Physical Principles of Remote Sensing
Manuscript of the Lecture Course, W7147, University of Bern, Autumn Semester 2008
Deutscher Titel
Physikalische Grundlagen der Fernerkundung
Skript zu Vorlesung, W7147, Universität Bern, HerbstSemester 2008
Christian Mätzler
Institut für Angewandte Physik (IAP) Sidlerstrasse 5 3012 Bern, Switzerland
matzler@iap.unibe.ch
http://www.iap.unibe.ch
Downloads from
http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/teaching/vorlesungen/remotesensing/
ii
Cover Picture: Global microwave radiometer data: AMSRE 36 GHz, horizontally polarised brightness temperature of 31 Dec 2005. Values range from violet (115K), dark blue (160K), light blue (180K), green (225K), yellow (260K) orange (275K) to red (294K). Courtesy of the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO.
iii
Physical Principles of Remote Sensing
Contents
1 Introduction 
1 

1.1 Remote Sensing 
1 

1.2 Key requirements, and a dilemma 
2 

1.3 Active and passive methods 
3 

1.4 Examples 
3 

1.5 The significance of system models as a motivation 
8 

1.6 Conclusions 
9 

1.7 Literature 
9 

2 Electromagnetic Waves 
11 

2.1 From Maxwell's Equations to the Wave Equation 
11 

2.2 Plane 
EM waves 
12 
2.3 Polarisation of EM waves 
14 

2.4 Interaction between EM waves and homogenous media 
15 

2.5 KramersKronig relations, and the Hilbert Transform 
16 

2.6 The electromagnetic spectrum 
17 

2.7 Literature 
19 

3 Sensors for EM Waves 
20 

3.1 Antenna 
20 

3.2 Radar 
25 

3.3 Radiometer 
28 

3.4 Literature 
30 

4 Effective Medium, and Dielectric Mixing Formulas 
31 

4.1 MaxwellGarnett Formula 
31 

4.2 Semiempirical mixing formulas 
34 

4.3 Literature 
35 

5 EM Waves and Boundaries 
36 

5.1 Boundary conditions 
36 

5.2 The Fresnel Equations and Snell's Law of Refraction 
36 

5.3 Waves in layered media 
43 

5.4 LorenzMie scattering 
47 

5.5 Rayleigh scattering 
51 

5.6 Literature 
53 

6 Microscopic View of Matter 
54 

6.1 Electric dipole, and polarisation of dielectric media 
54 

6.2 Types of polarisability 
55 

6.3 Electronic polarisation 
57 

6.4 Resonance absorption 
58 

6.5 Polar molecules in a static field 
59 

6.6 Debye relaxation in polar liquids 
61 

6.7 Spacecharge polarisation 
63 

6.8 Summary 
63 

6.9 Literature 
64 

7 Spectra of Matter that Matter 
65 

7.1 Recapitulation and Introduction 
65 
7.2
The earth atmosphere
66
iv
7.3 Hydrosphere and cryosphere 
72 

7.4 Biosphere: Vegetation 
83 

7.5 Soils and rocks 
86 

7.6 Software and datasets 
89 

7.7 Literature 
91 

8 
Radiation 
93 

8.1 Radiance and related quantities 
93 

8.2 Radiation in thermal equilibrium 
95 

8.3 in Radiation 
Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium: Kirchhoff's Law 
96 

9 
The Radiative Transfer Equation 
99 

9.1 transfer without absorption and scattering Radiative 
99 

9.2 Absorbing medium 
100 

9.3 Radiative transfer with absorption, emission and scattering 
101 

9.4 Formal solution: integral form of the RTE 
102 

9.5 Planeparallel medium 
103 

9.6 Solutions without scattering 
104 

10 Radiative Transfer with Volume Scattering 
107 

10.1 Introduction 
107 

10.2 The lamella pack as a simple model 
107 

10.3 The transfer equation 
108 

10.4 Results and discussion 
110 

10.5 MATLAB functions 
112 

10.6 Literature for Chapters 8 to 10 
112 

11 Surface Scattering and Emission 
114 

11.1 Introduction 
114 

11.2 Bistatic scattering 
115 

11.3 Smoothness criteria and specular reflectivity 
118 

11.4 Bistatic surface scattering in geometrical optics 
119 

11.5 Shadowing effects by the relief 
122 

11.6 Final remarks 
124 

11.7 Literature 
124 

Index 
125 
1 Introduction
1.1 Remote Sensing
1
Remote Sensing is understood as the collection of information relating to objects without being in physical contact with them. Thus our eyes and ears are remote sensors, and the same is true for cameras and microphones and for many instruments used for all kinds of applications.
The term, Remote Sensing (Télédétection, in French, Fernerkundung, in German), arose around the year 1900 when balloons (and later airplanes) became carriers of people to altitudes well above the surface. These platforms allowed unprecedented views of the environment, and especially of the earth surface. The bird's eye view enabled an accelerated progress in Earth Sciences.
The impact of elevated platforms was most pronounced in areas with flat horizons where
natural viewpoints are missing. Therefore masts on ships are remotesensing platforms. An even less stable platform was used by Inuit hunters: They threw a man or a child up in the air
to search for seals. Thus "remote sensing" has been essential for survival.
Most dramatic was the appearance of the first images
of the earth received from satellites. The figure to the
right is the first picture obtained by the first weather satellite, TIROS  1 in April 1960. "The TIROS Program's first priority was the development of a meteorological satellite information system. Weather forecasting was deemed the most promising application
of spacebased observations".
Although not of high quality, these television images already indicated the potential to obtain geophysical information over large regions, e.g. on the spatial distribution of clouds and snow and ice cover because their reflective properties were clear signatures above the darker terrestrial background.
Remote sensing originated from (1) human vision on special platforms, complemented by (2) the recording of vision information, and (3) photogrammetry, the quantitative exploitation of image records. Later the methods were extended to spectral ranges beyond the human eye. For this purpose special sensors and instruments had to be developed. This process is still ongoing.
Remote Sensing is not a scientific discipline in the classical sense; it is rather a collection of
a large variety of diagnostic methods, mainly using electromagnetic waves covering the
spectrum from radio waves (wavelength > 1 m) to gamma rays ( < 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} m). In some cases sound waves or other elastic waves are also in use, especially where electromagnetic methods fail. It is obvious that very different techniques and skills are required in the different parts of remote sensing. Not only the techniques are multidisciplinary, the applications cover a wide range of human disciplines, e.g. archaeology, botany, climatology, geology, hydrology, meteorology, security aspects, etc.
2
1.2 Key requirements, and a dilemma
There are four requirements for any remote sensing method:
1) An instrument on a given platform is needed that can detect and measure the information carrying signal. The signal must be calibrated to defined standards to allow reproduction of the observation under the same conditions. Errors (geometry, timing, radiometry, spectrum, polarisation) should be specified.
2) A signal from the object to the observer must be propagated in an unambiguous way and without serious loss. Ideally, the propagation is along a straight line with constant velocity and without attenuation. In other words, the propagation medium should be transparent and homogeneous, like free space for electromagnetic waves.
3) An interaction must exist between the sensing wave and the object to be measured. The interaction can be emission or scattering of radiation, or it can be a modulation (scintillation) or delay of a propagating wave.
4) The signal must be unambiguous to allow extraction of the correct information. We say that the signal must contain some sort of an object signature. The transformation from the calibrated sensor signal to the object information is called inversion. The link between the object and the signal is a model that is able to simulate the signal from the object information. Such forward models are based on the physics of the interaction between the object and the sensing waves. The development of forward models is a main task in remote sensing. Models derived from physical principles are more general than empirical rules, but both types exist. The forward models are also useful to assess the sensitivity of a signal at a special frequency and polarisation to a given perturbation of the environment. In this way the models contribute to the optimisation of existing methods and development new methods.
All 4 requirements are fulfilled in successful methods. They may utilise different types of waves and different types of physical interactions. However, a dilemma of remote sensing is posed by the opposite needs of Requirements 2 and 3: A transparent medium does not interact with the wave. But an interaction is needed with the object to be sensed. Since the object is usually embedded in the propagating medium, and often, the propagating medium is the object to be sensed, the dilemma is between the needs for and against the interaction. Remote Sensing needs a balance between interaction and transparency. The problem is relaxed if the two media are clearly separated, for instance for sensing of surface properties.
We should realise that remote sensing is not perfect, and that it cannot be used in all diagnostic tasks. Often there are ambiguities in the interpretation. We say, the inversion of remotesensing data is ill conditioned. The skill of remote sensing depends on additional information available from various sources, such as
1) 
insitu observations 
2) 
previous remotesensing observations 
3) 
the quality of the forward model 
4) 
the understanding of the processes describing the behaviour of the objects 
5) 
maps and inventories, for parameters that can be regarded as constant 
6) 
imposed limitations of the parameter range 
and on the best combinations of them.
Due to measurement errors and model errors, the various inputs can lead to conflicting results. This may happen if there are more data points than parameters to be determined. Then the task is to find the best or optimum solution. These problems are studied in the field of optimal estimation (Rogers, 2000).
3
1.3 Active and passive methods
1) Passive sensing methods make use of naturally available signals, such as thermal radiation of terrestrial objects (Figure 1.1: a), sunlight (b), starlight, the cosmic background radiation, but also lightning and thunder, the song of birds and whales. Sometimes, artificial radiation of opportunity, such as manmade nightlight, or radio waves from radio stations, is used for passive remote sensing, too. But more often manmade signals are problematic, impeding the application of remote sensing. Therefore the use of the radiofrequency spectrum is regulated by the radio regulations of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Thanks to these rules, certain frequency bands are kept free for passive sensing.
2) Active methods (Figure 1.1: c) sense artificially produced waves after they interacted with the objects to be sensed. Examples are radar, sonar, lidar, GPS, but also a photo camera with a flashlight. An active method is called monostatic if transmitter and receiver are collocated, otherwise the method is called bistatic, or even multistatic if several receivers at different locations are used.
1.4 Examples
Figure 1.1:
Illustration of examples with passive (a, b) and active (c) methods in remote sensing (from Schanda
1986).
1) Panorama for geographic and topographic information (mapping and orientation)
Instrument / platform 
Propagation (wavelength range) 
Interaction 
Signatures 
Human vision, 
Through clear air Limited to daylight and to suitable illumination 
Scattering of 
Contour, brightness and colour of landscape and objects versus direction and elevation; objects in front of others are closer 
drawing, compass / mountain top, tower 
sunlight 

Same for optical camera, or triangulation 
Fig. 1.2: Partial panorama (direction SE) from the Zimmerwald Observatory (Dec. 12, 2006).
4
2) Underwater exploration, bathymetry
Instrument / platform 
Propagation (wavelength range) 
Interaction 
Signatures 
Optical camera / ship, diver 
Clear water, shallow depth ( 0.41 μm) 
Scattering of sunlight 
Reflectance spectra, contours. 
Sonar / ship, submarine 
Deep penetration of sound waves 
Backscattering of sound waves from bottom surface, from animals, ships, etc. 
Depends on object Usually easy to locate depth to oceanbottom 
Sound navigation and ranging (sonar), or echosounding, in underwater exploration works in the same way as bats use sound for aerial navigation. There is a clear advantage of sonar over electromagnetic sensors because sound waves can propagate in water over very long distance whereas electromagnetic waves are strongly damped in water, only visible light allowing penetration into 10 to 100 m deep water. A problem with sonar in water is the significant dependence of the sound speed* on salinity, temperature and density (or depth) of the water (Table 1.1). This means that sound may not propagate along straight lines, the location of objects becoming ambiguous.
*Comment: The wave path is determined by the Principle of Fermat, which states that the wave chooses the path with the fastest propagation.
Table 1.1: Speed of sound (m/s) in pure water and in sea water at P=0.1 MPa (sea surface) and at 100 MPa (10 km depth), from http://www.akin.ru/spravka_eng/s_i_svel_e.htm
Temperature (C) 
Pure water (surface, 10 km) 
Sea water S=3.5% (surface, 10 km) 

0 
1402, 1578 
1449, 1623 

10 
1447, 1618 
1490, 1659 

20 
1483, 1650 
1522, 1687 

30 
1511, 1677 
1546, 1710 

3) Detection of snowcover (regional, global) 

Instrument / platform 
Propagation (wavelength range) 
Interaction 
Signatures 

Optical camera / tower, aircraft, satellite 
Through clear air, ( 0.41 μm) 
Scattering of sunlight 
High reflectance, especially for fresh snow. 

Thermal IR imager / satellite 
Clear air ( 814 μm) 
Emission of thermal radiation 
T 273.15 K 

Microwave radiometer / satellite 
Clear air, clouds ( 3 mm – 10 cm) 
Scattering of sky radiation and emission of thermal radiation 
Dry snow with characteristic reflectance, wet snow with high emissivity 

Microwave radar / satellite 
Clear air, clouds, precipitation ( 3 cm – 10 cm) 
Backscattering of microwave radiation 
Low backscatter, especially for wet snow 

Gammaray detector (scintillation counter) / lowflying aircraft 
Short range < 300 m in air ( < 10 ^{}^{1}^{0} m) 
Natural radiation of minerals (e.g. ^{4}^{0} K, ^{2}^{3}^{8} U, ^{2}^{0}^{8} Tl) in the top 10 cm of the soil 
Attenuation by snow 
5
Figure 1.3: Example of a satellite truecolour image of Scandinavia showing snow on 15 March 2002 using the visible Bands 1,4,3 RGB of MODIS, from Xavier Planella Robisco
(2005).
http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/
The snow signature is quite clear with respect to snow free land and sea. However ambiguities appear with respect to clouds and sea ice. Question: How could the ambiguities be resolved?
4) Measurement of atmospheric water vapour H _{2} O
The following examples derive the amount of vertically Integrated of Water Vapour (IWV), also called total column water vapour (CWV).
Instrument / platform 
Propagation 
Interaction 
Signatures 
(speed) 

GPS system with network of fixed receivers / surface and satellites 
All weather (very close to speed of light in vacuum) 
Delay of signal speed by water vapour and dry air 
Unique for total column of H _{2} O if surface air pressure is known 
Microwave radiometer / surface 
Air, smoke, clouds 
Emission line of H _{2} O frequency f 22 GHz ( 14 mm) 
Distinction from cloud emission by 2 ^{n}^{d} frequency 
Microwave radiometer / satellite 
Air, smoke, clouds 
Emission line of H _{2} O frequency f 22 GHz ( 14 mm) 
Distinction from surface and clouds by additional channels (frequency, polarisation) 
Sun photometer / surface 
Clear air with sunlight 
Absorption band of H _{2} O ( 940 nm) 
Distinction from aerosols by additional channels 
MERIS / satellite (ENVISAT) 
Clear air with sunlight 
Absorption band of H _{2} O ( 940 nm) 
Distinction from surface and aerosols by additional channels 
6
Figure 1.4: Top: GPS Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) and Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), both in m, versus time during 20 days at Gütsch (Andermatt) in November 2000. Bottom: Derived integrated water vapour (kg/m ^{2} ).
The ZTD curve is the delay measured by GPS. The delay is the difference in distance between a wave travelled through vacuum and through air. This distance is related to the refractive index. ZHD is computed from the measured air pressure at the surface, whereas the difference, ZTDZHD, is due to changes of IWV. It is obvious that water vapour changes more rapidly than pressure.
Figure 1.5: Watervapour column (g/cm ^{2} ) above the alpine region as derived from MERIS on ENVISAT. Note the disturbances in areas where clouds occur.
7
5) Detection and localisation of lightning
Instrument 
Propagation (speed) 
Interaction 
Signatures 
Human observer 
Viewing lightning (speed of light), Hearing thunder (sound speed) 
Light flash and sound burst emitted by lightning 
Characteristic flash in view direction, delay of thunder proportional to distance 
Electromagnetic lightning detector network 
Allweather capability (groundwave close to speed of light) 
Radio burst (sferic) emitted by lightning 
Propagation distance from timeofarrival measured at several stations. 
Figure 1.6:
European Network of lightning stations
http://www.sferics.physik.uni
muenchen.de/
6) And many more
The presented examples were intended to illustrate the concepts of widely different methods and applications. There exist many more. Add your own favourite examples
8
1.5 The significance of system models as a motivation
As mentioned in Section 1.2, the potential and success of remote sensing heavily depends on the existence of complete information on the states and processes to be investigated. The tasks involved are, apart from the generation of forward models, advancements of models that describe the processes to be studied. Such process models or system models should represent the stateofthe art of the scientific understanding behind the observations. These models represent the laws, which govern the components of the earth, like the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere, the land, the solid earth, any subsystem, but also the interaction between these components.
Earth System Models are developed through a complex and systematic process of comparison with observations, called biases, point to the incorrect representation of some processes that must be improved in the models, or to systematic observational errors that must be corrected (ESA, 2006). Once the biases are reduced to a minimum, the remaining random differences between the models and the observations can be exploited to further improve the model formulation, or to create a set of model variables representing the reality at a specific point in time. The model can then be used for predictions. This process is called assimilation. It forms the heart of Earth System Science. An example is shown in Figure 1.7. Data assimilation opens the way for optimised state analysis, and subsequently more reliable prediction of the state of the Earth, and for reanalysis. Reanalyses are long time series of historical data obtained from stateoftheart data assimilation, using all available observations. The European Centre for MediumRange Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) has led the meteorological community in the creation of reanalysis. The most recent of these projects, ERA40, has allowed the production of a 45year (19572002) time series, using all available satellite and insitu observations of the physics and dynamics of the atmosphere.
Figure 1.7: Principle of variational retrieval with dataassimilation. The background information is given by a system model, here vertical profiles of temperature and dewpoint temperature. The observations are radiometer data at various frequencies. An optimal solution is found by minimising the overall error (from Hewison and Gaffard, 2006).
Future reanalysis projects will encompass several components of the Earth System. In the nottoodistant future, the Earth Science community will have the capacity to produce coupled reanalyses of the Earth System, including weather, atmospheric composition, state of the ocean, amount of moisture in the continental soils, hydrology of large rivers, and the state of the biosphere and cryosphere. This, in turn, will open the way to an objective verification of the predictional capacity of Earth System models. Special challenges of Earth System Science are listed in ESA (2006). For all these reasons it is important for remote sensing to develop accurate and physical forward models that can be applied to the system models for required comparison with observations.
The above statements are the motivation for following the present lecture and, well beyond, for studying the physics of remote sensing.
1.6 Conclusions
9
This introduction gave an overview on the properties and principles of remote sensing. It was stated that for any successful application, four requirements are to be fulfilled: (1) technical and logistic feasibility (instrument and platform), (2) transparency of the propagating medium from the object to be sensed to the observer, (3) interaction between the sensing wave and the object, and (4) a signature, to allow the retrieval of the requested information from the observed signal. It was found that a balance between transparency and interaction is needed
to get optimum results.
Several examples were discussed to illustrate the methods and the meaning of the 4 requirements. For certain tasks, several methods were identified, each of which having different properties. Whereas satellite observations are optimal to unveil largescale features, surfacebased observations are best to monitor dynamic processes.
The motivation for the physical approach is based on the required link with EarthSystem models allowing the application of data assimilation, leading to predictions and to a deeper understanding of the Earth or its major components as complex systems.
In the further chapters we will concentrate on the physical properties of nature relevant to the
requirements for remote sensing, including an introduction to remotesensing instruments. More information can be found elsewhere, see e.g. the list of previous lectures:
http://www.iap.unibe.ch/content.php/teaching/. Scripts are also available at the ExWi library.
1.7 Literature
The following list is a small selection of monographs mainly from the inventory of the ExWi Library (BEWI):
Introductory books
A 
booklet written by 
E. 
Schanda (1986), Physical Fundamentals of Remote Sensing, BEWI: XKA 118 etc. is still very useful today. Similar are: 
W.G. Rees (2001), Physical Principles of Remote Sensing, BEWI: XKA 212, and
C. Elachi and J. van Zyl (2006), Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed. BEWI:
XKA 214.
G.W. Petty (2006), A First Course in Atmospheric radiation, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed. Sundog Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin. Excellent introduction also for the physics of remote sensing, BEWI: XJX 205
Indepth studies
A Manual of Remote Sensing has been published by the American Society of Photogrammetry. The two volumes of the second edition from 1983 are available at our library BEWI: XKA 116, 117.
Ulaby, Moore and Fung (1981, 1982, 1986), Microwave Remote Sensing, Vol. 1,2,3 (BEWI: XKA 129, 130).
Monographs on special topics
L. Tsang, J.A. Kong, and R.T Shin (1985), Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing, BEWI: XKA 136
G.L. Stephens (1994), Remote Sensing of the Lower Atmosphere, BEWI: XKF 203
M.A. Janssen (Ed), (1993), Atmospheric Remote Sensing by Microwave Radiometry. BEWI: XKF 201.
C.
Mätzler (Ed), (2006), Thermal Microwave Radiation: Applications for Remote Sensing, IET Electromagnetic Waves Series 52, London UK, BEWI: XKJ 209.
10
H. Sauvageot (1992), Radar Meteorology, BEWI: TEF 202. Lecture notes on this topic are also available, see http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/teaching/vorlesungen/radar_meteorologie/
C.L. Rodgers (2000), Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding (BEWI: MAF 206).
Earth System Models
ESA (2006), The Changing Earth – New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme, SP1304
Journals
Many journals deal with remote sensing, the following ones being fully dedicated to the topic:
1) 
IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (at BEWI) 
2) 
Remote Sensing of Environment (at BEWI) 
3) 
International Journal of Remote Sensing (library of the Geographical Institute) 
Additional reference
T. J. Hewison and C. Gaffard (2006), Combining data from groundbased microwave radiometers and other instruments in temperature and humidity profile retrievals, WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation, TECO2006, Dec. 46, Geneva, Switzerland.
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2 Electromagnetic Waves
2.1 From Maxwell's Equations to the Wave Equation
The electromagnetic (EM) fields, i.e. the electric field E, the displacement field D, the magnetic field H, and the magnetic induction B, are governed by Maxwell's Equations (Kong,
1986):
where =
H = ^{} ^{D} + j ;
t
E = ^{} ^{B}
t
;
_{}_{} _{D} _{=} _{} _{e} 
(2.1) 
B = 0 
(2.2) 
dx ^{,} dy ^{,} dz
is the Nabla Operator (here applied as rotation, , and divergence,
), j is the electric current density and _{e} the electric charge density. To understand how EM waves propagate, we simplify the situation to homogeneous and isotropic media far away from regions with sources (no transmitters, i.e. no isolated charges: _{} _{e} =0). We will consider complex timeharmonic fields with the time dependence, exp( i t) = cos( t) 
i sin( t), where i is the imaginary unit, i = 1 , t is time and the angular frequency. Complex fields are chosen as usual convention for easier computation. The physical fields
are their real parts, e.g. Re
( e i t
_{)} = cos( t ) . Based on Ohm's Law,
j= E
(2.3)
a (complex) current density j will be excited in a conducting medium by the electric field E of the wave, where is the conductivity of the medium. Now, Maxwell's Equations become

H = i D + E ; 
_{}_{} 
_{D} _{=} 
_{} _{e} _{=} _{0} 
(2.4) 
E = i B ; 
B = 0 
(2.5) 

We eliminate B and D by the linear Constitutive Relations 

D = _{0} E + P = ' _{0} E and B = μ _{0} H + M = μμ _{0} H 
(2.6) 
where ' is the (relative) dielectric constant (also called relative electric permittivity), _{0} =8.854 10 ^{}^{1}^{2} As/V/m the vacuum permittivity, μ the relative magnetic permeability, μ _{0} =4 10 ^{}^{7} Vs/A/m the vacuum permeability, and P and M, respectively, are called electric and magnetic polarisability. We can further simplify the righthand side of the first equation in (2.4) _{} _{i} _{} _{D} _{+} _{} _{E} _{=} _{(} _{} _{i} _{}_{} _{'} _{} _{0} _{+} _{} _{)} _{E} to _{} _{i} _{}_{}_{} _{0} _{E} , by defining a complex relative dielectric constant
= ' + i " ; " =
^{}
0
(2.7)
The real part is the original relative dielectric constant, and the imaginary part is related to the conductivity by (2.7). The complex has a full physical meaning. Conductivity and imaginary permittivity are different representations of the same effect. It turns out that also the magnetic permeability can be complex _{μ} _{=} _{μ}_{'} _{+} _{i}_{μ}_{"} . The final form of Maxwell's Equations for harmonic EM waves in homogeneous media then read as follows

H = i D = i _{0} E ; E 
= D = 0 
(2.8) 
E = + i B = + i μμ _{0} H ; B = H = 0 
(2.9) 
with the generalised constitutive relations (note the change of D which now includes E)
D = ( ) _{0} E and B = μ( ) μ _{0} H
(2.10)
12
where and μ usually depend on angular frequency .
Remarks:
1) In chiral and in biisotropic media, also the electric and magnetic fields are linearly related (Kong, 1986; Sihvola, 1999). 2) In anisotropic media and μ are tensors. Plane waves propagate independently for special eigenmodes (dichroism).
Elimination of H from (2.8) to (2.9) leads to
E = ^{2} μμ _{0} _{0} E . But E = ( E) E ,
and since source regions are avoided, E = 0 . Then we get the Wave Equation for E in the unbounded homogenous medium:
c ^{2} E = ^{2} E
The same equation can be found for the fields, D, B, H, where _{=}
Laplace Operator, and
c ^{2} _{0} μμ _{0}
(
) 1 =
_{} 2 ; c _{0} = n
c
0
^{1}
=2.99793 10 ^{8} m/s
^{2}
^{2}
^{2}
dx ^{2} ^{+} dy ^{2} ^{+} dz ^{2}
(2.11)
_{} is the
(2.12)
It turns out, see Equation (2.32), that the real part of c is the phase velocity of the wave in the medium, c _{0} is the speed of light in vacuum, and n is the refractive index of the medium:
n
= _{} _{μ} ;
for _{μ} = 1 n =
(2.13)
2.2 Plane EM waves
An important type of solution of (2.11) in a homogeneous medium is a plane wave propagating in an arbitrary direction given by the wave vector k. For the electric field of the wave we use the Ansatz
(2.14)
E( r , t ) = E _{0} exp(ik r i t )
where E _{0} is the amplitude and r is the position in space. The divergence equation in (2.8) leads to _{E} _{0} _{} _{k} _{=} _{0} . This means that the electrical field is oriented perpendicular to the wave direction, k, but otherwise is arbitrary. Furthermore, also the magnetic field is of the form
H ( r , t ) = H _{0} exp(ik r i t ) 
(2.15) 

H is perpendicular to both k and to E. This follows from H = ik H = 0 , together with 

E = ik E = i μμ _{0} H 
(2.16) 

Inserting (2.14) in the wave equation yields with _{} _{E} _{=} _{(}_{i}_{k} _{} _{i}_{k} _{)}_{E} _{=} _{} _{k} ^{2} _{E} , ( k ^{2} k k ) 

k 
= ± ^{} = ± ^{n} ^{} = nk _{0} ; 
k _{0} ^{} 
(2.17) 
c
c
0
c
0
and k _{0} is the vacuum wave number. The Equation for k is the dispersion relation of EM waves in unbounded space. The ± signs mean that the wave can propagate forward or backward in k direction. Since k is arbitrary, the dispersion relation holds for all directions, and it is independent of the direction of the electric field (polarisation).
Equation (2.16) allows to relate the amplitudes of the fields, defining the wave impedance
=
Z _{0}
(2.18)
(2.19)
and Z _{0} is the vacuum impedance. The wave intensity is the power flux (W/m ^{2} ) transported by the wave. This quantity follows from the Poynting Vector, defined by
S E H
(2.20)
S is a vector pointing in direction k of wave propagation. It turns out that the wave intensity I is given by the time average of the physical part of S, which can be written as
S = 0.5Re _{(}_{E} H *)
(2.21)
where * means conjugatecomplex value. Inserting (2.1418) in (2.21) and taking the magnitude, we find
I =
Re
Z * _{}
1
;
if μ=1, then
I = ^{E} ^{0}
2 Z _{0}
n '
(2.22)
Note that Z may be complex. From (2.22) we learn that the wave intensity is proportional to the square of the electric field.
Figure 2.1: One period of a plane EM wave with linear polarisation (direction of the E field is constant). The horizontal axis is the phase kr t with the propagation path, r.
Problems
1) Proof Equation (2.21). Hint: Express _{E} _{=} _{(}_{E}_{'}_{+} _{i}_{E}_{"}_{)}_{e} ^{} ^{i} ^{} ^{t} _{,} _{H} _{=} _{(}_{H}_{'}_{+} _{i}_{H}_{"}_{)}_{e} ^{} ^{i} ^{} ^{t} and note that the real parts of these quantities are the physical fields. Express these parts, multiply them and average over time to confirm (2.21). For further reading, see e.g. Schanda (1969), p. 30
31.
2) Explain why the wave equation (2.11) does not apply for inhomogeneous media. Hint:
Show what additional terms appear in the derivation from (2.8) and (2.9) if depends on the location.
14
2.3 Polarisation of EM waves
Polarisation of EM waves refers to the direction of the electric field. If it is constant as in Figure 2.1, then we call the polarisation linear. Let us consider (Fig. 2.2) an electromagnetic wave propagating in the z direction with the E – field in the xy plane given by
(2.23)
E _{x} = E _{1} exp(ikz i t ), E _{y} = E _{2} exp(ikz i t )
Each component alone describes the E field of a linearly polarized wave. But together, the situation is more complex. In Figure 2.2a, the two components oscillate in phase, and thus a linear polarisation results again. In Figure 2.2b at t=0, only an x component exists, because E _{y} is purely imaginary. With increasing time the physical ycomponent first increases as _{E} _{1} _{s}_{i}_{n} _{} _{t} , while the x component decreases as _{E} _{1} _{c}_{o}_{s} _{} _{t} . The two components oscillate with a phase difference of 90°. This is the motion of a circle with constant radius E _{1} . In the general situation the polarisation is elliptical, that is, the tip of the E vector describes an ellipse. The actual behaviour depends on the relationship between the complex amplitudes, E _{1} and E _{2} . The rotation can be clockwise or anticlockwise.
Stokes Parameters
Instead of dealing with phase angles and complex numbers, an easier way to describe the polarisation of a wave is by the Stokes Parameters _{I}_{,} _{Q}_{,} _{U} _{,} _{V} . All parameters have the dimension of an intensity, and they are defined by
or
or
(2.24a)
(2.24b)
(2.24c)
(2.24d)
Here the brackets mean averaging over time (usually many periods). Alternative conventions are used for the quantities of (2.24a, b), where I _{1} and I _{2} are called modified Stokes parameters. Note that Q and U depend on the coordinate system used, but the degree of polarisation
_{} p _{=} Q ^{2} + U ^{2} + V ^{2}
I
15
(2.24e)
is independent of the coordinate system used. For unpolarised radiation _{p} = 0 . Linear
polarisation is described by Q and U, whereas circular polarisation is described by V.
Problem: Express the Stokes Parameters for the 2 examples in Figure 2.2.
2.4 Interaction between EM waves and homogenous media
For homogeneous, unbounded media the interactions between EM waves and matter describe wave absorption and wave velocity. The medium is characterised by (including ) and μ, and it turned out that the refractive index and the impedance are related parameters. Note that for natural media n=n'+in" is complex, and essentially non magnetic (μ=1), the rightmost form of (2.13) applies for n, and the impedance follows directly from n, since Z=Z _{0} /n. Thus we are left with one independent, complex quantity, , consisting of a real and an imaginary part. Then we have from (2.13): = ' + i " = n ^{2} = n ' ^{2} n" ^{2} + 2in ' n " to find
(2.25)
'= n ' ^{2} n" ^{2} ; "= 2 n ' n"
_{n} _{'}_{=}
^{}
', "<< '
"/2, '<< "
;
n" = ^{} ^{"}
(2.26)
The meanings of n' and n" become apparent from the properties of a plane wave propagating parallel to an arbitrarily chosen r axis. Then
E = E _{0} exp(ikr i t )
where k of (2.17) is complex
k = k ' + ik " = ± nk _{0} ; k ' = ± n ' k _{0} , k " = ± n" k _{0} ; k _{0} ^{}
Inserting (2.28) into (2.27), we get for the + sign:
The physical field (for real E _{0} ) is given by
^{c} 0
_{E} _{=} _{E} _{0} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{(}_{i}_{k} _{'} _{r} _{} _{i} _{} _{t} _{)}_{e}_{x}_{p}_{(} _{} _{k} _{"} _{r} _{)} ;
Re(E) = E _{0} cos( k ' r t )exp( k " r )
For the  sign we get
Re(E) = Re
(
E
0
exp( ik ' r i t )exp( k " r ))= E _{0} cos( k ' r + t )exp( k " r )
(2.27)
(2.28)
(2.29)
(2.30)
Whereas (2.29) is a wave propagating in the positive r direction, (2.30) applies for waves in the negative direction, and both waves are exponentially damped along their path (Figure 2.3). The damping is due to Ohmic currents, which transform the wave energy into heat. This is called wave absorption. The distance,
d _{s} = ^{1} = ^{c} ^{0} "
k
n" ^{,}
(2.31a)
after which the field is reduced by a factor e ^{} ^{1} , is the fieldpenetration depth (or skin depth).
Since the wave intensity is proportional to
^{2} , its spatial variation is an exponential decay
_{} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{(} _{} _{2} _{k} _{"} _{r} _{)} . The damping coefficient, 2k", of the intensity is called absorption coefficient
Figure 2.3: Damped EM wave and its electrical field envelope; here c stands for c _{0} , and propagation is along the z axis.
16
_{} _{a} , and it is related to the fieldpenetration depth
_{a} = 2 k " = ^{2} _{=} 2 n" 

^{d} s 
^{c} 
0 
(2.31b)
The phase velocity c _{p}_{h} (speed of points with constant phase in the propagation direction) and
the group velocity c _{g} (speed of a wave train or signal), respectively, of the wave are
determined by
^{c} ph ^{=} ^{} '
k
=
^{c} ^{0}
'
n
and c _{g} = ^{d} ^{}
dk
(2.32)
The frequency is the number of periods per second: = /2 , and the wavelength is the spatial period of the wave: = 2 / k ' , in vacuum: _{} _{0} _{=} _{2} _{} _{/} _{k} _{0} .
Problem: Determine the wavelength and skin depth of a medium with = 2 + 0.3i , μ=1, at the frequency =2.4 GHz.
2.5 KramersKronig relations, and the Hilbert Transform
The medium descriptors n, and μ depend on frequency (or wavelength), and on the physical state and chemical composition, see von Hippel (1954). It turns out that the real and imaginary parts of these functions are not completely independent. The assumption of causality requires that an effect cannot exist before its cause. Here the cause is the electric field E, and the effect, D, is the excited displacement field. The formulation of causality together with the linearity between E and D leads to the integral relations named after Kramers and Kronig (Kong, 1986):
'( ) _{} = ^{1} PV
+
"( ')
'
d
"( ) = ^{1} PV
+
'( ') _{}
'
' 
= 
Hi{ "( )} 
(2.33) 

d ' 
= 
{ Hi '( ) _{} 
_{}} 
(2.34) 
where PV means the Cauchy Principal Value of the integral (due to the singularity at ' = ). Equation (2.33) is also known as Hilbert Transform, _{H}_{i}_{{} _{}}_{,} and (2.34) as inverse Hilbert Transform (which is equal to the negative Hi Transform). They mean that if either the complete real or the complete imaginary spectrum is known, the other spectrum follows (apart from a constant highfrequency limit _{} _{} ) from the above relations. They are useful to check the physical correctness of model functions and of experimental data. Similar equations also hold for μ and n. Note that the Hilbert Transform of a constant is zero.
17
Therefore a constant _{} _{} _{} _{1} is subtracted from '. Some Hilbert Transforms are shown in Table 2.1.
f 
( x ) 
Hi{ f ( x )} 
Table 2.1: Hilbert Transforms of some functions (from Bracewell, 1965). Note that 
cos x 
sin x 

sin x 
cos x 
Hi{Hi{ f ( x )}} = f ( x ) 

sin x 
cos x 1 

x 
x 

1 
^{x} 



1 + x ^{2} 
1 + x ^{2} 

( x ) 
^{1} 

x 
The fact that sin and cos functions are Hilbert Transforms allows us to formulate the following rule: If the real part of the dielectric constant can be expressed by a Fourier series of cos functions, then the imaginary part is the respective series of sin functions. This is always the case because _{} _{(} _{} _{)} _{=} _{} _{*} _{(} _{}_{} _{*}_{)} ; thus _{} _{'}_{(} _{} _{)} is a symmetric function of the real frequency axis
whereas
_{} _{'}_{'}_{(} _{} _{)} is antisymmetric.
2.6 The electromagnetic spectrum
The frequency = /2 is the independent variable of waves, and the functional dependence on frequency is called spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is extremely wide, and therefore different units are in use as shown in Figure 2.4. The main unit of frequency is the cycle per second (s ^{}^{1} ), which is also called Hertz. For vacuum (n=1), Equation (2.32) uniquely relates the frequency with the vacuum wavelength, _{0} , according to
_{0} = ^{c} ^{0} = ^{2} ^{}
k
0
(2.35)
Therefore the inverse wavelength, 1/ _{0} , is proportional to frequency and to k _{0} , which is called wave number. As a matter of confusion, the term wave number is also used by spectroscopists for the spatial frequency: 1/ _{0} = _{k} _{0} _{/}_{2} _{} . The photon energy E _{p} = h h (where h is the Planck constant) is another measure of
frequency. If the photon energy is expressed in eV (electron Volt) and the frequency in Hz (Hertz), then
E _{p} = 4.1383 10 ^{} ^{1}^{5}
(2.36)
The range of values for all types of units is shown in Figure 2.4.
18
Fig. 2.4: The electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wave number, wavelength (both in vacuum), photon energy and frequency ( _{} _{} _{f} ), and some of the nomenclature of spectral bands used in engineering (from Kong, 1986).
Visible spectrum
19
Fig. 2.5: Visible spectrum on a wall created by sunlight after crossing a glass prism.
The wavelength ranges (in nm) of the visible colours are, according to Petty (2006):
violet 
390 – 460 
dark blue 
460 – 490 
cyan (light bl) 490 – 510
green 
510 – 550 
yellowgreen 
550 – 580 
yellow 
580 – 590 
orange 
590 – 620 
red 
620 – 760 
Ultraviolet (UV)
Extreme UV 
10 – 100 

UV C 
100 – 280 
absorbed in mesosphere (>50 km) by O _{2} 
UV B 
280 – 320 
reduced by O _{3} , responsible for sun burn 
UV A 
320 – 390 
99% of solar UV at sea level, not dangerous for living tissue 
2.7 Literature
R. 
Bracewell (1965), The Fourier Transform and its Applications, New York, BEWI: GQE 119. 
D. 
J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, (1999) 3 ^{r}^{d} Ed., BEWI: OGA 151. Good introductory book, includes introduction to mathematical concepts (e.g. vector analysis. 
A. 
von Hippel, Dielectrics and Waves, 1 ^{s}^{t} Ed. (1954) BEWI: TEA 149, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed. (1995) BEWI: VTZ 201. 
J.A. Kong, Electromagnetic Wave Theory, New York 1 ^{s}^{t} Ed. (1986) BEWI: TEA 150, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed. (1990) ETH Library.
G.W. Petty (2006), A First Course in Atmospheric radiation, 2 ^{n}^{d} Ed. Sundog Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin. Excellent introduction also for the physics of remote sensing, BEWI: XJX 205
In German:
G. 
Eder, Elektrodynamik, BI Hochschultaschenbuch 233 (1961), BEWI: OGA 130. 
E. 
Schanda (Ed.), Theorie der elektromagnetischen Wellen, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel (1969), BEWI: OGF 120, TEA 152, 156. Dieses Buch kann als kompakte Einführung in Vektoranalysis (Kapitel von H. Carnal), ins Verständnis der Maxwellgleichungen (Elektrizitätslehre und die Maxwellsche Theorie von E. Schanda) und Wellen, Antennen (weitere Kapitel) empfohlen werden. 
20
3 Sensors for EM Waves
Remote sensing is based on information obtained from electromagnetic waves and radiation. This chapter is limited to the concepts and serves as an introduction focussing on essential properties of sensors, which can be used for this task. As mentioned in Chapter 1, we distinguish between active and passive remote sensing. Active sensors need signal generators and transmitters, and both methods need receivers and detectors.
3.1 Antenna
Transmitters and receivers need elements that allow the transition between the propagating radiation in free space and the guided radiation in the sensor, and vice versa. The transition is realised by the antenna. This term is derived from Latin for 'sail' in analogy to wind and surface waves and is well known for radio and microwaves. Although not often used in other domains, the term, antenna, is of relevance to other wavelength ranges, but may be hard to realise. Special to the antenna is that a single, polarised wave mode is exited from a given feed point, meaning that there is an unambiguous phase and field relationship between the feed point of the antenna and any point in space. Thus antennas radiate fully polarised radiation. Incoherent radiators and detectors, on the other hand, cannot provide this property.
3.1.1 Antenna types
There exists a large variety, from nearly isotropic dipole radiators to highly focused reflector and array antennas. Some examples are shown in Figure 3.1. All types can be characterised by the parameters to be described in the following section. Here we will focus on horn antennas.
Figure 3.1: Antenna types, from Ulaby et al. (1981).
21
3.1.2 Transmitting antenna
Most important is the antenna pattern, i.e. the directional distribution of the radiated power. As the antenna is a point source, its directional pattern can be described in spherical coordinates with the antenna in the centre.
Figure 3.2: Spherical coordinates for antennas (top), and transition to quasi plane wave in the far field (bottom), from Ulaby et al.
(1981).
Figure 3.3: Typical radiation pattern of a horn antenna. Shown is the normalised radiation intensity p when expressed in dB (p _{d}_{B} ), defined as p _{d}_{B} = 10 _{1}_{0} log(p). The x axis corresponds to the
angle
where _{} _{0} marks the direction of the peak intensity (usually 0 or 90°).
_{} _{} _{} _{0} of Figure 3.2
The directivity _{D}_{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} describes the directional distribution of the radiated power P _{1} . In the far field (Figure 3.2), that is at distances r larger than
r
> ^{2} ^{d} 2
(3.1)
where d is the maximum diameter of the antenna, the radiation intensity _{S} _{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} is proportional to 1/ r ^{2} . Therefore we can define a quantity that is independent of distance by
D( , ) = 4 r ^{2} ^{S} ^{(} ^{} ^{,} ^{} ^{)} ^{P} 1
(3.2)
22
Here _{D}_{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} is the directivity in direction _{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} . Integration of _{S} _{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} over a sphere with radius r around the antenna must give the total radiated power P _{1} . Therefore the integral over directivity must give
4
D( , ) d =
2
0
0
D( , )sin d d = 4
(3.3)
Also used is the antenna gain _{G} _{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} . It is similar and proportional to _{D}_{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} , with the difference that in (3.2) the radiated power in the denominator is replaced by the total power P _{i}_{n} fed into the antenna. Thus,
G ( , ) = _{r} D( , )
(3.4)
where _{} _{r} = _{P} _{1} _{/} _{P} _{i}_{n} is the radiation efficiency of the antenna. Ideal antennas are lossless, meaning that gain and directivity are the same. The quantity shown in Figure 3.3 is the directivity normalised to the maximum p= _{D}_{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} / _{D} _{m}_{a}_{x} _{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} and expressed in decibel (dB).
Special cases:
1) Isotropic antenna: D is independent of direction. Then, with the requirement in Equation (3.3) we find that D=1. Small antennas in comparison to the wavelength are nearly isotropic. Therefore their directivity is always on the order of 1.
D
Figure 3.4: Directivity of a boxcar antenna with D _{m}_{a}_{x} =1000. From Equations (3.5) and (3.6) we get _{} _{m}_{a}_{x} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{6}_{3}_{2} , corresponding to a full beam width of 7.2°.
2) Boxcar antenna: D=D _{m}_{a}_{x} inside the antenna beam defined by a solid angle _{e} , and D=0 elsewhere. Insertion into Equation (3.3) leads to
D _{m}_{a}_{x} = 4 / _{e}
(3.5)
This expression relates the solid angle of the antenna beam with the directivity. Therefore D _{m}_{a}_{x} gets very large for narrow beams. For a circularsymmetric beam around the pole =0, the effective solid angle becomes
^{} max
2
_{e} = 2 sin d = 2 (1 cos _{m}_{a}_{x} ) _{m}_{a}_{x}
0
(3.6)
where the last equation is valid for narrow beams ( _{} _{m}_{a}_{x} _{<}_{<} _{1}_{)}_{.} Note that the beam diameter is given by = _{2} _{} _{m}_{a}_{x} . In analogy to Special Case 2, an effective solid angle _{e} can be defined for any antenna by
=
e
1
D
max
Dd
4
=
4
^{}
D
max
23
;
=
b
1
4
e
D
( , )
d
(3.7)
The second equation defines the fraction _{} _{b} of the radiation transmitted in directions within the beam _{e} ; _{} _{b} is called beam efficiency. The boxcar antenna described above is ideal with _{} _{b} =1. High beam efficiency is important in remote sensing to relate signals to a welldefined direction and position.
3.1.3 Receiving antenna
The receiving antenna collects radiated power from the radiation field expressed by its intensity at the position of the antenna. This power is related to an effective area A _{e}_{f}_{f} collecting radiation. The power P _{2} collected by an antenna and guided to the output port P _{o}_{u}_{t} is
^{P} out ^{=} ^{S} ^{} ^{A} eff
(3.8)
The principle of reciprocity (e.g. Kong, 1985) allows relating the characteristics of the receiving antenna with those of the identical antenna, when used for transmission. Therefore the transmitting antenna can be used for reception as well and, A _{e}_{f}_{f} is related to _{D}_{(} _{} _{,} _{} _{)} . It can be shown that
A _{e} ( , ) = ^{} 2 ^{G} ^{(} ^{} ^{,} ^{} ^{)}
4
= _{r}
^{2} D( , )
4
;
_{P} _{o}_{u}_{t} _{=} _{} _{r} _{P} _{2}
(3.9)
Remember that _{} _{r} describes the internal power loss. For sufficiently large antennas, the maximum value of A _{e}_{f}_{f} of a good antenna ( _{} _{r} _{} _{1} ) is often close to the geometrical antenna cross section A. On the other hand, for small antennas A _{e}_{f}_{f}_{,} _{m}_{a}_{x} cannot be much smaller than ^{2} because D _{m}_{a}_{x} is at least 1; however, for antennas there is no lower size limit.
3.1.4 Directivity and diffraction
A simple model for a directional antenna is shown in Figure 3.5.
Figure 3.5: Simple model for a horn antenna:
Geometry of an excited wave in z direction diffracted at the rectangular aperture
_{A} _{=} _{} _{x} _{} _{} _{y}
at z=0 in k
direction to point P.
A wave is radiated through the aperture of a horn. At the horn aperture the radiation is diffracted. From scalar diffraction theory the directivity can be related to the electric field in the aperture plane:
D( , ) = ^{4} ^{}
^{2}
A
2
E ( x, y )exp(ik _{x} x + ik _{y} y ) dxdy
A
^{2} dxdy
(3.10)
where the nominator contains the diffraction integral over the aperture area A. This integral is the twodimensional Fourier Transform of the aperture field E(x,y,z=0) if E is set to 0 outside the aperture. The denominator of Equation (3.10) represents the radiated power passing
24
through the aperture. Using spherical coordinates of Figure 3.2 we have for the wave vector components k _{x} and k _{y} perpendicular to the z direction:
k _{x} = k sin cos , k _{y} = k sin sin , k = 2 /
(3.11)
Example: Let E be the scalar electric field amplitude of a plane wave in z direction, and let _{} _{x} _{=} _{} _{y} _{=} _{a} , and A = a ^{2} . Then E is a constant within the aperture, leading to
D( , ) = ^{4} ^{}
A
^{2}
A
exp(ik _{x} x + ik _{y} y ) dxdy
^{2} _{=} 4
A
^{2}
+ a /
a / 2
2
exp(ik _{x} x ) dx
2
+ a / 2
exp(ik _{y} y ) dy
a / 2
2
D( , ) = D _{m}_{a}_{x} sin X sin Y
X
Y
2
_{} 2 ; X = ^{a}^{k} ^{x}
2
, Y = ^{a}^{k} ^{y}
2
^{,} ^{D} max ^{=} ^{4} ^{} ^{A}
^{2}
, and thus to
(3.12)
This is a wellknown result for the Fourier Transform of a boxcar function. Note that since (sinX)/X 1 for X 0, the maximum directivity is simply given by D _{m}_{a}_{x} , and according to Equation (3.9) for a lossless antenna ( _{} _{r} _{=} _{1} ), the maximum of A _{e}_{f}_{f} is indeed equal to A.
Example: The radiation pattern for _{D} _{m}_{a}_{x} _{=} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} is realised if the antenna size a = 8.9206 _{.} Inserting this value in Equation (3.12) for _{} _{=} _{0} , we get X=28.025sin . The directivity is shown in Figure 3.6.
Figure 3.6: Directivity in the plane _{} _{=} _{0} of a square antenna with homogeneous aperture field for D _{m}_{a}_{x} =1000.
Problem: Compute and plot the directivity of this antenna for _{} _{=} _{4}_{5} _{°}_{.} Furthermore compute _{e} and _{} _{b} (limit integration to 0< <90°), and compare the results with the boxcar antenna of Section 3.1.2.
Comments: The presented diffraction model is limited to radiation in the forward direction, and we must assume that no radiation is transmitted in the backward hemisphere (180> >90°). We must also assume that the farfield condition of Equation (3.1) applies. This latter condition can be relaxed by quasi optics (see Lecture Microwave Physics and Quasi Optics). Polarisation has been neglected here, but must be included when needed.
3.2 Radar
25
3.2.1 Radar – Principle
Radar originally was the abbreviation for "Radio Aircraft Detection And Ranging". Today it stands more generally for "RAdio Detection And Ranging", meaning that a wave is transmitted, and its echo is used to extract information about remote objects, especially their distance. Today radar is used for many more purposes in remote sensing (rain rate, wind speed in the atmosphere, waves and oil spills on the ocean, se ice, ice caps, snowcover, vegetation, temporal changes of the relief at mm scales, etc.
Transmitter
Receiver
Figure 3.7: Bistatic radar configuration with separate transmitter and receiver.
We distinguish the following configurations:
• Monostatic Radar (collocated transmitter and receiver, most common type)
• Bistatic Radar (as in Figure 3.7)
• Multistatic Radar (using more than one receiver)
In order to locate a wave train it is necessary to modulate the transmitted wave, either by creating sufficiently short pulses of duration in the μs (10 ^{}^{6} s) or even in the ns (10 ^{}^{9} s) range, or by a (linear) frequency modulation. With such means the total travel time t = l / c (path length l , speed of light c) between transmitter and receiver can be measured to an accuracy (error t ), which is limited by the uncertainty relation
t 1
(3.13)
where is the frequency bandwidth of the radar signal. The equal sign can be reached if a socalled matched filter is used (Ulaby et al. 1982). From Equation (3.13) we get the path length error
l = c t c /
(3.14)
In monostatic radar the path length is two times the range, r (distance between transmitter and scatterer); then
r = 0.5c t 0.5c /
(3.15)
Furthermore radar types distinguish between coherent and incoherent systems, types with a single polarisation for both transmission and reception, with multiple polarisation, and fully
26
polarimetric radars that can transmit any state of polarisation (transmit Stokes Parameter) and detect any polarisation upon reception (receive Stokes Parameter). A coherent radar measures the phase relationship between transmit and receive signals (Figure 3.8) to determine travel time t. For this purpose a very stable oscillator is required especially for long propagation paths. In noncoherent radars t is measured with a clock triggered by the transmit pulse.
3.2.2 Coherent radar
Figure 3.8: Principle of coherent radars.
In a coherent monostatic radar, the phase difference 2kr between a transmitted voltage
U _{1} = U _{0} cos( t )
(3.16)
(with the circular frequency = 2 ) and the received echo voltage U _{2} after travelling the distance 2r is to be measured
U _{2} = L U _{0} cos( t 2 kr )
(3.17)
where
with a socalled IQ mixer. Its outputs consist of _{I} _{t} _{=} _{U} _{1} _{} _{U} _{2} and Q _{t} , which is the same product, but after a phase delay in U _{1} of 90°. The lowfrequency parts of these products are registered. With the frequency control, the signal can be modulated, for instance a linear sweep over a time T, (=T _{R} /2 in Figure 3.9).
_{<}_{<} _{1} describes the signal loss during propagation. The detection is accomplished
_{} _{(} _{t} _{)} _{=} _{} _{0} _{+} _{a}_{t} , for 0 < t <
T
(3.18)
This sweep has a modulation bandwidth ( _{=} _{f} _{m} in Figure 3.9) :
= aT /(2 )
(3.19)
I _{t} and Q _{t} contain the difference frequency between transmission and reception (Figure 3.9):
f = 2 ar / c
(3.20)
3.2.3 The radar equation
The radar equation relates the transmitted power P _{i}_{n} , with the received echo power P _{o}_{u}_{t} , the distance r to the scattering object and to its radar (or backscatter) cross section _{} _{b}
^{P} out ^{=} ^{P} in
^{2}
G 1 G 2
(4 ) ^{3} r ^{4}
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