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Section 1

Part 8

Quality Assurance

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8.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

 

3

8.1

GENERAL

3

8.1.1

Scope

3

8.1.2

References

3

8.1.3

Definitions

3

8.1.4

Contractors Responsibility

 

3

8.1.5

System Description

4

8.1.6

Failure to Perform

5

8.2

SUBMITTALS

5

8.2.1

Project Quality Plan

 

5

8.2.2

Quality Organisation Plan

6

8.2.3

Inspection and Test Plans

7

8.2.4

Method Statements

7

8.2.5

Commissioning Plan

8

8.3

CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY PERSONNEL

8

8.3.1

General

8

8.3.2

Quality Assurance Manager

 

8

8.3.3

Quality Control Manager

8

8.3.4

Quality Engineer

9

8.3.5

Quality Inspector

9

8.3.6

Personnel Qualifications

 

9

8.3.7

Quality Staff Requirement

9

8.3.8

Quality Training for Contractor’s Employees and Labour

10

8.4

DOCUMENT AND DATA CONTROL

10

8.4.1

General

10

8.4.2

Document and Data Approval and Issue

10

8.4.3

Document and Data Changes

 

10

8.5

QUALITY RECORDS

11

8.5.1

General

11

8.6

QUALITY AUDITS

11

8.6.1

Contractor’s Quality Audit

 

11

8.6.2

Engineer’s Quality Audit

12

8.7

INSPECTING AND TESTING

12

8.7.1

General

12

8.7.2

Inspections and Tests

 

12

8.7.3

Inspection and Test Status

13

8.7.4

Inspections by the Engineer during construction

13

8.7.5

Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period

13

8.7.6

Workmanship

13

8.7.7

Measuring and Test Equipment

 

14

8.8

MATERIALS

14

8.8.1

Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship

14

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8.8.2

Handling and Storage of Materials

14

8.8.3

Identification and Control of Items and Materials

15

8.9

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING

15

8.9.1

General

15

8.9.2

Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items

15

8.9.3

Corrective and Preventive Action

 

15

8.9.4

Identification of Nonconforming Items

16

8.9.5

Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items

16

8.9.6

Nonconformance Records

 

16

8.10

LABORATORIES

17

8.10.1

Approved testing Laboratories

 

17

8.10.2

Government Laboratory

17

8.10.3

Independent Laboratories and Material Testing

17

8.11

SITE MEETINGS AND REPORTS

17

8.11.1

Site Quality Meetings

 

17

8.11.2

Monthly Quality Reports

18

8.12

FAILURE BY THE CONTRACTOR TO MEET ACCEPTABLE QUALITY

PERFORMANCE

18

8.12.1

General

18

8.12.2

Penalty for Poor Quality Works

 

18

8.13

SUSPENSION OF WORK

19

8.13.1

Suspension of Work

19

8.14

APPENDIX A - CONTRACTORS PROJECT QUALITY PLAN TEMPLATE. 20

8.15

APPENDIX B - CONTRACTORS INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN TEMPLATE

34

8.16

APPENDIX C – SAMPLING AND TESTING FREQUENCIES

35

8.17

APPENDIX D - QUALITY NONCONFORMANCE TEMPLATE

179

C – SAMPLING AND TESTING FREQ UENCIES 35 8.17 APPENDIX D - QUALITY NONCONF ORMANCE TEMP

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8. QUALITY ASSURANCE

8.1

GENERAL

8.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the Quality Assurance activities to be performed by the Contractor during all phases of the Contract.

2

Related Parts and Sections are:

This Section

Part 7 Submittals

Section 11

Part 10 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational Health and Safety

8.1.2

References

1

The following standards are referred to in this part:

QCS --------------- Qatar Construction Specification ISO 9001 --------- Quality management systems – Requirements ISO 10005-------- Quality management systems - Guidelines for quality plans

8.1.3

Definitions

1.

Defect or Nonconformance : any part of the Works not executed, provided or completed in accordance with the Contract. For the avoidance of doubt and without limiting the generality of the expression the term shall be taken to include any item of Plant, material, goods or work incorporated or used in the Works which does not or may not conform to the relevant quality standards or pass the tests prescribed in or to be inferred from the Contract.

2.

PQP : Project Quality Plan.

3.

QA & QC : Quality Assurance & Quality Control and this may be written as QA/QC.

4.

QA : Quality Assurance. Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. QA involves a continuous evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the overall Quality Management System in order to evaluate the deviation from established quality objectives.

5.

QC : Quality Control. Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements. The QC involves specific control points during design, fabrication or construction stages to check the fulfilling of design criteria, acceptance criteria (tolerance, etc.), performance criteria or functional criteria.

6.

QMS : Quality Management System. A set of interrelated or interacting processes, activities or tasks to direct Project resources to achieve established quality policy and objectives.

7.

Quality Management : Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regards to quality.

8.1.4

Contractors Responsibility

1

Contractor shall, throughout the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying defects therein have full regard for the Quality Assurance. Contractor shall note that the Contract Price includes the Execution Programme for provision and implementation of a Quality Management System to ensure that the appropriate standards are enforced throughout construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning stages of the Works.

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2

The Contractor shall be responsible for all Quality Assurance and Quality Control matters during the execution of the Work up to and including the Completion Date.

3

The Contractor shall be responsible for the development, implementation and maintenance of a Quality Assurance Programme consistent with the requirements of this Part that assures workmanship, equipment and material conformance to the applicable requirements of every Section of the Specification.

4

The Contractor shall implement a Quality Management System to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the Contract. The Contractor shall operate a Quality Management Systems that complies, as a minimum, with the requirements of QCS, ISO 9001 and Contract Documents as applicable. Such system shall be in accordance with the details stated in the Contract and that assures workmanship, equipment and material conformance to the applicable requirements of every Section of the Contract Specification (including but not limited to the Project Quality Plan mentioned in this section). Compliance with the Quality Management System shall not relieve the Contractor of his duties, obligations or responsibilities.

5

Unless otherwise stated in the Contract, the Contractor shall comply with every requirement of the Qatar National Construction Specification (QCS) that is relevant to the type of work forming any part of the Contract.

6

The Contractor shall obtain the necessary approvals from the relevant authorities for all his Works (including Temporary Works and the use of Contractor’s Equipment).

7

The Contractor’s Representative shall observe and inspect the Works for all concerned project Quality compliance during the performance of the Work up to and including the Completion Date.

8

The Contractor shall ensure acceptable QA/QC performance and compliance of all Sub- contractors, vendors and other parties who may enter or perform works at the Worksite.

9

The Contractor is required to copy to the Engineer any formal quality related communication between the Contractor and enforcing authorities or government organisations.

8.1.5

System Description

1

The Quality Programme shall assure the quality throughout all applicable areas of Contract performance, such as the design of temporary works and structures, inspections, testing, handling, packaging, shipping, storage and construction activities.

2

The Quality Programme shall provide a mode of operation that emphasises the identification, correction, and prevention of deficiencies and discrepancies.

3

Procedures to implement the Quality Programme shall be developed. Specific responsibilities shall be assigned, and individual job authorities clearly delineated. Procedures shall be established to systematically verify compliance with the requirements of this Part and any other requirements of the Specification necessary to show conformance with the Project Documentation.

4

The Contractor's Quality Programme shall be subject to evaluation by the Engineer to determine that the Quality Programme meets contractual requirements. Audits of Contractor, sub-contractor, and Contractor activities will be performed by the Engineer to verify compliance with the Specifications and all referenced standards. Audits will be performed on a systematic basis or as warranted by general quality trends. The Contractor shall provide all necessary assistance to the Engineer in auditing quality assurance activities.

5

Non-conforming work and materials, whether in place or not, will be rejected by the Engineer. The Contractor shall be notified in writing to correct defective work or remove the defective material from the Works. If the Contractor fails to respond, the Engineer may order correction, removal, and/or replacement of defective materials by others. The Contractor shall bear all costs for such work.

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6

Materials accepted on the basis of a Certificate of Compliance may be sampled and inspected/tested by the Engineer at any time. The fact that the materials were accepted on the basis of a certificate shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to use materials which comply with the Specifications.

7

The Contractor shall impose all quality assurance requirements upon sub-contractors, suppliers, manufacturers and any other parties associated with the Contractor that are involved in the Project.

8.1.6

Failure to Perform

1

If the Contractor fails to adequately perform any or all of the provisions of this Part, the Owner, at its sole discretion, reserves the right to have the Engineer perform any or all of the provisions of this Section and charge the Contractor for the actual cost of such work.

8.2

SUBMITTALS

8.2.1 Project Quality Plan

1 The Contractor shall prepare the necessary Contract specific Project Quality Plan as specified in this part, the Contract Documents and as a minimum meeting the requirements ISO 9001 and ISO 10005 and submit them to the Engineer for review and approval within 30 days of the award of Contract. The Contractor is not permitted to Work on the worksite until such time as the plans has been approved by the Engineer.

2 The Contractor shall regularly review the suitability of the Quality Plans. The Contractor shall undertake a full formal review of the quality plans annually with reference to the date of award of the Contract and submit the findings of the review to the Engineer within 14 days of that date along with an amended plan should any amendments be required.

3 The Project Quality Plan shall describe the Contractor’s Quality Management System that will be used throughout the Contract and the contents shall include but not be limited to the following:

(a)

Front Cover

(b)

Table of Contents

(c)

Project Scope, Requirements and Quality Objectives

(d)

Quality Policy and ISO 9001 Certificate (if applicable)

(e)

Control of Project Quality Plan

(f)

Reference Documentation

(g)

Project Management, Planning and Resources

(h)

Management, Organisation and Responsibilities

(i)

Contract Review

(j)

Project Deliverables

(k)

Communication with the Engineer

(l)

Management of Documents, Data and Records

(m)

Design (Including Temporary Works)

(n)

Procurement of Services, Equipment and Materials

(o)

Method Statements

(p)

Inspection and Test

(q)

Product Identification and Traceability

(r)

Owner Supplied Product

(s)

Handling, Storage, Packaging and Delivery

(t)

Nonconformance, Corrective and Preventative Action

(u)

Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment

(v)

Audits

(w)

Training

(x)

Key Performance Indicators and Continual Improvement

(y)

Management Review

(z)

Quality Meetings

(aa)

Monthly Quality Report

(bb)

Commissioning

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(cc)

Interface Management

(dd)

Project Completion and Handover

(ee)

Appendices

and include as a minimum:

(a)

a detailed description of procedures, instructions, and reports to be used to ensure compliance with the Project Documentation

(b)

a detailed description of procedures for reviewing shop drawings, samples, certificates and other submittals necessary for compliance with the Project Documentation

(c)

a detailed description of procedures used to identify, report and resolve problems

(d)

a description of the services provided by outside organisations such as testing laboratories, architects, and consulting engineers

(e)

a detailed description of inspections and tests required

(f)

copies of forms and reports to be used to document quality assurance operations

(g)

the names of personnel responsible for each part of the Works

(h)

a submittal status log listing required submittals and action required by the Contractor and Engineer

(i)

a detailed description of document and submittal control procedures

(j)

an inspection and test schedule keyed to the construction programme

(k)

procedures to identify and control the use of items and materials

4

No construction shall begin and no requests for payment from the Contractor shall be processed until the Contractor’s Quality Assurance Plan is approved.

5

A Contractors Project Quality Plan Template with guidance notes is included in Appendix A of this Part.

8.2.2

Quality Organisation Plan

1

The Contractor shall submit a Quality Organisation Plan to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

2

The Quality Organisation Plan shall provide the names, qualifications, experience and skills of all the QA/QC Team and key support staff.

3

The Quality Organisation Plan shall show the organisation of Contractor’s quality team and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a)

an organisation chart identifying all personnel responsible for quality

(b)

Identify the quality team showing that the team is independent of the job supervisory staff with clear lines of authority to top tier management.

(c)

Indicate and describe the area of responsibility and authority of each individual in the quality assurance team.

4

The Quality Organisation Plan should also define quality responsibilities of any of the Contractors team with responsibilities under the Contractors Project Quality Plan.

5

The Contractor’s Quality staff shall have relevant educational and professional qualifications, training and the ability to communicate in multiple languages. The Contractor is not permitted to execute any form of the works at the worksite until such time as approved quality personnel have been deployed on a fulltime basis to the worksite. The Contractor shall not remove or replace the appointed quality personnel without prior approval from the Engineer.

6

The Quality Organisation Plan may form part of the Project Quality Plan or be prepared as a standalone document and cross-referenced within the Project Quality Plan.

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8.2.3

Inspection and Test Plans

1

As part of the Project Quality Plan the Contractor shall submit an Inspection and Test Plan Schedule to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

2

The Inspection and Test Plan schedule shall define the Inspection and Test Plans to be prepared for the Works and the target dates for their submission to the Engineer for his approval.

3

The Inspection and Test Plans shall consider the requirements of each Section of the Specification and shall identify, as a minimum, the following:

(a)

details each activity, inspection and test to be performed

(b)

reference to specifications, standards etc.

(c)

the required inspection and testing frequency

(d)

the acceptance/rejection criteria

(e)

whom from the Contractors team is responsible to perform the inspection or test

(f)

Quality Records to be generated

(g)

Hold, Witness, Patrol and Record Review points of the Contractors team, the Engineer and any other agencies having jurisdictional authority over the work relating to each inspection and test to be performed.

4

Each inspection and test shall have a unique reference number.

5

Inspection and Test Plans are required to address the Contractors on and off site Work and preparation, submission and approval of related documentation.

6

Inspection and Test Plans are required for all operations including major temporary works.

7

No work covered by the Inspection and Test Plan shall begin until the plan has been approved by the Engineer.

8

A Contractors Inspection and Test Plan Template with guidance notes is included in Appendix B of this Part.

8.2.4

Method Statements

1

As part of the Project Quality Plan the Contractor shall submit a Method Statement Schedule to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

2

The Method Statement Schedule shall define the Method Statements to be prepared for the Works and the target dates for their submission to the Engineer for his approval.

3

The Method statements shall address as a minimum the following:

(a)

Introduction/Scope

(b)

Location and identification of the work covered by the method statement

(c)

Permits and Licenses Required

(d)

Specific Health and Safety Issues including Risk Assessments and Job Hazard Analysis

(e)

Environmental Issues

(f)

Quality Issues

(g)

Responsibilities

(h)

Sequence of Work

(i)

Resources

(j)

Drawings and Sketches

(k)

Reference documentation

4

Method Statements are required for all operations including temporary works.

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No work covered by the Method Statement shall begin until it has been approved by the Engineer.

6

For additional requirements relating to the preparation of method statements refer to Part 10, Occupational Health and Safety, of this Section and Section 11, Occupational Health and Safety.

8.2.5

Commissioning Plan

1

The Contractor shall submit a Commissioning Plan to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days before the start of the commissioning of the Works or any part thereof.

2

The Commissioning Plan shall consider the requirements of each Section of the Specification in turn and shall identify the following:

(a)

all required commissioning work required by that Section of the Specification

(b)

any prerequisites to commissioning

(c)

a description of the commissioning procedure.

3

No work covered by the Commissioning Plan shall begin until the plan has been approved.

8.3

CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY PERSONNEL

8.3.1

General

1

Contractor shall, throughout the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying defects therein have on his staff at the Site office(s) a dedicated Quality Team dealing only with matters regarding the quality and protection against damage before, during and after execution of Works as specified in this section. This team shall be qualified and experienced in their work and shall have the authority to issue instructions and shall take protective measures to prevent execution of Works that do not comply with the Specifications.

2

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing prior to re-assigning or replacement of any of the quality team designated in the Quality Organisation Plan.

3

The Contractor shall have adequate quality personnel on the site during all production operations, including adequate coverage during night shift operations and off site work.

4

The Contractor's quality team shall have the authority to stop any portion of the work which does not comply with the requirements of the Project Documentation.

5

Minimum qualifications and experience of the Contractors Quality Personnel shall be as defined in the Contract.

8.3.2

Quality Assurance Manager

1

Where required by clause 8.3.7, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality Assurance Manager who shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation and operation of the Project Quality Plan at all levels. The Quality Assurance Manager shall report directly to Top Tier Management and be independent of the Contractors organisation responsible for construction.

8.3.3

Quality Control Manager

1

Where required by clause 8.3.7, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality Control Manager who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager and shall be responsible for supervision of the construction quality control management activities and ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and Test Plans and associated specification and contract documentation.

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8.3.4

Quality Engineer

 

1

Where required by clause 8.3.7, the Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Engineer who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager and shall be responsible for assisting them with their day to day responsibilities and may be assigned to cover several locations or areas of work relating to the Contract. Where a Quality Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager are not required by clause 8.3.7 the Quality Engineer shall be assigned all the responsibilities defined in clause 8.3.2 and 8.3.3.

8.3.5

Quality Inspector

 

1

The Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Inspector for each shift for each location where work is being performed. Each Quality Inspector shall be qualified by training and experience in all the construction or fabrication activities being conducted at the location of work and is directly responsible for ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and Test Plans and associated specification and contract documentation.

8.3.6

Personnel Qualifications

 

1

The Contractor shall identify activities requiring qualified production, inspection, and test personnel and establish their minimum competence level.

2

The Contractor shall maintain records of personnel qualifications as quality records.

 

8.3.7

Quality Staff Requirement

 

1

Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer the Contractor shall employ fulltime qualified quality personnel for the Work as per table 8.1.

 

Table 8.1 - Quality Staff Requirement

 
 

No

No of workers on Worksite

Requirement

1.

Less than 10

Quality Inspector (Part time, 15 hours of duty per week)

1

2.

More than 11 but less than 50

1 Quality Inspector

3.

More than 51 but less than 500

1 Quality Engineer and

1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

4.

More than 501 but less than 1500

1 Quality Assurance Manager and

1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and

1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

5.

More than 1501

1 Quality Assurance Manager and

1 Quality Control Manager and

1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and

1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

2

The Contractor shall appoint deputy quality personnel who are capable of performing all the duties of the quality personnel in the event of their absence.

3

The Contractor shall appoint support staff in sufficient numbers to ensure the effective function of the quality related work within the Contractor’s organisation.

4

The Contractor shall ensure that every Sub-contractor employed on the Worksite appoints suitably qualified quality staff to ensure the effective function of the quality related issues

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within the Sub-contractor’s organisation. The Sub-contractor shall appoint and deploy fulltime on the Worksite one Quality Inspector for every 100 workers that they employ at the Worksite. Any Sub-contractor that employs more than 100 workers will appoint a Quality Engineer. This shall be in addition to the Contractor’s Quality Team.

8.3.8 Quality Training for Contractor’s Employees and Labour

1 The Contractor shall conduct quality training including Contract specific induction, pre-work briefings, skills training, tool box talks and formal training conducted by training professionals or agencies for all the Contractor’s employees. The Contract specific induction will be at least 1 hour duration, approved by the Engineer and provided for all persons involved in the Works. Such induction training will be reviewed, revised and repeated at intervals not exceeding 12 months throughout the duration of the Work. All training shall be provided in the languages preferred by the recipients of the training. Training shall focus on improving competency and skill for those performing activities that impact quality.

2 The Contractor must conduct regular tool box talks to his Labour workforce Such training should include as a minimum Health and Safety issues and Construction Method best practice.

3 The Owner may organise quality related training, meetings, seminars, workshops or similar events at any time throughout the Contract Period. The Contractor is required to participate in such events when requested at his own expense.

4 The Contractor shall maintain records of all training conducted including details of the training given and a list of attendees, including attendee’s signature and ID numbers.

8.4 DOCUMENT AND DATA CONTROL

8.4.1

General

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control all documents and data that relate to the requirements of the Specification. Documents and data can be in the form of any type of media, such as hard copy or electronic media.

2

The Contractor shall maintain up to date copies of all industry codes and standards that apply to the Contract

8.4.2

Document and Data Approval and Issue

1

The documents and data shall be reviewed and approved for adequacy by authorised personnel prior to issue. A master list or equivalent document control procedure identifying the current revision status of documents shall be established and be readily available to preclude the use of invalid and/or obsolete documents. This control shall ensure that:

(a)

The pertinent issues of appropriate documents are available at all locations where operations essential to the effective functioning of the quality system are performed

(b)

invalid and/or obsolete documents are promptly removed from all points of issue or use, or otherwise assured against unintended use

(c)

Any obsolete documents retained for legal and/or knowledge preservation purposes are suitably identified.

8.4.3

Document and Data Changes

1

Where practicable, the nature of the change shall be identified in the document or appropriate attachments.

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8.5 QUALITY RECORDS

8.5.1 General

1 The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures for identification, collection, indexing, access, filing, storage, maintenance and disposition of quality records.

2 The Contractor shall supplement these quality records as necessary to monitor quality throughout the Contract period.

3 Quality records shall be maintained to demonstrate conformance of materials and equipment to specified technical requirements and the effective operation of the quality system.

4 All quality records shall be legible and shall be stored and retained in such a way that they are readily retrievable in facilities that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage or deterioration and to prevent loss.

5 As a minimum, the quality record for any particular item shall include:

(a)

name of item

(b)

item number

(c)

item description

(d)

suppliers name

(e)

serial number or other identification (where applicable)

(f)

Specification reference (where applicable)

(g)

verification of receipt of all required supporting documentation

(h)

quantity of items

(i)

location and installation of item

(j)

inspection/test procedure reference

(k)

non-conformance number (if applicable)

(l)

observations / comments.

8.6 QUALITY AUDITS

8.6.1 Contractor’s Quality Audit

1 The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures for planning and implementing internal quality audits to verify whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and to determine the effectiveness of the quality system.

2 Internal quality audits shall be scheduled on the basis of the status and importance of the activity to be audited and shall be carried out by personnel independent of those having direct responsibility for the activity being audited. Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer in writing, the Contractor shall carry out a quality audit every three months.

3 The results of the audits shall be recorded and brought to the attention of the personnel having responsibility in the area audited. The management personnel responsible for the area shall take timely corrective action on deficiencies found during the audit.

4 Follow-up audit activities shall verify and record the implementation and effectiveness the corrective action taken.

5 The results of the Contractor’s quality audits shall be made available for review by the Engineer. The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer based on the results of the internal audit.

6 The Contractor shall allow the Engineer to observe the Contractor’s internal audit upon request.

audit. 6 The Contractor shall allow the Engineer to observe the Contractor’s internal audit upon request.

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8.6.2 Engineer’s Quality Audit

1 The Engineer may undertake a quality audit of any of the Contractor’s activities at any time during the course of the Contract. The Contractor shall make all personnel and facilities available to the Engineer as necessary to undertake quality audits.

2 The Engineer shall make the results of his quality audit available to the Contractor for review. The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer based on the results of the Engineer’s quality audit.

8.7 INSPECTING AND TESTING

8.7.1

General

1

The Contractor shall provide equipment, instruments, qualified personnel, and facilities necessary to inspect the work and perform the tests required by the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall repeat tests and inspections after correcting non-conforming work until all work complies with the requirements. All re-testing and re-inspections shall be performed at no additional cost to the Client.

3

The Engineer may elect to perform additional inspections and tests at the place of the manufacture or the shipping point to verify compliance with applicable Specifications. Inspections and tests performed by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to meet the Specifications. Inspections and tests by the Engineer shall not be considered a guarantee that materials delivered at a later time will be acceptable. All costs associated with the foregoing shall be borne by the Contractor.

4

Inspections and tests conducted by persons or agencies other than the Contractor, shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility and obligation to meet all Specifications and referenced standards.

8.7.2

Inspections and Tests

1

All inspections and tests shall be conducted in accordance with written test procedures as detailed in the Project Quality Plan and Inspection and Test Plans that have been reviewed and approved by the Engineer.

2

Mandatory Products and Materials Sampling and Testing Frequencies are included in Appendix C of this section. The Contractor shall follow the Sampling and Testing Frequencies stipulated in Appendix C unless otherwise stated. The table in Appendix C shall be read and understood in tandem with the footnotes in Appendix C.

3

Inspection and test procedures submitted for approval shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

(a)

inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

references to Clauses of this Specification and other standards along with applicable inspection/test levels specified therein

(c)

prerequisites for the given inspection/test

(d)

required tools, equipment

(e)

necessary environmental conditions

(f)

acceptance criteria

(g)

data to be recorded

(h)

reporting forms

(i)

identification of items inspected and tested.

(j)

Contractors and Engineers Hold, Witness, Patrol and Record Review Points

4

Approved procedures and instructions shall be readily available and used by inspection and test personnel at the time of inspection or test. All revisions to these procedures and

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instructions shall be approved prior to being used to inspect or test the work. No deviations from the approved procedures and instructions shall be allowed without written authorisation from the Engineer.

5

Inspection and testing work shall be performed by personnel designated by the Contractor. Such personnel shall not be the same as those performing the work.

6

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a signed and stamped inspection report for each item of work inspected and tested. The report shall indicate whether the item of work, material and/or equipment complies with all the inspection/test criteria. The Contractor shall submit inspection/test results to the Engineer prior to incorporating the item(s) into the work. Inspection/test failures shall be reported to the Engineer immediately.

7

Inspection and test reports shall, as a minimum, identify the following:

(a)

inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

name of inspector/tester

(c)

observations/comments

(d)

specified requirements

(e)

acceptability

(f)

deviations/non-conformance

(g)

corrective action

(h)

evaluation of results

(i)

authorised signature

8

The Contractor shall clearly document and identify the inspections and test status of all materials and equipment throughout construction. Identification may be by means of stamps, tags, or other control devices attached to, or accompanying, the material or equipment.

8.7.3

Inspection and Test Status

1

The inspection and test status of materials, equipment and construction work shall be identified by suitable means, which indicates the conformance or non-conformance of materials, equipment and construction work with regard to inspection and tests performed. The identification of inspection and test status shall be maintained, as defined in the Quality Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures, throughout the course of construction to ensure that only materials, equipment and construction work that have passed the required inspections and tests are used or installed.

8.7.4

Inspections by the Engineer during construction

1

The Contractors Inspection and Test Plans will define Hold, Witness, Patrol and Record Review points for the Engineer during construction. The contractor shall prepare, document and implement a Request for Inspection system that defines how the Engineer will be given sufficient notice to inspect the works in accordance with the Inspection and Test Plans.

8.7.5

Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period

1

The Engineer will give the Contractor due notice of his intention to carry out any inspections during the defects liability period.

2

The Contractor shall arrange for a responsible representative to be present at the times and dates named by the Engineer.

3

The Contractor’s representative shall render all necessary assistance and take note of all matters to which his attention is directed by the Engineer.

8.7.6

Workmanship

1

The Contractor shall comply with industry standards except when more restrictive tolerances

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or specified requirements indicate more rigid standards or more precise workmanship.

2

Only persons qualified to produce workmanship of the required quality shall perform works

3

The Contractor shall comply with manufactures’ published installation instructions / guides in full, including each step in sequence. Should instructions conflict with project documentation, the Contractor shall request clarification from the Engineer before proceeding.

8.7.7

Measuring and Test Equipment

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures which conform to accepted and approved national or international standards to control, calibrate and maintain inspection, measuring and test equipment used by the Contractor to demonstrate the conformance of materials, equipment and/or construction work with the requirements of the Project Documentation.

2

Inspection, measuring and test equipment shall be used in a manner which ensures that the measurement uncertainty is known and is consistent with the required measurement capability.

3

The Contractor shall establish a unique identification number for each item of measuring and test equipment. This unique identification number shall be permanently affixed to each item of measuring and test equipment

4

The Contractor shall ensure that each item of inspection, measuring and test equipment is calibrated at intervals recommended by the manufacturer. Valid calibration certificates for measuring and testing equipment shall be present and available for inspection during inspections and tests.

5

The Contractor shall establish a log of all measuring and test equipment and record:

(a)

equipment description

(b)

identification number

(c)

date of the last calibration

(d)

date that the next calibration is due.

8.8

MATERIALS

8.8.1

Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship

1

All Plant, materials, goods and workmanship shall be of the respective kinds described in the Contract with necessary approvals from the concerned authorities and in accordance with the Engineer's instructions and shall be subjected from time to time to such tests as the Engineer may direct at the place of manufacture or fabrication or on the Site or at all or any such places. The Contractor shall provide such assistance, instruments, machines, labour and material as are normally required for examining, measuring and testing any work and the quality, weight or quantity of any materials used and shall supply samples of materials before incorporation in the Works for testing as may be selected and required by the Engineer.

8.8.2

Handling and Storage of Materials

1

The Contractor shall establish procedures for handling and storage of materials and equipment.

2

The Contractor’s storage and handling procedures shall be designed to prevent damage, deterioration, distortion of shape or dimension, loss, degradation, loss of identification, or substitution.

3

The handling procedures shall address the use, inspection and maintenance of special

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devices such as crates, boxes, containers, dividers, slings, material handling and transportation equipment and other facilities.

4

The Contractor shall identify equipment and/or material requiring special handling or storage.

8.8.3

Identification and Control of Items and Materials

1

The Contractor shall establish control procedures to ensure that equipment and materials are properly used and installed.

2

The Contractor shall identify all items and materials so that they are traceable throughout all inspections, test activities, and records. For stored items, the identification method shall be consistent with the expected duration and type of storage.

3

The Contractor shall record equipment and material identifications and ensure that they are traceable to the location where they are incorporated into the Works.

8.9

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING

8.9.1

General

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures to ensure that an item that does not conform to the Contract prevented from unintended use or installation. This control shall provide for identification, documentation, evaluation, segregation (when practical) and disposition of the nonconforming item(s).

2

The monitoring system shall apply to material and equipment as well as installation and construction which fails to conform to the Contract.

3

A Contractors Quality Nonconformance Template is included in Appendix D of this Part.

8.9.2

Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items

1

The responsibility for review and authority for the disposition of nonconforming items shall be defined in the Quality Plan.

2

Nonconforming items shall be reviewed in accordance with documented procedures. A nonconforming item may be:

(a)

reworked to meet the specified requirements

(b)

accepted with or without repair if agreed in writing by the Engineer

(c)

re-graded for alternative applications

(d)

rejected or scrapped.

3

The proposed use or repair of an item which does not conform to the requirements of the Project Documentation shall be reported to the Engineer. The description of the nonconformity and of repairs shall be recorded to denote the actual condition.

4

Repaired and/or reworked products shall be inspected in accordance with the Quality Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures.

8.9.3

Corrective and Preventive Action

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures for implementing corrective and preventive action.

2

Any corrective or preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of actual or potential nonconformities shall be to a degree appropriate to the magnitude of problems and commensurate with the risks encountered.

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3

The Contractor shall implement and record any changes to the documented procedures for implementing corrective and preventive action.

4

The Contractor shall take prompt action to identify the causes of each nonconformance and the corrective action necessary prevent recurrence. The results of failure and discrepancy report summaries, Contractor evaluations, and any other pertinent applicable data shall be used for determining corrective action. Information developed during construction, tests, and inspections that support the implementation of required improvements and corrections shall be used to support the adequacy of corrective action taken.

5

The procedures for preventive action shall include:

 

(a)

the use of appropriate sources of information such as processes and work operations which affect product quality, concessions, audit results, quality records and service reports to detect, analyse and eliminate potential causes of nonconformities

(b)

determination of the steps needed to deal with any problems requiring preventive action

(c)

initiation of preventive action and application of controls to ensure that it is effective

(d)

ensuring that relevant information on actions taken is submitted for management review.

8.9.4

Identification of Nonconforming Items

 

1

The Contractor shall clearly identify each nonconforming item with a status tag or other distinguishing mark. The Contractor shall establish procedures for installing, monitoring, and removing these status tags and identify personnel authorised to remove status tags.

8.9.5

Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items

 

1

Acceptance of the Contractors proposed disposition of Nonconforming items should be obtained in writing from the Engineer prior to the undertaking of any remedial works by the Contractor.

2

Close out of Nonconforming items must be agreed in writing by the Engineer.

 

8.9.6

Nonconformance Records

 

1

The

Contractor

shall

provide

the

Engineer

with

the

following

information

for

each

nonconformance:

 

(a)

identification of nonconformance

 

(b)

description of nonconformance

(c)

evaluation of nonconformance to establish the cause

 

(d)

recommended corrective action

 

(e)

date nonconformance was identified

 

(f)

date corrective action was completed

(g)

description of final corrective action.

2

The Contractor shall establish and maintain a nonconformance log. The log shall contain the following information as a minimum:

(a)

unique sequential reference number

(b)

date issued

(c)

originator

(d)

description of item deemed to be in nonconformance

(e)

description of nonconformance

(f)

Contractors recommended and final disposition

(g)

Engineers acceptance of Contractors recommended and final disposition

(h)

date closed

(i)

remarks, as applicable.

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8.10

LABORATORIES

8.10.1

Approved testing Laboratories

1

Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer in writing, the Contractor shall submit a list of laboratories he intends to use for testing purposes during the course of the Contract to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

8.10.2

Government Laboratory

1

Where required by the Engineer or directed in the Project Documentation, samples of materials shall be submitted for testing at the Government Laboratory.

2

The Contractor is responsible for the timely delivery of all samples and materials to the Materials and Laboratory Division.

8.10.3

Independent Laboratories and Material Testing

1

QCS terms and clauses regarding independent laboratories are obligatory and considered to be part of the contract conditions.

2

The Contractor shall follow and comply with regular Circulars regarding testing and laboratories, Quality forms, Safety forms etc. which are issued from the Owner or relevant authorities.

3

The Contractor shall only engage independent laboratories from the latest approved laboratory list issued by the Owner or relevant authorities for Quality Control purposes.

4

The Contractor shall ensure that copies of all testing results are sent directly from the laboratory or testing agency to the Owner and/or to any other party specified in the Contract.

5

It is the full responsibility of the Contractor to assure that, project's data base and information made available to the Owner or relevant authorities is true and updated with that existing in the site.

6

The Contractor shall coordinate, accompany and cooperate with QA/QC staff during site visits, Quality audits and report all nonconformities to the Owner. He shall also ensure that proper records are maintained on the issuance of NCR and produce upon request by the Owner or any other relevant authority.

7

The Contractor shall ensure that the Engineer or Engineer’s Representative shall administer and witness the sampling and testing process, including sampling locations, collection and transportation.

8

The Contractor shall ensure that the samples for testing are collected and delivered by the appointed laboratory or under complete supervision and responsibility of the Engineer. Any samples collected or delivered to the laboratory by the Contractor will not be considered or approved by the Engineer.

9

A Field laboratory can only be used for project quality purposes, when operated by one of the Owner approved laboratories and that satisfies the requirements specified by the Owner.

8.11

SITE MEETINGS AND REPORTS

8.11.1 Site Quality Meetings

1 The Contractor shall hold Contract specific QA/QC meetings chaired by the Contractor’s Representative on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the Work. The Contractor shall

the Contractor’s Representative on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the Work. The Contractor shall

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include QA/QC as items on the agenda for every meeting held and ensure that the subject is actively discussed.

8.11.2 Monthly Quality Reports

1 The Contractor shall produce and submit to the Engineer a Monthly Report in the format approved by the Engineer.

8.12 FAILURE BY THE CONTRACTOR TO MEET ACCEPTABLE QUALITY PERFORMANCE

8.12.1

General

1

Should the Contractor not maintain acceptable quality performance then the Owner or Engineer may, in addition to any other amounts withheld under the Contract, withhold sum of money from the Contractor equivalent to the work which has not met the required standards. The criteria used for determining acceptable performance are as defined the Contract and the Engineer’s decision shall be final. The following items shall be taken into consideration when assessing non-acceptable performance;

(a)

any ‘stop work’ instructions issued to the Contractor

(b)

any NCR issued to the Contractor

(c)

any adverse comments arising from quality inspections or quality audits

(d)

any adverse formal communication from the Owner or enforcing authorities or government organisations to the Contractor regarding sub-standard quality performance

8.12.2

Penalty for Poor Quality Works

1

Further to Clause 8.12.1, should the Contractor not maintain acceptable quality performance then the Owner or Engineer may impose penalties on the Contractor. A general set of unacceptable performance criteria that may be imposed by the Owner or Engineer for poor quality work are defined in the Table 8.2. The financial penalties for poor quality work shall be defined within the Contract.

defined in the Table 8.2. T he financial penalties for poor quality work shall be defined

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Table 8.2 Penalty for Poor Quality Work

No

Unacceptable performance criteria

Penalty (QR)

1

Commencement of Work on the Worksite without an approved Quality Management System and/or Quality Plans after due date

per

day worked

2

Commencement of Work on the Worksite without the approved quality staff who are to be appointed and employed on a fulltime or part-time basis at the Worksite

per

day worked

per staff

3

Commencement of Work without an approved method statement or Inspection and Test Plan

per

day worked

4

Failure to follow any of the Quality Assurance or Quality Control measures mentioned in the approved Quality Management System or QCS or Contract Documents

per

incident

5

Failure to provide Plant, Materials, Goods and workmanship as per Specification or provision of sub-standard Plant, Materials, Goods and workmanship that do not meet the Specification requirements (this includes Plant, Materials, Goods and workmanship that have been sent for testing as per Specification requirements and fail to meet the specified criteria)

per

incident

6

Failure to notify the Owner of a quality related incident or failure to provide a quality related incident report to the Owner in a timely manner

per

incident

7

Failure to provide an accurate monthly quality report or failure to provide a monthly quality report in a timely manner

per day of delay

8

Failure to attend meetings or other events related to quality issues organised by the Owner or Engineer

per

instance

9

Failure to provide the required information requested by the Engineer during quality audits

per

instance

10

Failure to conduct quality audits at periods not exceeding 3 months or as stipulated in the Contract Documents (whichever the minimum) throughout the duration of the Work

per

instance

8.13 SUSPENSION OF WORK

8.13.1 Suspension of Work

1 The Contractor may be issued with stop work instructions from the Engineer for any observed cases of serious or imminent Quality violation associated with the Work. On receipt of a stop work instruction the Contractor shall refrain from work until such time as remedial action has been taken to alleviate the serious or imminent Quality violation and necessary measure put in place to prevent its reoccurrence. The Contractor shall be responsible for the delay caused due to this stop work instruction and is not entitled to claim extension of time.

2 The Contractor shall stop work if any unknown or unplanned conditions occur that give rise to serious or imminent quality violations. In such circumstances the Contractor shall assess the risks associated with any remedial work required and revise the method statements. The revised method statement shall be reviewed and approved by the Contractor’s Quality Manager as appropriate. Revised method statements shall be approved by the Engineer before the recommencement of Work.

as appropriate. Revised method statements shall be approved by the Engineer before the recommencement of Work.

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8.16 APPENDIX C – SAMPLING AND TESTING FREQUENCIES

 

Material /Section / Activity 1, 2 & the Required Tests

Method 3

Minimum Frequency 4, 5

Remarks

1.00

Soil Investigation

     

1.01

Boreholes (for

AASHTO R13, T87, T146, T206, ASTM D421, D1586, D1587, BS 1377-9, BS 5930, BS EN 1997-2, BS EN ISO 14688-1, BS EN ISO 14688-2, BS EN ISO 14689-1, BS EN ISO 22475-1, BS EN ISO 22476-2, BS EN ISO 22476-3, BS EN ISO 22476-12

Minimum 3 boreholes per site

The spacing could be

buildings)

 

halved for

1 borehole every 300 m 2

Grid at a mutual spacing of 20 m

irregular conditions or

doubled for uniform conditions. The Engineer shall determine the depth of the borehole.

1.02

Boreholes (for highways, bridges, high cuts, culverts, retaining walls etc)

AASHTO R13, T87, T146, T206, ASTM D421, D1586, D1587, BS 1377-9, BS 5930, BS EN 1997-2, BS EN ISO 14688-1, BS EN ISO 14688-2, BS EN ISO 14689-1, BS EN ISO 22475-1, BS EN ISO 22476-2, BS EN ISO 22476-3, BS EN ISO 22476-12

Grid at a mutual spacing of 75 m for subgrade survey

The spacing could be halved for

irregular

 

1 – 3 per pier or abutment

Minimum 3 to draw a profile (high cuts etc)

Grid at a mutual spacing of 30 m for culverts, retaining walls etc

conditions or doubled for

uniform conditions. The Engineer

shall determine the depth of the borehole.

1 Footnote 1: The testing frequency stipulated herein shall be mandatory unless otherwise stated. The tests are to be conducted as per the demands of the site as applicable. The same testing sequence and frequency shall be adopted for the recycled materials as applicable.

2 Footnote 2: All testing will have to be carried out on site or at a designated laboratory irrespective of whether the materials have been tested by the manufacturer or by an intermediate party (such as asphalt, concrete etc supplier) or the availability of the conformity certificates.

3 Footnote 3: All the reference standards and documents are listed at the end of this table for ease of reference. [Note: Where available/applicable the ASTM version used should be the metric edition, ie, ‘M version’ (or ASTM D1234M etc).]

4 Footnote 4: The Contractor shall carry out the maximum number of tests, ie, whichever condition comes first (ie, whichever is more frequent). Sampling and testing frequency may be modified as directed by the Engineer.

5 Footnote 5: Minimum frequencies shall be deemed to include ‘part thereof’. For example; ‘1 test per 2000 m 2 ’ or ‘1 test per 50 units’ shall be interpreted as ‘1 test per 2000 m 2 or part thereof’ or ‘1 test per 50 units or part thereof’ etc respectively, ie, the Contractor is required to carry out the stipulated testing for amount of work which is less than the mentioned amount.

is required to carry out the stipulated testing for amount of work which is less than

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Material /Section / Activity 1, 2 & the Required Tests

Method 3

Minimum Frequency 4, 5

Remarks

2.00

Bentonite Slurry

     

2.01

Density 6

API RP 13B-1, ASTM D4380, BS EN 1536

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

2 tests per day

2.02

Viscosity (or Mash Value) 6

API RP 13B-1

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

2 tests per day

2.03

Yield Stress 6

API RP 13B-1, ASTM

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

4832

2 tests per day

2.04

Gel Strength 6

API RP 13B-1, ASTM

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

4832

2 tests per day

2.05

Shear Strength 6

API RP 13B-1, ASTM

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

4832

2 tests per day

2.06

Sand Content 6

API RP 13B-1, ASTM D4381, BS EN 1536

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

2 tests per day

2.07

Filtrate Loss (also known as Fluid or Filter Loss or Filter Press) 6

API RP 13B-1, BS EN

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

1536

2 tests per day

2.08

Bentonite Content 6

Weight-Volume

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

2 tests per day

2.09

pH 6

API RP 13B-1, BS EN

2 tests per shift

Stage 1

1536

2 tests per day

2.10

Unit Weight 7

ASTM D4380

2 tests per shift

Stage 2

2 tests per day

2.11

Viscosity (or Mash Value) 7

API RP 13B-1

2 tests per shift

Stage 2

2.12

Slump Cone 8

AASHTO T119, ASTM C143, BS EN 12350-2

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

2 tests per day

2.13

Gradation 8

ASTM D1140 Laboratory or field test

1 test per 2000 m 3

Stage 3

2.14

Density (or Unit Weight Test) 8

ASTM C138, D4380

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

2 tests per day

2.15

Permeability 8

ASTM D5084

1 test per 2000 m 3

Stage 3

Laboratory test

6 Footnote 6: The Contractor shall carry out these tests for Stage 1 - Initial Bentonite slurry (ie, when the Bentonite is in the form of slurry before its use).

7 Footnote 7: The Contractor shall carry out these tests for Stage 2 - In-trench Bentonite Slurry (ie, when the Bentonite is in use inside the trench).

8 Footnote 8: The Contractor shall carry out these tests for Stage 3 - Cement-Bentonite Soil- Bentonite, (backfill) material (ie, when the Bentonite has been used and recovered for reuse).

Soil- Bentonite, (backfill) material (ie, when the Bentonite has been used and recovered for reuse). QCS

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Material /Section / Activity 1, 2 & the Required Tests

Method 3

Minimum Frequency 4, 5

Remarks

2.16

Viscosity 8

API RP 13B-1

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

2 tests per day

2.17

pH 8

API RP 13B-1, BS EN

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

1536

2 tests per day

2.18

Filtrate Loss (also known as Fluid or Filter Loss or Filter Press) 8

API RP 13B-1, BS EN

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

1536

2 tests per day

2.19

Bentonite Content 8

Weight-Volume

2 tests per shift

Stage 3

2 tests per day

3.00

Piling

     

3.01

Static Load Test

ASTM D1143, BS EN

Minimum of 1 test per site

 

1997-1

1% of piles

3.02

Cube Test

 

As per concrete testing requirements

 

3.03

(Pile) Integrity Test

ASTM D7383

All the piles

 

3.04

Sonic Coring Test (or Low Strain Integrity Test)

ASTM D5882

10 – 15 % of piles

 

3.05

(Crosshole) Sonic Logging Test

ASTM D4428, D6760, CIRIA Report 144

All piles bigger than

Refer to

1000

mm diameter 9

footnote

3.06

Calliper Logging

ASTM D6167

All piles bigger than

Refer to

1000

mm

footnote

diameter 10

3.07

Dynamic Load Test (or High Strain Dynamic Test)

ASTM D4945

5% of piles

 

3.08

Static Axial Tensile Load Test

ASTM D3689

As per the Engineer’s request

 

3.09

Lateral Load Test

ASTM D3966

As per the Engineer’s request

 

9 Footnote 9: All piles bigger than 1000 mm diameter shall be tested as per this testing requirement (5 vertical access tubes shall be attached at constant spacing to the reinforcement cage of the pile). For smaller diameter piles testing is to be done as per the Engineer’s request (3 access tubes or as per the Engineer’s discretion).

10 Footnote 10: All piles bigger than 1000 mm diameter shall be tested as per this testing requirement. For smaller diameter piles testing is to be done as per the Engineer’s request.

per this testing requirement. For smaller diameter piles testing is to be done as per the

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Material /Section / Activity 1, 2 & the Required Tests

Method 3

Minimum Frequency 4, 5

Remarks

4.00

Earthworks, Subgrade, Base, Subbase, Backfill, Sub-ballast etc 11, 12

   

Refer to

footnote

4.01

(Modified) Proctor Test - [Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) & Maximum Dry Density (MDD)]

AASHTO T99, T180, T224, ASTM D698, D1557, D4718, BS

Each source

 

(Visible) Change in material

1377-4

1 test every 1000 m 3

4.02

Field Density & Field Moisture Content [also known as (Field) Compaction Test] 13

AASHTO T191, T205, T238, T239, T310,

1 test every 200 m 2

Refer to

per lift (ie, per compacted layer)

footnote

ASTM D1556, D2216, D6938, BS 1377-9

1 test every 20 m of pipe laying or trenching works per lift (ie, per compacted layer)

4.03

Gradation (Sieve) Analysis 14

AASHTO M145, T27, T88, ASTM C136, D422, D2487, D3282, BS EN 933-1

Each source

Refer to

Visible change in gradation

footnote

 

1 test every 1000 m 3

4.04

Atterberg Limits (Index limits) - [Liquid Limit & Plasticity Index]

AASHTO T89, T90, ASTM D4318, BS

1377-2

Each source

 

(Visible) Change in material

 

1 test every 1000 m 3