary. Such traits of firmness No person is allowed to see the
and magnanimity make us regret prisoners, unless a special order
the more this fresh sacrifice on is sent to the lieutenant-governor
the shrine of false honour, in by the clerk of the council, and
which are unhappily involved the then they are restricted from hold
fates of a Widow and two children, ing any communication, except in
who have to lament the untimely the presence and hearing of some
loss of their natural protector, as persons appointed by the lieute
well as the peace of mind and fu nant or his deputy. A special or
ture prospects of the other per der has been granted for Watson‘s
sons concerned in this melancholy solicitor to see him twice a week,
business." under the restrictions abovemen
9. Early this morning a dread tioned. The prisoners are not
-ful fire broke out in the stables of' charged jointly, but there is a se
the Bull Inn, Bishopsgate-street. parate commitment for each indi
As water could not be procured vidual, signed by twelve members
for some time, the flames made of the privy council, directing the
great progress, and soon destroyed lieutenant of the Tower to receive
the stables and warehouses, with the accused into his custody.
all the property in the latter. The The intelligence that has at
cast gallery of the inn, containing rived from the higher districts of
' several beds, was nearly destroyed. the Grisons excites the most lively
Some property was stolen, parti fears. Never were the snows in
cularly a pocket-book belonging greater quantity: the tops-of the
to a clerk, which contained up houses are no :longer seen; and
some
Mam] CHRONICLE. 19
some of the roofs have fallen in, have another meeting, previous
from the weight of the snow. to which the people were to sup
Some villages, particularly in theply themselves with blankets and
valley of 'l‘avesch, are entirely a
other articles necessary for bi
bandoned. A frightful avalanche vouacking on the road ; and after
has destroyed the village of Nuc this the whole were to set 01? on
ras in this valley. By reports “ a journey to London." The
from Dissentis, a little distant report gained but little' credit till
from that village, eleven houses Saturday last,‘ when the following
and mills, along with the inhabi bill was posted through Mau
tants and stables, have been swal chcster :--,
lowed up. On the 8th, the rector Public Meeting—The Inhabi
and 24 other persons, wounded, tants of Manchester and its vici
were dug out of the rubbish a nity are respectfully informed,
live. Many dead bodies were like that a Public Meeting, according
wise found, and 28 persons are to adjournment, will be held near
still missing. Avalanches have St. Peter’s church, on Monday
likewise caused frightful disasters morning, the 10th of March 18l7,
in the valley of Dischmah. We when it is hoped that every person
learn likewise from the canton of who ~ is determined to carry his
Uri, that at Meyen, an avalanche petition to London, -will assemble
overwhelmed two men, and that peaceably and orderly, and pro
another threatened the village of vide himself with the necessary
Realp. The passage of Mont St. means of support requisite to hear
Gothard 'is shut up. ‘ him through this loyal and neces
On the 10th, an avalanche de sary undertaking.
stroyed a house at Gadlnenthal, It is hoped that those friends
in the province of Bern. The of parliamentary reform who pos
‘ news from the 'l‘yrol are equally sess the means, will come forward
afl'licting: four avalanches have -on this important occasion.
succeeded each other in one place. Persons will be appointed to
At 'Nanders, the snow filled the receive contributions this evening,
whole valley to the height of a. at New lslington, and at the
tower. At Ischgel, in the Pinz meeting on Monday.
gau,_‘ll houses were destroyed. (Signed) W'. OGDEN, Printer,
At six leagues from lnspruck, ten 26, Wood-street.
persons were killed. The course Placards had been stuck up, and
of the Inn is interrupted. hand-bills distributed. The people
' ARRESTS AT MANCHESTER. of Stockport were invited to join
thoseof Manchester, on Lancashire
(From Manchester Papers.) Hill. Several emissaries were at
After a meeting for reform on work during the week, making
the 3d instant, reports were circu every effort to inflame the public
, lated, that, like the Bilston col mind, and to engage a large mass
liers, who some time ago set off to assemble on the day appointed.
with two carts of coals for the It was insinuated, that 25,000
purpose of dragging them to Carl stand of arms at Birmingham
ton House, it was intended to might be secured. Information of
c 2' these
'20 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [MA 11.
these proceedings was sent to the Aware of these intentions, and of
Secretary of State‘s oflice; and a the dangers which an immense
magistrate and king's messenger influx of strangers, irritated by
arrived with warrants, and four the inflammatory appeals of their
persons were apprehended on Sun factions leaders (who, under the
day. The printer of the foregoing pretence of promoting parliamen
placard was arrested. and con tary reform, have been for a
veyed to prison ; and at the same length of time past agitating the
time ()rator Johnstone was put minds of the labouring class of
into safe custody. A meeting, society), portended, the conserva~
‘ however, took place at N ew lsling tors of the public tranquillity took
ton, Salt'ord, on Saturday even every precaution adequate to the
ing; and early on Monday there QCCHSIOH.
were preparatory meetings at Mid Yesterday morning, according
dleton, ()ldham, and other places, to the expectations entertained,
to provide the pecuniary means crowds of people flocked into town
for a march to the metropolis. from all directions, as early as
On Monday, about nine in the eight- o'clock ; and, at about nine,
morning, a crowd began to as the instigators appeared on their
semble in front of the Quakers' temporary stage in a cart.and con
'meeting-house, Manchester. tinned to harangue the multitude,
Meanwhile the commander of till their vast increasing mun
the district, Sir John Byng, and bcrs suggested the expediency of
the magistrates, had taken pres putting into practice the well
cautions. The Stockport troop had tormed arrangements of the civil
orders to meet; two troops from and military powers. Accordingly,
Macclestield, and three from a party of the first regiment of
Knutst'ord, were also directed to dragoons, under Colonel Teesdale,
be at Salemoor (the usual spot for accompanied by the magistrates
reviews near Manchester), so as of the district, appeared amongst
to he in readiness to act in case of them, and immediately conveyed
emergency. the entire group to the New Bai
Another Account. -— Tuesday, ley Prison: their attention was
March ll.~—-‘\Ve find it was a next directed to the concourse of
mong the Notifications at the auditors,v who were forthwith dis
meeting on the 3d instant, near persed, without the infliction of
St. Peter‘s church, corroborated any severity.
in the course of last week by the An arrest had taken place early
declarations of individuals who on Sunday morning, of Johnston
have. been actively engaged in pro and Ogden, who “had previously
moting; the late seditious meetings, figured at this place; and they
that the-espousers of their doc Were secured in the New Bailey.
trines should collect at the same Others were seized by the soldiers
place the. Monday following, and on their way to deliver their-charge
proceed to the metropolis, at nine in Salt'urd.
o'clock, to present a petition to A considerable number of peo
the Prince Regent, that they might ple set out on their mission to
be enabled to ‘ undeceive him.‘ London, taking the route-of stock—
“ P0";
MAIL] CHRONICLE. Q]
port; hut about 40 of them were three troops were disposed in
re conducted to Manchester, and Stockport and Mocclestield, to
added to their other unfortunate preVent the suspected progress of
companions; others Were furnish the petitioners in that direction.
ed with secure acconunodations in Early on Monday morning the
Stockport. Most of them were st: eets of Manchester were crowd
provided with knapsacks, 810.com ed by thousands, of whom a great
taining blankets and other ar part were prepared with blankets
ticles. Upon the examination of and bundles for the march to Lon
some of these travelling equipages. don: by the activity of the ma
two unusually large knives were gistrates, however, and the mili
discovered. ‘ tary at their disposal, every one
We shall desist from entering most active in haranguing the
further at present into the cases multitude, all who had the ap
01" these characters, as they will pearance and character of ring
probably hereafter be the subject leaders, were arrested and impri
of high judicial inquiry. soned on the spot. This caution
The military preparations were ary measure, for the possibility of
under the direction of Sir John which we are indebted to the sus
Byng, the commander of the dis pension of the Habeas Corpus act,
trict, who arrived in Manchester disorganized the plans of the pe
on Sunday. A party of the 54th titioners to such an extent, that a
regiment of foot were present, to few thousands only, who eluded
render their assistance. by obscure passages the vigilance
No particular act of outrage or of the soldiers, succeeded in pe
intemperance has yet reached our netrating to the bridge of StoclG
ears; and we cannot help feeling port, and here they were encoun—
highly indebted to the judicious tercd by a troop of the life guards,
and salutary interposition of the and a troop of the Macclesfield
respective authorities, for the sa squadron of the Prince. Regent's
tisfactory result of this day‘s trans yeomanry. No attempt was made
actions. to force the bridge, but many
Macclesfield Courier-Qflice, March threw themselves into the river.
lO.—0n Sunday morning the ma and crossed it wherever it was
gistrates of Manchester deeming fordable 'l‘his circumstance, add
it necessary to strengthen the mi ed to another, that the streets
litary force in that neighbour— of Stockport were literally wedged
hood, in consequence of the de full of the inhabitants ot’ the vi
clared intent of some thousands cinity, constrained the troops to
of the population to proceed in withdraw from the bridge, over
person to Carlton House with a which of course the petitioners
petition to the Regent, forwarded had afterwards a free passage. In
expresses to the several troops of the thoroughfare of the town,
the Prince Regent's Regiment of however, all those who had pre_
Cheshire yeomanry cavalry, re pared themselves with the neces
quiring their immediate aid. The saries of a march (commonly com
same evening five troops marched prising a blanket and a few days'
into Manchester, and the remaining provision) were arrested, Pam!
22 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [MA 11.
by the laudable activity of the rounding country, destroying the
Stockport police, and partly by the vegetation, and laying waste a
alertness of the military force; great number of rice-fields, the
and were in the course of the day crops on which were some in a
dispatched under escort to the most promising state, and others
New Bailey Prison at Manchester. quite ripe. The explosions shook
The persons apprehended might be the ground all the way to Ban
200 in number: one individual joewangie. The atmosphere was
was so severely wounded that his so filled with ashes and the vapour
life is (lespaired of. Not more of sulphur, that respiration was
than 500, out of the many thou extremely difficult, and for some
sands assembled in the morning, days there was scarcely any day
penetrated so far as Macclesfield, light at Banjoewangie. The greater
where a troop ot' the yeomanry had part of the birds have died; and it
remained to provide against such a is said that the fish in' the rivers
contingency; and we have autho are also all dead. Large trees and
rity, on which we can rely, for pieces of rock detached from the
positively stating, that no more mountain rolled down with a.
than ‘20 persons proceeded from dreadful noise, and destroyed cot
Maeclesfield into the adjoining tages, bridges, and every thing
county of Statiordshire. that stood in their way; occa—
Nothing could be more wretched sioning also such inundations that
and pitiable than the appearance in some places the river rose 14
of the few who reached this town; feet above the usual height. The
some actually fainting from wea roads are consequently covered
finess; and all of them without with water, and rendered im
baggage, or any apparent resource, passable. The unfortunate inha
with which to proceed 20 miles bitants fled from all quarters to
further towards London. wards the coast and towards Ban
15. Batacia.—-According to ac joewangie.
counts of three Weeks' date received Accounts of a posterior date are
from Banjoewangie, the mountain more tranquillizing. For some
of ldjeng, about ‘24 leagues from days the people of Banjoewangie
that place, has been burning since had observed no more fire from
the middle of January, and its the mountain, but still saw an im
effects have spread alarm and dis mense quantity of smoke ascend
tress among the inhabitants of the ing, and the atmosphere continued
surrounding country. During the loaded with sulphur-nus vapour
night of the 23d of January 0. vio and fine ashes. The inundations
lent explosion took place. Vast also continued, and fears are en‘
columns offire, smoke, and burn tertained that a great scarcity must
ing matter, then began ~unceas follow. Many ,0f the inhabitants
ingly to ascend, accompanied with sulier from indisposition,‘ occa
noise like thunder or the firing of sioned, it is thought, by drinking
heavy artillery. From the moun the impure water, which is-every
tain all the way to Banjpewangie, where filled with ashes. Severe
an immense quantity of ashes, coughing is also a general com
stones, and sulphur, cover the sur plaint, in consequence of' the strong
‘ . > sul
Mm] CHRONICLE. 23
sulphurous vapours. A great mor mortifications, and to stop the
tality prevails among the cattle. spreading of their opinions: and
In the district of Gabang, be the Government, not having re
longing to the residency of Che ceived for many years any com
ribon, a hill sunk down on the plaints froau one side or the other,
27th of February, and eight fa or other reports of disorders, had
milies were buried alive with it. every reason to suppose that the
There had long been a chasm in measures adopted were sufficient;
this bill, which being enlarged by “ The departure of this sect from
the rain, probably occasioned a the true faithof the Grace-Russian
separation to take place. Church is stated to be a deviation
During the night of the 4th of founded on some erroneous repre
this month, a similar sinking oc sentations of the true worship, and
curred in the district of '1‘a]a;_mu in of the spirit of Christianity; but
consequence ofwhich several houses as they are not without religion,
with their inhabitants were buried. for they seek for what is divine,
A recently cultivated rice-field and though notwith a right under
the half of an upland plantation standing, it does not become a
were also destroyed. Christian Government to employ
20. A sect of Christians, devi harsh and cruel means, torture,
ating from the Greek church, has exile, &c. to bring back to the
sprung up in the south eastern bosom of the church those who
parts of the Russian empire, and a have gone astray. The doctrine
rescript has been issued by the of the Redeemer, who came into
Emperor Alexander, containing the world to save the sinner, can
directions for its treatment. The not, it is said, be spread by con
converts to the new faith are said straint and punishment; cannot
to have been already driven from serve for the oppression of those
their homes, and placed in an in who are to be led back into the
sulated situation in order to prevent paths of truth. All the measures
proselytism. They are called Du of severity“ exhausted upon the
choboozi : and the rescript, which Duchoboozi, in the course of 30
is addressed to the military go years, up to 1801, were notable
vernor of Cherson, is to the fol to extirpate this sect, and only in
lowing effect :— creased the numberofits adherents.
“ The sect having been removed They are, therefore, in future to
from the Ukraine to the circle of be protected from unmerited in
Melitsholsk, in the Tauris, in con sults on account of the dill'erence
sequence of the blameable way of of their faith. By being removed
life imputed to them, and to pre to another settlement they would
vent their opinions from spread again be placed in a hard situa.
ing, and they having petitioned tion, and be punished on a mere
for protection from oppression, the complaint, without examination.
Governor is directed to consider “ The colonyis therefore recom
the motives of this removal, which mended to the special superint
is said to have been ordered by the tendence and particular care of
Emperor, with a view at once to the Governor; who, without re
protect the sect from improper garding false allegations or pre
' conceived
24 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [APRIL.
conceived opinion, is to examine who are not yet convicted of any
into all the local circumstances; bad intention, or any crime."
their way of life ; their conduct;
and take care of them, as an im
partial Governor who studies the APRIL.
good of those who are confided to
his care. The fate of these set 7. Friday morning as the steam
tlers must be permanently secured :packct from Norwich to Yarmouth
they must feel that they are under was pushing from its moorings,
the protection of the laws: and the vessel blew up; eight persons
then, but not before, his Imperial were killed; seven had almost
Majesty says, “ \Ve may expect every limb broken; the whole
“ from them attachment and love were thrown in ditferent directions ,
“ to the magistrates.” But, it is and to a considerable distance. Of
added, if these sectaries “ seek to the seven taken to the hospital,
“ drawv away others from the esta there is not the least chance of two
“ blished church, and to injure living.
“them with their oWn religions (From the Norwich Paper.)—
“ notions, then the energy of the One of those unfortunate accidents
“ law must be exerted against which attend even the best arrang
“ such violators of it, and such ed establishments, that carry with
“ illegal conduct must be checked." them a certain, though remote,
But even then it is not allowable, danger, occurred here yesterday
that, on account of one or more morning; and we state the exten
criminals who are convicted of a sive calamity with much acute
violation of the law, the whole eo pain. The horrible spectacle of
lony, which has had no share in it, eight mangled carcasses is yet be-, _
should be made responsible. Such fore our eyes. These are the mi
complaints and accusations require serable victims of the bursting of
ya careful examination, from whom the steam—boiler in the packet
the complaint comes, and what which sails from the Foundry
may be the motives of it. Thus bridge. Just after the boat had
the two Dnchoboozi named in your started, it had not gone twenty
representation, who after their re yards when the tremendous exploe
turn to the true church, accused sion took place. The vessel was
this society of various transgres rent to atoms, so that little TE?
sions, and deposed to their blame mains entire, from the stern to
‘ able way of life, may have done the engine-room, except the keel
this out of malice or revenge: and the flooring. Twenty-two
perhaps they were excluded from passengers appear to have been
the society for crimes, or deserted on board. The bodies of eight are
it from a contentious and inimical found, five men and three women;
spirit. Such mere complaints, one child yet. missing; and six
which deserve altogether no atten have been sent to the hospital in a
tion, must never induce the adop wounded state: six escaped un
tion of severe measures, which may hurt. Of these last, one man
be followed by the arrest, impri was standing over the boiler when
sonment, and torture, of those the explosion happened. It is
said
APRIL] CHRONICLE, es
said Major Mason was another, fracture, and consequently it Was
whose clothes were torn by the thrown in an horizontal direction,
shock, but who was otherwise out of the stern of the vessel,
uninjured. .The third was an in sweeping all before it in its pas
fant, two months old, and the lit sage, to a distance of about fifteen
tle innocent was discovered at the yards; at the same time that the
bottourof the vessel in a profound concussion of the air and steam
sleep, after the removal of the completely um'oofed the vessel
dreadful wreck. At this moment from one end to the other.
the Coroner's inquest is sitting, ll. Luus;mne.——'l‘he annual
and we have only time to subjoin meeting of the. General Benevolent
the names of the dead: James Society will take place at Zurich
Squires, of Gorleston; Mar on the‘l‘ld and 23d instant. Never
con, 8. linen-draper; Butler, since its institution have there been
of Poekthorpe; Wm. Nicholson, such multiplied and urgent calls
the steersman of the boat; Mrs. for_its assistance. In several of
Smith, who lived near the Norfolk the eastern cantons of Switzerland
and Norwich hospital; Eliza. Ste want is at its height; and sear
phens, of Yarmouth; a man un city, joincd with unwholesome
known, in a sailor’s dress, from ness of food, has caused a great
Lynn, apparently between 50 number of deaths. Measures for
and (it), with his legs torn oil'; restraining the exportation of corn
a. young woman, name unknown, and potatoes from one canton to
'who stated that she had been to another have become general ; and
l-lingham for relief. The infant governments, which were for a
was her child ! long time averse to recognize prin
The following statement, given ciples contrary to a free commerce,
in the same paper, shews the stipulated in the federal act, have
causes which must have produced been forced to follow that example
the accident :—- - set them by others, of which they
The boiler is a cylindrical vessel, had disapproved. The govern
lying fore and aft the vessel, ment of Zurich is in such circuim
about 8 feet long, and 4 feet in stances as to be obliged to refuse
diameter, made of wrought iron, to their neighbours of St. Gall,
excepting one end, which lay to Thurgovia, Glaris, and Zug, the
wards the stem of the vessel, and exportation of potatoes. It was
is of cast iron. permitted till now. but several parts
In consequence of the stress of of the canton have not a sufficient
steam being greater than the supply for planting their fields.
boiler was capable of sustaining, The frightful state to which the
the cast iron part of the boiler
gave way, and flew in aidirection canton of Glaris is reduced, which
only lately displayed industry,
towards the stem of the vessel; on comfort, and happiness, is descri bed
which taking place, a stress im in the work of the Minister Heer.
mediately falls on the boiler itself, At the present time no labouring
to throw it out of its situation, the person, however industrious, can
stress depending on the magnitude earn more than four kreutiers a
of the orifice occasioned by the day. It is frightful to see with
what
26 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [APRIL.
what avidity skeletons of men de Such a lamentable scene of de
vour the most disgusting aliments, struction has not been witnessed
dead bodies. nettles and food which since the fire at Norton-hall, in
they dispute with the brute cre Purleigh ; the flames, as on that
ation. In this dreadful destitution, occasion, were seen at a great
the inhabitants cannot secure them distance. The estate is the pro
selves from humidity or cold. In perty of Mr. Cline, the surgeon.
some houses twenty persons occupy Whether the buildings are insured,
one room, and labour with hollow we are unacquainted 5 the tenants
and half-extinguished eyes in a con are fortunately insured, although!
tagious atmosphere. Beds are out much under the extent of their
of the question ; a wretched sack of loss, in the Phoenix fire-office.
dried leaves is the best couch of The damage is estimated at 4,000l.
these miserable persons. The engine belonging to the Essex
I These old men, deprived of con and Suffolk Equitable Insurance
solation, and bereft of the attention Society was dispatched with all
of friends, left a prey to famine and possible expedition, and arrived in
sorrow, have no other resource but time to save the house; but, from
the dryness of the season, the
tears; or, falling into sickness, and
under the agonies of a burning flames gained so great an ascend
fever, pant for a drop of Whey, ancy, as to counteract every exer
which they cannot always obtain. tion to prevent destruction to the
Suspicious Fires—About twelve other property. There is too
o‘clock on Saturday night last, a much reason to conjecture that
most tremendous fire broke out on the fire was wilfully occasioned ,
the premises in the occupation of and it is hoped that justice will,
Messrs. Langley and Brewer, at ere long, overtake those concern
Abbott‘s-hall Farm, Great Wig ed in such a villanous and diabo
borough, in this county, which, lical deed—Chelmqford paper.
in a short time, entirely consumed On Friday morning, about ten
the whole of the farmery, stand o'clock, a tire broke out upon the
ing upon nearly two acres of premises of a farm at Aspeden,
ground; also in the barns, wheat, near Buntingford, occupied by
the produce of 25 acres, a large Mr. \Vm. Eling, which in every
quantity of oats, and also of beans, short time consumed the whole of
which had lately been taken in : the buildings, with the exception
three stacks of beans, and two of of the dwelling-house.
hay, which were standing in the On Saturday evening, about
yards, were likewise consumed, eight o’clock, a most alarming fire
with all the farming implements, broke out at a farm, at Weston,
including waggons, tumbrels, near Baldock, in the occupation
plough and cart harness, a thrash of Mr. Farr, which raged with
ing machine, and much other pro unabated fury until the whole of
perty, used in so extensive a con the buildings (with the exception
cern. The live stock, which was of the dwelling-house) were com
confined in the yards, was releas pletely destroyed 3 five horses,
ed, excepting a calf, several pigs, three cows, and as many calves,
and the poultry, which were burnt. fell victims to the devouring ele
ment,
APRIL] CHRONICLE. 97
ment. Unfortunately the direction profession theymay adopt, suitable
of the wind was such as to carry to their knowledge and abilities.
the scattered pieces of flaming 2. In the northern and southern
timber towards another farm, oc governments, lands shall be as
cupied by Mr. \Vinuey, the build signed them gratis, where such as
ings of which caught fire; and al please may settle at their own ex
though every assistance was given pense, under the name of Society
that was practicable, this farm of Jewish Christians.
was doomed to share the same fate 3. This society shall have its
as the former, the whole of the own privileges.
buildings being burnt to the 4. At St. Petersburgh a board
ground, except the dwelling-house. shall be formed, of which Prince
At this dreadful fire, a great quan Alexander Golyzin shall be presi—
tity of corn, both in the barns dent, under the denomination of
and in stacks, 810. was destroyed ; “ Board for the Affairs of Jewish
no less than eleven barns stood Christians;” on which, and on no
upon those farms, and the pre other magistrates (except in" cri
mises altogether are said to have minal cases), the society of Jewish
covered four acres of ground. It Christians depends.
is painful to add, there is little 5. This Board is bound to at
doubt but that this catastrophe tend to every thing relating to the
was the work of some villain or settlements, and to report on it to
villains yet undiscovered—Cam the Emperor. In the settlements
bridge paper. of the Jewish Christians, which
On Friday morning last, be are given them as hereditary pro
tween tcn and eleven o’clock, a perty for ever, the society can
fire was discovered in the house of carry on any kind of professions,
Mr. Joseph Sharpe, of Great build cities, villages, or single
\Vratting, which, from being a dwellings; the lands are given to
thatched building, was nearly de the whole community, but not to
stroyed, together with great part individuals, and cannot be sold or
of its contents. The premises mortgaged to strangers. In these
were insured in the Sullolk fire~ settlements the Jewish Christians
office; but from information re and their posterity have entire re
ceived, there is strong reason to ligious liberty in the Christian
suspect it was wilfully set on fire. confession of faith which they
L—Ibid. ' embrace. The society is under
12. St. Pelersburg71.—On Easter the immediate protection of the
Sunday there was published a very emperor, and depends entirely on
remarkable imperial mandate, in the Board in St. Petersburgh, to
favour of the Jews who are con which alone it will give account.
verted to Christianity. Thefol No other local magistracy shall
lowing are some of the chief ar interfere with them ; their preach
ticles :— ers are only under the Board. The
“ 1. All Jews embracing the internal government of the society
Christian religion, no matter of is under an administration of' the
which confession, shall~ have pri Society of the Jewish Christians,
vileges granted them, whatever consisting of two superiors and
four
28 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. LAPRIL.
four adjuncts, chosen by the so fect liberty to go where he pleas
ciety from its own members, and ed: however, ‘he preferred re
confirmed by the Board. lt ma maining a lodger at that place,
nages the internal concerns, the because he said he received every
police, &c. and has a particular civility and respect there, and he
seal. It may expel improper knew of no place where he could
members, and receive new ones, be more happy. Mr. Gillet had
but must report on this to the an invitation a short time since to
Board. The members of the so go to Exetei , and to take Captain
ciety obtain the rights of citizens Fleming With him, together with
in the Russian empire. They may another gentleman, also a lodges.
carry on trade at home and abroad, there. Captain Fleming made
conformably to the general laws ; some excuse, and declined accom
establish inanufactories, 8L0. with panying them, and in the interim
out being registered in any guild. wrote a letter to an old brother
In their settlements the society officer, a Captain Miller, late pay
may brew beer, distil brandy, Sic. master and agent to the Statibrd
They are. free from billeting of Militia, then residing in London,
troops, and for twenty years from requesting the favour of seeing
taxes; are not bound to military him : that he had many things to
service, Ste. Foreign Jews who, communicate to him, particularly
after embracing Christianity, join of a pecuniary kind ; that he was
such a community, may leave the getting in years, and purpOsed
country when they have paid their makingr his will; that he wished
debts, and the legal contributions him to be present, as he intended
for three years, on the capitals to give him a power of attorney to‘
which they have acquired in Bus transact business for him, and he
sia." This regulation excites the pressed him to come immediately.
more attention, because it is well In consequence of this request,
known that our ambassadors in Captain Miller arrived at the
Germany are expressly ordered to Asylum before mentioned, on
give no more passports to those Sunday the l‘lth instant, about
who desire to emigrate. noon. It was impossible a more
The following are the particu friendly meeting could apparently
lars of the shocking catastrophe have taken place: they dined to
which took place at a Lunatic gether with the family, talked
Asylum, at Fifehead-house, near over their old campaigns (they
Taunton, on Sunday the 13th were both advanced in years,
inst.— Captain Fleming 74, and Captain
A Captain Fleming, a half-pay Miller 65;) both appeared lll'l?
officer in the army, was placed commonly cheerful. Mrs. Gillet,
under the care of Mr. Gillet, the knowing that Fleming had written
proprietor of this Asylum, about to his friend Miller to come to
five years ago, and remained a him on business, caused them to
patient under his care about three be left alone: they remained only
years, when he was pronounced a short time, and then adjourned
sane,-aud consequently sutfered to to Fleming's bed-room. In about
resume his functions, and at per ten minutes afterwards, (at about
half
APRIL] CHRONICLE- w
half-past two), the keeper heard a without ever having examined the -
noise which alarmed him, but he contents of his trunks, in which,
thought it might be a patient up unquestionably, lay those deadly
stairs, who is sometimes very weapons. Fleming wrote two
high, as he termed it; however, letters on Saturday the 12th inst.
he ran up stairs, and when about and left them in a drawer in his
half way distinctly heard the re bed-room, addressed to the Rev.
port of a pistol. On entering the Mr. Gale, a visiting magistrate of
room it was full of smoke, and the Asylum, which alone were
the first thing he saw was Captain sufficient to prove his insanity.
Miller lying on the floor in the 13. The University Debating
agonies of death: he attempted to Club, held at the Red Lion inn,
lift him up, but he instantly ex in Cambridge, having been dis
pired. A pistol lay within two solved by the personal interference
feet of him. About five or six of the l’roctors, by command of
feet from Miller lay Fleming, on the Vice-Chancellor, a petition
his face, and the \ital spark‘had against this interference, signed
left him also. Another pistol lay by several Masters of Arts and
about the same distance from him, Noblemen, as members of the
and a three edged sword on the club, has been presented to his
bed close by. On a more minute Royal Highness the Duke of
examination, in which Mr. Rich, Gloucester, as Chancellor of that
a surgeon, attended, it appeared University.—Evening Paper.
that a pistol had been fired by 14. From a Liverpool Paper.—
Fleming at Miller, who had been Last. week Mr. John Wright, who
sitting in a chair at a table in the has of late delivered religious lec
act of writing, having his specta tures, and held meetings for wor- .
cles on, and a pen in his hand; ship on Unitarian principles, in
that Fleming stood behind him, the Long Room, Marble-street,
as the ball had entered a little be (a place “hich has been frequent
low the left shoulder blade ; that ly occupied by dilferent denomi
the pistol not having had the im~ nations of Christians during the
mediate effect intended, Fleming last ‘23 years), was summoned, on
made use of the sword, and pierced three informations, to appear bev
his friend in the body, as many as fore the magistrates, on the charge
seven or eight times, and then, of holding meetings for worship
with another pistol, shot himself in a place not duly registered.
through the head. It might na Mr. Wright attended at tile Town
turally be inquired, how came Hall on Saturday last, at the ap
these destructive Weapons in the pointed time, when the Mavor:
room? It appears that at the time (John \Vright, Esq.) and Alder
Captain Fleming was brought to man Nicholson took their places
the Asylum, all his trunks, &0. as the sitting magistrates. They
were deposited there, and the keys were afterwards joined by Alder
given to the proprietor, who, on man Sir Vi'. Barton.
his patient being pronounced sane, The first information was then
returned every thing to him again, read, relative to a meeting for
worship
30 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [APRIL
worship being held in the Long were directed against those who
Room, on Tuesday the 1st of knowingly hold meetings for wor
April. ship in places not registered. He
The informer on this charge then produced some written evi
dence from a most vrespectable
was Reece Davies, of the Liverpool
Courier Ofiice ; who, being sworn, quarter, stating at what time, and
gave evidence of the statement in by whom, and for whom, the
the information. place had been certified to the
The second information was Bishop's Registrar at Chester.
then read, which made a similar There had not been sufficient time
charge for Sunday the 6th of allowed to procure a certificate
April. from Chester, but he doubted not
The informer on this charge he could do so in a few days. The
also was Reece Davies ; who, be bench then agreed to adjourn the
ing again sworn, gave evidence business to that day week, when
of the statement in that informa the official evidence was to be
tion. produced.
~ The third information was then The penalty incurred in this
read, which made a similar charge case would be, not exceeding 20!.
for Tuesday the 8th of April on each information, nor less than
" The informer on this charge 208.—0ne half to the informer.
also was Reece Davies; who, be During the above examination,
ing again sworn, gave evidence Mr. Wright, alluding to some dis
of the statement in that informa orderly conduct in the Long Room
tion. during worship on Tuesday the
, In answer to some questions 8th, stated, that the individual
irom the bench, and Mr. Statham, whom he meant to charge with
town clerk, as to the nature of that disorder had refused at the
the prayers, 81c. Reece Davies time to give his address. He had
‘atated, that they were similar to since learnt, however, that his
those usually made in other cha name was Scott, and he wouldv
peis. now ask Reece Davies whether he
Mr. Wright then being called knew that person. Being an
fipon for his defence, stated, that swered in the affirmative, be far
in a life of more than fifty years, ther demanded his full name and
he. had never knowingtly violated address: when Scott himself be
any of the laws of his country. ing in the court, was required to
He had reason to believe that the give it—which was, James Scott,
room in which his meetings were of Liverpool, merchant, No.11,
held was duly registered, as it Clayton-square. Mr. \Vright'then
had been used for worship about declared his intention immediately
twenty years: and indeed, he con to prosecute him, under the 12th
ceived, that if the place were not clause of an Act 52 Geo. III, for
registered, yet, as he had always disorderly conduct during wor
been informed that it was, he could ship on the above evening._
not be supposedvto have ofl‘ended The business on which Mr.
against the statute, as its penalties 'Wright was summoned being now
s ' for
APRIL] CHRONICLE. '31
for the present concluded, Mr. had now attended to give evi
Wright was about to depart, whendence.
Mr. Statham rose and informed Mr. “Wight—Why, Sir, the
him he had now to bring forward sentiments I delivered are legal
a charge of a. more serious na by Act of Parliament; and the
ture. last charge is an entire falsehood,
Mr. VVright.—l was summoned and contrary to all my senti
for a particular purpose, which I ments.
have attended to, and am not Mr. Statham.——That. you must
bound to attend to any other bu show in another place. You must
siness. . give bail for your appearance at
Mr. Statham.——Sir, this is an the next Assizes at Lancaster;
information upon which you will yourself in 2001. and two suretics
now be taken into custody. You in lOOl. each. [Mn \Vright was
are charged with blasphemy. then placed in custody of the cons
He then read an information stables, and put to the bar as a
on the evidence of James Scott, prisoner.]
(the identical person Mr. Wright Mr. \Vright.—But, Sir, I must
had just stated his intention to know under what law lam charged
prosecute for disorderly conduct,) with this.
which, being duly sworn to, Mr. Statham.—Under no parti
charged Mr. Wright with having cular Act, but under the law of
expressed and conveyed to his the land.
hearers the idea. “' that a belief Mr. Wright—Under what law
in the doctrine of the Holy Tri of the land P
nity was absurd and ridiculous—— Mr. Statham.--Under the com
that it was folly to believe in what mon law. _
was called the atonement of the Mr. \Vright.——Under What Com
death of Jesus Christ, as it was mon law? Have you never seen
impious to suppose that a good the Act of Parliament, lately
being would take an innocent passed, which tolerates the exer
victim to atone for the sins of the cise of religious opinions, which
wicked—that as the idea of the were before not permitted P—To
soul surviving the body was an this no answer was given.
absurd and ridiculous mental de Mr. lVright.——But if I be ar—
lusion, that the idea of a future rested, and held to bail, contrar
state was equally so." Mr. Sta to the provisions of an Act of Par
tham then informed Mr. \Vright, liament, can I not claim indem
that his proceedings had been nity?
watched ; that the Mayor'had Mr. Statham.-—You can adopt
sent persons for the purpose to what steps you think proper.
the Long Room every evening, Two friends of Mr. Vl'right,
since he had advertised his meet who happened then to be in the
ings in the Liverpool Mercury of court merely as spectators, of
the 28th of March ; and that it fered themselves as the required
was at the Mayor's instance that bail. One of them (Mr. F. B.
the infdrrner on this charge (Scott) Wright) in dcseribing his resi
dence,
82 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817’. [:lPRlL.
deuce, stated, that it was near with the nature of the charges
Anne's (.‘hurch. The May or and against. Mr. Wright. He then
Mr. Statham instantly asked was read the information. One of the
it not Saint Anne's Church? Mr. gentlemen remarked, that with
F. B. Wright said he had spoken Mr. Wright‘s religious creed he
of it in the usual way, and had was not acquainted, but on his
casually omitted the word Saint. integrity he would venture his
He did not know of such a Saint property. The other observed,
in Scripture, nor did he believe that he agreed in the sentiments
such an omission was criminal. imputed to Mr. \Vright, with the
Mr. Etatham said, “ Sir, I suspect exception of the last, which he
you purposely omitted the word." did not believe Mr. Wright ever
Mr. F. B. Wright here claimed espoused.
the protection of the Court. Mr. Wright was then liberated,
Mr. \Vright.—l have now, Mr. and his departure from the Hall
Mayor, offered my bail, and of was only impeded by a number of
course claim my liberation. other friends, eagerly pressing in
Mr. Statham.—-You must give to offer themselves his bail.
twenty-four hours notice of your 18. Came on at. Holyrood
bail, and inquiries must be made house, Edinburgh, the election of
into its sufficiency. Bail is not a one of the sixteen peers, in the
matter of course. You may be room of theEai-l of Rothcs, deceas—
kept in custody a week, Sir, for ed. The Candidates were the Mar
aught you know. quisses of Tweeddale and Lothian.
Mr.\l"right.—l am certain, Sir, Present—Marquis of Tweeddale,
that if a short time were allowed, Marquis of Lothizm, Earl of Mo
so that this business could be ray, Earl of Home, Earl of Had
made known out of doors, I should dington, Earl of Wemyss and
have bail offered which the Mayor March, Earl of Findlater, Earl
must know would be sufficient. of Leven, Earl of Marchmont,
Here another friend of Mr. Lord Gray, Lord Torphichen,
W'right stepped forward and said, Lord Elibauk, Lord Rollo. Total
Mr. Mayor, if only a few minutes 13. Proxy—Lord Bellmren to the
be allowed before you leave the Earl of Wemyss and March.
hall, 1 am sure] can produce for There were also 37 signed lists
Mr. Wright the most respectable from peers.
bail to any amount. After the votes were called, the
Time was allowed. Mr. lVright Marquis of Lothian was declared
was removed in custody to the duly elected ; there being for the
Jury Room, having; objected to Marquis of Lothian . 33
be sent down amongst pers'ons Marquis of Tweeddale l8
charged with crime ; and, in about Majority . . ii.
if een minutes, Mr. \Vright's
friend returned with two gentle The following nobleman voted
men, whose surety was not a mo for the Marquis of Lothian :—
ment objected to. Mr. Statham Duke. of Buccleuch, Duke of
asked them if they were acquainted Atholl, Duke of Montrose, Duke
of
APRIL] CHRONICLE. 33
of Roxburghe, Marquis ofQuecns litical subjects, as heretofore," at
berry, Marquis of Tweeddale, the rooms of the society.
Earl of Morton, Earl of Caithness, Some question arising upon the
Earl of Moray, Earl of Home, word political, the following dis
Earl of Strathmore,Earl of Kellie, cussion took place :—
Earl of Haddington, Earl of Dunn Lord Mayor.—\Vhat class of po
fries and Bute, Earl of Elgin, litical questions forms the subject
Earl of Findlater, Earl of Leven, of your debates ?
Earl of Balcarras, Earl of Aboyne, Petitioners—Politics generally,
Earl of Dunmore, Earl of March my lord, under the restrictions
mont, Earl of Glasgow, Earl of specified in the books in your
Portmore, 'Earl of Hopetoun, lordship’s hands, and subject to
Viscount Arbuthnot, Viscount the approval or rejection of acoun
Dunblane, Lord Forbes, Lord cil. \Ve are ready to produce our
Gray, Lord Sinclair, Lord Somer books, and give 'any information
ville, Lord Napier, Lord Forres that may be required.
ter, Lord Elibank. Total 33. Alderman Smith—This is too
For the Marquis of Tweeddale : general; it would admit unlimited
—Duke of Gordon, Duke of Ar discussion, and open adoor to de
gyll, Marquis of Lothian, Earl of bates of the most improper ten
Errol, Earl of Eglington, Earl of (lency.
Cassilis, Earl of Lauderdale, Earl Petitioners—Reference to our
of Kinnoul, Earl of \Vemyss and list of members, and printed rules,
March, Earl of Kintore, Earl of will remove all fear of abuse.
Aberdeen, Earl of Stair, Earl of This society has existed above
Roseberry, Lord Torphichen, nineteen years, with unimpeached
Lord Blantyre, Lord Reay, Lord character; and was licensed by
Belhaven, Lord Rollo. Total 18. the magistrates of Hatton-garden,
18. On Friday two gentlemen under the former act, with no
appeared, by appointment, before hesitation, and with the single
the magistrates of London, in doubt whether it came within the
general quarter sessions, at the provisions of the statute. No per
sessions hall, in the Old Bailey, as sons are eligible but members of
members and officers of the Aca~ universities or inns of court, and
demical Society held in Chancery many of its members have been,
lane, and produced the books of and are, members likewise of
regulations, list of members, &c. the house of commons.
together with a petition for a 1i Lord Mayor.--ln short, it is a
cense. The magistrates present school of oratory ?
were the Lord Mayor, with Alder Petitioners—Yes, my lord, pri
men Sir John Perring, Sir \Vil vate application was made to the
liam Domrille, and Joshua Jona law ofiicers of the crown for ex
than Smith. Their petition, which emption, but we were referred to
was duly presented and read, pray the seSsions, as a matter of course.
ed for a license, “for the investi Your warships will observe, that
gation and discussion of philoso a license will not protect us from
phical, literary, historical, and p0 the consequences of its abuse.
VOL. LIX. Our
84 AN N UAL IRYEG ISTER, 1817. [Arum
Our meetings will still beopcn to Lord Mayon—i :11possible ! This
your visitation, the license revok is a Very serious question, and we
able at discretion, and ourselves must act deliberately in the face of
personally liable for any breach of the country. I think it my duty
order, morality, or p'roin'iety in as a magistrate-to sign this license,
our debate. and Should be ashamed of myeelf
Alder-man Smith—l think such if I refused it. I am ready to sign.
a license would be highly objec ~Alderman Smith—J am not '
t-ionable.‘ ashmned. I Will never sign such
Lord Mayor.-—I see no objection». a license. Will the gentlemen
Alderman Smith—I do. if a 'eon-sent to strike out the word
license be granted, what is the political ? '
use of the act? A Petitioners—We cannot con
Lord Mayan—The society has sent to that.
complied with its provisions, 'and Alderman Smithy—Will you
satisfied its object, by furnishing take a license on 'eondition'to-t'ur
notice of its-place of meeting, the nisli the magistrates beforehand
names of its members, and its with the questions for debate, sub
rules and regulations. Before ject 'to their approval? I have no
this application, we might be, and objection to grant ‘a license on
perhaps were, ignorant of its cx "those conditions.
istence altogether, but (now it is Petitioners—We cannot take a
brought immediately under the license on such terms. The so—
eye and control of the-magistracy, vcicty is open ‘to your yisitatidn
which is all that the uct'intended. 'and “control; 'if the magistrates
Alderman Smith—But this will doubt our tilSCFCtlOh, conduct, or
allow debates upon the politics of Eprinciplcs, ‘they may come in .1131"
the day. son, or send an inspector. We
7 Lord ills-yon—And why not? shall "rei'usc a license so shackled.
To refuse-a license to these gentle Alderman Smith.-—Thzit is quite
;nien would be depriving them of enoughior me. ‘ Do-you hCRl‘Ktilfli?
a privilege enjoyed by every tavern “Lord Mayor.-I think we have
‘ine'cting or public dinner. it can no right to impose stich Conditions,
not be that the legislature incaus and see no occasion for them.
Itoprcvent all political discussion, Alderman Smith _.-—-Thc Iilippant
but merely to place it undér re answer of this gentleman satisfies
gulation. inc.
Sir John 'Pcrring.-—Undoubfcd Petitioner.--Sir,J am sorry you
ly, it never wasintendcd to put so much mistake .my meaning.
down all political discussion. 1 We come as officersof the society,
think the society entitled to a li and have no authority to compro
ceuse,'and am ready to si n. mise its rules, or to bind it to
Aldermanfirnith .-—l obiect most such terms as you have olfered.
strongly; the ipurpose of the act I repeat again, we are not autho
is to put dOWn all political debate rized, and must refuse such a 1i
whatever, I ccnse.
Sir W illiarn Domvillc concurred :Lord 'Mayorh—Certainly, you
in'this sentiment. are not authorized. ICODCClVe it
my
if >~~> __ fir _f

APRIL] CHRONICLE. 35
my duty- to grant your application, number of stairs, there is an en
and will sign it immediately. trance, by a large door, into a
Sir John Perring concurred. hall, fifty feet long, and forty-six
Aldermen Domville and Smith broad. On the wings is raised a
strenuously opposed; but the pe double colonnade of six columns,
tioners expressed themselves sa each two palms and a quarter in
tisfied, as the act required the sig diameter, similar to those in the
nature of two magistrates only. vestibule. From Several swelling
Here, however, the clerk inter shafts, M. ‘Ar'diti conjectures that
posed, on the ground that the act all the edifice had a superior order
of two would be the act of the of columns, of a smaller 'diameter.
sessions; and as there was an On the floor of the hall are three
equality of voices, the license little entrances, conducting to as
could not pass. This objection many small chambers. To the
finally prevailed over the contrary left is a sm'all'staircase, by which
interpretation in favour of the there was probably an ascent to
petitioners. Before retiring, how the higher part of the building.
ever, the applicants addressed the In the lateral part of the hall the
bench as follows : pavement is Mosaic. In the
Petitioners—My Lord, are we centre there had been various
then to understand that the ses geometrical figures in marble, of
sions refuse our'license, yes or no 9 which only the traces on the
Lord Mayan—I am afraid so. ground remain. All the walls are
Sir John Perring and myself are ornamented with pictures, the
ready to sign it, but what can be backgrounds of which are painted
done? We cannot get over this with a verylively and brilliant red
difficulty. 'colo'ur. The dilapidations of this
Petitioners—We thank your superb monument seem to indicate
lordship, and shall know what that its erectiOn was at a very
further course to, adopt. distant period. In all parts the
The license was accordingly de traces of ruins are to be found.
clared to be refused. The ground is covered with stones,
19. The Gazette of the Two and With the capital‘s Of demolish
Sicilies gives the following descrip ed columns. Orders have been
tion of a monument which has given for itsv immediate restora
been discovered among the exca tion. The zeal and the knowledge
vations at Pompeia. :—-The front of the Chevalier Arditi will re
of the edifice is ornamented with establish, as soon as possible, this
six columns, which uniting with edifice, which is one of the most
six others, divided in two lateral curious that have been discovered
portions, form a peristyle, fifty at Pompeia.
two pal-ms wide, and forty-three A dreadful occurrence took place '
long. The columns are of a soft at Wigton on Sunday the 20th,
stone, coated with stucco, and are Anne Graham, the wife of lV,
fluted. Their bases are attic, Graham, blacksmith, murdered
without any plinth. From the two of her children by strangula
vestibule, to which there is an tion, left another for dead, and
easy flight, composed of a small afterwards cut her own throat!
D ‘2 The
36 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [APRIL
The following particulars have boy being alarmed, laid the infant
reached us, from which it will on the floor, and got into the
clearly appear that the wretched blacksmith's shop by means of a
woman laboured under strong door which communicates with
mental derangement. On the pre the dwelling-house, where he con
ceding day she dressed herself, cealed himself under the large
and took her children for a walk, bellows. His mother followed
a circumstance with her very un him into the shop, and searched,
usual on such a day. She went but could not find him. After she
with them to a small stream of returned into the dwelling- house,
water, and looking into it, re the boy escaped from the shop by
marked that “it was not deep drawing the bolts which secured
enough, and they would come the great doors. He met his fa
another time." On Sunday morn ther as he was returning from
ing, she strongly persuaded her church, and told him the dreadful
husband to go to church; and tale ; assistance was immediately
when she laid out his Sunday procured, and on entering the
clothes, she gave him a black silk house, the unhappy woman was
handkerchief, instead of a white found with her throat dreadfully
one. He inquired the reason, cut, without any signs of life;
and asked for a white one. His the infant was lying on the floor
wife immediately said to him in a unhurt; and the other three
singular tone—“ What, would you children were found in bed—two
not wear it if we all lay dead?" of them quite dead; the other
Graham took no particular notice showed symptoms of life, and by
of this wildness, and went to proper care has been much re
church. As soon as he was gone, covered, but still remains in a
she called the children into the doubtful state. No cause but in
house and locked the door. After sanity can be assigned for these
washing them, she gave the oldest dreadful acts. Graham has always
(a boy about nine years of age) an proved himself a kind and affec
infant to hold, which was sucking tionate husband. His wife was
at the breast, and then took one naturally of a gloomy disposition;
of the other children into an ad— and, latterly, she had formed an
joining room, put it to death by idea that her children would come
strangling it with her hands, and to poverty. The Coroner‘s jury
then laid it into a bed. She re returned a verdict of Insanity.
turned for another, which she 21. A shocking accident hap
strangled in the same manner. pened on Monday evening; A
\Vhen she came for the third, the number of poor people were ga~
boy before-mentioned inquired thering cockles on Laven-Sands,
what she was doing, and observed, when on a sudden a thick fog
he thought she was killing the came, and the tide flowing at the
children. She replied, that she time, drowned the whole; one
would let him soon see what she report says 1'! in number, men,
was doing with them, and went women, and children—Chester
into the room with the third, rupir
which she also strangled. The Since the publication of this
paper,
APRIL] CHRONICLE. . 37
paper, we never had to record a The two men had large families;
more heart-rending calamity than one had seven children! They
what occurred on Monday the were discovered close together.
21st on Lavan Sands. A number The sea was so calm and the tide
of poor persons, consisting of flowed so gently, that the men
two men, three women, and three were found with their hats on !—
children, went, as was their usual (North Wales Gazette.)
custom at this season, to collect A most disastrous case of in
cockles on the above sands; the sanity happened at the private
day had been remarkably clear, madhouse of Mr. \Varburton, on
but towards evening an uncom Bethnal-green, on Friday the QOth,
monly thick fog arose, of which which became the subject of an
they were admonished to beware inquest before J. W.'Unwin, Esq.
before they set out, and it was ob one of the coroners for Middlesex,
served very visibly collecting in at two o'clock on Tuesday. The
the distant horizon ; the conse circumstances attending the fatal
quence was, as may be anticipated, affair are as follows :—-About half
they could not find their way back, past one o'clock on Friday last,
night was coming on, and the dis Mr. Owen Anderson, (who had
tance from any succour being been placed in this establishment
nearly four miles, their cries could in the year 1815, and had re
not be heard—after wandering mained there ever since) with
in vain for several hours, they all several other patients, had just
perished on the return of the tide! dined. One of the two keepers
The coroner's inquest sat on the who attended upon them quitted
bodies of these unfortunate suffer the room for some \domestic pur
ers, who'were placed in Aber pose; the knives and forks which
church; and certainly a more had been used at dinner were
afflicting sight can hardly be con placed in a knife-tray. on one of
ceived; husbands lamenting the the forms. Joseph Deshayes, the
loss of wife and children, and unfortunate person who is de
wives lamenting the loss of hus ceased, happened to go to a closet
bands and children! One woman near the fire-place in which coals
and a little girl are not yet found. were kept, and stooping down to
The party consisted of eight per fill the coal-scuttle, the unhappy
sons; those found are Ellen Ro gentleman, Mr. Anderson, seized
berts and her daughter, from the a case-knife, and plunged it into
parish of Llanllechid, the daughter the keeper’s back. He rose up
only arriving last week from Li immediately, and received another
verpool to see her parents, and desperate stab in the lower part
has left an infant only three months of the belly. No persons were in
old; two labouring men, one with the room at this time but the-de
a son, and the other with a daugh ceased, Mr. Anderson, and the
ter; the last, a little girl of only other patients.
fourteen years old, was found John \Velch sworn.—ls a ser
kneeling, with her hands folded vant in the house. On Friday,
acrOss her bosom, close to the about half-past one o'clock, was
prostrate body of her fatherll in the kitchen cutting up the ‘din—
ner.
38 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [Arana
ner. The deceased came in and himself to the keeper. That he,
set himself down in a chair by the was more composed than he had
side of the dresser, near the fire, been, and that he would not do so
and looked extremely pale ; said any more.
Mr. Anderson had stabbed him The jury returnedtheir verdict,
with a knife, and requested wit “ That the deceased had. died by
ness to go immediately into the the violent act of ()wen Anderson ;
room. He ran there immediately, but that at the time of committing
and saw the other keeper, assisted such act, the said Owen Anderson
by one of the patients, putting a was not of sound mind, memory,
strait waistcoat on Mr. Anderson 3 and understanding, but lunatic
saw a knife, which the patients and distracted."
pointed out to be the instrument 26. Murder and 'Robbery.-—The
with which the deceased had been house in which this audacious act
struck. ‘Vitness returned imme was committed is in Pendleton, a
diately to the kitchen, and found suburb, anditwo miles from the
the deceased had been removed Exchange of Manchester, which
into the, parlour. Witness assisted adjoins the turnpike-road to Liver
in putting him to bed; sat up pool, and is surrounded by many
with him the whole night, He houses, although none are par
complained of his pain, and said, ticularly connected with it. It
“ 0, Anderson, you have murder belongs to a Mr. Littlewood, a
ed me!" “I am, goin to my respectable grocer in Sal-ford, who
last!" Deceased stated, that he was duly attending to the avoca
was at the cupboard-dom stooping, tions of the market-day, and was
that Mr“ Anderson had stabbed left in the care of an elderly woman
him with a knife first in the back, (housekeeper) and servant girl.
and when he got up stabbed him The bloody business must have
in the belly. Witness attended been perpetrated before fiveo’clock,
upon him till his death, which as a nurse-maid of a neighbouring
took place on Saturday evening family went at that hour to see
about six o‘clock: considered An Mr. L‘s girl, with whom she was
derson as an insane person. intimate. The doors were locked,
Edward Bowdler confirmed part and many of the window-blinds
of the testimony of the last wit down; in consequence of which
ness; was the person who had the nurse-maid returned home,
left the room as above-mentioned. having first attempted to open the
Evidence was then given by two door, and cursorily look through
medical gentlemen to, prove ‘An the window of one of the rooms,
,derson‘s insanity. in which she indistinctly saw the
\ Several of the jury having ex elderly woman in an arm-chair,
pressed a wish to put some ques and whom she supposed to be
tions to Mr. Anderson, he was asleep. The curiosity of the nurse
brought into the inquest-room. maid induced her to return at
He is a young man ,of interesting seven o'clock, when she still found
appearance, about twenty-three the doors locked, which alarmed
years of age]; he said he could not her, from the singularity of the
recollect now why he so conducted circumstance} nnd,‘ on looking
through
MALI C B It ON I C LE. 39
through the window again atten ing bound by their duty to watch
tively, she; perceived the old house over the great interests of religion,
keeper apparently lifeless and they are obliged to prevent the in- t
much bruised. An alarm was im troduetion of a system of education ,
mediately given, and the house which might corrupt youth and
entered by a. ladder, when it ap violate the dogmas and the disci
peared, that the house was robbed, pline of the Catholic Church. it
and the two hapless women inhu is with this view that they re
manly murdered. The instru mark several points of the regula
ments of destruction which it is tions which have appeared to them
supposed were used were a cleaver susceptible of producing this re
and a poker. The housekeeper, it sult. It is laid down as a princi
is supposed, otfered no resistance, ple, that it is to the Catholic
and was dispatched whilst asleep Church that the world is indebted
in the chair; but the younger for the establishment of universi
woman is conceived to have con ties, which have succeeded to the
rageously resisted, as several of episcopal schools. The principal
the blows inflicted were sufficient olrject of this institution was to
to have occasioned death. Six propagate all the branches of hu
men have been already apprehend man knowledgr, and principally
ed, four of whom there is strong religion. Abhé Fleury says, that
reason for surmising will ulti it was “ to preserve the holy doc
mately prove the perpetrators of trine" that universities were
the diabolical deeds ol' horror.— founded. It is to preserve youth
Manclzester Mercury. from the contagion, of philusop/nl
Q9. The grand jury of London cal errors that religion has pre
returned true bills for high treason sided over all studies, under the
against Arthur 'l‘histlewood, gent. ; intervention of the bishops, who
James Watson the elder, surgeon; alone have received the power of
James Watson the younger, sur teaching, or causing others to
geon; Thomas Preston, cord_ teach, ecclesiastical science.
wainer; and James Hooper, la~ The Catholic Sovereigns, who
bourer. The bill against John were themselves interested in the
Keenes, tailor, was thrown out. maintenance of religion, them
selves invoked the authority of the
sovereign Pontiti‘s, to direct the
MAY. high schools by wise regulations.
8. Ghent—There are now in Thus was erected “ the celebrated
circulation manuscript copies of a University of Louvnin, which has
memorial presented to his Ma— been to Belgium a nursery of men
jesty by the Bishops of Ghent, whose names will be ever illus
Namur, Tournay, and the Vicar trious." Pope Martin V. in his
gsne-ral of Liege and of Malines. hull erecting it, speaks of the duty
This memorial relates to the mode which is imposed on it, of en
of instruction prescribed for the couraging, as much as possible,
Universities by the regulations of sciences of every kind, by the
the 25th of last November. means of whkh .the science which
The bishops state first, that be has for its object the maintenance
of
40 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [MAW~
of the true faith and of divine amined : after which the jury
worship is propagated more and unanimously pronounced a verdict
more. of wilful murder against all the
The interests of the state and of four men, viz. James Ashcroft the
the church are now the same, and elder, .lamesAshcroft the younger,
require the application of the same David Ashcroft, and William Hol
principles. The bishops assert, den. They were then severally
that in the present state of morals brought up before the Court, and
religion is now more necessary being asked by the coroner if they
than ever. These great principles had any thing to say, and admo
having appeared to them to be nished by him to be cautious in
violated by the regulations of the what they advanced, they merely
25th of November, they have laid asserted their innocence in gene
before his Majesty the observa ral terms, and were then com
tions c0ntained in this memorial, mitted to Lancaster Castle, to take
which may contain a doctrine too their trials at the next assizes.
exclusive, and manifest fears ex At the Norwich sessions held
aggerated by zeal; but which has last month, Mr. Steward Al
the merit of being written with a derson addressed the grand jury,
moderation not always found in and directed them “ to make a
writings of this nature. full, diligent, and impartial in
Birmingham—On the 15th a quiry into the matter, and to pre
most destructive fire broke out in sent houses of seditious resort, if
this town, at the extensive mills, they found any existed ;” observ~
called Water-street Mills, which ing, that none had come to his
are situate by the side of the liir knowledge as a resident magis
mingham canal. In a few hours, trate. The Grand jury instituted
‘60 violent were the flames, and so the inquiry, and made this pre
extremely rapid in their extension, sentment thereon z—We copy it
that this vast pile of buildings, verbatim from the Norwich paper.
which occupy a space of ground “ We, theGrand J ury, summoned
as large as the Haymarket in to inquire for our Sovereign Lord
London, were entirely consumed. the King, have, in consequence of
The value of the property is sup the direction of the Steward, mi ~

posed not to be less than 200,000!. nutely examined the constables of


19. At an adjourned London the various wards, who have ap
Session, the Academical Society peared before us, whether they
again applied for a licence autho knew of any public or private
rising them to discuss philoso house in which meetings had been
phical, literary, historical, and held of a secret nature, in which
sedition was encouraged, or blas
political subjects, in their rooms
’ in Chancery-Lane, which, after phemy or irreligion tolerated ; and
some discussion, was unanimously they have all reported that none
granted. such had been held to the best of
20. The investigation of ’the their knowledge. We are also our
murder committed at Pendleton selves of opinion that no such so
terminated on Wednesday last, at cieties exist in this city."
the Hare and Hounds, l’endleton. (Signed by the Grand Jury.)
More than 40 witnesses were ev
U pon
MAY.] .'.¢CHRONICL’E. 41
Upon this presentment being sion ; it was, however, immedi
made, the Steward discharged the ately ascertained that the gentle
Grand Jury, observing, that after man in the coach had shot himself
so respectable and attentive an in in the side, and had fallen back in
vestigation, he thought this city, the coach.
stood acquitted of the suspicions Mr. Phillips, jun. the son of
that had been entertained respect Mr. Phillips the surgeon, who re
ing seditious meetings. sides within a few yards of the
‘23. This afternoon, about ten spot, happened to be an observer
minutes before three o'clock, a of the transaction, and instantly
hackney-coach stopped in Pall ran to feel the gentleman's pulse,
mall, opposite the sentinel-box on when be pronounced him to be
the west side of the east gate of dead : he was, however, taken into
Carlton-house court-yard. The Mr. Phillips’s house, in which
coachman alighted from his box, Lord Robert Seymour, who hap
and was directed by the gentleman pened to be passing at the time,
to‘ knock at the gate, and at the very humanely assisted. His 10rd
same time he gave him a card, on ship also'found in the coach the
which was written, in pencil, instrument of his death, which
Capt. de Achen: the porter an was a large Spanishfihorse pistol.
swered the knock, and the coach An attempt was made by Mr. Phil
man gave him the card, saying, lips to bleed him, but in vain.
the gentleman in the coach was a The body was afterwards con
foreigner, and he did not under veyed on some boards to the Goat
stand what he said or what he public-house in Pall-mall. He was
wanted; the porter replied he a remarkably fine young man, a
should not understand him any bout 30 years of age, upwards of
better. AGerman, in the Regent's six feet high ; he was dressed in a
establishment, passing at thé time, military blue great coat, black silk
the porter sent him to the coach handkerchief round his neck, light
door, when the stranger asked for blue pantaloons. He had former
some gentleman of the royal es~ ly belonged to the German legion,
tablishmeut, who, he was inform— and he proves to be of the name
ed, was not in Carlton-house ; he written on the card, Captain de
was then observed by the German Achen. He distinguished himself
to be moving his lips; but if he in the battle of Waterloo. He
was talking, he could not hear has been some time in this coun
what he said; at the same time try, and has had a great desire to
he observed him stooping on the be employed in the British army.
right side; and as he was in the On Thursday he accompanied Ma
act of rising, the report of a pistol jor Poten to Epsom Races. Yes
was heard, and a smoke issued terday, about one o'clock, he went
from the coach. The general opi to the Duke of Comberland’s re;
nion of those within sight of the sidence in St. James’s Palace, to
transaction was, that the German visit Major Poten, the major be
at the coach-door was shot, as he ing uide-de-camp to the duke;
stood motionless for the instant, he was there about an hour : he
from alarm at the sudden explo was known to the duke. The acs
count
l

42 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [Mary


cwunt the haeltncy-‘coachman gave with much concern We commu
of him was, he hired him in nicate to the public a very shock
Bridge~stroet, Westminster, near ing event which happened on
the house No. 2, but whether he the evening of the 11th, near
came out of that house or not he' Colombo :—
could not tell. No difference was A party of seven young gende
observed as to his usual mode of men had been walking among the
conducting himself, up to two trees, near the sea, about two
o‘clock yesterday, nor was the miles south of the fort ; between
cause of the rash act ascertained. five and six o'clock they sat down
'24. The first survey was made on the shore, without any pre
this morning, by means of the vious intention of bathing, when
diving bell, of the wreck of the Mr. May, of the ordnance civil
Royal George, which sunk at department, went into the water,
Spithead about 35 years since. She‘ and was followod by several
lies nearly east and west, with her others. Mr. May was an excellent
head to the westward, and with a sviimrmer, and plunging into the
trifling inclination on her la'rbo'ard nearest surf, he did not rise till
bilge. The whole of her decks he was some way beyond it. Aif
have fallen in, and the starboard ter playing about a short time,
broadside upon them; there is, in he struck out into deeper Water,
fact, no appearance whatever (if when Lie'utcnan’t Gray, who was
her original formation, her re within the surf, and aware of the
rnains appearing as a pile of danger from sharks, called out to
ruinous timber-Work. The sur him not to go any farther. At
face oi" her timbers is decayed, that moment the swell of the surf
but the. heart of them is soimd. hid him from Mr. Gray ; but
some of the party,v who Were
Not the least vestige of her guns,
standing higher on the shore, saw
anchors, spars, or masts,- was dis—
covered, and the Whole of her him on a sudden struggle and
head and rail-work has gone to sink. He rose again directly, and
pieres ; the guns niust have fallen cried out, “ A shark, ashark ; no
into the hull, among the wreck. joke, no joke, upon my honour, I
There is no bank or great accu am bit!“ .But he did not seem tobe
mulation of mud around her; much hurt, for he swam with
the hOllOWS in her hull contain agram strength towards the shore.
quantity of fine black muscose Lieutenant Gray rushed forward
mud, the natural sediment of the to his assistance, and just as they
tides. It Would not be difficult were near meeting, the shark
either to saw her in pieces or seized him again, but he was not
blow her up; but she cannot be pulled under water, and only
weighed in a body, from her di cried ou't-—-“ I am bit, I am bit."
lapidated unconnected state. The Mr. Gray then got hold of him,
hell, on being let down, touched and at that moment he saw the
on her larboard broadside, passed shark {make a third attack. They
round her bows, and was brought w‘ere now very near the shore,
up from her starboard broadside. and Mr. Gray, with the assistance
From the Ceylon Gatette.--lt is of another young man, succeeded
in
hdAY.] CHRONTCLE 43
in getting him on dry, land. He ever, saying, it came from a gen
had sunk upon his knees as they tleman aged 94, but whose name
were supporting him, and was would not be known till after his
endeavouring to speak, but could decease. The reason assigned for
only utter convulsive inarticulate the gift is the legacy duty being
sounds. They thought he was thus avoided. The College, it is
fainting, and got him some water, said, intend to apply the interest
which they pressed him to drink 5 of the money towards founding
he raised his head, opened his some new scholarships, and aug- '
lips, and attempted to swallow, mcnting. the income of some of
but instantly sunk down again, their fellowships.
and expired without a groan. The 30. The Literary and Debating
whole of the flesh, with all the Society of Cambridge, calling
blood-vessels, was torn away from themselves the Union, have print
the back of his left thigh, for a ed a list of their laws, regulations,
considerable space above the knee. subjects discussed during the two
The laceration was so dreadful, last years, and the numesof their
that Mr. Martin, the surgeon, .whoMembers. The latter amount to
hastened to see him on hearing of above 350 (including Honorary
the accident, declared it would Members), among whom are the
have been impossible to save him Earls of Denbigh and Brecknock;
had he been upon the spot. The Viscounts Kilworth, Normanhy,
great effusion of blood must have and \Veymouth ; Honourables
produced immediate death. He Shore, Stuart,.l\lelville, Bridgman,
did not, in fact, survive. above two Maitland, Yelvcrton, &c. &c. ; and
minutes. It is probable the fatal several Haronets-; and comprising
wound was given in the second or a great portion of the talent of the
third attack, when Lieut. Gray junior part of the University; se
saw the ravenous monster in the venty-seven who have taken their
act of seizing his unhappy vic Bachelor’s Degree, andtorty—nine
tim. The shark appeared to be who are. Masters of Arts. After
rather small, with a large head; having, in the most temperate and
but the water was so discoloured reapeetfnl language, expressed
with blood, that it could not be their deference to the- Constituted
distinctly seen. Authorities of the University, they
‘28. The Society of St. Peter‘s proceed to state the circumstances
College, Cambridge, have just re of their suppression by the.present
ceived an unexpected and mag Vice-Chancellor, after having been
nificent present of Q0,00()l. from permitted to hold their meetings,
an unknown benefactor. The on precisely the same principles,
Master and Fellows lately received but witha diilerent title, since the
letters requmting their attendance year 1506.
in London to receive the same. At In a remonstrance which they
the time and place appointed, they presented to the Vice-Chancellor,
met the agent of the donor, who, they informed him, that, “ by their
after regaling them with a hand regulations, they only assembled
some dinner, transferred the above to.debate one evening in the week ;
sum for the use of the society for that the discussion, on an average,
did
44 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1 817. [Joni-3.
did not exceed two hours in dura put down from political motives,
tion; that their meetings were only and that it has been guilty of sedi
held during one half of each term, tious meetings or treasonable lan
when they were hardly ever at guage.
tended by one half of the resident The Vice-Chancellor replied—
members; consequently each in “ That he did not think it neces
dividual, on an average, did not sary, or perhaps proper, to return
bestow on the society more than any answer to this statement."
ten hours in the year, and could
not possibly give more than forty;
that, so far from interfering with JUNE.
the studies of the place, their list
of members exhibits the names of From Kamtschatka, May 25, O. S.
three university scholars, seven —As in the whole east and north
Chancellor’s medallists, twelve east part of Siberia, it has hap
Browne‘s medallists, and several pened also in Kamtschatka, that
who had attained the highest ma in the course of last winter an in
thematical honours. They pro credible number of bears have left
fess themselves ready to exclude the woods, frequently entered the
from their debates, if they can be houses of the Kamtschadales, in
tolerated on no other terms, poli many places have attacked and
tical, as they always have done devoured the inhabitants ; nay,
theological subjects; and to submit traces have been found of their
to any regulation which may not having killed and devoured each
be utterly incompatible with their other, At the end of the winter
wish to practise themselves in many bears were found who had
speaking—a study which they hum perished with hunger. In several
bly conceive not to be utterly settlements they have killed from
useless." 2 to 300 bears. The oldest Kamts
It was farther submitted to the chadales do not remember ever to
Vice-Chancellor, “ that the exist have seen the bears so savage and
ence of a largespeaking society, bloodthirsty. The cause of this
forming" a weekly point of re savageness and of their hunger is,
union to its members, had ma— that for these two years past there
terially tended to diminish the has been an entire want of fish in
attendance on clubs and meetings, the Kamtschatka sea; and fish, as
whose conduct was likely to be less is well known, are the chief food
orderly, as their objects were less of the bears, which, being usually
intellectual than those of the so abundant‘in those waters, they
Union.“ easily contrive to catch.
They most earnestly requested, 3. About five o‘clock in the af
that their society might not be put ternoon, a dreadful occurrence
down precisely at this period, took place in Permian-square.
when the universal suppression of The Lady of Dr. Charles Dalston
societies bearing accidentally the Nevinson, after taking her usual
same name, might lead those un walk in the enclosure of the square,
acquainted with the University to had just closed the gate, and was
suppose that their club has been crossing the l'ootway upon her
‘ ‘ return
'JUNEJ CHRONICLE. 45
return home, when a horse draw burgh, feel themselves bound to
ing a gig took fright, and run call the attention of the Diet to an
ning with great fury, brought the object which is of the greatest im
shaft of the vehicle in contact with portance, not only directly to these
her head, and literally dashed it cities as well as to all other Ger
to pieces. The blood flowed pro man maritime states, but also to
fusely, and she died in a few mi the whole German federation. It
nutes after. The lady was the is already known, from the ac-
mother of three children. She counts in public papers, that piracy
was about thirty-three years of is carried on in an unheard of man
age, and extremely interesting. ner by Tunisian corsairs in the
Her remains were conveyed to her North sea and even in the Channel.
residence, and the scene of afllic It also appears from several offi
tion which they caused there to a cial reports, transmitted by the
husband and to children who were Chargés d‘Afiiiires and Consul of
most fondly attached to her, can the Hans Towns at Madrid and
not be described. Lisbon, that, according to formal
4. Philadelphia.—On Saturday communications made to them by
morning last, about seven o’clock, the Minister of the King of the
two miles above Point Coussee, Netherlands at the former, and by
the boiler of the steam-boat Con the French Consul-General at the
stitution burst, and destroyed all latter Court, several armed Bar
the most respectable passengers, bary corsairs, among which are in
amounting to eleven : although on particular twoTunisians, had sailed
the morning of the same day, at for the Atlantic, in order to cruise
four o'clock, but five of those un againstthe ships of the Hans Towns
fortunate gentlemen had actually and some other German States,
expired, there could not exist a hope but avowedly against Prussian
that any one of the eleven could ships ; and have expressly declared
survive, being completely scalded this design under the pretence that
and skinned from head to foot, they are in a state of war with
and the nerves contracted, and the these States.
extremities destroyed. On the 16th of last month the
22. The Barbary Pirates.— Hamburgh ship Ocean, with a
Fran/rfort.——On the 16th instant, cargo of great value, and the Chris
being the 35th meeting of the tiana, from Lubeck, and still more
Diet, was presented the following recently a Hamburgh and‘ an Ol
representation respecting the pi denburgh ship, both named Ca
racies of the Barbary corsairs :— tharina, were taken by these
The free cities of Lubeck, Frank pirates. Fortunately, British ships
fort, Bremen, and I—lamburgh :—— of war fell in with the robbers, and
The Minister 'of the said free cities carried both them and the vessels
has received orders from the Se they had captured into English
nates of the Hanse Towns to sub ports, whence the latter were per~
mit the following Memorial to the mitted to prosecute their respective
Diet :— voyages ; meanwhile the captain of
The Senates of the Hans Towns the ship Ocean, and five of his crew
of Lubeck, Bremen, and Ham~ who had been removed on board
> . another
‘46 ANNUAL REGISTER, l817. [Jimv E.
anotherpirate, remai n, in the hands part ofthe Atlantic. The abolition
of 'the Tunisians,‘and, so far as is of'the' piracy of the Barbary Pow
known, the Atlantic andthe North ers, even within those-limits, had
sea are still rendered insecure by become the anxious wish of all
the ravages of Tunisian eorsairs. Europe, and was an object to
“]t is, however, with gratitude to which the attention of the Powers
be acknowledged,that-England has assembled in Congress at Vienna
by her act, in this instance, de was directed. But how triflingis
clared, that she will not permit this partial evil when compared
such offences ‘to be committed on with "the incalculably mischievous
the seas which wash her coasts; consequences which may ensue, if
audit is to be hoped that the other these African pirates are,permittetl
'maritime Powers of Europe (to without interruption to soil from
whom the Senate of 'Hamburgh their infected coasts, and to spread
has already,ithrough their resident among distant countries the dis
Ministersat Hamburgh, addresssed cases which they carry along with
itself) will concur in adopting ac them ? So long as ,the danger was
tive measures for the restoration confined to the Mediterranean sea,
of the security- of navigation which its site was at least well known,
is so important to all Europe : but and precautionary measures were
the ‘Senates of the Hans Towusdo, adopted against -.it:; and though
notwithstanding, not only consider these measures of safety, together
it proper, but regard it as their with diminished competition, ne
'duty most urgently to claim from cessarily raised the price of. the
the high German‘Diet, and; all the productions of that part of the
members thereof, their powerful world, yet commerce, Ithough
co-opcration towards the total somewhat impeded, was never to
abolition of depredations \vhich‘are tally at a stand. A compléterstag—
calculated to interrupt all com nation of German navigation :and
merce by sea. German trade must hoWever Hike
The existence of the piracies of plaee‘if the Barbary pimtesmremot
the Barbary Powers, even within rig-o musly restrained "from attend
the limits to which their depre ing themselves to other Seas.
‘dations have hitherto been con Should they he suffered to cruise
fined, is doubtless, npublie injury irrt’n'ev Atlantic, the North-sea, and
to all Europe; and the compulsory the Baltic,if they are not prevented
exclusion thereby etl‘ected from from attacking merchants, who
"the Mediterranean, of the ships of during "the time of rely
’those German States which are with confidence on the law of na
unable to procure protection to tions, the re must be an end to'Ger
their flags, either'by a naval force, man navigation and commerce.
or by making considerable pecu it will also be henceforth useless
niary sacrifices, waspreviously 'not to send the produce and manu
only to themselves, but to those factures of Germany down the
interested in the trade which they rivers which communicate with
carry on, awevil of no small mag the North-sea and the Baltic, or
nitude, and which was besides even to convey them by land to the
increased by the insecurity of 'a different sea-ports, in order- that
they
Jenni CHRONICLE M
> they may be transported in vessels of trade. These pirates 'will be
to foreign countries. A similar come more audacious by being al
fate wsilzl await those articles des lowed to escape unpunished, and
tined to be imported intoGermany. to succeed in their desultory enter
The merchant pmteots himself by ipzrises. It is even probable, that
insurance against the ordinary during their cruises they may land
dangers to which vessels are usually on exposed and defenceless parts
exposed at sea. Even during ma of the German coast, and there
ritime-war, which is so injurious carry on their trade of plundering,
to commerce and navigation, the and kidnapping, and spread dis
\ same protection is to a certain de—
tress and devastation on every side.
gree obtained by higher premiums, In addition to all the disasters
although the payment of these pre~ der which Germany has groaned
miums is a heavy tax both on the for so long a period, may they not
manufacturer and the consumer; communicateto us the infection of
but they cannot possibly ensure their indigenous plague, the most
their property against the threat dreadful of all earthly calamities?
- ened attacks of the {Barbary :p'i What has already been stated will
rates. doubtless sufficiently account for
These pirates, who are totally the Se‘na-tes of the Hans-Towns
ignorant of the law-of nations, and having been induced to represent
who cruise for the expresspunpose to the Diet, that not merely those
of plunder, first announced their towns, but like“ ise evcry'maritimc
declaration of wan: by their attacks. and commercial State, and indeed
I t must notvbc supposed that these the whole German nation, are in
\essels are the property of :private terested in putting a stop to the
individuals; they arelitted out in doprcdotions of the'llarhary pirates.
execution of their laws. These The Scnntcs have reason to-hopc,
plunderers limit themselves to no that the revolting occurrences
#timc'or forms; they unexpectedly which have called forth this repre—
attack defeneclees merchants, and sentation will excite the utmost
.carry 01? not only 'pruPerty but indignation among the high and
men men ,- German fellow-citizens, illustrious members of the German
whose cries are re-cchoed from Confederation; and that not only
their native coasts, and whom these each individual member will exert
African pirates plunge into the himself to root out this evil, but
gloomy dungeons-of slavery. Dan “that the High Confederation, as a
gers of such a nature could never collective and European Power,
be anticipated, and consmluently will adopt every possible measure
no precautions have been adopted to put an end to these piracies,
against them. Occurrences of this which threaten the honour of the
nature have given rise to'feeliugs German flag and the welfare of the
of insecurity, which have inter German nation.
rupted navigation and commerce; Even though the German Con
for no one knows how long may federation possess, as afcderative
be the continuation of these atro body, no naval force, it is neither
cities, which have for the mean deficient in the power or means
while occasioned a total stagnation necessary :for effectually watching
Over
v'rI'7'

48 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817. [JUNE.


over the safety of German navi ner can that opinion be directed ?
gation; and the Hans Towns may The very first article of the Act of
justly entertain a hope, that a pro Confederation speaks of the invi
posal for the earnest consideration olability of the individual German
, of this important business will States, not of territories or do
meet the approbation of the Diet. minions. Since then the word
On the questions being put by the State is not now regarded as formed
President, all voices were una- merely of five alphabetic characters,
nimous in declaring, that their re but as representing honour, life,
spective High ,Courts and con liberty, property, and the security
stituents should he informed ofthese of individuals, their activity, and
circumstances, that they might their industry, the question of pro
adopt the most effectual means for tection is assuredly something i111
the protection of German com peratire: but the different branches
merce. The majority were of opi of the question as to the practica
nion that a commission, consisting bility of the protection, and its ex
of five members, should be chosen tent, are worthy of serious inves—
to prepare suitable propositions tigation. On the conclusion'of the
whereon to frame the report. Bourbon-Family-Compact, was it
rl‘he Ambassador of the King of ever asked whether it included the
the Netherlands delivered the fol repression of all offences and acts
lowing to the Protocol 1—— of injustice by sea and land 2 \Vhe
That we should on this occasion ther it related equally to merchant
consult all our Courts, and in par~ nien and ships of war? The retro
ticular the Great Courts, is beyond action and extension of the present
all doubt. The opinions of indi evils may not be’confined to the
viduals are of little importance; propagation of disease only, but
the question is, what ought to be may occasion bankruptcies and loss
done, and what it is possible to do? of confidence in consequence of the
I am not invested with unlimited execution of mercantile orders
powers on the part of the whole being impeded, which would not
united Netherlands ; but I will, fail to produce the suspension of
nevertheless, in this, and on all several branches of manufactures
occasions, agree with the majority in the interior.
when they vote for a commission; The Diet then proceeded‘to the
though ] never or very seldom election of the commission, and
connect with the institution of such thechoicefelluponCountvonGoltz,
a body the idea of more prompt liaron von Eyben, Baron von Ga
counsel, but only the expectation gern, Herr von Berg, and the Syn
of farther elucidation and greater dic Danz.
industry. I am therefore inclined, Resolution—That the Envnys,
as in every case which occurs here, (lount von Goltz, Baron von Eyben,
to develop all the grounds for and Baron vonG agcrn, Herr von Berg,
against the question, in order that and the Syndic Danz, be requested
the Courts may form their'views to submit a joint opinion on the
‘ on these investigations. In what most efficient precautions for se
way else can they hear public curing thc German navigation
opinion? Orin what better man— against the piracies of the Barbary
corsairs,
JUNEJ C.Hll()bll(lLll 49
corsairs, with a view to the report The answer was, that they were
to be made to' the Courts and con not guilty, and that they had not
stituents of the members of the fled for it.
Diet. Lord Ellenborough. —-Mr. At~
17. Court Qf King's Bench.— torney~ General, as there is no fur—
The King. '0. Preston, Thistlewood, ther charge against the prisoners,
and Hooper, for High Treason.— I shall order that they be dis
At half past 12 the Attorney charged.
and Solicitor-General entered the Thistlewood, Hooper, and Pres
Court. ton, were discharged accordingly,
The three prisoners above-nam and retired from the Court by a
ed were soon afterwards intro private way through the jury box.
duced by the warders of the A foreigner, attended by a per
Tower. son whom he styled his interpreter,
They were then informed by called at Messrs. Rundell and
the officer, in the usual form, Bridge's, Ludgate-hill, as he sta
that they must challenge the jury ted, to look out an assortment of
men as they came to the book to valuable diamonds, and other ar
be sworn, and a jury was imme ticles, in order to make a consi
diately called over and placed in derable purchase for a foreign
the box. market. He gave it- to be under
The prisoners, holding up their stood, that it would not be con—
hands, were arraigned for high venient to pay for them till the
treason by the master of the followingweek; but, to save trou
Crown Oflice, and the jury was ble when he came for them, he
charged with their trial. Procla wished to have the articles pre
mation was likewise made, after viously selected and agreed for,
which For the satisfaction of both par
The Attorney-General, address ties the interpreter signified that
ing their lordships, said, 1 rise Mr. Simon Blaum, the Geneva
for the purpose of informing the merchant, as he styled him, was
Court that it is not my intention desirous that the valuables, as
to call any evidence in support of they were bargained for, should
the Charges against the prisoners be put into a paper box which
at the bar. he had brought for that purpose,
Lord Ellenborough. — Gentle and then scaled up with his seal,
men of the' Jury, as no evidence and that of the house. The box
is brought forward against the was proposed, of course, to be de
prisoners, it will be your duty to posited with Messrs. Rundell and
find them not guilty, that they may Bridge. Much time was consumed
be discharged. in selecting the articles, and in
The prisoners again held up making out the bill of parcels,
their hands, and Mr. Barlow put' which presented altogether a sum
the question separately to the of no less amount than 24,0001.
Jury, whether they found the de Every thing being arranged, the
fendants guilty or not guilty, and foreigner and his interpreter took
whether they had tied for it. leave, with the assurance that
VOL- LIX. b they
50 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817, [Jewel
they would be punctual at the value of between ‘20 and 21,000l.
time. appointed, with. cash or un the rest, which consisted entirely
exceptionable bills. Two days over of pearls of a smaller size, were
andabove the time fixed for the put into a paper parcel, and
return of the foreigners having which he did not attempt to re
elapsed, it was thought necessary move. One diamond ne'cklac'e
to‘break the seals, in order to re which was carried Off was alone
store the “articles to their former valued at 10,280l. and a. pearl
places, when, to the utter asto necklace, of only ~37' pearls, Was
nishment of the jewellers, they worth 3,000 gnineas. The nego
found the box 'to contain a few tiation between the thie'ves and
English pence. It was now sup this respectable firm was coh
posed that the 'fraud must have ducted on behalf of the latter by
been committed by a quick change Mr. Rundell, jun. who set out
of__the boxes, after the valuables for Paris on Thurday last. The
had been deposited in one of fivit'eof the interpreter is in cus
them. On enquiry it was found tody inthis country.
that the foreign sharper had lodg 19. The Rev. David Evans, of
edua few nights at the Huntley Llanvigan, Breconshire, ,with his
Coffee-house, Leicester Square; eldest daughter, Mis‘s Caroline
and, according to the notice at Evans, a fine young lady about 20
the Alien-Qffice, he was to be years ofyage, Were crossing the
found at No. 6, Duke's-Place, river Usk,'at Skethrog-ford, on
Houndsditchb In contemplation of their way to dine with Sir Edward
the robbery, the villain .had pre H amilton, when thehorse on which
viously prepared himself with a they rode,‘getting his feet entang
passport for France. - led in the concealed root of a tree,
JFurther Account—It has been by which the animal was tlrrovm
stated that part of the jewels plun down, precipitated them into a
dered from theabove house have deep part of theiriver, and Miss
been traced and recovered, 'near Evans ‘sunkto rise, no more. Her
Bride-Lane, Fleet-Street. We are father saved himself with great dif
assui‘cd from undoubted authority, ‘ficulty‘ by clinging to the herse’s
that they have neither been traced tail, the animal dragging him
nor rccoVered. Many persons have ashore. The young lady, by the
asked how the thief could carry exertions of a shepherd in the em
about his person a box large e ploy of Mr. Ball, was got out
nough to contain 20,000l. worth shortly aftcrWards, but not till the
of jewels and pearls, without its vital spark was extinct. Imme
being discovered ; but their asto diately after the body was brought
nishment will in one respect cease on shore, the father, being on the
when they are informed, that it opposite side of the ~river, ex
was only 5 inches long, 3 wide, pressed the utmost anxiety to
and about ‘2 inches thick. The cross, and the poor shepherd kind
property the thief looked out was ly stripped, and endeavoured to
to‘ the value of ‘24,0001. but he cross the stream‘again, for the
only had put into the box to the purpose of bringing him over,
when
JUNEJ CHRONICLE 5i
when on reaching the spot where and of the mutilated and left for
he had just before taken up the dead were three men and two
dead body of Miss Evans, melan women. One of the 1‘2 men, the
choly to relate, the poor fellow woman, and the child, were of
sunk and also perished, leaving a one family. To the woman two
wife and child to lament his loss. alternatives were offered, one of
20. Extract of a Letter from which was instant death, which
William Porter, Esq. Consul of the she preferred. They then searched
United States at Palermo—You for money and other things 3 and
will probably have read in the actually, with all this carnage be
newspapers, before this reaches fore their eyes, cooked victuals,
you, an account of the piracy and and partook of a supper, and re
diabolical murders committed by mained on board the vessel until
six, abandoned wretches about six the next morning.
weeks ago, on the north of this In a few days afterwards, these
island. If, however, you should same wretches took another small
not have seen any statement of vessel, only a few miles distant
this cold-blooded business, the from this harbour, bound to one
following may serve. of the Lipari islands, and after
The miscreants armed them murdering three men, drove the
selves at Messina with muskets, remaining six under deck, nailed
sabres, and long knives, and pro down the hatches, and bored holes
ceeded to a place three or four for the purpose of sinking her;
miles distant from that city, where fortunately, however, a boy, who
they stole a small row-boat, and in the confusion had covered him-
embarked themselves, taking a di self with one of the sails, and was
not discovered by the villains, was
rection towards Melazzo, (thirty
five miles on the coast west of able, with the assistance of those
Messina), near which place, in below, to uncover the hatchway,
the afternoon, they took a station and the vessel was kept above
for the purpose of seizing upon a water until assistance was render
small vessel they knew to be ready ed by some fishermen.
to sail from Messina. for this The day after this second but
place, and on board of which they chery, the villains landed at one
likewise knew of several passen of the king‘s tunny-fish establish
gers on whom they supposed mo ments, about ten miles from this
ney might be found. city, and retreated to the moun
Soon after the approach of this tains. It was impossible, however,
vessel, these wretches, apparently that such monsters should long
as fishermen, rowed towards her, escape being apprehended. The
and at about half past 7 o'clock, orders of his Royal Highness the
being within reach of musket Hereditary Prince were prompt on
shot, a volley was fired into her. the occasion, and the measures
Shortly after they boarded her, immediately taken did away the
and in a few minutes murdered possibility of their escaping from
and mutilated every person on the island. -In a few days after,
board. Of the murdered Were 12 four of them were apprehended
men, one woman, and one child ; in this city; one has since been
E2 found
5‘2 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817'. [Juma
found in Messina, and the other provisions that were on board the
in a mountain near Catania. felucca. After this feast they left
The whole six were this morn the felucca, which they abandoned
ing expoSed to the view of the to itself. The same day she foun
inhabitants of Palermo. They have dered on the coast of Piraino. Out
confessed their crimes, and have of 21 persons who had embarked,
nothing now to wait for but the only eight arrived here in spite of
justice of this world, and the their wounds. Of these, two have
world to come.“ since died, and it is feared that
21 . Palermo.—-A frightful event,
the others will not long survive.
which makes all sensitive minds It appears that the same assas
tremble with horror, has been for sins who committed this horrible
some days the object of public violence on the felucca of Pietro
commiseration. A felucca, belong— la Camera, had perpetrated a se
ing to Petro la Camera, having cond outrage not less atrocious.
several passengers on board, had The captain, Don Bran, a Neapo
set out from Melazzo for this litan, in a little felucca, named
city. Scarcely had it left the har La Generosa, having eight sailors
bour, when it was assailed by a on board, sailed from Castella
bark carrying six armed pirates, mare for Lipari, and thence to
who boarded the felucca, mas Torrenauzza. After having ef
sacred the master and part of the fected the first part of this voyage,
sailors, and threw their bodies he had hardly sailed from Lipari,
overboard. In the mean time, the in the night of the 13th inst. when
other sailors had thrown them he was assailed by several armed
selves into the sea, in the hopes of men on board a row-boat. After
escaping from these robbers. Freed having fired several musket-shots,
thus from the crew, the pirates the assassins boarded the felucca,
occupied themselves with the pas murdered with sabres the captain
sengers, of whom they spared and two sailors, and seized on all
none; all received severe wounds. the property, and 1,000 ducats
M. lssidore Annett, a merchant, which the unfortunate captain had
was slain, and his body flung into brought from a sale at Lipari.
the sea. Several others, including These robbers remained all night
many females, died of their wounds . on board the felucca. On the fol
The pirates then cut with their lowing day they removed from the
sabres the sails and other objects coast, carrying with them seve
necessary for navigation, that the ral unfortunate passengers, whom
felucca should necessarily be sunk. they had not massacred, and whom
They plundered the passengers of they destined to frightful tor
all their effects and money, which ments. Fortunately the master,
amounted to the sum of about Mario Savona, excited by the cries
5,000 ounces, which, by means of of these unfortunates, was enabled
their little bark, they put on shore , to come to their assistance. He
and then, in the midst of the ter seized on the pirates, who are now
rific spectacle, surrounded by the actually in the hands of justice.
dead and dying, they made a re 24. Fire at Newfoundland, St.
past, in which they devoured the John’s, N. B.—On Wednesday the
18th;
JUNEJ CHRONICLE 53
18th, bctween ll and 12 a m. a such a message to the Synod of
most destructive fire broke out at Ulster ! Was he an elder? Had
Carbonear, on the premises oc be his credentials with him? \Vhat
cupied by a person named Barry: right had he to obtrude himself
the wind blew a heavy gale from officially on their deliberations?"
the westward, which scattered the The Rev. Mr. C. concluded by
flaming fragments like a shower proposing a declaratory act, that
over the town. The methodist they considered the education of
chapel (nearly half a mile from students as a. matter of ecclesias
the spot where it commenced) was tical discipline, in which they are
in a few moments totally con determined to admit of no inter
sumed, from some of the burning ference whatever. Allusions in the
matter alighting amongst shavings debate are made to a letter of
in the church-yard. The parson Mr. Peel’s, and to some other in
age-house providentially escaped. terference with the academical
From the chapel the fire was car institution at Belfast. After long
ried half a mile further, and de discussion, in which many of the
stroyed a house inhabited by clergy spoke, the motion was car
Thomas Clark, at Crocker's-cove. ried by a great majority; and the
In the mean time 15 houses in Synod, immediately after, elected
town were totally destroyed. We the Rev. Mr. Hay to the vacant
have not heard of any lives being Professorship of Divinity.
lost. ‘27. A genteel young man of the
General Synod of Ulrich—At a name of Whitehead was drowned
meeting of this Presbyterian As in the New River, a short dis
sembly, held on Friday, June ‘27 th, tance from lslington. He had
the Rev. Mr. Carlyle moved for ventured with a companion to
the reading of the report of a de swim under what is called the
putation to Lord Castlereagh, re Dark Arch, when about midway
specting the education of the Pro he was heard suddenly to cry
testant Presbyterian students for out and make a struggle in the
the church. Lord Castlereagh had water. His companion, not be
asked whether this was a matter ing an expert swimmer, became
of discipline, which it certainly alarmed, and made the best of his
was, as the education included not way back to the shore, and called
merely the classic languages, or out for help. Some people, who
even theology, but moral educa were haymaking near the spot,
tion also. He observed, that at hastened to the assistance of Mr.
Cookstown, an individual, styling \Vhitehead, and waited at the op
himself Lord Castlereagh, stated, posite end of the arch to that at
by verbal messages, that “ Go which he entered, in the hope of
vernment might regard their elect his making his appearance, in
ing a professor to teach their stu stead of which they observed the
dents in theology as an act of body of a man floating on the
hostility to them, and they were water, with all his clothes on.
therefore required to desist." On dragging it on shore, they
“ Who, or what was this Lord found that the person must have
Castlereagh, that he should send been some days in the water.
\
They
5i ANNUAL REGISTER, 1817.
They looked in vain for Mr.White
head, who had sunk to rise no JULY.
more. His body, on being drag 1. The following particulars re
ged for, was found about three specting the fire, on the lst in
hours afterwards. The deceased stant, at Ufiington-house, the seat
was considered an expert swim of Earl Lindsey, near Stamford,
mer, and has been known to swim are copied
Mercury .-— from the Stamford
i
nearly a mile at a time. His be
ing drowned is supposed to be The Marchioness of Downshire,
owing to his having come sud with her daughters, the Ladies
denly in contact with the dead Hill, had arrived on a visit to the
body already mentioned, the sight Earl and Countess of Lindsey, on
of which had so terrified him as to Monday night: being fatig'ued
deprive him of his faculties. with travelling, the marchioness
Richmond Steam Yacht—On retired early, and the whole of the
the 28th, about half-past six family at the Hall were in bed
o‘clock, the steam boiler of the by half-past twelve o’clock. At
above packet burst at the top, and about two in the morning, the Earl
injured three persons in 3. dan of Lindsey being indisposed, his
gerous manner. The yacht was countess got up to administer me
injured on Saturday week in a dicine to him; and having occa
slight degree, and had been re sion to pass into the next room,
paired to render it fit to perform her ladyship was alarmed by the
its passage. It fortunately had smell of fire. She called up the
no persons on board at the time housekeeper, Mrs. Vaughan, who,
the event occurred, except the as soon as possible, descended
persons who navigate and conduct into the kitchen, and there disco
it. The shock was very great, but vered that a large table standing
the injury done to the vessel was in the middle of the apartment
very slight. The top of the engine was on fire. The flames had got
boiler was blown 05' by the ex great hold of the solid table, and
plosion. The yacht had been pre several of the drawers were partly
pared to sail on Monday. The burnt, and their contents con
conductors had been rowing it up sumed. With much resolution
the river; and when it had got Mrs. Vaughan immediately pro
about 100 yards above Westmin cured water, and in a short time
ster-bridge, the accident unfortu succeeded with assistance, in extin
nately took plate. Mr. Arnold, guishing the fire. All danger, it
the conductor of the yacht, was was hoped, was then over; but
near the boiler when it burst, and on looking up, Mrs. Vaughan per
was injured in a shocking manner. ceived through a window which
Two labourers belonging to the commands the kitchen from the
yacht were injured in a less de housekeeper's room, that the lat
gree. They were all conveyed on ter apartment was in a blaze;
shore by a waterman, who was and, on entering it, the window
near when the accident happened, curtains were found to be on fire;
and taken to St. Thomas‘s hospi and it was also discovered, that a
tal, in the Borough. large closet, in which a quantity
' of
101.11.] CHRONICLE. 55
of table and bed-linen, and some that when ofi’ Whitstable, which
'Valuable china, were deposited, is 18 miles from the port of des—
was greatly damaged; some of the tination, she was discovered to he
shelves were quite burnt through, on fire; at this time she was also
and the linen was consumed : the three miles from the main land.
china also was made so hot, that As a vessel of this deseription
some of the persons whom the never carries a boat larger than
ringing of the bells in the village, sufficient to hold her own crew,
and the alarm of fire, had brought which seldom exceeds a" dozen
to the Hall, broke many costly persons, the consternation of be
plates, and other articles, by drop tween 40 and 50 passengers may
ping them in endeavouring to be better conceived than describ
remove them. The fire, thus'per ed. The fire was discovered to
ceived, was soon subdued, but the proceed from the furnaces used
cause of it, and the extraordinary for the boilers of