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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the award of the degree

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(ca' X20208 .eo®e'e d
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ROORKEE - 24T 667 (INDIA.)
JUNE, 201,0

I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in this dissertation work, entitled,
requirements for the award of the degree of Master Of Technology in "Alternate Hydro Energy
Systems", submitted in Alternate Hydro Energy Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee is
an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period from July 2009 to June 2010
under the supervision of Dr.M.P.Sharma, and Dr.R.P.Saini , Associate Professor, Alternate
Hydro Energy Center,Roorkee.

I have not submitted .the matter embodied in this dissertation for award of any other degree.

Date: June, ,2010



This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my

Dr.M.P.Sharma r.R.P.Saini
Associate Professor, Associate Professor,
Alternate Hydro Energy Center, Alternate Hydro Energy Center,
Indian Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Technology,
Roorkee, 247667 Roorkee, 247667

It is my proud privilege to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. M.P.Sharma and

Dr.R.P.Saini, Associate Professor, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of
Technology Roorkee for his kind cooperation, invaluable guidance & constant inspiration
throughout the dissertation work.
I also express my heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Arun Kumar, Head, Alternate Hydro
Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee for his motivation and full
cooperation during the work of dissertation.
I am also grateful to all faculty members and staff of Alternate Hydro Energy Centre,
Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
I extend my thanks to all classmates who have given their full cooperation and valuable
suggestions for my dissertation work.
Last but not the least, I would like to thanks all my friends who have helped me directly or
indirectly during my dissertation work.

Dated: June ,2010



In India, in spite of the highest priority given to rural electrification, about 80,000 villages
remain yet to be electrified. Most of these villages are located in remote areas, with very low
load densities. In remote areas where transmission of grid power is totally uneconomical, off
grid electrification can be undertaken through renewable energy systems such as Gasifier
In present study, the 5kW downdraft gasifier coupled to engine-generator is used for
electrification. Performance analysis of biomass gasifier instated at RET Park, AHEC are carried

The proximate analysis of wood is carried out having the moisture contain of 12% on
wet basis having fixed carbon, volatile matter and ash contained as 16%, 82%, and 1%
respectively. The calorific value of the wood was measured as 4404 kcal kg" '.

Biomass consumption at different load, load 1kW, 2kW, 3kW, and 4kW 1.5, 3, 3.5,
4, and 4.5 kg/hr respectively. Overall efficiency of biomass gasifier system operated on 100%
producer gas mode has been found as 12.5% at 4kW load whereas at 1kW, 2kW, 3kW load
conditions, the values of efficiencies has been observed as 9.38%, 10%, and 11.25 %

Further an attempt has also made to analysis that energy cost for higher capacity of
systems. Energy cost for 100 % producer gas mode of operation for 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40kW of
systems has been found as Rs.23.44/,Rs.19.11/,Rs.16.15/, Rs.15.66/, and Rs.14.72/kWh
respectively. However the values for dual fuel mode are found as Rs.26.08, Rs.22.52, Rs.18.84,
Rs.18.58, and Rs.17.59/kWh respectively and for diesel mode as Rs.29.36, Rs.25.96, Rs.22.28,
Rs.21.93, and Rs.20.98/kWh respectively.




1.10.1 SPV based power system 9 Types of SPV system 9 Grid connected 9 Off grid connected 9
1.10.2 Wind Energy System 9
1.10.3 Small Hydro Energy 10
1.10.4 Ocean Energy 10
1.10.5 Geothermal Energy 11
1.10.6 Biomass Energy 12 Conversion Of Biomass To 12
Electricity Technical Option

iv Biomass gasification efforts in India 14 Application of gasifier 15 Generation of Producer gas 15 Production of mechanical or electrical 15
power .3 Large scale applications (500 kW and 15
above) .4 Medium scale applications (30 -500 kW 15 .5 Small-scale applications (7 - 30 kW) 15 .6 Micro scale applications (1 - 7 kW) 16


2.1.1 Biomass characteristics 18
2.1.2 Performance of various Gasifiers 20
2.1.3 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Engine 23
with Producer Gas


3.1 GENERAL 27
3.2.1 The advantages of gasification are 28
3.2.2 Gasification Process 28 Drying 29 Pyrolysis 29 Oxidation 29 Reduction 30
3.3.1 Up draught or counter current gasifier 30
3.3.2 Downdraught or co-current gasifier 32

3.3.3 Cross-draught gasifier 33
3.3.4 Fluidized bed gasifier 34
3.4.1 Gasifier Reactor 36
3.4.2 Cleaning System 36
3.4.3 Cooling System 37
3.4.4 Gas supply manifold 37
3.4.5 Gas Engine 37
3.4.6 Generator 39


4.1 General 40
4.1.1 Proximate and ultimate analysis 40 Physical Properties 41 Chemical Properties 42
4.2 Stoichiometric Air Requirement For Combustion 46
4.3 Actual Air Requirement For Gasification 46
4.4 Post-Treatment Of Producer Gas 46
4.5 Gas Cleaning And Gas Conditioning 47
4.5.1 Gas composition analysis 48 Gas chromatograph 48 Orsat Gas Analysis 48

4.6 Gas Production Rate And Air Flow Rate In The System 48

4.7 Temperature Measurement 49

4.8 Pressure Measurement 49

4.9 Gasifier Efficiency Calculations 50

4.9.1 Hot Gas Efficiency 50
4.9.2 Cold Gas Efficiency 50
4.9.3 Overall Electrical Efficiency 50


4.10.1 Capacity utilization factor of biomass Gasifier Power 52
4.10.2 Capital cost of biomass gasifier power project 52
4.10.3 Levelized unit cost of electricity 52


5.1 General 54
5.2 System Description 54
5.2.1 Gasifier 55
5.2.2 Cooling unit 55
5.2.3 Cleaning Unit 56
5.2.4 Engine Generator unit 56
5.3 Performance Analysis Of Gasifier Engine Genrator System 56
5.3.1 Performance evaluation of gasifier 56 Properties of feed stock 57 .1 Physico chemical properties 57 .2 Stoichiometric air analysis for wood chips 58
5.4 Assessment Of The Efficiency Of Gasifier Engine Generator 59
5.5 Cost analysis calculations 62



Table no. Description Page no.

1.1 Renewable Energy Potential and Achievement in India 5

2.1 Proximate analysis of Eucalyptus, Leuceana leucocephala and 19

2.2 Performance analysis of open core throatless downdraft rice husk 20
5.1 Specifications of gasifier based power generating system 55

5.2 Technical Specification of Engine 56

5.3 57
Physical properties and proximate Composition of eucalyptus

5.4 Elemental Composition of the eucalyptus wood 57

5.5 Stoichiometric air analysis for eucalyptus combustion 58

5.7 Air requirement for combustion of wood 58

5.8 Input Power 59

5.9 Output Power 60

5.10 Overall Efficiency 61

5.11 Base values of input parameters used for techno-economic 62

evaluation of biomass gasifier project
5.12 Cost of electricity with different mode of operation 63

5.13 Cost details of biomass gasifier systems 65


Figure No. Description Page No.

1.1 India Installed Power Capacity 4

1.2 Typical Wind Energy System 10

1.3 Typical Arrangement of Small Hydro Power 11

1.4 Schematic Geothermal Power Plant 12

3.1 Complete Gasification Process 28

3.2 Conversion of biomass into Producer gas 29

3.3 Up draught or counter current gasifier 31

3.4 Downdraught or co-current gasifier 32

3.5 Cross-draught gasifier 34

3.6 Fluidized bed gasifier 35

3.7 Biomass Gasifier System 37

5.1 Biomass Gasifier (5kW) Power generating set up 54

5.2 Biomass consumption rate with different load 59


5.3 Variation of electrical output with different load 60


5.4 Overall Efficiency of Biomass Gasifier with 61

different load conditions

5.5 Cost of electricity with different mode of operation 64


Energy is a crucial input in the process of economic, social and industrial development
and is the key to industrial development for the promotion of economic and social wellbeing
of the world population. The growth of world population, coupled with the improved
standard of living, has escalated the growth of energy usage since the turn of this century.
The consumption of world's fossil fuel is a pulse action of a relatively short duration in long
history of human existence. It took millions of years for the earth to fertilize and to store
fossil fuels in convenient forms, but the present human population may take only 300 to 400
years to use them up completely. The rapid increase in energy usage during the past 50 to
100 years cannot continue indefinitely as the earths finite supply are likely to exhaust.
The fossil fuels have powered the tremendous industrial and economic development of
the developed countries. The oil crisis of 1973 served the warning that fossil fuels were
neither inexhaustible nor any cheaper. This holds true for oil and natural gas too. The
developing countries, like India, were the ones who were the most severely hit by this crisis
and added to their problems for rapid - industrial development.
Energy has become an integral part of development of a society, as it is required for
agriculture, drinking water supply, lighting, healthcare, tele-communication, and industrial
activities and for all aspects of everyday life. Provision of lighting and cooking energy for
rural and remote areas is still a major issue in many developing countries including India.
The overall electricity consumption in India is quite low, as evident from the national
average per capita electricity consumption of about 350 kWh per annum. There is also
disparity in the electricity consumption in the urban and rural areas. Owing to about 80% of
the population live in rural areas and consume only 30% electricity in Indian context.


Oil, Coal and Natural Gas are Non-Renewable energy sources and are a limited supply
on the planet Earth. About 80% of conventional energy sources used in the world as well as
in India out of total energy consumption is derived from fossil fuels.
The world's conventional energy sources i. e. Coal, Oil and Natural gas reserves are
1,081,279 million short tons, 1034.673 billion barrels and 6,126.634 trillion cubic feet

respectively, Productions are 5,624,827 thousand short tons/year, 75,226 million barrels/day
and 2,569 trillion cubic meter respectively and consumptions are 5,174.47 million short
tons/year, 28,460 million barrels/day and 82.2 trillion cubic feet respectively. The India's
conventional energy sources i. e. Coal, Oil and Natural gas reserves are 2,76,110 million
tons, 732.20 million tons and 793.0 billion cubic feet respectively, Productions are 352.60
million tons/year, 32,032 thousand tons/day and 29,714 million cubic meter respectively and
consumptions are 330.90 million tons/year, 22916 thousand tons/day and 28,037 million
cubic meters respectively.
Comparison to World, India's reserves, production and consumption of Coal, Oil and
Natural gases i. e. reserves are 28.14%, 0.54% and 0.02% respectively, productions are
14.74%, 0.32% and 0.001 % respectively and consumptions are 7.1%, 0.61% and 0.03%
respectively. These reserves of fossil fuels can be considered part of the balance sheet of the
global energy financial statement. The Conventional energy sources contribute nearly 80%
of the world's total energy consumption. The renewable energy sources, such as Nuclear,
Hydroelectric, Geothermal and Solar, all together to make up between 15-20% of world's
energy consumption. There are so many drawbacks of conventional energy sources like rapid
depletion, which will create a severe unbalance situation in the world energy scenario. It is
an exhaustible source of energy. Also severe environmental pollution and initial generation I
period and cost is more. It can be endangered by foreign power since it is not informally
available in the world.


Electricity is one of the most vital infrastructure input for the economic development of
a country. The structure, ownership patterns, and regulatory set-up of the power sector has
witnessed radical change, especially in the past few years as part of the ongoing reform
programme, with the establishment, unbundling, and advent of privatization in some states.
The total installed capacity of power generation through various sources (as on
February 2009) is about 147.72 GW with gross generation of more than 700 billion kWh
[1].The thermal power contribution to this is 63% followed by hydropower contributing
25%. The share of nuclear power is the smallest with 3%, and the power generation through
renewable sources contributes the remaining 9% [2].Presently the generation capacity is far
insufficient to meet the demands. Although per capita electricity consumption in India during
the past 5 years has risen from 566.7 to 704.2 kWh, it is still far below the global average of
2000 kWh [3]. Currently, the estimated average gap between supply and demand of

electricity (peak demand) is about 14%. The transmission and distribution losses are
estimated between 26 and 32%.
In January 2003, India had an installed generating capacity of nearly 107 GW. This
includes thermal (coal, gas, and liquid fuel), hydro, nuclear, and wind power. Out of the total
installed capacity, 90% is owned by the public sector (60% under state government and 30%
under the central government) and the balance (10%) by the private sector. The annual
electricity generation in the utilities is presently about 500 BU (billion units). There is also a
constituency of captive power generation, to the tune of 14000 MW (1998/99) as per the
government estimate.


Now-a-days, India with more than a billion people is facing the challenge of achieving
growth and development in a sustained manner. Economic growth and development call for
huge capacity additions in the energy infrastructure of the country. The challenge is to
achieve the developmental objectives without adversely impacting the environment, natural
resources, wild life and climatic conditions. Presently, the fossil fuels, mainly coal and oils
are being used in the commercial sector while biomass is being used in ion, an inefficient
manner in domestic and rural sectors. However, the limitations of fossil fuels are too
obvious. Coal reserves is expected to last 200 years and the oil reserves would have dry up
much before at the present rate of consumption. This situation has forecast a change in our
national energy strategy. More compelling than the diminishing reserves are the
environmental reasons. Today, development based on commercial fuels with current rates of
pollution and deterioration in natural resource base is not sustainable. Threat from GHG
(Green House Gas) has caused worldwide concern. Kyoto Protocol, agreed at the Conference
of Parties to the Framework Convention to Climate Change, in December 1997, is an
indicator of global resolve to address this concern. In India the electric power generation is
the largest source of GHG emissions and accounts for about 48% of the carbon emitted into
the atmosphere. These concerns point towards more rational energy use strategies.
The country like India having diverse climatic regions is well endowed with renewable
energy resources. From the woody tropical forests of Andaman's to Sunny mountains in
Ladakh, the renewable seem to play a crucial role in meeting energy needs in
centralized/decentralized manner. Dwindling fossil fuels, the impact of oil imports on
foreign exchange reserve and the national energy security concerns are additional stimulants
for greater thrust on renewable energy.
India has a large potential for utilization of renewable energy. The scale of
economically exploitable potential will depend largely on the technologies, financing and the
implementation strategies of renewable energy projects. As per the Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy (MNRE), a potential of about 100,000 MW exists in the country [1].

Fig 1.1 India Installed Power Capacity [1]

From the Fig. 1.1 it is seen that in India's power capacity for coal, large hydro is 52%
and 25% respectively, whereas renewable energy contributes 9% in comparison with natural
gas 10% and nuclear energy is 3%.
The breakup of energy resources is presented in the table- 1.1 .From table 1.1 it is
seen that total cumulative renewable energy achievement on March 2010 from grid
interactive is 16816MW and from off grid is 403MW.

Table 1.1 Renewable Energy P tial a Achievement in India, March 2010[1].

Sources/ System Approximate Potential(MW)

Grid Interactive
Wind Power 11807

Small Hydro Power `2,735

(Upto 25 MW)
Bagasse CHP 1334

Biomass 865

Waste to energy 65

Solar Power 10

Off Grid
Biomass Power 232

Biomass Gasifier 122

Waste to energy 47

Solar PV 2

TOTAL 17219


The importance of the increased use of renewable energy, to meet the increasing
energy demand in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner, was recognized in the
early seventies. In fact, the Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs), such as, biogas plants
and improved cook stoves were available in India even in the late forties, though the
renewable energy programme was started in earliest only after the creation of CASE
(Commission on Additional Sources of Energy) in 1980, and then the DNES (Department of
Non-conventional Energy Sources) in September, 1982 [4]. Over the last twenty-five years
or so, the initiative on increased use of renewable energy in various sectors and applications
strengthened significantly. A continued thrust towards wider use of renewable energy
devices at domestic, community, commercial and industrial levels not only resulted in
greater awareness but also significant installed capacities.
During the eighties, the DNES (Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources)
programmers, were 'driven by direct Government subsidies and focused on the development,

dissemination, and demonstration of various Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs).
However, in comparison with the conventional sector, these programmers were low in
investments in RET promotion. Between 1980 and 1992, the cumulative government
expenditure for the renewable energy sector totaled only Rsll .55 billion, as compared to
Rs812 billion for the power sector, Rs35 billion for the petroleum sector, and Rs158.5 billion
for the coal sector. Likewise, in the Eighth Plan (1992-97), the allocations for renewable
energy were about 0.8% of the total funds allocated for the energy sector.
In the late eighties and early nineties, the realization grew that somehow private sect
had to be involved to achieve greater penetration of renewable in the energy sector. Instead
pushing renewable in a limited way through a subsidy driven programmed, it was that the]
was a need for appropriate policy framework and fiscal benefits which could create
environment a encouraging private sector to invest in renewable energy projects. It was
envisaged that the role of the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) had
to change from that of an implementing agency to facilitator. As a result, the Department of
Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) was converted into a full-fledged Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in July 1992. Since 1992, the Ministry initiative has
been largely in the direction of creating an environment that facilitated greater penetration of
renewable through a market led approach.


It is widely recognized that renewable energy technologies are environmentally benign,
capable of meeting various energy needs including direct electrical power generation. The
Government of India recognized the importance of increasing the use of renewable energy.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is looking after the overall planning
and programmed formulation as well as overseeing the implementation of various
programme activities in India. MNRE formulates various programs including then details of
the schemes for central government assistance, for promoting the setting up of at renewable
energy programs in the respective states. The state level utilities (State Electricity Boards,
State Renewable Energy Development Agencies etc.) are also involved in the
implementation of grid interactive power generation projects as well as other programmers.


The spread of various renewable energy technologies has been aided by a variety of re
fiscal and other support measures. The policy is clearly directed towards a greater thrust on


an overall development and promotion of renewable energy technologies and applications.

There is recent policy measures provide excellent opportunities for increased investment in
this sector, a technology up gradation, induction of new technologies, market development
and export of promotion. There are a host of benefits available to both manufacturers and
users of renewable energy systems. These include:

(i.) 100% depreciation for tax purposes in the first year of the installation of the systems.
(ii) No excise duty on manufacture of most of the finished products.
(iii) Low import tariffs for capital equipment and most materials and components.
(iv) Soft loans (2.5%-10.3%) to manufacturers and users.
(v) Years tax holiday for power generation projects.
(vi) Remunerative price for the power generated through renewable energy systems, fed to
the grid.
vii) Banking and wheeling of power.
viii) Third party sale of renewable power.
To encourage power generation from renewable, the MNRE has been working
closely with State Governments and State Electricity Boards/State power corporations to
evolve conducive policies for renewable energy projects. As a result, more than 12 States
have announced their policies for setting up of renewable projects in their state.
The Ministry is in the process of formulating a comprehensive energy policy, which
will deal with various policy issues relevant to development and large scale diffusion of
renewable energy technologies, develop and implement innovative self-sustaining packages
for diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems in the State. Encouraged by the success of the
programmer, the State Government has declared the Sagar Island in the Sunderban area as a
"Solar Island" which has been electrified primarily through solar photovoltaic. Further the
Prime Minister of India has announced a goal of 10 percent share for RE or 10,000 MW in
the power generation capacity to be added during the period up to 2012.


Nearly 80% of India's population lives in villages. As per MNRE annual report 2001-
2002, about 18,000 villages in remote and difficult areas of the country are not electrified by
extension of grid due to high capital cost, voltage drop and T&D losses. Therefore, for
powering such remote area, the second alternative appears to be viable, i.e. the concept of,
`Independent Rural Power Producing system', which could effectively bring affordable

power and energy services to these areas. These independent power-producing units may the
sources of non-conventional or renewable energy base power generating system.


Renewable Electricity is the electricity produced by using Renewable energy
technologies such as SPV, Biomass gasifier, cogeneration, wind energy, geothermal etc.
Apart from that the electricity may also be produced using new technologies like fuel cells,
hydrogen gas operated engines, bio fuel based power generation systems, tidal energy, and
current energy etc. [2]
These technologies are capable of providing renewable electricity having power
quality comparable to that of grid quality. The power quality requires supplying of AC at
230/415 volt at 50 Hz There should be no distortion in the voltage and the current wave
forms (harmonics), least voltage fluctuation etc.
The renewable energy system technology can be used to generate and distribute the
electricity in two ways: ,
a) Grid Connected mode
b) Off- Grid Connected mode
In the first case, the electricity generated is fed to the grid for the distribution to the
consumers whereas in the ,off-grid system, the power generated by the sources is directly
distributed to the users. In the light of rural electrification program of Govt. of India, the off-
grid renewable projects are the only hope to energize the rural homes in rural areas.

1.10.1 SPV based power system

The photovoltaic (PV) process converts sunlight directly into electricity. The
equipment required for this process has no moving -parts and as a result requires minimum
maintenance. In addition, the electricity is generated with no emissions and no noise. The
basic power-generating element is a photovoltaic module. Modules are made out of
photovoltaic cells. A photovoltaic cell consists of semi conducting material, most commonly
silicon. When the cell is exposed to light, electrical' charges are generated and this can be
conducted away by metal contacts as direct current (d.c.). The electrical output from a single
cell is around , therefore multiple cells are connected together to provide a more
useful output. Photovoltaic cells connected in this way are encapsulated to form a
weatherproof photovoltaic module. Multiple photovoltaic modules can be connected

together, called a photovoltaic array, in order to provide sufficient power for common
electrical uses. Types of SPV systems Grid connected
Renewable energy devices such as PV modules and wind turbines arc also being used
on a small scale in areas where the electricity grid is available. People who want to make a
contribution to the generation of renewable energy usually own these Systems, or they are
demonstration sites set up by electricity utilities or equipment manufacturers. The output
from the renewable energy conversion devices is exported to the grid (after being converted
to AC at the correct voltage and synchronized with the grid frequency) during times of
excess supply. The home or building owner therefore may receive credit for the generated
electricity that is offset against the imported power. The rate at which the utility will buy
back the renewable energy varies, with some utilities operating a net metering system, where
each kWh generated is equivalent to one imported from the grid, whilst other utilities pay a
price that is a premium over fossil fuel generated electricity but lower than that charged to
domestic customers.
There are different types of SPV systems like stand-alone do system (decentralized
supply i.e. SHSs), SPV-Engine generator system, Utility inertia system,, and SPV-Diesel
hybrid system etc. Off-grid connected

Off-grid systems generate and supply electricity at the point of use and do not require
the use of existing distribution network; instead they may have their own mini grid mainly le
consisting of a network of low-tension lines to supply electricity within a limited perimeter.
The simplest off-grid project is based on solar home systems that are used worldwide for a
household lighting and entertainment such as TV and radio.

1.10.2 Wind Energy System

India's wind power potential has been assessed at 45000 MW. The current technical
potential is estimated at about 3000 MW, assuming 20% grid penetration, which would
increase with the augmentation f grid capacity in potential states.
The Wind Power Pro ammecf in India was initiated towards the end of the Sixth
Plan, in 1983-84. The prograhmed aims at survey and assessment of wind resources, setting

up demonstration projects, and provision of incentives to make wind electricity competitive.

As a result, wind electricity has emerged as an option for grid-quality power generation. The
costs in respect of wind monitoring stations are shared between the Ministry of New and
Renewable Energy and the state nodal agencies in the ratio of 80:20 (90:10 for north-eastern

FtQSO( With
kalarJQa "ralor

Cicl:ut Gr"km

r C So AC cn•+artnr

Na~eds i O raa3
HatSesy Sysicm
[71iic~ncet ~~aal; ,rncn3
s _ 5v+itcn

l Turbine
TL+v~ er Sr+ieafa

Fig 1.2 Typical Wind Energy System

1.10.3 Small Hydro Energy

Hydro power is the largest renewable energy resource being used for the generation
of electricity. In India, hydro power projects with a station capacity of up to 25 megawatt
(MW) each fall under the category of small hydro power (SHP). India has an estimated SHP
potential of about 15000 MW, of which about 11% has been tapped so far.
The Ministry of New and renewable Energy (MNRE) supports SHP project
development throughout the country. So far, 523 SHP projects with an aggregate installed
capacity of 1705 MW have been installed. Besides these, 205 SHP projects with an
aggregate capacity of 479 MW are under implementation. With a capacity addition, on an
average, of 100 MW per year and gradual decrease in gestation periods and capital costs, the
SHP sector is becoming increasingly competitive with other alternatives. Small hydro power
scheme as shown in Fig. 1.3.

1.10.4 Ocean Energy

The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and
mechanical energy from the tides and waves. Ocean thermal energy can be used for many

applications, including electricity generation. Electricity conversion systems use either the
warm surface water or boil the seawater to turn a turbine, which activates a generator.

Fig 1.3 Typical Arrangement of Small Hydro Power

The electricity conversion of both tidal and wave energy usually involves mechanical
devices. A dam is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water
through turbines, activating a generator. Meanwhile, wave energy uses mechanical power to
directly activate a generator, or to transfer to a working fluid, water, or air, which then drives
a turbine/generator. Most of the research and development in ocean energy is happening in

1.10.5 Geothermal Energy

The Earth's core, 6437 kilometres below the surface, can reach temperatures of 4982°
C. This heat—geothermal energy—flows outward from the core, heating the surrounding
area, which can form underground reservoirs of hot water and steam. These reservoirs can be
tapped for a variety of uses, such as to generate electricity or heat buildings. By using
geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), we can even take advantage of the shallow ground's stable
temperature for heating and cooling buildings. The geothermal energy potential in the
uppermost 9.6 kilometre of the Earth's crust amounts to 50,000 times the energy of all oil
and gas resources in the world.

Fig. 1.4 Schematic of Geothermal Power Plant

1.10.6 Biomass Energy

Biomass (fuel wood, crop residue, cattle dung) has always been an important energy
source, even in the past. As coal and petroleum took major share in the industrial age, the
importance of Biomass dwindled. However, in India, though the energy scenario in India
today indicates a growing dependence on the conventional forms of energy, about 32% of
the total primary energy use is still using biomass and more than 70% of the country's
population depends upon it for its energy needs.
The three main technologies being promoted by the Ministry of New and renewable
Energy (MNRE) for productive utilization of biomass are bagasse-based cogeneration in
sugar mills, biomass power generation, and biomass gasification for thermal and electrical
applications. Conversion Of Biomass To Electricity: Technical Option

There are essentially six possible technologies for converting biomass to electricity
are: Gasifier with generator coupled to IC engine (with producer gas), Biomass boiler-steam
engine, Biomass boiler-steam turbine, BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined
Cycle) with either steam or gas turbine, Biomethanation followed by IC engine (with
methane), External combustion engine [5].

Steam engines were considered robust for installation and operation in rural areas.
However, this technology suffered major setback due to implementation of the regulations
regarding certified operators for the boilers and non-availability of engines.
BIGCC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) with steam-injected gas
turbine was expected to have much higher conversion efficiency. But development of this
technology was not marked. Most of these projects aimed at linking producer gas to steam
turbines could not proceed beyond gasifier design. The concept of bagasse gasification also
did not show much potential for commercial implementation. The only viable technologies
for commercialization of electricity production from biomass are: Biomass gasification
coupled with an IC engine operating on producer gas and boiler-steam turbine route (or
cogeneration) .
The technology of biomass gasification is suitable for distributed and decentralized
generation in remote villages. A single biomass gasification unit can generate up to 500 kW
powers, while a gasification station (with fluidized bed design) could have capacity of about
5 MW. Typically, the Costs of biomass gasifier-based electricity generation range from Rs. 4
to 4.5 crore/MWe. Active and intense research in this area is going on all around the world in
terms of better design and optimization of process parameters, which is aimed at improving
energy efficiency of the gasifier that would bring down the cost of electricity generation in
the near future.
Bagasse-based cogeneration has already been adopted by many sugar mills. In this
route, high pressure steam is first utilized for generation of electricity and later for meeting
the heat requirements of the process. Thus, the overall efficiency of fuel utilization is quite
high, in the range of 60%. Typically, the cost of electricity produced through this route is
somewhat cheaper than biomass gasification route; in the range of Rs.3-4 crore/MWe.
Revenues earned from electricity cogeneration have improved economy of sugar mills.
However, cogeneration units are preferred only for capacities >5MW and these units could
be installed and implemented in an industrial area. Thus, they are not suitable for
applications in remote rural areas where grid connectivity is not possible. Secondly, the
steam turbine-based technology has already reached maturity. Any path-breaking efficiency
improvement is, thus, not feasible. Thus, in terms of technology development and
breakthrough for large capacity systems, gasification combined with IC engines may turn out
a better option.

13 Biomass gasification efforts in India
The biomass gasification program in India started mainly as a R&D effort with joint
efforts of MNES, various academic institutions and private entrepreneurs [6]. These efforts
were initiated in the mid-1980s for development and subsequent commercialization of an
efficient and economically viable technology for decentralized electricity generation from
biomass, especially in remote and rural areas. The MNES set up five Gasifier Action
Research Projects at I.I.T. Bombay, I.I.T. Delhi, and I.I.Sc. Bangalore, M.K. University
Madurai and SPRERI, V.V. Nagar. Research in these centers contributed immensely towards
technology development, prototype fabrication and transfer of technology to commercial
manufacturers. Combustion, Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory (CGPL) at I.I.Sc.
Bangalore developed downdraft, atmospheric gasification technology for up to 500 kW
systems along with effective gas cleaning systems. These gasifiers have been put to use for
large-scale power generation.
Several commercial manufacturers have obtained license from I.I.Sc. Bangalore for
manufacture of downdraft gasifiers based on I.I.Sc. technology. Some of these manufacturers
are M/s Bio residue Energy Technology Pvt. Ltd., M/s Evergreen Power Ltd., M/s Arrya Hi-
Tech Energy and M/s NetPro Renewable Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd. More than 25 gasifiers
based on I.I.Sc. Technology have been installed in India and abroad for diverse applications
such as thermal, village electrification, water pumping applications, industrial applications
(captive electricity generation) and research and educational purpose. SPRERI has also
developed gasifiers for different energy requirements. These gasifiers are adopted for
groundnut shells and installed in the ceramic industries for baking of raw items at about 900-
1300°C. Due to these installations, the oil consumption of the industry has reduced by almost
70%. M.K. University at Madurai has also made vital contributions to development of
gasifiers suitable for industrial applications. The major achievement of this centre is in terms
of adoption of the gasifiers for high temperature applications typical of ceramic and
aluminium industries. Noteworthy R&D efforts of technology development have also taken
place in industrial sector. The biomass Gasifier based thermal and electricity generation has
tremendous growth potential in the country. MNRE has offered attractive financial support
in terms of capital subsidies (Rs. 125,000 per 300 kWh for thermal application and Rs.
150,000 per 100 kWe for electrical applications in 2006) for gasifier installations in India.

14 Applications of gasifier Generation of Producer gas
Most gasifier in commercial operation today are used for the production of heat,
rather than fuel for internal combustion engines, because of the less stringent requirements
for gas heating value and tar content. The fundamental advantage of a gasifier close coupled
to a burning system is its ability to produce higher temperatures than can be achieved with
conventional grate, combustion, liable to slagging problems at such temperatures, and in
consequence its enhancement of boiler efficiency and output.
All types of gasifier can provide producer gas for combustion purposes, but for the
sake of simplicity up-draught gasifier are preferred in small systems (below 1 MW thermal
power), while fluidised bed gasifier are appropriate in power ranges above this level. Most
conventional oil-fired installations can be converted to producer gas. .2 Production of mechanical or electrical power

Gasifier connected to stationary engines offer the possibility of using biomass to
generate mechanical or electrical power in the range from a few kW up to a few MW.
Producer gas of engine quality needs a sufficiently high heating value (above
4200 Kj/m3), must be virtually tar and dust free in order to minimize engine wear, and should
be as cool as possible in order to maximize the engine's gas intake and power output. .3 Large scale applications (500 kW and above)

This is the domain of the specialized fluidised bed or fixed bed installations The
equipment is custom built and fully atomized. Design and manufacture should be handled by
specialized engineering and construction firms. Medium scale applications (30 -500 kW)
Applications are foreseen in small to medium size forestry and agro-allied
industries (secondary wood industries, sawmills, coconut desiccating factories, etc.) as well
as in power supply to remote communities. Small-scale applications (7 - 30 kW)
This size would be appropriate for a multitude of village applications in
developing countries (e.g. village maize and cereal mills, small-scale sugar crushers, looms,
etc.). It seems that charcoal gasifiers tend to give less operational problems in this power
bracket than gasifiers fuelled by wood or agricultural residues. It is sometimes also believed
that charcoal gasifier systems can be made cheaper than wood gasifiers systems in the 7 - 30

kW power range. There is some support for this in the prices charged for vehicle gasifier
systems during the Second World War. It is not clear however if the difference of about
twenty percent was caused by the difference in technology or was a result of better organized
production or simply a matter or different profit margins. .6 Micro scale applications (1 - 7 kW)
This is the range Used by small and medium farmers in developing countries for
providing power for irrigation systems. Equipment must be transportable, cheap, simple and
light in weight. It is quite possible that only small locally manufactured charcoal gasifiers
will be able to meet the above requirements.


A downdraft Gasifier-gas engine generator system of 5kW is installed at Renewable
Energy Technology (RET), Park Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (AHEC),It is proposed to to
carry out the Performance Analysis of above system. Following work is to be carried out
under the topic of dissertation.
1) To review the literature on different types of Gasifier reactors, gas cooling and
gas purification and different engine suitable for producer gas operation.
2) To prepare/develop methodology for performance analysis of above system under
different parameter with respect to loading of engine.
3) To select Biomass and carry out its proximate analysis.
4) To carry out the performance analysis of biomass gasifier system.


Chapter 1 gives the detail introduction about the power scenario, various renewable
energy sources, importance of biomass gasifier power project for rural area.
Chapter 2 consist of brief discussion on biomass properties, performance of different
biomass reactors and performance and emission characteristics of engine with producer gas
are discuss in this chapter.
Chapter 3 consists of general principle of biomass gasification based electricity
generation system, different reactor designs, gas cooling and cleaning system and engine
generator system.
Chapter 4 details the methodology for performance analysis of biomass gasifier engine
system and cost estimation.
Chapter 5 details the performance analysis of biomass gasifier installed at RET park,
AHEC and results and discussion of present work.
Chapter 6 presents the conclusion of present study.



Gasification means converting a solid fuel into a gaseous fuel without leaving any solid
carbonaceous residues. Gasifier is essentially a chemical reactor where various complex
physical and chemical processes take place. The solid fuel is converted by a series of
thermochemical processes like drying, pyrolysis, oxidation, and reduction to gaseous fuel
producer gas. This gas can be used for generation of motive power in existing engines. Spark
ignition engine can entirely run on producer gas but in diesel engine it can be used with
diesel. There are different types of gasifiers which are classified according to the direction of
gas flow such as updraft gasifier, downdraft gasifier, cross draft gasifier. Downdraft gasifier
produces gas containing less amount of tar as compared to the other type of gasifier. In down
draft gasifier air enters at combustion zone and the gas produced leaves near the bottom of
the gasifier. In this type of gasifier tar produced from descending fixed bed have to pass
through reaction zone where mostly they have cracked and gasified. These gasifiers are
suitable for woods and agricultural wastes.

In the downdraft gasifiers air enter through radial tuyers. The partial combustion of
wood takes place and hot gases proceed downwards through the firebox construction. The
throat forces the raw gases pass through high temperature zone where most of the unburnt
pyrolysis products are cracked in to gaseous hydrocarbons and thus clean gas is produced.
Different reactions occur in the gasifier for producing producer gas such as Water shift
reaction, Boudouard reaction, methane reaction. In the oxidation zone the oxygen in the air
stream blast reacts with the carbon in the fuel to reduce carbon to form hydrogen and carbon
monoxide. The Carbon dioxide coming from the oxidation zone is also reduced to carbon
monoxide in the reduction zone. The final gas composition relies on water gas shift reaction

2.1.1 Biomass characteristics

Subramanian and Sampathrajan studied the thermo-chemical conversion of selected

weed species for gas production in a down draft asifier of 3.75 kW (thermal ca acities and
reported that gas production rates of selectedyveed species ranged from 1.709-2.246 m3kg1[5].

Parikh et al. reported on the performance of a downdraft gasifier engine system. The
biomass used was leuceana leucocephala. Proximate analysis (dry basis) reported was as
follows; volatile matter 79.9%, fixed carbon 18.9% and Ash content 1.13% [7].

Talib et al. reported the proximate analysis and heating value of the Eucalyptus as
follows; Volatile matter -73.8%, Ash content -5.54%, Fixed carbon -16.1% and calorific
value -22.0 MJ kg" I [8].

Sirisomboon developed correlation models relating to anhydrous high heating value to

some proximate compositions, ash and volatile matter of biomass. Proximate analysis of
Eucalyptus, Leuceana leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis are as follows [9].

Table 2.1 Proximate analysis of Eucalyptus, Leuceana leucocephala and Acacia [91

Type of wood M.0 (w.b Ash VM Fixed HHV MJ kg

Eucalyptus 7.13 4.41 67.44 21.02 20.56

L. Leucocephala 7.29 2.42 63.86 26.43 21.31

A.Auriculiformis 10.85 1.11 69.06 18.98 16.77

Jain selected twenty six perennial species growing in their natural habit in central India
and sixteen indigenous & exotic pinus species from the Himalayan region at Kalika for
screening fuel wood properties such as calorific value, density, ash silica, moisture, nitrogen,
volatile matter and fuel wood index and suggested ten perennial hard woods and four soft
wood species as desirable, which have good fuel wood properties [10].

Geyer et al. analyzed the characteristics of silver maple (Acer saccharinum) for use as
an energy or fibre feedstock. Observed calorific value 18.26 kJ g' and specific gravity 0.44,
green volume of silver maple were similar to those of other maples. Its fibre length was
relatively short 0.74 mm. Ash content was 0.40%. Air-blown gasification of whole-tree
silver maple chips in a downdraft gasifier produced a low energy gas 3.7-4.4 MJ m 3. Trials
with dry chip rates of 88 and 127 kg h"1 resulted in an average gas-to-feed mass ratio of 3.0
and an average char yield of 2.9% of the dry wood fed. Oven-dry biomass yields were 11.1 t
ha' annually at 7000 tree ha"1[11].

Gangde et al. determined the physical properties, proximate analysis and heating
values of babool (Acacia nilotica) wood without bark, subabool (Leucaena leucocephala)

roundwood with bark, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) residue briquette and tur (Cajanus
caj an) stalks were studied. Moisture content was below 10% in all four fuels. Babool wood
had the highest bulk density and volatile matter as 0.73 t m 3 and 83.63%, respectively.
Subabool had the greatest heating value 18.68 MJ kg' LHV and least ash content 1.6% than
rest of the fuels. Safflower residue briquette had the highest ashcontnt 14.82% and lowest
value of fixed carbon 9.1% [12]. GTRA
G' Ca 2020$
ACCtvo........„.,.„„, e
2.1.2 Performance of various Gasifiers
Bhattacharya et al. conducted experiment on tw wood ga on and attempts
• ROO ,
to reduce the tar content of the gas. Increasing the wood-chip re content resulted in an
increase in CO2 and H2 but decrease in the CO concentration without significantly affecting
the tar content in the producer gas. For a particular primary air flow rate, an increase in the
secondary air flow of the two-stage gasifier resulted in a decrease in the tar content and the
CO2 and H2 concentrations while the content of CO increased. A charcoal gasifier and a
floating-drum gas-storage system were coupled to a two-stage wood gasifier. The tar content
of the product gas was in the range of 19-34 mg Nm3 for a charcoal gasifier coupled to a
two-stage wood gasifier. With a floating-drum gas-storage system and a 3.5 h retention time,
the tar content was reduced to 9.24 mg Nm3, which is 85% less than that obtained by using a
two-stage wood gasifier alone[3].

Patel and Rao investigated a 20 kW open core throatless down draft rice husk gasifier.
The following results were discussed Patel, S.R. and Rao, C.S. 1993[13].

Table 2.2 Performance analysis of open core throatless downdraft rice husk gasifier[33]
Avg. rice husk consumption kg/h 17-30
Combustion zone temperature C 750-850
Calorific value of gas kcal Nm-3 1000-1100
Cold gas efficiency % 50-60
Avg. pressure drop across the gasifier mm of water 40-55
Specific gasification rate kg m- h- 90-150
Average tar content after gas clean-up unit mg Nm 330
Average particulate content after gas mg Nm 3 39
Ash content % 20
Unburnt carbon % 10-15

Mukunda et al. developed an open core reactor with cooling and a filtering system
along with a blower and a burner. They investigated the gasifier on wood chips (causuarina)
of 50-70 mm length and about 25mm lateral size with a mixture of 50% of the above size
along with small twigs of 1-10 mm diameter and 25-75mm length with 5% sawdust. The
moisture content of the wood chips was in the range of 10-12%. They reported the gas
composition as CO=17%, H2=20%, CH4=1.5%, CO2=14.5% with cold gas efficiency of
78% [14].

Arpakorn studied the corn drying by corncob gasifier. The drying system consists of
gasifier system, hot air equipment, blower and drying room. In the gasifier, rate of corncob
burning was so generated 31.16 kg h-1 and the air mass flow rate was equal to 50.6 kg h1.
The producer gas contained 18.44, 0.08 and 0.27 percent by volume of CO, H2 and CH4
respectively. The producer gas has low heating value about 2,457.61 kJ m -3. The drying of
1000 kg corn from initial moisture content of 21.72 % wb. to 15 % wb. was completed in 8 h
of continuous drying time, the hot air temperature (under the drying grate) was 107.5 °C and
mass flow rate was 1,114.41 kg h- ' Thermal efficiency of the gasifier system and dryer were
88.15 and 18.06 % respectively. The total thermal energy consumption was about 21.59 MJ
kg1 H2O evaporation, of which 20.38 MJ kg- ' H2O evaporation is for thermal energy from
producer gas and 1.21 MJ kg"' evaporation is for thermal energy from blower. The cost of
drying was 9.4 Baht /kg H2O evaporation. The recovery period of the system was estimated
to be 4 years by assuming the operating life of 10 years for this system [15].

Sada Siva Rao developed a bagasse based gasifier of having an inner shell of 700 mm
diameter, 1860mm height and fitted with a forced air distribution system. The biomass
feeding system was having a hopper and a screw auger and a burner was fabricated for the
gasification of bagasse. The reactor could hold 30 kg which was found to be consumed in 10
to 15 minutes giving a biomass consumption rate of 120-180kg h-'. He reported the average
gas composition as follows: CO=17.5%, H2=16.8%, 02=3.6%, HC=5800 ppm and the
balance was N2. A flame of nearly 3m height having 700°C was obtained [16].

Gabra et al. reported that gasification of cane trash in the cyclone gasifier. The cane
trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests
were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg h1 at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and
0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820°C to 850°C. It was found that the
heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ Nm3 (dry gas), which is
sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion [17].

Dogru et al. studied that a pilot scales down draft gasifier to investigate gasification
potential of hazelnut shells. A full mass balance was reported including the - tar production
rate as well as the composition of the produced gas as a function of feed rate. Additionally,
the effect of feed rate on the CV composition of the product gas and the associated variations
of gasifier zone temperatures were determined with temperatures recorded throughout the
main zones of the gasifier and also at the gasifier outlet and gas cleaning zones. Pressure
drops are also measured across the gasifier and gas cleaning system because the produced
gas may be used in conjunction with a power production engine when it is important to have
low pressure drop in the system. The quality of the product gas was found to be dependent
on the smooth flow of the fuel and the uniformity of the pyrolysis. The optimum operation of
the gasifier was found to be between 1.44 and 1.47 Nm3 kg1 of air fuel ratios at the values
of 4.06 and 4.48 kg h'1 of wet feed rate which produces the producer gas with a good CV of
about 5 MJ m 3 at a volumetric flow of 8-9 Nm3 h-1 of product gas. It was concluded that
hazelnut shells could be easily gasified in a downdraft gasifier to produce good quality gas
with minimum polluting by-products [18].

Rao and Sampathrajan analyzed gasification of Acacia nilotica, Casuarina

equisetifolia, Eucalyptus hybrid and Tamarindus indica. The parameters like variation of
temperatures at different zones of the gasifier reactor, different gas flow rates and reactor
performance were analysed and the results were discussed with respect to the effectiveness
of gasification. The temperature profile within the reactor was monitored at gas flow rates of
28.80 to 30.96 Nm3 h-I . The results showed that as the gas flow rate increased the grate
temperature increased. As the flow rate was reduced, maximum temperature was maintained
at the mid point of the reactor. The reduction zone having a temperature of 500-900 °C,
controlled the quality of the producer gas. The gas efficiency and thermal efficiency were
found to vary between 59.0 to 94.60% and 6.6 to 11.66% respectively at different gas flow
rates. The flame temperature at burner outlet varied from 550°C to 833°C at different gas
flow rates for different species [19].

Yin et al designed a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) biomass gasification & power
generation system (BGPG) for rice husk and installed to power a rice mill with a capacity of
150 t d4 . The system consists of a CFB gasifier, a gas cleaner (including an inertial
separator, a cyclone separator, a venturi and two water scrubbers), and power generation
subsystem, in addition to a wastewater treatment system. It is found that the system can be
operated stably within the temperature from 700 °C to 850 °C, and its optimal condition was

reached when the workload is increased above 800 kW. The main performance indices are:
capacity: 1500 kg h-1 , gasification efficiency 65%, rice husk consumption 1.7-1.9 kg kW"l h-',
total efficiency about 17%. The reliability of the BGPG system has been proven through two
years of operation (about 10,000 h) [20].

Fang et al. (2004) tested 1 MW thermal gasification system based on rice husk, in
which it was found that the ignition temperature was only 340 °C, much lower than coal. The
gas velocity and air split had great effect on rice husk combustion. At proper operating
condition, the rice husk combustion efficiency reached 97%, and the carbon content in fly
f 200-to 800 ppm, SO2 ranged
ash was between 3 - 8%, whereas CO emissions vari om—
from 50 to 100 ppm and NOx ranged from 150 to 220 ppm [21].

2.2.3 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Engine with Producer Gas:

Warren et al. studied conversion of biomass in to electricity by using downdraft

gasifier and SI engine. Twin cyclone and saw dust foam filter was used for cleaning a gas
while fin and pipe and fin cooler were used for cooling. A gasifier which was designed for
wood blocks run well with wood blocks and generates power up to 30 kWe. But when wood
chips were used. then gas production was low than expected. It was because smaller particle
chokes the air flow and temperature was reduced in the reduction zone, they found that
increasing size of wood block reduced this problem. Efficiency of system was found to be
20% [2].

Parikh et al. studied performance and emissions of small gasifier-dual-fuel engine

systems. They found that to achieve thermal stabilization, the gasifier equipment initially
takes some time. Hence immediately introducing a gas in to the engine may contain more tar.
Subabul wood was used as a feedstock for gasifier. They found minimum tar at the
maximum flow rate which also corresponds to the maximum gas outlet temperature. Diesel
replacement was found to be 70 — 82%. CO emissions were more in case of dual fuel mode
at low load. Higher concentration of CO indicates that incomplete combustion of fuel.
Gasifier performance in terms of gas calorific value, gas composition, gas outlet temperature
and gasification efficiency depend upon the nature of flow through the gasifier [7].

Das designed downdraft gasifier to operate 5.25 kW diesel engines on dual fuel mode.
Engine was tested on diesel as well as on dual fuel mode (producer gas and diesel) at four
speeds (1500 to 1800 rpm) and six different loads. Wood chips, corn cobs and pigeon pea

stalks were used as feedstock. The maximum amount of diesel substitution with different
biomass fuels was varied from 70 to 82% [22].

Zainal studied performance of downdraft gasifier and effect of changing equivalence

ratio on gas composition and found that as equivalence ratio increased percentage of oxygen
in the producer gas was decreased. Carbon monoxide and methane percentage initially
increased up to certain point then decreased at higher equivalence ratio. Percentage of
Nitrogen decreased with the increase in equivalence ratio. The percentage of hydrogen
increased linearly with the equivalence ratio. CO concentration had most significant
contribution to the calorific value of the producer gas. The average gas composition was
found to be 1.69% 02, 43.62% N2, 14.05% H2 , 24.04% CO, 14.66% CO2, 2.02/o CH4 and

C H detected as traces in most of the runs with a concentration of 0.01%. [23].

Dasappa et al. used a biomass gasifier for a low temperature and a high temperature
industrial heat requirement and found that at low temperature application, diesel replacement
was in the range of 125-150 liter per hour was possible for 500 kg/h gas flow from gasifier.
For high temperature application diesel replacement was 2000 liter per day for 300 kg/h gas
flow from gasifier. They also found that 3 kg of biomass replaced 1 liter of diesel. Overall
efficiency reduced by 25% by using gasifier because of gasification efficiency and 10%
energy of biomass was extracted by char and 5% by charcoal. Due to adiabatic flame
temperature (2290 K diesel and 1925 for producer gas) difference in producer gas and diesel
specific energy consumption was also different. The exhaust emissions from the gasifier

based system were reported as CO 0.6 to 2.2 g MJ , NOx 0.3 to 0.7 and particulates less
than 0.15 g MJ . Lower level of NOx due to lower peak temperature in the gaseous flame
was observed as compared fossil fuel [24].

Ghosh et al. studied the performance of the first commercially run largest biomass
gasifier based power plant in India i.e. Gosaba power plant West Bengal. Substitution of
diesel by producer gas first increased with the increase in engine load, reaches maximum at
58% load condition, then decreases at a lower rate. The unit cost of electricity generation
was Rs. 4.27 in the 2004 and Rs. 4.15 in 2012 exclusive of the capital cost. However, the
same was estimated as Rs.9.35 and Rs. 4.65, respectively, with including capital cost.
Exhaust gas was analyzed and found that system emits 1743 g of CO2, 1.6 g of SO2 and 3.4 g

of NO2 per kWh of electricity generation [25].

Ganan et al. studied gasification process of residual sourced for energy production.
Rice husk, nut shell, and pine and eucalyptus woods were used to estimate there energy
potential through gasification process. The gasification procedure was carried out by varying
the air flow rate from 100 up to 200 ml min , the reaction temperature being comprised
between 650 and 800 °C. HHV was more for the eucalyptus wood coal reaching to a
maximum of 30.2 MJ kg . The electric powers obtained from the gases taking part in the
gasification process were 0.88 MWe for rice husk, 0.71 MWe for nut shell, 0.59 MWe for
pine wood and 0.80 MWe for eucalyptus wood [26].

Ramadhas et al. studied the performance and emission characteristics of 5.5 kW engine
in dual fuel mode using producer gas produced from coir pith and diesel and compared with
diesel alone. Engine performance was studied for different air gas mixtures applying varying
load. Break thermal efficiency (BTE) of engine operated with rubber seed oil and coir pith
producer gas mixture was lower than diesel and coir pith producer gas. BTE of engine
operated with rubber seed oil alone was less than that of diesel but it was higher than the
BTE of engine operated with rubber seed oil and coir pith producer gas. The high amount of
producer gas reduced fresh amount of air entering in to the engine hence at high producer gas
flow rate the BTE decreased. Poor atomization of rubber seed oil low calorific value and
incomplete combustion were other causes of reduction in BTE of engine in dual fuel mode.
Specific energy consumption in dual fuel mode of operation was found to be higher than that
of diesel alone at all operating conditions. At higher percentage of producer gas flow,
specific energy consumption was found to be higher this happened due to poor atomization
and less air supply which lead to incomplete combustion.
The pilot fuel replacement was found to be around 30% due to use of producer gas.
Saving of diesel was higher than that of saving of rubber seed oil this is due to high calorific
value of diesel. Saving of pilot fuel reduce at higher loads because of lower calorific value of
producer gas and also incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide emission of engine with
pilot fuel and producer gas was found to be higher than that of engine when operated with
diesel alone. This was due to the incomplete combustion in dual fuel mode. The CO
emission in rubber seed oil was less than diesel alone. And more CO was observed at Rubber
seed producer gas than diesel producer gas mixture. The higher producer gas flow to engine
increases CO2 emission while CO2 emission increases with increase in load. It was also found

that CO2 emission in producer gas-rubber seed oil operation was slightly more than that of

producer gas-diesel operation. Smoke density increased with engine load. Rubber seed oil
and coir pith mixture having higher smoke density as compared to other fuels. Exhaust gas
temperature of rubber seed oil fueled engine was found to be higher than diesel engine.
While Exhaust gas temperature was found to higher in duel fuel mode with oil than dual fuel
mode with diesel [27].
On the basis of literature review it is conclude that different biomass material having
different physical and chemical properties the heating value of different biomass material are
studied. Eucalyptus having the good gasification properties. So Eucalyptus is used for the
experimental purpose, It is also studied that the different types of reactors are used for
gasification purpose but for power purpose the downdraft gasifier is used because it generate
less tar compare to other reactors which is suitable for engine application purpose. It is also
found that the most of the experiments are carried out on duel fuel engine as a substituate of
diesel and less work is carried out on 100 % producer gas engine.



Access to quality, reliable and affordable energy is critical for promoting economic and
social development in rural areas. The energy situation in rural India is characterized by low
quality of fuel, low efficiency of use, low reliability of supply and limited access leading to
lower productivity of land, water and human effort, ultimately leading to low quality of life
and environmental degradation. First, dependence on biomass (fuel wood, crop residue and
cattle dung) and traditional cook stoves with low efficiency which emit smoke into kitchen,
leads to low quality of life for most rural women. Secondly, dependence on kerosene and
wick lamps for lighting with uncertain supply of the fuel leads to low quality and intermittent
Thirdly, dependence on centralized grid electricity supply to low-load rural situations
is characterized by fluctuating voltage, unreliable supply and shortage of power in most parts
of rural India. Dependence on coal-based electric power plants (accounting for 70% of power
generation) is leading to environmental degradation; local (land degradation), regional (air,
water and soil pollution) and global (greenhouse gas build-up leading to climate change).
There is a realization on the need to search for decentralized and renewable energy-based
options to meet the rural energy needs in a sustainable way. Among all the renewable energy
sources, biomass is the largest, most diverse and readily exploitable resource. In India,
among the renewable energy options, bio energy technologies have been promoted for
meeting rural electricity needs. Further, amongst the bio energy technologies, the biomass
gasifier option for meeting the rural electricity needs of domestic, Agricultural pumping and
rural industrial (such as milling) activities is shown to have a large potentiall.
Biomass gasification involves partial combustion of biomass under controlled air
supply, leading to generation of producer gas constituting the combustible gases H2 (20%),
CO (20%) and CH4 (1-2%). The energy value of producer gas is about 5.0 MJ/m3. The
producer gas can be used as fuel for internal combustion engine for mechanical and electrical
applications. [28]

Biomass gasification is basically conversion of solid fuels (wood, wood waste,
agricultural residues etc) into a combustible gas called producer gas. The process is typically
used for various biomass materials and it involves partial combustion process occurs when
air supply is less than adequate for the complete combustion of biomass [29].
3.2.1 The advantages of gasification are
a. It converts the low quality fuel that is inconvenient to use into high quality
convenient combustible gaseous fuel. Such conversion is at relatively very high
efficiencies and result on total convenience and process control.
b. Almost all environment pollution associated with biomass use can be eliminated. It is
environment friendly and reduces the threat of global warming.
c. Both initial investment and also the cost of energy production are just about the
lowest among all known alternatives as it is based on locally available resources with
reasonable price stability.
d. As this is a renewable technology there are a number of incentives available from
3.2.2 Gasification Process
The essence of gasification process is the conversion of solid carbon fuels into carbon
monoxide by thermo chemical process. The gasification of solid fuel is accomplished in air
sealed, closed chamber, under slight suction or pressure relative to ambient pressure.
Gasification process is shown in Fig.3.1 and 3.2

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage

Harsresting Processing


Briquetting Gas
Gle wrung
Dehydration Boiler


Momplete Grasifcation Process

Fig. 3.1 Complete Gasification Process

Fig. 3.2 Conversion of biomass into Producer gas Drying
Biomass fuels consist of moisture ranging from 5 to 35%. At the temperature above
100 ° C, the water is removed and converted into steam. In the drying, fuels do not
experience any kind of decomposition. Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass fuels in the absence of oxygen.
Pyrolysis involves release of three kinds of products: solid, liquid and gases. The ratio of
products is influenced by the chemical composition of biomass fuels and the operating
conditions. The heating value of gas produced during the pyrolysis process is low (3.5 - 8.9
MJ/m 3).
It is noted that no matter how gasifier is built, there will always be a low temperature
zone, where pyrolysis takes place, generating condensable hydrocarbon. Oxidation

Introduced air in the oxidation zone contains, besides oxygen and water vapors, inert
gases such as nitrogen and argon. These inert gases are considered to be non-reactive with
fuel constituents. The oxidation takes place at the temperature of 700-20000 c.

Heterogeneous reaction takes place between oxygen in the air and solid carbonized
fuel, producing carbon monoxide. Plus and minus sign indicate the release and supply of heat
energy during the process respectively.

C+02 = CO2+406 [MJ/kmol]
In reaction 12.01 kg of carbon is completely combusted with 22.39 m3 of oxygen
supplied by air blast to yield 22.26 m 3 of carbon dioxide and 393.8 MJ of heat.

Hydrogen in fuel reacts with oxygen in the air blast, producing steam.
H2+%202=H20+242 [MJ/kmol] Reduction
In reduction zone, a number of high temperature chemical reactions take place in the absence
of oxygen. The principal reactions that take place in reduction are mentioned below.
Boudouard Reaction

Co 2 + C = 2CO - 172.6 [MJ/kmol]

Water-gas reaction

C+H20 =CO+H2- 131.4 [MJ/kmol]

Water shift reaction

Co 2 + H2= CO + H 2 O + 41.2 [MJ/kmol]

Methane production reaction

C + 2H 2 = CH 4 + 75 [MJ/kmol]

Main reactions show that heat is required during the reduction process. Hence, the
temperature of gas goes down during this stage. If complete gasification takes place, all the
carbon is burned or reduced to carbon monoxide, a combustible gas and some other mineral
matter is vaporized. The remains are ash and some char (unburned carbon). [30]


3.3.1 Up draught or counter current gasifier

The oldest and simplest type of gasifier is the counter current or up draught gasifier
shown schematically in Fig.3.3

Fig. 3.3 Up draught or counter current gasifier

The air intake is at the bottom and the gas leaves at the top. Near the grate at the
bottom the combustion reactions occur, which are followed by reduction reactions somewhat
higher up in the gasifier. In the upper part of the gasifier, heating and pyrolysis of the
feedstock occur as a result of heat transfer by forced convection and radiation from the lower
zones. The tars and volatiles produced during this process will be carried in the gas stream.
Ashes are removed from the bottom of the gasifier.

The major advantages of this type of gasifier are its simplicity, high charcoal burn-
out and internal heat exchange leading to low gas exit temperatures and high equipment
efficiency, as well as the possibility of operation with many types of feedstock (sawdust,
cereal hulls, etc.).

Major drawbacks result from the possibility of "channeling" in the equipment, which
can lead to oxygen break-through and dangerous, explosive situations and the necessity to
install automatic moving grates, as well as from the problems associated with disposal of the
tar-containing condensates that result from the gas cleaning operations. The latter is of minor
importance if the gas is used for direct heat applications, in which case the tars are simply

3.3.2 Downdraught or co-current gasifiers

A solution to the problem of tar entrainment in the gas stream has been found by
designing co-current or downdraught gasifiers, in which primary gasification air is
introduced at or above the oxidation zone in the gasifier. The producer gas is removed at the
bottom of the apparatus, so that fuel and gas move in the same direction, as schematically
shown in Fig: 3.4


Oryir aor►e

.... •-
:;::.::::: :_ :'.. +~ Distillation zone

Hearth zone
Ar __ Air

Reduction zone
~~ ~.~ w~ w ~• ~.r w Orate

Ash pit

Fig. 3.4 Downdraught or co-current gasifier

On their way down the acid and tarry distillation products from the fuel must pass
through a glowing bed of charcoal and therefore are converted into permanent gases
hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane.

Depending on the temperature of the hot zone and the residence time of the tarry
vapours, a more or less complete breakdown of the tars is achieved.

The main advantage of downdraught gasifiers lies in the possibility of producing a tar-
free gas suitable for engine applications.

Because of the lower level of organic components in the condensate, downdraught
gasifier suffers less from environmental objections than up draught gasifier.

A major drawback of -downdraught equipment lies in its inability to operate on a

number of unprocessed fuels. In particular, fluffy, low density materials give rise to flow
problems and excessive pressure drop, and the solid fuel must be pelletized or briquetted
before use. Downdraught gasifier also suffers from the problems associated with high ash
content fuels (slagging) to a larger extent than up draught gasifier.

Minor drawbacks of the downdraught system, as compared to up draught, are

somewhat lower efficiency resulting from the lack of internal heat exchange as well as the
lower heating value of the gas. Besides this, the necessity to maintain uniform high
temperatures over a given cross-sectional area makes impractical the use of downdraught
gasifier in a power range above about 350 kW (shaft power).

3.3.3 Cross-draught gasifier

Cross-draught gasifier, schematically illustrated in Figure is an adaptation for the use
of charcoal. Charcoal gasification results in very high temperatures (1500 °C and higher) in
the oxidation zone which can lead to material problems. In cross draught gasifier insulation
against these high temperatures is provided by the fuel (charcoal) itself.

Advantages of the system lie in the very small scale at which it can be operated.
Installations below 10 kW (shaft power) can under certain conditions be economically
feasible. The reason is the very simple gas-cleaning train (only a cyclone and a hot filter)
which can be employed when using this type of gasifier in conjunction with small engines.
A disadvantage of cross-draught gasifier is their minimal tar-converting capabilities
and the consequent need for high quality (low volatile content) charcoal.

It is because of the uncertainty of charcoal quality that a number of charcoal gasifier

employ the downdraught principle, in order to maintain at least a minimal tar-cracking

.LII flll+

Fig. 3.5 Cross-draught gasifier

3.3.4. Fluidized bed gasifier

The operation of both up and downdraught gasifiers is influenced by the

morphological, physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Problems commonly
encountered are: lack of bunker flow, slogging and extreme pressure drop over the gasifier

A design approach aiming at the removal of the above difficulties is the fluidized bed
gasifier illustrated schematically in Fig.3.6

Air is blown through a bed of solid particles at a sufficient velocity to keep these in a
state of suspension. The bed is originally externally heated and the feedstock is introduced as
soon as a sufficiently high temperature is reached. The fuel particles are introduced at the
bottom of the reactor, very quickly mixed with the bed material and almost instantaneously
heated up to the bed temperature. As a result of this treatment the fuel is pyrolysed very fast,
resulting in a component mix with a relatively large amount of gaseous materials. Further
gasification and tar-conversion reactions occur in the gas phase. Most systems are equipped
with an internal cyclone in order to minimize char blow-out as much as possible. Ash


particles are also carried over the top of the reactor and have to be removed from the gas
stream if the gas is used in engine applications.



1T 1

pp O~O Q FUe
Oapsdo~ •

'O_ OQ p

prn vrrl


Fig.3.6 Fluidized bed gasifier

The major advantages of fluidized bed gasifiers, as reported by Van der Aarsen and
others, stem from their feedstock flexibility resulting from easy control of temperature,
which can be kept below the melting or fusion point of the ash (rice husks), and their ability
to deal with fluffy and fine grained materials (sawdust etc.) without the need of pre-
processing. Problems with feeding, instability of the bed and fly-ash sintering in the gas
channels can occur with some biomass fuels.

Other drawbacks of the fluidized bed gasifier lie in the rather high tar content of the
product gas (up to 500 mg/m3 gas), the incomplete carbon bum-out, and poor response to
load changes.

Particularly because of the control equipment needed to cater for the latter difficulty,
very small fluidized bed gasifier are not foreseen and the application range must be
tentatively set at above 500 kW (shaft power). [30]



3.4.1 Gasifier Reactor

The gasifier is usually cylindrical in shape for strength and ease of manufacture. Fuel is
fed by gravity from the upper hopper section into the lower fire zone section. There are three
basic kinds of generator, named from the airflow direction. Down-draught units have "a
restriction around the hearth causing an increase in air velocity and higher operating
temperature which tends to gasify tars which would otherwise be a problem when using
green wood as fuel.

3.4.2 Cleaning System

On leaving the gasifier, producer gas must be cleaned of impurities such as soot, ash,
un-burnt fuel dust and tar in order to prevent engine damage. The design and sequence of
components will depend upon requirements of fuel and engine, but must not offer excessive
resistance to the gas flow if engine starvation is to be avoided.

Primary removal of coarse material may be effected by a simple expansion box, a

baffle box or a cyclone, in which particles drop out of the gas stream when the gas changes
direction and loses velocity.

Secondary cleaning, which may follow the cooling section, may be a dry or wet
process. The gas may be filtered dry through sisal, wood, wool, felt, paper, fabric, or close-
set brush bristles, and electrostatic filters are also on the market. In wet filtration, the filter
element is wetted with oil (usually diesel or kerosene) or water. Water is not very effective
against tar but may reduce the incidence of explosions. Wet filtering is also called scrubbing
or washing.

The choice of filters should not be made on technical efficiency alone but rather on
possible operational reliability. Experience with agricultural tractors has indicated that for
example, although modem paper air filter elements may be capable of high efficiency,
the odd hole may cause serious and costly breakdowns in equipment and operations under
practical third world conditions.

Generator lectririty

Fig.3.7 Biomass Gasifier System

3.4.3 Cooling System

Cooling the gas will increase its density, so allowing a greater charge (by mass) per
cylinder, and exposed piping when cooled will become less of a fire hazard. After the
primary cleaning unit, the gas may then be passed through a radiator unit mounted at the
front of the engine.

The cooler may be by-passed by means of butterfly valve for starting from cold if
condensation is found to clog dry filters. A fine wire gauze or felt cloth placed before the
engine as a "security filter" will clog up and provide warning of failure of the cleaning-
cooling sections when the engine stalls.

3.4.4 Gas Supply Manifold

Efficient engine operation requires adequate adjustment of the proportion of air and
gas, and the quantity of the resulting mixture reaching the engine. In its simplest form the
valve consists of a Y-piece. The gas enters through one branch, the air from an air cleaner
through the second branch, and the resulting mixture flows through the stem to the existing
engine induction system between the carburetor and the induction manifold. The admission
of air is controlled by a butterfly valve in the air branch.

3.4.5 Gas Engines

While the preference would be to use purpose designed gas engines it is possible to use
producer gas as a fuel for either spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines.
However, as producer gas cannot easily be liquefied it has to be introduced by means of a

Fig.3.7 Biomass Gasifier System

3.4.3 Cooling System

Cooling the gas will increase its density, so allowing a greater charge (by mass) per
cylinder, and exposed piping when cooled will become less of a fire hazard. After the
primary cleaning unit, the gas may then be passed through a radiator unit mounted at the
front of the engine.

The cooler may be by-passed by means of butterfly valve for starting from cold if
condensation is found to clog dry filters. A fine wire gauze or felt cloth placed before the
engine as a "security filter" will clog up and provide warning of failure of the cleaning-
cooling sections when the engine stalls.

3.4.4 Gas Supply Manifold

Efficient engine operation requires adequate adjustment of the proportion of air and
gas, and the quantity of the resulting mixture reaching the engine. In its simplest form the
valve consists of a Y-piece. The gas enters through one branch, the air from an air cleaner
through the second branch, and the resulting mixture flows through the stem to the existing
engine induction system between the carburetor and the induction manifold. The admission
of air is controlled by a butterfly valve in the air branch.

3.4.5 Gas Engines

While the preference would be to use purpose designed gas engines it is possible to use
producer gas as a fuel for either spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines.
However, as producer gas cannot easily be liquefied it has to be introduced by means of a

gas carburetor and is present during the compression stroke for both types of engine. In the
SI engine the gas is ignited (as for petrol) by a high voltage spark but in the CI engine
ignition is achieved by injecting a small amount of diesel into the cylinder at the end of the
compression stroke. Modern gas engines are available which are similar in design to CI
engines (for strength and durability) but use a spark plug or glow plug to provide ignition for
the gas.
Spark ignition engines are cheap, if based on mass-produced automotive engines, and
are simple to operate but are sensitive to changes in gas quality. Little modification is
required to an automotive engine other than changing the carburetor for one suitable for use
with gas and hardening the valves and valve seats. These engines can be operated on 100%
producer gas achieving efficiencies of around 25% at full load but this can fall off rapidly
when operating at part loads.
Consideration also needs to be given to the ignition timing of the engine. Typically
there is a greater ignition delay with producer gas compared with petrol. Therefore the
ignition point (the crank angle at which the spark occurs) of a SI engine is usually advanced
when a gaseous fuel is used to ensure optimum performance.
The CI engine is much more complex to operate and will not work on biogas or
producer gas alone. If biogas were admitted in anything like the Stoichiometric ratio, it could
spontaneously ignite during the compression stroke. The engine would then `knock', run
unevenly, and overheat very quickly. Therefore the gas can only be admitted to the engine at
quite high air/fuel ratios greater than 30:1 (by mass). The exact ratio will be dependent on
the design of the engine and its compression ratio.
Most large, medium and low speed engines normally operate as diesel engines with
an air/fuel ratio of around 30:1 and so it is possible to operate them on 90% gas and 10%
diesel especially if they have relatively low compression rations of around 14:1. Smaller,
high speed CI engines (auto derivative) are normally rated with relatively low air/fuel ratios
of 20:1 and compression ratios of between 16 and 18:1. These engines require much more
diesel fuel injected at maximum load some times as much as 60%. Compression ignition
engines can operate on all ratios of producer gas/diesel oil, which can be desirable when
producer gas production is subject to fluctuations.
Compression ignition engines are more expensive but are less sensitive to changes in
gas quality and have better efficiencies (30 and 35%), which can be maintained through out
regardless of load.

Spark and compression ignition engines will require modifications to the valves, valve
seats and carburetor before they can be used with producer gas. The dry nature of producer
gas means that it does not have lubricating properties and therefore valve wear is more likely
to occur. The materials used for the valves and valve seats will need to be modified (i.e.
hardened) or changed to improve wear resistance.
CI engines also require several other major modifications. These include lower
compression ratios, provision of extra cooling to injectors, and the fitting of gas carburetor.
Generally spark ignition engines are less robust than compression ignition engines but
don't need supplementary fuel. Therefore it is common to convert compression ignition
engines to spark ignition as a compromise between robust and reliable operation and to
alleviate the need for supplementary fuels.

3.4.6 Generator
Generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. Now a day's only 3
phase A.C.(Alternating current) generators are used in normal practice. There are basically
two types of generators: namely synchronous generator and Induction generator. The
Induction generator also called as Asynchronous generator based on the super synchronous
speed at which they are operated. Synchronous generators are mostly used for the gasifier




A process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel into combustible gas by partial
combustion is known as gasification. The resulting gas, known as producer gas, is more
versatile in its use than the original solid biomass The effects of air flow rate and moisture
content on biomass consumption rate and quality of the producer gas generated. The
performance of the biomass gasifier system is evaluated in terms of equivalence ratio,
producer gas composition, calorific value of the producer gas, gas production rate, zone
temperatures and cold gas efficiency
Performance of the Biomass gasifier system is depends on the biomass properties,
temperature profile of the reactor, equivalence ratio, these affect the gas composition, and
calorific value and gas production rate.
Performance of th Biomass gasifier is measured in terms of flow rate of the air, and the
gas (using calibrated venture meter), average consumption rate of wood chips, temperature at
the end of reduction zone, at inlate and exit of the cyclone and at the end of the cooling
circuit (using chromel-alumel thermo couples), and power delivered by the engine generator
set, gas composition by Orsat apparatus or gas chromatograph, calorific value using Junker
gas calorimeter.
.Particulates and tar are measured by simple technique which involves the collection of
these on thick cotton wad at about 0.1 meter diameter placed in a circuit at end of cooling
cleaning system for a specific period of time (typically 30-45 minute). The cotton is weight
before and after the test. The difference is taken to be the weight of both tar and particulate
put together. The material deposited on cotton is later dissolved in ethyl alcohol and filtered.
What is left behind the on the filter paper constituents particulate matter and that passing
through a filter paper is tar.

4.1.1 Proximate and ultimate analysis

These two types of analysis are useful for the defining thr physical, chemical properties
(size of fraction wood, moisture content) and chemical properties (proximate analysis,
volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash content, calorific value of biomass). And ultimate analysis
gives the chemical composition and higher heating value of the fuels.The chemical analysis
usually lists the carbon, hydrogen, oxygene, nitrogen, sulfer and ash content of dry fuel on
weight percentage basis.
Higher heating value of the fuel is determined by reacting the fuel with oxygen in the
bomb calorimeter and measuring the heat released to known quantity of water. The heat
released during this procedure represents the maximum amount of energy that can be
attained from combustion of the fuel and is necessary value for calculating the efficiency of
gasification. The high heating value (HHV) is measured where as the lower heating value
(LHV) is more relavent to the amount of energy produced it can be calculated by subtracting
the heat librated during condensation of water vapor formed due to combustion of hydrogen
contain of the fuel. Since hydrogen contained of the fuel is known by ultimate analysis. Physical properties
Size and shape, moisture content, true density, bulk density is the physical properties
influence the performance of the gasifier. Out of which most important physical property is
the bull density. Bulk density is the weight of biomass packed loosely in the container
divided by the volume occupied.
Fuel shape and feeding characteristics determined the whether it will be feasible to
simple use gravity feeding techniques or whether assistance, such as string and shaking will
be required. The angle of repose for a particular fuel type is generally measured by filling
large tube with the fuel and then lifting the tube and allowing the fuel to form pile. The angle
of repose is the angle from the horizontal to the sides of the pile. For the good hopper design
angle of repose should be more than 45°C.
It is found that with an increase in the moisture content, the biomass consumption
rate decreases. For higher moisture content of biomass, the energy requirement for drying
increases and reduces the biomass pyrolysis. The biomass moisture content greatly effects
both the operation of the gasifier and the quality of the product gas.

(a) Size fraction of Wood

The size fraction of the Wood was directly measured from samples collected from the
industry. The averages of more than 10 samples were taken as size of wood. The diameter
and the height/thickness were also recorded.

(b) Moisture content

Moisture content plays an important role in controlling the energy release during the
gasification process. Moisture content was determined by drying known weight of sample in
an open Petri dish in an electrical oven at 103 ± 5°C for one hour until constant weight is
reached by adopting standard procedure [31].

MC = W' —WZ x100


MC = Moisture content, %

W1 = Weight of sample before drying, g

WZ = Weight of sample after drying, g

(c) True density

The true density of wood was measured individually by measuring the weight and
volume of samples of regular shape. The true density was calculated by dividing the weight
of individual specimen by its volume. The average value of five specimens was taken as the
true density.

(d) Bulk density

The bulk density was determined by weighing the feedstock filled in a vessel of known
standard volume and calculating the ratio of the weight of feedstock to the volume of the
vessel [4]. The average of five trials was reported as the value of the bulk density of feedstock. Chemical properties

To assess the feed stock behavior during thermo-chemical conversion, proximate and
ultimate compositions were determined as per standard procedure. [32]

(a) Proximate analysis

The proximate analysis included fixed carbon, volatile matter and ash content of the
material. ASTM standards D3172-73 (ASTM, 1977) through D3173-75 and procedures for
volatiles were used [32].

(i) Volatile Matter (VM)

Volatile matter were determined by keeping one gram of air dried and ground sample in
a silica crucible with a lid at 600°C for six minutes and then at 750°C for another six minutes

in a muffle furnace. The difference in the weights due to the heating was taken as the total
volatile matter present in the sample.

(ii) Ash content

The dried samples were taken in a silica crucible and heated gradually in a muffle
furnace to 750°C for two hours or more till a constant weight was recorded.

(iii) Fixed carbon

The fixed carbon on percentage basis is calculated by subtracting the sum of percentages
of ash content and volatile matter from 100.

(b) Calorific value of biomass

The gross calorific value of the biomass was determined with two methods namely
bomb calorimeter and using Dulongs formula by knowing the ultimate analysis of fuel

i) Bomb calorimeter

The water equivalent is the weight of water which is equivalent in effective heat
capacity to the entire system (Calorimeter vessel containing a specified weigh of water
calorimeter bomb charge with oxygen fuel and water calorimeter and stirrer). Since the
specific heat of water is 1.000 = 0.002 cal/gm in the range 10°C to 40 °C, the water
equivalent is . not required and is never evaluated. It is the effective heat capacity which
should be considered. The effective heat capacity is the heat required to effect unit
temperature rise in the system under the conditions of a calorimeter determination. The
effective heat capacity has a temperature dependence since the specific heats of the
constituents parts of the system vary with temperature 25°C has been chosen as the reference
temperature because of its use in thermo-chemical calculations and because the specific heat
of water in the range 25°C to 40°C is constant within ± 00002 cal/ g°C.

Accurately weigh in the crucible of the calorimeter about one gram of the air/dried
material ground to pass through IS Sleeve 20 (2110 mcrons)

Stretch a piece of the firing wire across the electrodes within the bomb tie 15 cm.
Length of sewing cotton around the wire place the crucible in position an arrange the loose
ends of the thread so that they are in contact with the material use the same mount of thread
in each determination. Introduce into the body of the Bomb two milliliters of distilled water
Resemble the bomb, screw home with the fingers, finally tightening it as necessary, avoiding

excessive pressure. Charge the Bomb slowly with oxygen from a cylinder to a pressure of 25
atmospheres without displacing its original air content close the valve effectively, using as
little pressure as possible, and detach the bomb from the oxygen supply.

Weight into the calorimeter vessel a quantity of water sufficient of submerge the cover
of the bomb to a depth of at least two centimeters leaving the terminals projecting. Use the
sam weight of water in all tests. Transfer the calorimeter vessels to the water jacket; lower
the bomb carefully into the calorimeter vessel and, having as curtained it to gas-tight through
a switch for subsequent firing of the charge. Adjust the stirrer place the thermometer and
covers in position and start the stirring mechanism, which must be kept in continuous
operation at a constant speed during he experiment. After an interval of not less than ten
minutes, read the comparative to 0.0001°C /- readings for five minutes at equal intervals of
not more than one minute, tapping the thermometer lightly during 10- seconds prior to each
reading. If , over a period of five minutes, the average deviation of the individual values of
the rate of change of temperature isles than 0.00072 °C per minutes, close the circuit
momentarily to fire the charge and continue the observations of the temperature at intervals
of similar duration to those of the preliminary period. If the rate of change of temperature is
not constant within the limit, extend the preliminary period until it is constant. In the chief
period which extends from the instant of firing until the time after which the rate of change
of temperature again becomes constant, take the earlier readings to the nearest 0.01°C since
it will not be possible to take the earlier readings to 0.001°C. Resume the readings to this
precision as soon as possible.

Determine the rate of change of temperature in the after period (which follows the
chief period) by taking reading at 1 minute interval for at least five, preferably ten minutes.

The heating value can be calculated using the following equation

W = Water Equivalent of Calorimeter (2218 Cal/ °C)
T = Rising in Temp in °C (Temp Difference)
M = Weight of Sample (gm)
CV = Calorific Value (kcal/kg)
ii) Dulongs formula method

The gross calorific value of samples was found out by Dulongs formula.

Calorific value = (8080C+ 34500(H-O/8) +2240S) kcal/kg

Where C, H, 0 and S are fractional composition of elemental carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
sulphur respectively

(c) Calorific value of gas

Calorific value of the gas is measured with the help of gas calorimeter.Turn on water
mains by opening the control Knob to setting `Full'. Adjust the water supply in such a way
that there will be only a small amount of over flow of excess water, to sink. By this the air
bubbles inside the water circulating system will let out.
Remove the burner from the Calorimeter. Open the outlet tap of the Governor and the
Gas Tap on the burner.

Allow the gas to pass for two or three revolutions as indicated by the flow meter. Then
light the burner and adjustment the air regulator sleeve and the gas tap to get a non luminous
flame. Clamp the burner keeping it to the top most position. Then adjust the flow of water to
get a temperature difference of 12 to 15°C between the water inlet and outlet temperatures.
This is important. If the flow of water is less than the required, there will be a high
temperature difference and the water may escape as steam. So the water flow is to be
adjusted in such a way that there will not be formation of steam.

Allow the water outlet thermometer to indicate a steady temperature which may take
about 20 to 30 minutes. Keep the 2000 ml measuring the jar beneath the swinging water
outlet tube, and simultaneously count the number of revolutions made by the gas flow meter
pointer i.e. to find the volume of gas consumed during the test period. When the pointer has
made 2 to 3 revolutions swing the water outlet back to waste. Also immediately note the
temperatures of water inlet outlet as well as gas flow meter.

Keeping the water and Gas flow meter same repeat the experiment thrice or four times
and take the average of the readings and calculate the calorific value of the gas using the
following formula.

C.V. _ -(t2 — t, )x 1000


C.V. = Calorific value of the gas in kcals per Cu. metre
Vw = Volume of water collected during the test period, litres
Vg = Volume of gas burnt during test period, litres
t2 = Average water outlet temperature °C
ti = Average water outlet temperature °C


Preliminary investigations such as proximate analysis were carried out for wood to
compute the theoretical airflow ratio. Based on the elemental and proximate analysis, amount
of theoretical air required for combustion of lkg of fuels was calculated.


The actual air fuel was determined based on the assumption of equivalence ratio. Air
equivalence ratio (E.R) is the ratio of actual air consumed during reaction to the stoichiometric
air required for combustion.

Actual air flow rate, m3 h "' /weight of dry fuel, kg

E.R =
Stoichiometric air required, m3 h -'/weight of dry fuel, kg

For gasification, the equivalence ratio to be adopted varies from 0.2 to 0.4. Here average
of 0.3 was taken for design purpose.


The producer gas obtained from gasifiers contains many impurities, with ash and tar
being the main impurities. The cyclone separator are usually unable to remove particulate
impurities below 10 mm. Removal of finer particles can be achieved using filter bags,
sintered ceramic candles or metallic candles. However, depending on the operational load
these devices may clog due to soot and/or tar adhering to ash particles. Wet scrubbing of gas
is a common technique used for removal of particulate matter. Various wet scrubbing
techniques include spray towers, centrifugal spray towers, packed bed column scrubbers,
ejector venture scrubbers and free jet washers. Effective removal of tar has been a principal
problem in producer gas cleaning. Tar mainly comprises of condensable aromatics and

polyaromatics. If the gas is to be used in engines or turbines, the tar removal is utmost
essential as the condensation of taro mechanical components moving with high speed can
cause mechanical instability. The principal tar components are toluene, naphthalene and
phenol with many other aromatics comprising of _up to seven benzene rings as secondary
components. [33]. The primary methods of tar removal includes (1) optimization of gasifier
operating conditions in terms of air ratio, bed temperature and sufficient residence time; (2)
use of bed additives or catalysts (such as nickel based catalysts, calcined dolomites,
magnesites, zeolites, olivine and iron catalysts) that act as tar reducers; (3) modification of
Gasifier design, i.e. splitting the gasifier into two stages — pyrolysis stage and reduction
stage. The secondary methods of tar removal consist of physical or chemical treatment such
as (1) either thermal or catalytic cracking of tar downstream of the gasifier and (2)
mechanical removal of tar using cyclone separator and baffle/ceramic/fabric/ electrostatic
filter. Sometimes a multi-stage process is used for secondary gas cleaning.


If the gas is to be used in the burner application an updraft Gasifier can be used and no
clean up will be needed. However if the fuel gas will be fed to an engine then downdraft or
other tar cracking Gasifier is to be used and gas must be cleaned and conditioned before it is
fed to the engine.
The gas emerging from the downdraft Gasifier is usually hot and laden with dust,
containing up to 1% tar and particulates. If this material sre not removed properly then can
cause maintenance, repaired, and reliability problem much more costly and troublesome than
operation of the Gasifier itself. Gasifier engine system is failed because of the improper
clean up system.
The first step toward the producing the clean gas is to choose a Gasifier that minimizes
the production of tar and particulates to be removed. The next step which simplifies the
handling of captured contaminants is to remove particulates, tars, and water in the proper
order and at the right temperature. If the gas is immediately cooled and quenched in one
operation then char, tar, and water all are removed at one to form a sticky, tarry mess. If
particulates ate removed first at a temperature above the dew point of tars(300° C), tars are
removed next at intermediate temperature (above 1000 C), and water is removed last at 30 -
60°C),then each contained can be handled easily.
The final step of effective gas clean up is to wisely choose a site for depositing the
collected material. Devices can be classified as either Inline or Offline. Inline devices such as
fabric bags and packed fibre filters, cut off the gas flow as they become filled with the tar or
particulate material that they have captured. The pressure drop across the clean up system
steadily rise with the accumulation of captured material. The Off line devices such as
cyclone separator, wet scrubber, and electrostatic precipitators, deposited the captured
material outside of the flow path.

4.5.1 Gas composition analysis

It can be carried out with the help of the gas chromarograph and also with the help of
the orsat apparatus. Gas chromatograph
Gas Chromatograph is mostly used method for gas analysis. It depend on the ability
of certain adsorbent material to selectively slow the rate of gas passage through a column
packed with the absorbent. Hydrogen is slowed least, CO, N2, and 02 are slowed to great
extent and water and CO2 are slowed to greatest degree. The gas sample is mixed with a
carrier gas usually helium is used because it does not occur naturally in the sample. A
detector which is inserted into the gas stream at the end of the column records on the chart
recorded both the time of passage and the quantity of each component. The presence of
particular gas is indicated by a peak. The quantity of the gas is then determined by
integrating the area under the peak in the curve and compared with that in calibration gas of
known composition. Orsat Gas Analysis
Orsat gas analysis system was developed to measure the gases CO2, CO, 02, H2, and
CH4.It was the principle measurement method used before gas . chromatograph was
developed. The orsat analysis depends upon the ability of certain chemicals to react
selectively with each gas component are absorbed in the order of CO2, 02CO, H2, CH4 and
the analysis reports the volume percent of each component directly.
Orsat analysis equipment is portable does not required AC power has no warm up
time and purchase along with chemicals from scientific supply house.

The flow rate of producer gas was measured by fitting orifice meters. The head
developed across the orifice plate was measured by a U-tube manometer and the flow rate
was calculated using the formula
Gas flow rate=Ca Ap K
gh P Ps—Pg


Cd — Coefficient of discharge, 0.61

AP — Area of the orifice plate = 7tD22/4
D2 — Orifice plate diameter,
h — Manometric head developed, m
g — Acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m s-2
Pm — Density of manometric liquid, 1000 kg m 3
pg — Density of producer gas, 1.156 kg m 3
The inlet air flow rate was measured by measuring inlet air velocity by anemometer
and considering cross sectional area of the inlet pipe. The inlet air flow rate was calculated
using the formula

Q — Air flow rate, m3 s-I
A — Area of air inlet pipe, m2
V — Velocity of air at inlet, m s4


Low temperatures (upto 300° C) can be visually indicated with mercury thermometers
or bimetallic dial thermometers. Alternatively thermostat sensors can be used in this
tepreture range to provide an electrical signal that can be used for automatic control purpose.

Chromel-alumel (type K) thermocouple can be used continuously to 10000 C and

intermittently to 1200° C and they provide almost linear electrical signal of 401.iV/° C.


Pressure drop may be measured routinely across the gasifier bed, the orifice plate folw
meter, the gas clean up system. The pressure within the gasifier will be close to atmospheric
pressure and generally measured in centimeters of water column. Pressure drop and differtial
pressure can be measured by U tube manometer filled with colored liquid.


4.9.1 Hot Gas Efficiency

Ratio of the output rate [in terms of the energy content of the hot gas] to the
Energy input through biomass consumption rate.

(CV)g [kcal/nm3l X Vg [nm3/kg] + hs [ kJ/nm3]

(CV)B [kcal/kg]


(CV)g Cal. Value of Gas [kcal/nm3]

Vg Gas produced per kg of Biomass [nm3/kg]

hs Sensible heat of the gas - CV (Tg-Ts)XVg

(CV)B Cal value of Biomass [kcal/kg]

CV Volumetric Specific heat of producer gas [kcal/nm3]

Tg Temperature of Producer gas at the gasifier outlet [°C]

Ts Standard temperature [°C]

4.9.2 Cold Gas Efficiency

Ratio of the output rate [in terms of the energy content of the cold gas] to the
Energy input through biomass consumption rate.

(CV)g [kcal/nm31 X Vg [nm3/kg]

(CV)B [kcal/kg]

4.9.3 Overall Electrical Efficiancy

The performance of the gasifier was evaluated in terms of its electrical efficiency
which included biomass consumption rate, heating value of wood, generated voltage and

It is the ratio of energy output to the energy input. The gasifier efficiency of the system
was calculated as follows:

Energy output
x 100
~ g T Energy input

Energy input

The energy input (Q;) to the gasifier is obtained by multiplying the heating value of
feedstock by the feed stock consumption rate.
Energy input (Q;) = F x HF

F = Feed stock consumption rate
HF = Heating value of fuel

Energy output

The energy outputs (Q0) consists of voltage and current gentared, and generator power

Energy outputs (Q0) = V x I x COS 0

V = Voltage
I = Currant
COS 0 = Power Factor.


Electricity delivered by biomass gasifier power project The annual delivered
electricity output (Eo) of a Biomass Gasifier Power Project (BGPP) with rated power output
(P) of electricity generator is dependent on its capacity utilization factor (CUF). It can be
estimated using the following expression

Eo = P(8760 * CUF)

E0 = Annual delivered electricity output
P = Rated Power Output
CUF = Capacity Utilization Factor

4.10.1 Capacity utilization factor of Biomass Gasifier Power Project

One of the problems associated with decentralized power projects in remote villages is
their low capacity utilization due to absence of energy consuming productive activities.
Biomass Gasifier Power Project for decentralized operation are usually operated for about
six hours in the evening for meeting mainly lighting loads. In certain cases BGPP may also
be operated during day time for meeting requirement of electricity for operating pumping
systems for supplying community drinking water and irrigation and for
industrial/commercial loads (such as flour mill), if any. Considering these aspects, a capacity
utilization factor of 25% (i.e. CUF= 0.25) has been considered in this study. [34]

4.10.2 Capital cost of biomass gasifier power project

The capital cost of a Biomass Gasifier Power Project (Cbgpp) comprises the costs of
gasifier (Cg), engine—generator set (Ceg), civil works (Cew).

Cbgpp = Cg + Ceg + Ccw

4.10.3 Levelized unit cost of electricity

The Levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) is one of the commonly used indicators
for financial performance evaluation of Biomass Gasifier Power Project (BGPP).The
Levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) for a Biomass Gasifier Power Project (BGPP) can
be estimated as the ratio of the total annualized cost (AC) of Biomass Gasifier Power Project
(BGPP) to the annual electricity delivered by the same,

= Ac

Total annualized cost can be estimated by taking into consideration the contributions
of the capital costs of subsystems of Biomass Gasifier Power Project (BGPP) through
respective capital recovery factors based on their useful lives and interest rate, annual


operation and maintenance costs of the different sub-systems of the BGPP and the cost of
fuel used. The contributions of capital cost (ACc), operation and maintenance cost (ACo&M)
and cost of fuel (ACF) to the total annualized cost can be estimated using the expression

ACc = Cg *Rg+Ceg *Reg+Ccw *Rcw

Where Rcw, Reg and Rg, respectively, represent the capital recovery factors for civil
works, engine—generator set and gasifier and it can be calculated on the basis of interest
rate(d)and useful lifetime (T).The capital recovery factor (R),
_ d(1 + d)T
R (1+d)T-1


mcw = The operation and maintenance costs of civil works as fractions of capital
meg = The operation and maintenance costs of engine generator as fractions of
capital cost.
mg = The operation and maintenance costs of gasifier as fractions of their e capital
ml and n = represent the manpower wage rate and number of manpower required for
Operation and maintenance.

ACF = 8760 * CUF (cp f * sspfc * P + cbm * ssbmc * P)

cpf and cbm represent the price of pilot fuel i.e. diesel and biomass respectively. sspfc and
ssbmc, represent the specific pilot fuel consumption and specific biomass consumption.

Levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE)

ACc + ACo&m + ACF


The gasifier for electricity generation is installed in Renewable Energy park Alternate
Hydro Energy Centre in IIT, Roorkee campus. is manufacture by MIS ANKUR Scientific
Energy Technology Pvt.Ltd. Biomass gasifier (GAS 4) coupled to gas engine genset (7.5 kW
capacity duly modified to operate in 100% producer gas mode) to give the gross output of
about 5kW. The performance analysis of this biomass gasifier- system was carried out with
respect to the different loading condition.
5.2 System Description
A downdraft biomass gasifier (5kW) Power generating system is shown in Fig.5.1.It
consists of Cylindrical hopper, passive filter, safety filter, 100% producer gas engine and

Fig. 5.1 Biomass Gasifier (5kW) Power generating system.

Component of whole system is described on the next page:

5.2.1 Gasifier

Gasifier used in this study was a downdraft gasifier. Air was supplied through air
nozzles and introduced at the combustion zone. Wood chips with size of 25 mm x 30 mm
were used as feedstock. The producer gas was formed inside the gasifier due to incomplete
combustion of wood and was forced to pass through a high temperature zone at the throat so
that most of the unburnt pyrolysis products were cracked in to gaseous hydrocarbons, and
system produced relatively clean gas. The specifications of gasifier are shown in Table 5.1

Table 5.1. Specifications of gasifier based power generating system

Make Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt.


Gasifier type Downdraft

Average gas calorific value 1,000 kcal/Nm

Gasification temperature 1050 - 1100 °C

Fuel storage capacity 80 kg

Ash storage and removal Storage below the grate in the reactor &
Removal manual in batch mode

Start up Through Engine Suction

Fuel type and size Wood with maximum 25 mm in length

Permissible moisture content in 5 to 20% (wet basis)


Charging Batch mode, by topping up once every 4


Table 5.1 shows the specification of biomass gasifier. Gasifier temperature reach up
to 1100°C so that completely tar cracking is obtained. Wood is used as a feedstock material.

5.2.2 Cooling unit

For increasing volumetric efficiency of engine, cooling of producer gas is necessary. A

cooling chamber was attached to gas outlet of gasifier for reducing temperature of producer
gas. A pump was used to circulate the water from reservoir to cooling chamber. Producer gas
was mixed with water in cooling chamber, then water returns back to reservoir and producer
gas was fed to water scrubber which removes the carbon and impurities from producer gas.

5.2.3 Cleaning unit
Primary and secondary filters are used for cleaning of gas.Primary filter consisted of
rice husk and cotton wool to remove course impurities from producer gas. A fabric filter was
used in the secondary filter to remove fine particles from the producer gas.
5.2.4 Engine Generator unit

Biomass gasifier (GAS 4) coupled to engine genet (7.5 kW capacity duly modified to
operate in 100% producer gas mode) to give the gross output of about 5kW. The
specifications of engine-genraor are as shown in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2. Specifications of Engine-Genset.

Engine -Genset
Rated output 5 kW
Engine capacity 7.5 kW
Gasifier start-up power Through battery
Engine start-up Through battery
Specific biomass Consumption Less than 1.5 kg/kWh
RPM 1500

Table 5.2 shows that engine having the power capacity 7.5kW and generator having
the gross output of 5kW.In gas engine the specific biomass consumption is 1.5 kg/kWh.
Staring of engine is through battery.


Performance analysis of 5kW biomass gasifier engine generator system is carried out in
terms of different load condition, Overall efficiency is calculated and also the biomass
consumption rate is calculate at different load condition.

5.3.1 Performance evaluation of gasifier

Before testing the performance of gasifier, properties of feed stocks were tested in
terms of its physical and chemical properties required for combustion. The following
properties have been considered for performance analysis of biomass gasifier system.

56 Properties of feedstock

Physical and thermal properties of feed stock influence the operation of the thermal
system to a great extent. Physical properties control the flow behavior while the chemical
properties are important to understand how the reactions proceed. The physical properties
include size fraction, moisture content, bulk density and true density. The proximate and
elemental compositions are the chemical properties. Their determination is important to
calculate the associated parameters such as air requirement for proper gasification and reactor
size [35]. Physico-chemical properties

The average bulk density of Eucalyptus is determined in the lab and found as 410 kg
m 3 while average true density was 820 kg m 3, whereas the average calorific value of
Eucalyptus is 4404 kcal kg'.

Table 5.3 Physical properties and proximate Composition of eucalyptus wood

Moisture Bulk True Proximate composition, Calorific value, kcal kg'

content, density, density, % (from bomb
% (w. kg m 3 kg m-3 calorimeter)
Fixed Volatile Ash
b.) (Average) (Average) carbon matter content

12 410 820 16.00 82.00 1.00 4404

It is seen that from Table 5.3 eucalyptus contains the more volatile matter it indicate
that it having good gasification properties calorific value of eucalyptus is determined with
help of bomb calorimeter and it is found that 4404 kcal kg' .The ultimate analysis of
eucalyptus is given in Table 5.4

Table 5.4 Elemental Composition of eucalyptus wood

Elemental composition, %

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen

57.20 5.25 36.38

57 Stoichiometric air analysis for wood chips

In order to determine the amount of air to be supplied for combustion was

determined in Table 5.5

Table 5.5 Stoichiometric air analysis for eucalyptus combustion

Constituents Mass 02 reqd. Products of combustion

constituents kg/kg kg/kg fuel
kg/kg of fuel of fuel CO2 H2O

C 0.511 0.511 x 2 .67 0.511 x 3.67 --


H2 0.0515 0.0515x8= -- 0.0515x9=

0.412 0.4635

02 0.428 -0.428 -- --

Total oxygen required = 1.361 + 0.412 — 0.428

= 1.345 kg / kg of wood

Stoichiometric air required =1.345 = 5.80 kg/kg of wood.

Products of combustion/kg of wood fuel = 1.873 kg of CO2

= 0.463 5 kg of H2O

Total product of combustion/kg of wood = 2.337 kg

Table 5.6 Air requirement for combustion of wood

Biomass consumption kg Wt. of stoichiometric air required for

combustion, kg

3 17.4

3.5 20.3
4 23.2
4.5 26.1

Stoichiometric air requirement depends upon the elemental composition of the fuel.
In the case of wood chips Stoichiometric air requirement was 5.80 kg per kg of wood.


Performance of biomass gasifier is carried out in terms of calculating the overall
efficiency of biomass gasifier engine generator system. Input Power is provided with wood
consumption at different load condition as shown in Table 5.8.

Table 5.8 Input Power

Load (kW) Biomass consumption Kg/hr Total Input, Kcallhr

0 1.5 6604
1 3 13208
2 3.5 15410
3 4 17611
4 4.5 19812

Table 5.8 shows that at different load conditions the biomass consumption is
increases. It is also observed that at no load condition gasifier shows constant reading while
applying the load initially it consumes more wood after gives constant reading.

Biomass consumption Kg/hr

0 3.5

En 2.53

E 1
.2 0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5

Load (kW)

Fig. 5.2 Biomass consumption rate with different load conditions

Fig. 5.2 shows that biomass consumption rate of gasifier with different loading condition are
has to be done by weighing the feedstock fed into the gasifier and noting down the time of
consumption in the reactor. It is observed that biomass consumption rate at no load, 1 kW,
2kW,3 kW, and 4kW load conditions are 1.5,3,3.5,4,4.5 kg/hr respectively. It is also
observed that at no load condition gasifier shows constant reading while applying the load
initially it consumes more wood after gives constant reading.

Power output is calculated in terms of generated voltage and currant at different load
condition as shown in Table 5.9.

Table 5.9 Power Output

Voltage Currant Electrical Output Electrical Output,

Load Kcal/hr
(kW) V( V) I (A) P=Vlcos(0), kW
0 400 0 0 0
1 360 5 1.44 1238
2 320. 7 1.79 1541
3 320 9 2.30 1981
4 300 12 2.88 2477

Table 5.9 shows that with increase in electric load it generate more power initially
and after that power drop start. At 1kW load generator generate 1.44 kW power and as we
increase load upto 2kW it generate 1.79kW power.The maximum power generate is
2.88kW at 4kW load conditin.variation of elecrical output with different load condition as
shown in Fig.5.3.

Electrical Output

I 2


0 1 2 3 4 5

Load (kW)

Fig. 5.3 Variation of electrical output with different load condition

Fig.5.4 shows that with increasing the electrical load by applying electric heater of 1kW
to 4 kW initially it generate more watts after it gives smaller variation in generation voltage of
system decreases with increase in load.
From the power input and power output the overall efficiency is calculated and it is
found that maximum efficiency at 4kW load is 12.5 %.

Table 5.10 Overall Efficiency

Load Power Input, Power Output, Kcal/hr Overall Efficiency

(kW) Kcal/hr
0 6604 0 0
1 13208 1238 9.38
2 15410 1541 10.00
3 17611 1981 11.25
4 19812 2477 12.50

From Table 5.10 it is observed that the maximum efficiency is obtained is 12.5% at
4kW load. Variation of efficiency with respect to different load condition is shown in

Overall Efficiency

U_ 8
w 6
L 4

0 1 2 3 4 5

Load (kW)

Fig. 5.4 Overall Efficiency of Biomass Gasifier with different load conditions

From Fig.5.4 above is show that overall efficiency of biomass gasifier system operates on 100%
producer gas with different load condition. The maximum efficiency 12.5% is obtained at 4kW

load and minimum efficiency at 1kW load is 9.38%.It is also observed that with increasing the
load the biomass consumption rate is also increase it will increase the input power.


The detailed method for cost estimation of biomass gasifier systems is describe in
section 4.10.The values of all of the input parameters used for estimating the Levelized Unit
Cost Electricity of Biomass Gasifier Power Systems are given in Table 5.11. The cost details
are given in the Table.5.13.
Table 5.11 Base values of input parameters used for techno-economic evaluation of
biomass gasifier systems
Input parameter Unit value
Annual maintenance cost of gasifier as a fraction of its capital Fraction 0.05
Annual maintenance cost of engine—generator as a fraction of Fraction 0.10
its capital cost
Annual maintenance cost of civil work as a fraction of its Fraction 0.02
capital cost
Capacity utilization factor Fraction 0.25

Interest rate Fraction 0.12

Manpower cost Rs./man-h 15.00

Manpower requirement for BGPP Of capacity up to 20kW Numbers 1
Manpower requirement for BGPP of capacity >20kW Numbers 2

Price of biomass Rs./kg 3.0

Price of diesel Rs./l 38.0

Specific biomass consumption in a typical DF engine BGPP at kg/kWh 1.10

rated capacity
Specific biomass consumption in a typical HPG engine BGPP kg/kWh 1.40

at rated capacity
Specific diesel consumption in a typical DF engine BGPP at 1/kWh 0.11

rated capacity
Specific diesel consumption in a typical diesel engine at rated 1/kWh 0.30


Useful life of civil work Years 20
Useful life of engine—generator Years 20
Useful life of biomass gasifier Years 10

Table 5.12 Cost of electricity with different mode of operation

Rating , Cost of electricity Cost of electricity /kWh Cost of. electricity
Rs./kWh /kWh
kW 100% Producer Gas Duel Fuel mode Diesel mode
5 23.44 26.08 29.36
10 19.91 22.52 25.96
20 16.15 18.84 22.28
30 15.66 18.58 21.93
40 14.72 17.59 20.98

As shown in Table.5.12 the energy cost for 100 % producer gas mode of operation,
duel fuel mode of operation and diesel mode of operation. It is observed that the cost of
electricity at 100% producer gas mode is less compared to other system and it is also
observed that the cost of electricity decreases with increase in capacity. The feasibility up to
40kW capacity is calculated and it observed that cost of electricity decreases from Rs.23.44/
to Rs.14.72/kWh in 100% producer gas mode that of dual fuel mode of operation is Rs.26.08
to Rs.17.59/kWh. Cost of electricity is more in diesel mode i.e. Rs.29.36 for 5kW system and
Rs.20.98/kWh for 40 kW system.
As shown in Fig.5.5 the energy cost for 100 % producer gas mode of operation for 5,
10, 20, 30, and 40kW of systems are Rs.23.44/,Rs.19.11/,Rs.16.15/, Rs.15.66/, and
Rs.I4.72/kWh respectively that of dual fuel mode is Rs.26.08,Rs.22.52, Rs.18.84, Rs.18.58,
and Rs.17.59/kWh respectively and diesel mode is Rs.29.36, Rs.25.96, Rs.22.28, Rs.21.93,
and Rs.20.98/kWh respectively.




20.00 100% Producer Gas

X5.00 Duel Fuel mode
0 10.00
o -Diesel mode

0 10 20 30 40

Capacity of system (kW)

Fig.5.5 Cost of electricity with different mode of operation

From the, cost estimation it is also observed that the initial cost of 100% producer gas
engine is more than diesel engine and duel fuel engine. High cost of 100%producer gas
engine is due to less demand in the market.

Duel Fuel engine

Type of engine 100% Producer ga engine Diesel engine

fated capacity (kW) 20 30 40

5 10 20 30 40 1 5 10 20 30 40 5 10

;ost of biomass gasifier

ls.(Lakhs) 6 10.5 16 23 28 16 10.5 16 23 28 6 10.5 16 23 28

,ost of engine generator set

ts.(Lakhs) 1.05 2.625 4.6 6.0 8,0 10.9 1.55 2.6 3.4 4.5 1.2 2.0 3.5 5,0 6,5

;ivil work Rs.(Lakhs)

0.4 0.7 1.2 1.5 2.0 0.4 0.7 1.2 1.5 2.0 0.4 0.7 1.2 1.5 2.0

:ontribution of capital cost(ACc)

4.95 6.2
.s,(Lakhs) 1.32 2.3 3.61 5.07 6,30 1.24 2,16 3.34 4,72 5.82 1.28 2.22 3,46

)peration and maintenance

2.92 0.13 1.03 1.42 2.19 2.56 0.76 1.07 1.5 235 2.7
!ost(ACo&m) Rs.(Lakhs) 0.79 1.14 1.62 2.45

3.68 125 2.5 5.0 1.5 10 0.82 1.64 3.3 4.9 6.6
0.46 0.92 1.84 2.76
.ost of fuel(ACf) Rs.(Lakhs)

3.21 5.69 9.76 14.41 18.38 2.86 4.93 8.26 12.2 15.5
2,6 4.36 7.07 10.29 12.9
Total cost Rs.(Lakhs)
21900 43800 65700 87600 10950 21900 43800 65700 87600
knnual delivered electricity 10950 21900 43800 65700 81600 10950

23,44 19.91 16.5 15.66 14.72 29.76 25.96 2228 21.93 20.96 26.08 22.52 16.84 18.58 17.69
Unit cost of electricity Rs.lkWh


In the present study, performance analysis of a downdraft gasifier coupled to engine-

generator has been carried out. The results of present investigation of using eucalyptus wood
in this gasification are summarized as follow;
The proximate analysis of wood is carried out having the moisture contain of 12% on
wet basis having fixed carbon, volatile matter and ash contained as 16%, 82%, and 1%
respectively. The calorific value of the wood was measured as 4404 kcal kg 1 .

Biomass consumption at different load, load 1kW, 2kW, 3kW, and 4kW 1.5, 3,
3.5, 4, and 4.5 kg/hr respectively. It is also observed that at no load condition gasifier shows
constant reading while applying the load initially it consumes more wood.

Overall efficiency of biomass gasifier system operated on 100% producer gas with
different load condition varying from no load to full load are observed. The efficiency at 4kW
load has been found as 12.5% whereas at 1kW, 2kW, 3kW load conditions, the values of
efficiencies has been observed as 9.38%, 10%, and 11.25 % respectively.

Further an attempt has also made to analysis that energy cost for higher capacity of
systems. Energy cost for 100 % producer gas mode of operation for 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40kW
of systems has been found as Rs.23.44/,Rs.19.11/,Rs.16.15/, Rs.15.66/, and Rs.14.72/kWh
respectively. However the values for dual fuel mode are found as Rs.26.08, Rs.22.52,
Rs.18.84, Rs.18.58, and Rs.17.59/kWh respectively and for diesel mode as Rs.29.36,
Rs.25.96, Rs.22.28, Rs.21.93, and Rs.20.98/kWh respectively.

During the experimentation it is also observed that the gasifier engine operate on the
100% producer gas gives the starting problem due to carbon deposition near the spark plug
ignition system, changing the spark plug for every operation are required during the

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