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# AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 1

AUTO-1029: AUTOMOTIVE
SYSTEMS & CONTROL

## Prof Pavel M. TRIVAILO, PhD

E-mail: trivailo@rmit.edu.au

## SAMME, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 2

Lectures 4-5:
DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS
REVIEW + NEW FEATURES:
• Assignment-1: 2-DOFS & ”Essay” (discussion)
• Review: Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors
• Review: Response to Initial Excitation
• Systems Admitting Rigid Body Motion
• Proportional Damping

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Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 3

Lectures 4-5:
DYNAMICS OF AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS
FRFs:
• Frequency Response Functions
• Resonances and Anti-Resonances
• FRF: Basic Example: 2-DOF System
• FRF: Basic Example: 3-DOF System
• FRF: Automotive Example: 6-DOF Engine Sus-
pension System

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 4

REVIEW:
Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors
Response due to Initial
Excitations

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 5

ORTHOGONALITY OF
EIGENVECTORS

Orthogonality of Eigenvectors

## With Respect to the Mass Matrix:

(1)
{u}T
r [m] {u}s = 0 (r 6= s).

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 6

Orthogonality of Eigenvectors

## With Respect to the Stiffness Matrix:

(2)
{u}T
r [ k ] {u}s = 0 (r 6= s).

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 7

## [u]T [k][u] = [ω 2].

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 8

## ORTHOGONALITY: 2-DOFS EXAMPLE

k1 = 6 N/m k2 = 2 N/m k3 = 3 N/m
r r m1 = 1 kg r r m2 = 1 kg r r

   
r r r r
   

- q1 (t) - q2(t)

" # " #
1 0 8 −2
[m] = 0 1 ; [k] = −2 5 ;
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u11 1 u12 2
{u}1 = u = 2 , {u}2 = u = −1 ,
21 22

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 9

T
{u}1 [m] {u}2 =

( )T ( )
u11 u12
= u21 [m] u22 =

( )T " # ( )
1 1 0 2
= 2 0 1 −1 = 0

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 10

## USING ORTHOGONALITY TO SOLVE THE

EXCITATION by INITIAL DISPLACEMENTS
k1 = 6 N/m k2 = 2 N/m k3 = 3 N/m
r r m1 = 1 kg r r m2 = 1 kg r r

   
r r r r
   

- q1 (t) - q2(t)

" # " #
1 0 8 −2
[m] = 0 1 ; [k] = −2 5 ;
( ) ( )
5 0
Initial Excitations: {q}0 = 0 {q̇}0 = 0
" # " #
−0.4472 −0.8944 4 0
[U ] = −0.8944 0.4472 ; [D] = 0 9 ;
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 11

## {q0} = β1 {u}1 + β2 {u}2;

{u}T
1 [m] {q 0 } = {u}T [m] β {u} + {u}T [m] β {u} ;
1 1 1 1 2 2
{u}T
1 [m] {q 0 } = β 1 {u}T [m] {u} + β {u}T [m] {u} ;
1 1 2 1 2
{u}T
1 [m] {q0} = β1 × 1 + β2 × 0
( )T " # ( )
−0.4472 1 0 5
β1 = −0.8944 0 1 0 = −2.2361.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 12

## {q0} = β1 {u}1 + β2 {u}2;

{u}T
2 [m] {q 0 } = {u}T [m] β {u} + {u}T [m] β {u} ;
2 1 1 2 2 2
{u}T
2 [m] {q 0 } = β 1 {u}T [m] {u} + β {u}T [m] {u} ;
2 1 2 2 2
{u}T
2 [m] {q0} = β1 × 0 + β2 × 1
( )T " # ( )
−0.8944 1 0 5
β2 = 0.4472 0 1 0 = −4.4721.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 13

2.5
β u
1 1
2

1.5

0.5
u2 q0
q2

−0.5

−1 u1

−1.5
β2 u2
−2

−2.5

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5
q
1

## {q0} = β1 {u}1 + β2 {u}2 =

   
−0.4472 − 4.4721 −0.8944
= −2.2361 −0.8944 0.4472
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 14

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 15

IMPORTANT

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 16

RIGID BODY MOTION
- x1 (t) - x2 (t) - x3 (t)
k1 k2
m1 s s m2 s s m3

     
s s s s s s
     

## 3-DOF system, admitting rigid body motion.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 17

   

m1 0 0 

k1 −k1 0 

   
[m] = 

 0 m2 0 ;

 [k] = −k1 k1 + k2 −k2 .

   
   
0 0 m3 0 −k2 k2

ω 2[m]{X} = [k]{X}.

## {X} = {1; 1; 1}.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 18

 T    T   
1 1 1 0 1
       

k1 −k1 


       
ω02
        

1

[m] 

1 

= 

1

 −k1 k1 + k2 −k2

 1

 
 
 
 
 
    
        

 1 

 1 

 1 

 0 −k2 k2 

 1 

| {z }
= 0.

## The RHS of the Eq above is zero, thus the LHS

must also be zero. The only way for the LHS to be
zero is for ω0 = 0 .
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 19

PROPORTIONAL DAMPING

## [m]{q̈(t)} + [c]{q̇(t)} + [k]{q(t)} = {Q(t)}

{q(t)} = [u]{η(t)}
{η̈(t)} + [C]{η̇(t)} + [ω 2]{η(t)} = {N (t)},
where [C] = [u]T [c][u].

## [c] = α[m] + β[k] , (α, β are real constants),

[C ] = α[1] + β[ω 2],
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 20

FREQUENCY
RESPONSE
FUNCTIONS

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 21

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
FUNCTION

## Frequency Response Function

for an Undamped Discrete System:
qi n ujr uir
X (3)
Hij = = 2 2
Qj r=1 ωr − ω

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 22

## MATLAB Interactive Demo by PMT: H12

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 23

TUTORIAL:
FRF for the 2-DOF STUDY CASE

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 24

## Numerical EXAMPLE for 2dof system: H12

k1 = 6 N/m k2 = 2 N/m k3 = 3 N/m
r r m1 = 1 kg r r m2 = 1 kg r r

   
r r r r
   

- q1 (t) - q2 (t)

m1 = 1 [kg]; m2 = 1 [kg];
k1 = 6 [N/m]; k2 = 2 [N/m]; k3 = 3 [N/m];
" # " #
m1 0 1 0
[m ] = 0 m2 = 0 1 ;
" # " #
k1 + k2 −k2 8 −2
k
[ ] = −k2 k2 + k3 = −2 5 ;

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 25

qi n
X ujr uir
Hij ( ω ) = = 2 2
Qj r=1 ωr − ω

## In our case, we wish to calculate and plot H12, there-

fore the previous general expression for the Hij can
be written in the explicit form for i = 1 and j = 2,
where the summation subscript r runs from r = 1
to r = 2:

q1 2 u1r u2r
X u21 u11 u22 u12
H12( ω ) = = 2 2
= 2 2
+ 2
Q2 r=1 ωr − ω ω1 − ω ω2 − ω 2

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 26

## %% FRF: 2-DOF EXAMPLE

% Enter [m] and [k] matrices:
m=[1 0; 0 1]; k=[8 -2; -2 5];

## % Solve Eigenvalue Problem

[U,D]=eig(k,m);
u11=U(1,1); u21=U(2,1);
u12=U(1,2); u22=U(2,2);
w1=sqrt(D(1,1)); w2=sqrt(D(2,2));

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Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 27

w=0:0.01:4;

## % Calculate the H12 FRF:

H12=u21*u11./(w1^2-w.^2) +...
u22*u12./(w2^2-w.^2);

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 28

## % Plot results: w versus H12

g1=plot(w,H12);
set(g1,’LineWidth’,2);
grid

ylabel(’H_{12}’)

## % Change axis limits for better view of the FRF

axis([0 4 -3 4])
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 29

## % Mark natural frequencies w1 & w2 on the plot

l1=line(’XData’,w1,’YData’,0);
l2=line(’XData’,w2,’YData’,0);
set([l1,l2],’Marker’,’.’,’Markersize’,18,’Color’,[1 0 0]);

t1=text(’String’,’\omega_1’,’Position’,[w1,0]);
t2=text(’String’,’\omega_2’,’Position’,[w2,0]);
set([t1, t2],’VerticalAlignment’,’bottom’);

ax1=axis;
line(’XData’,[1 1]*w1,’YData’,ax1(3:4),’Color’,[1 0 0]);
line(’XData’,[1 1]*w2,’YData’,ax1(3:4),’Color’,[1 0 0]);

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 30

## H12 = H21 for the 2DOF System

4

1
12
H

ω ω
1 2
0

−1

−2

−3
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Excitation Freq. ω [rad/s]

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 31

## The same results can be plotted in the semi-log

coordinates, which make the changes in the FRFs
more prominent:

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 32

## % Plot results: w versus 20*log(abs(H12))

figure % open new figure
g2=semilogy(w,20*abs(H12)); grid
set(g2,’LineWidth’,2);
xlabel(’Excitation Freq. \omega [rad/s]’)
ylabel(’20*log(H_{12})’)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 33

## % Mark natural frequencies w1 & w2 on the plot

ax2=axis;
l3=line(’XData’,w1,’YData’,ax2(3));
l4=line(’XData’,w2,’YData’,ax2(3));
set([l3,l4],’Marker’,’.’,’Markersize’,18,’Color’,[1 0 0]);

t3=text(’String’,’\omega_1’,’Position’,[w1,ax2(3)]);
t4=text(’String’,’\omega_2’,’Position’,[w2,ax2(3)]);
set([t3, t4],’VerticalAlignment’,’bottom’);

## line(’XData’,[1 1]*w1,’YData’,ax2(3:4),’Color’,[1 0 0]);

line(’XData’,[1 1]*w2,’YData’,ax2(3:4),’Color’,[1 0 0]);
%grid off

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 34

## H12 = H21 in Semi-Log Coordinates

3
10

2
10
20*log(H )
12

1
10

0
10

ω ω
−1 1 2
10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Excitation Freq. ω [rad/s]

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 35

## NUMERICAL EXAMPLE for 3dof System: H12

k5 k6
u u u

k1 k2 k3 k4
u u m1 u u m2 u u m3 u u

     
u u u u u u
     

- - -
q1(t) q2(t) q3(t)

m1 = 5; m2 = 7; m3 = 2 [kg];
k1 = 105; k2 = 2k1; k3 = 0.5k1; k4 = k1;
k5 = 0.2k1; k6 = 0.4k1 [N/m];
ω1 = 124.75; ω2 = 268.82; ω3 = 302.42 [rad/s]
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 36

## u21 u11 u22 u12 u23 u13

H12( ω ) = 2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2
ω1 − ω ω2 − ω ω3 − ω 2

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 37

w=[0:0.0001:1]*sqrt(max(diag(D)))*1.2;
H12=U(2,1)*U(1,1)./(D(1,1)-w.^2)+...
U(2,2)*U(1,2)./(D(2,2)-w.^2)+...
U(2,3)*U(1,3)./(D(3,3)-w.^2);
plot(w,H12);
grid
axis([0 max(w) [-1 1]*0.00005])
xlabel(’Excitaion Freq. \omega [rad/s]’)
ylabel(’H_{12}=H_{21}’)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 38

## H12 = H21 for the 3DOF System

−5
x 10
5

1
21

ω1 ω2 ω3
H =H

0
12

−1

−2

−3

−4

−5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Excitaion Freq. ω [rad/s]

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 39

## The same results can be plotted in the semi-log

coordinates, which make the changes in the FRFs
more prominent:

figure
semilogy(w,abs(H12));
grid
axis([0 max(w) [0 0.001]])
xlabel(’Excitaion Freq. \omega [rad/s]’)
ylabel(’log(H_{12})’)
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 40

## H12 = H21 in Semi-Log Coordinates

−3
10

−4
10

−5
10
log(H12)

−6
10

−7
10

ω1 ω2 ω3
−8
10
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Excitaion Freq. ω [rad/s]

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 41

## RESONANCES AND ANTI-RESONANCES

Hii

Ω1 Ω2
O u u u u u
ω
ω1 ω2 ω3

(a)
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 42

Q0 cos ωt ω=Ω
j
O ?
~ ~ ~ j -

j
x

y ?

j
O j ~ ~ j -

j j
x

y ? (b)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 43

r √ q
Q0 sin ωt ω1 = 2 − 2 T /(mL)
√ q
ω2 =r 2 T /(mL)
√ q
ω3 = 2 + 2 T /(mL)


T u
m ?
~
m ~
m ~
T - -

O x

L -
L -
L -
L -
y ?
(a)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 44

y1 H11
2

1
ω1 ω2 ω3 ω
u u u
O

−1

−2

(b)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 45

y2 H21
2

1
ω1 ω2 ω
u u u
O
ω3
−1

−2

(c)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 46

y3 H31
2

1
ω1 ω2 ω3 ω
u u u
O

−1

−2

(d)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 47

q
Q0 sin ωt, where ω = ω2 = 2T /(mL)
y2 = 0
m ~ y3
6

T O 6 m ? 6 T
 u s ~ s - -

y1 ? ? x
? ~
m

L -
L -
L -
L -
y ?
(a)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 48

y1, H12,
y3 H31

1 ω1 ω2
2 u u u
O ω3 ω

(b)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 49

y2 H22

1
ω1 ω2 ω3 ω
u u u
O

(c)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 50

## u21u11 u22u12 u23u13

H12(ω2) = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 =
ω1 − ω2 ω2 − ω2 ω3 − ω2
q √
(2) · 1 0·1 − 2·1
= 2 2 + + 2 2 6= ±∞;
ω1 − ω2 0 ω3 − ω2
u21u21 u22u22 u23u23
H22(ω2) = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 =
ω1 − ω2 ω2 − ω2 ω3 − ω2
√ √ √ √
2· 2 0·0 (− 2) · (− 2)
= 2 2 + + 2 2 6= ±∞;
ω1 − ω2 0 ω3 − ω2
u21u31 u22u32 u23u33
H32(ω2) = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 =
ω1 − ω2 ω2 − ω2 ω3 − ω2
√ √
2·1 0 · (−1) (− 2) · 1
= 2 2 + + 2 2 6= ±∞.
ω1 − ω2 0 ω3 − ω2
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Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 51

SUSPENSION

   
xc.g.

q1 

 
 
 

yc.g.

q2 

   
zc.g. q3

 
 
 

   
{q} =  = ;

θx  

q4 

 
 
 

θ y

q 5

   
 θz   q 

 
 
 
6
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 52

## zmount1 = zc.g + ay θx − axθy =

= q3 + ay q4 − axq5

zmount1 zc.g θx θy
= + ay − ax =
Q3 Q3 Q3 Q3
q3 q4 q5
= + ay − ax =
Q3 Q3 Q3
= H33 + ay H43 − axH53 =
= H33 + ay H34 − axH35.
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 53

TUTORIAL:
ANIMATIONS USING
MATLAB

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 54

EXAMPLE-1:
ROTATING LINE (’ARROW’)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 55

## %% AUTO1029 TUTORIAL 2014

% ANIMATION EXAMPLE-1: Rotating Line
% Programmed by P.M.Trivailo
%--------------------
% Draw Provision of the Arrow
R=10;
gg=line(’XData’,[0 R],’YData’,[0 0],...
’Color’,[0 0 1],’LineWidth’,4);
axis([-1 1 -1 1]*11); axis square; grid

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 56

## %% ANIMATION OF THE ROTATING LINE

th=[0:1:360]*pi/180;
for ii=1:size(th,2),
thii=th(ii);
XX=[0 R*cos(thii)]; YY=[0 R*sin(thii)];
set(gg,’XData’,XX,’YData’,YY);
drawnow
pause(0.1)
end
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 57

28.03.2012
12
11 1

10 2

9 3

8 4

7 5
6

## RMIT, AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 58

## EXAMPLE-3: ANIMATED SPIRALS

90
10
120 60
8

6
150 30
4

180 0

210 330

240 300

270

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 59

%% ANIMATED SPIRALS
% Programmed by Prof P.M.TRIVAILO
% 2014
%-------------------

## %% Create the First Spiral

th1=[0:1:360]*3*pi/180;
rr1=linspace(0,10, size(th1,2));
polar(th1,rr1);
pp1=polar(th1,rr1);
set(pp1,’LineWidth’,2,’Color’,[1 0 0]);
hold on

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 60

## %% Create the Second Spiral

th2=[0:1:360]*3*pi/180;
rr2=linspace(0,10, size(th2,2));
polar(th2,rr2);
pp2=polar(th2,rr2);
set(pp2,’LineWidth’,2,’Color’,[0 0 1]);

## %% Animate the Both Spirals

for th1m=[0:1:360]*20*pi/180;
XX1=rr1.*cos(th1+th1m); YY1=rr1.*sin(th1+th1m);
XX2=rr1.*cos(th1-th1m); YY2=rr1.*sin(th1-th1m);
set(pp1,’XData’,XX1,’YData’,YY1);
set(pp2,’XData’,XX2,’YData’,YY2);
pause(0.1)
end

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 61

## EXAMPLE-4: ANIMATED MASS

5

−1

−2

−3

−4

−5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 62

%% TUTORIAL 2014
% Programmed by P.M.Trivailo
%---------------
% Enter Parameters of the trolley & spring
LL=2; HH=1; % length & hight
LLL=4; NN=10; r1=0.3; % length, no of coils, radius
r2=0.1*LL;

## % Draw Provision of the Trolley

X1=LLL+[0 LL LL 0 0]; Y1=[0 0 HH HH 0]-HH/2;
gg1=line(’XData’,X1,’YData’,Y1,’Color’,[0 0 1],’LineWidth’,4);

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 63

## % Draw Provision of the Spring

X2=[0:0.01:NN]*LLL/NN; Y2=r1*sin((LLL*NN/2/pi)*X2);
gg2=line(’XData’,X2,’YData’,Y2,’Color’,[0 0 1],’LineWidth’,2);
th=[0:10:360]*pi/180;
X3=LLL+0.2*LL+r2*cos(th); Y3=r2*sin(th)-r2-HH/2;
gg3=line(’XData’,X3,’YData’,Y3,’Color’,[0 0 1],’LineWidth’,2);
X4=LLL+0.8*LL+r2*cos(th); Y4=r2*sin(th)-r2-HH/2;
gg4=line(’XData’,X3,’YData’,Y3,’Color’,[0 0 1],’LineWidth’,2);
axis([0 10 -5 5]);
%axis equal; grid on
axis square; grid on

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 64

% Create displacements-array
t=[0:.005:8];
dd=3*sin(5*t);

## %% run an Animation Cycle

for ii=1:size(t,2);
ddii=dd(ii);
set(gg1,’XData’,X1+ddii);
set(gg3,’XData’,X3+ddii);
set(gg4,’XData’,X4+ddii);
X2new=X2*(LLL+ddii)/LLL;
set(gg2,’XData’,X2new);
drawnow
% pause(0.01)
end

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 65

OUTLOOK:
STATE-SPACE,
GENERAL RESPONSE,

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 66

Lectures 4-5:
GENERAL RESPONSE
BY STATE-SPACE METHOD

• Review:
EOM of the n-DOF in Matrix Form
• General Response - Damped/Undamped Systems
State-Space Method

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 67

## [m]{q̈(t)} + [k]{q(t)} = {0} (5)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 68

follows:

## where {q(t)} is the n × 1 vector of displacements

and {q̇(t)} is the n × 1 vector of velocities.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 69

## To reformulate the EOM in terms of the new

variable {x(t)}, we write an identity for the {q̇} and
add to it the rearranged original equation (4):

{q̇} = {q̇}
{q̈} = −[m]−1[c]{q̇} − [m]−1[k]{q} + [m]−1{Q(t)}

or

## {q̇} = [ 0 ] {q}+ [I ] {q̇}+ [ 0 ] Q(t);

   
{q̈} = −[m]−1[k] {q}+ −[m]−1[c] {q̇}+ [m]−1 Q(t).

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 70

## These Eqs. can be presented in the compact form

(so called state space form):

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 71

## State-Space EOM for n-DOF System

(form one)
{ẋ(t)} = [A]{x(t)} + [B]{Q(t)},
 
q(t) 
where {x(t)} = ;
q̇(t) 2n×1

[0] | [I ]

(6)
 
[A] = 

;
−[m]−1[k] | −[m]−1[c] 2n×2n
 

[0] 
[ B ] =  
 .
[m]−1 2n×n

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 72

## Alternatively, the same equations of motion of the

vibrating system can be written in the similar form
for the different 2n × 1 vector,
{x̃(t)} = [{q̇(t)} {q(t)}]T

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 73

## State-Space EOM for n-DOF System

(form two)
˙
{x̃(t)} = [A]{x̃(t)} + [B]{Q(t)},
 
q̇(t) 
where {x̃(t)} = ; 
q(t) 2n×1

−[m] −1[c] | −[m]−1[k]

(7)
 
[ A ] =  

;
[I ] | [0] 2n×2n
 
[m] −1
 
[ B ] =  

.
[0] 2n×n

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 74

## The methods for solving the first-order differential

equations are very well developed in mathematics
and are implemented in the highly efficient
mathematical computer software, like MATLAB.
Therefore, the reformulation of the differential
equations of the vibrating system in any of the
form (6) or (7) are very often used in practical
applications, enabling an engineer to easily
integrate many complex matrix equations of
motion for damped and undamped systems using
computer packages.
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 75

## The eigenvalue problem for the state-space

equation is formulated as follows:

{x(t)} = eλt{u},
[ A ]{u} = λ{u}, or ([ A ] − λ[ I ]){u} = {0}.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 76

## EXAMPLE 1: 1-DOF MASS-SPRING

DAMPED SYSTEM’s EOM in
STATE-SPACE FORM

## First we need to express the differential EOM of

the system as a set of simultaneous first order
eqs.

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 77

## To do so, we define the position and velocity of

the mass as the state-variables x1 and x2, so that

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 78

## x1(t) = q(t) and x2(t) = q̇(t). Then

ẋ1 = x2;
k c 1
ẋ2 = − x1 − x2 + u
m m m

## The state-space form of the EOM is:

      
 ẋ1   0 1   x1   0 
 =  + u (8)
 
 
ẋ2 −k/m −c/m x2 1/m

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 79

## If the output of the system is y = x1 = q (system’s

position), it can be expressed in the matrix form
(also known as output equation):
 
 
 x1 
y= 1 0 
  (9)
x2

## Eqs (8-9) can be written in the compact form:

ẋ = A x + B u

y = Cx+Du
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 80

## where A, B, C and D are the state-variable-form

matrices:
   
0 1   0 
 
A= 
 ; B = 
 ; C =
 1 0 ; D = 0.
−k/m −c/m 1/m

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 81

## EXAMPLE 2: SIMPLE CRUISE CONTROL

MODEL
We will write the EOM for the speed and forward
motion of the car assuming that the engine
imparts a forward force u.

## Solution For simplicity we assume that the

rotational intertia of the wheels is negligible and
that there is friction retarding the motion of the
car, friction that is proportional to the car’s speed.
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 82

## The car then can be approximated for modelling

purposes using the free-body diagram. The
cooredinates of the car’s position q(t) is the
distance from the reference line and chosen so that
positive is to the right.In this case the intertial
acceleration is simply the second derivative ox q(t)
because the car position is measured with respect
to an inertial reference. The EOM is found as
follows:

## m q̈(t) + c q̇(t) = u(t)

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 83

## First we need to express the differential EOM of

the system as a set of simultaneous first order
eqs.

## To do so, we define the position and velocity of

the mass as the state-variables x1 and x2, so that

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 84

ẋ1 = x2;
c 1
ẋ2 = − x2 + u
m m

## The state-space form of the EOM is:

      
 ẋ1   0 1   x1   0 
 =  + u (10)
 
 
ẋ2 0 −c/m x2 1/m

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 85

## If the output of the system is y = x1 = q (system’s

position), it can be expressed in the matrix form
(also known as output equation):
 
 
 x1 
y= 1 0 
  (11)
x2

## Eqs (10 - 11) can be written in the compact form:

ẋ = A x + B u

y = Cx+Du
c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT
AUTO-1029 2014 - Lectures 4-5 Slide 86

## where A, B, C and D are the state-variable-form

matrices:
   
0 1 
  0 
 
A= 
; B = 
 ; C =
 1 0 ; D = 0.
0 −c/m 1/m

c 2014
Lecturer: Prof P.M.Trivailo SAMME, RMIT