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Complex Numbers

Theory Notes - Complex Numbers


1. BASIC CONCEPTS
A number in the form of a + ib, where a, b are real numbers and i   1 is called a complex
Number. A Complex Number can also be defined as an ordered pair of real numbers a and b any
may be written as (a, b), where the first number denotes the real part and the second number
denotes the imaginary part. If z = a + ib, then the real part of z is denoted by Re (z) and the
imaginary part by Im(z). A complex number is said to be purely real if Im(z)= 0, and is said to
be purely imaginary if Re(z) = 0. The complex number 0 = 0 + i0 is both purely real and imaginary.
Two complex numbers are said to be equal if and only if their real parts and imaginary parts are
separately equal i.e. a + ib = c + id implies a = c and b = d. However, there is no order relation
between complex numbers and the expressions of the type a + ib < (or > ) c + id are meaningless.
REMARK :
Clearly i2 = –1, i3 = i2. i = –i, i4 = 1. In general, i4n + 1 = 1, i4n + 2 = – 1, i4n + 3 = – i for an integer n.

2. GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS


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A complex number z = x + iy, written as an ordered
pair (x, y), can be represented by a point P whose
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Cartesian coordinates are (x, y) referred to axes


OX and OY, usually called the real and the imaginary
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axes.
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The plane of OX and OY is called the Argand


diagram or the complex plane. Since the origin O
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lies on both OX and OY, the corresponding complex


number z = 0 is both purely real and purely imaginary.

2.1 Modulus and Argument of a Complex Number


Im. axis
We define modulus of the complex number z = x + iy to be the
|z|
real number x 2  y 2 and denote it by | z | . It may be noted y

that | z |  0 and | z | = 0 would imply that z = 0. If z = x + iy x Re-axis
y
then angle  given by tan   is said to be the argument or
x

amplitude of the complex number z and is denoted by arg(z) or amp(z). In case of x = 0 (where
 
y  0 ), arg(z) =  and  depending upon y > 0 and the complex number is called purely
2 2

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Complex Numbers

imaginary. If y = 0 (where x  0 ), then arg(z) = 0 or  depending upon x > 0 or x < 0 and the
complex number is called purely real. The argument of the Complex Number 0 is not defined.
We can define the argument of a complex Number also as any value of the  which satisfies the
x y
system of equations cos   , sin   . The argument of a complex number is
x 2  y2 x 2  y2
not unique. If  is a argument of a complex number, then 2n   ( n integer ) is also argument of z for
various values of n. The value of  satisfying the inequality       is called the Principal value
of the argument. From the figure 1, we can see that OP = x 2  y 2 = | z | and if    POM , then

y
tan   . In other words | z | is the length of OP i.e. the distance of point z from the origin and arg.z
x
is the angle which OP makes with the positive x-axis.

2.2 Trigonometric ( or polar ) from a Complex Number

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Let OP = r, then x  r cos  , and y  r sin 

 z = x + iy = r cos   i r sin   r (cos   i sin ) . This is


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known as Trigonometric ( or polar ) form of complex number.
Here we should take the principal value of  . For general
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values of argument z  r[cos( 2n  )  i sin( 2n  )]


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( where n is an integer ).

Note : cos   i sin   e i is short as cis() .


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Euler’s Formula : cos   i sin   e i .


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Remark : Method of finding the principal value of the argument of a complex number z = x + iy.
y
Step I : Find tan   and this gives the value of  in the first quadrant.
x
Step II : Find the quadrant in which z lies, with the help of sign of x and y coordinates.
Step III : Then argument of z will be ,   ,    , and   according as z lies in the first
second, third or fourth quadrant.

Illustration 1:
For z  3  i , find the principal value arg(z).
Solution:
Here x  3 , y  1

1 
 tan     
3 6

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Complex Numbers


 Principal value of arg. z =  . ( Since z lies in the fourth quadrant )
6
2.3 Unimodular Complex Number
A complex number z for which | z | = 1 is said to be unimodular
complex number. Since | z | = 1, z lies on a circle of radius 1
unit and centre (0, 0).

If | z | = 1  z  cos   i sin  ,
1
  (cos   i sin ) 1  cos   i sin 
z

DRILL EXERCISE - 1

1. Prove that i n + i n+1 + i n+2 + i n+3 = 0, for all n N.


3  2i sin 
2. Find real  such that is (A) real (B) purely imaginary
1  2i sin 

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n
1 i 
3. Find the least positive value of n, if   =1.
1 i 
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4. Find the modulus and argument of the following
(i) 5 (ii) –7 (iii) 9i (iv) –18i
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(v) 1+ 3i (vi) –1 + i (vii) 3 i (viii) –3 – 3 i


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5. If (1 + i) (1 + 2 i) (1 + 3 i) ........ (1 + n i) = (x + i y) , show that


2 . 5 . 10 . ........ (1 + n2) = x2 + y2
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I3. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS WITH COMPLEX NUMBER


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(i) Addition : (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b + d)


(ii) Subtraction : (a + ib) – (c + id) = (a – c) + i(b – d)
(iii) Multiplication : (a + ib) (c + id) = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc)
a  ib
(iv) Division : ( when at least one of c and d is non–zero)
c  id
(ac  bd ) i(bc  ad )
=  2
c2  d 2 c  d2

3.1 Geometrical meaning of addition and substraction

Let z1 = x1 + i y1 and z2 = x2 + i y2 be two


complex numbers represented by the points
P1(x1, y1) and P2(x2, y2) respectively. By
definition z1 + z2 should be represented by
the point (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 ). This point is the
vertex which completes the parallelogram
with the line segments joining the origin with
OP1 and OP2 as the adjacent sides.

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Complex Numbers

 | z1 + z2 | = OP.
Also by definition z1 – z2 should be represents by the point (x1 – x2, y1 – y2). This point is the vertex
which completes the parallelogram with the line segments joining the origin with OP1 and OP2
(where the point P2 represents  z 2 ; the point  z 2 can be obtained by producing the directed
line P2O by length | z2 | ) as the adjacent sides.
 | z1 – z2 | = OQ = P2 P1.
REMARKS
(a) In any triangle, sum of any two sides is greater than the third side and difference of any two
sides is less than third ; we have
(i) | z1 |  | z 2 |  | z1  z 2 | ; here equality holds when arg(z1/z2) = 0 i.e. z1 and z2 are
parallel.
(ii) || z1 |  | z 2 ||  | z1  z 2 | ; here equality holds when arg(z1/z2) = 0 i.e. z1 and z2 are
parallel.
(b) In the parallelogram OP1 PP2, the sum of the squares of its sides is equal to the sum of the

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squares of its diagonals ; i.e. OP2 + P2 P12 = OP12 + P1P2 + PP22 + P2O2
 | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 – z2 |2 = 2( | z1 |2 + | z2 | 2 )
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3.2 Geometrical Meaning of Product and Division
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Let z1  r1 (cos 1  i sin 1 ), z 2  (cos 2  i sin 2 ) be complex numbers represented by


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Q1 and Q2.
(i) Construction for the point representing the product z1 z2
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Let L be the point on OX which represents unity, so


that OL = 1. Draw the triangle OQ2P directly similar
to the triangle OLQ1. Then point P represents the
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product z1 z2

Explanation
OP OQ 2 OP r2
Due to similar triangles  , that is   OP  r1r2
OQ1 OL r1 1

Also Q 2OP   LOQ1  1   LOP  1  2

Since z1z 2  r1r2{cos(1  2 )  i sin(1  2 )} , P represents z1z2 .

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Complex Numbers

(ii) Construction for the point representing the quotient z1/z2


Draw the triangle OQ1P directly similar to the triangle OQ2L
The P represents the quotient z1/z2 .

Explanation
From the last construction,
OQ1 OP r OP
  1 
OQ 2 OL r2 1
Number represented by P.z2 = z1
z1
 number represented by P =
z2
Remark
 If z1  r1 (cos 1  i sin 1 ) , and z 2  r2 (cos 2  i sin 2 ) , then z1z 2  r1r2 e ( 1  2 ) and
z1 r1 i ( 1  2 )
 .e

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z 2 r2
| z1 | r1 | z1 |
Hence | z1z 2 |  r1r2  | z1 | | z 2 | and   0
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| z 2 | r2 | z 2 |
 arg(z1z 2 )  1  2  arg(z1 )  arg(z 2 )
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z 
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 arg 1   1   2  arg(z1 )  arg(z 2 )


 z2 
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3.3 Square Root of a Complex Number


Let z1 = x1 + iy1 be the given complex number and we have to obtain its square root.
Let x + iy = (x1 + iy1)1/2  x2 – y2 + 2ixy = x1 + iy1
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2
y1
 x1 = x – y and y1 = 2 xy  x  2  x1
2 2 2

4x

| z1 |  x 1  y1 | z1 |  x1
 x2  , y
2 | y1 | 2

| z1 |  x1 | z1 |  x1
If y1 > 0  x   , y
2 2

 (Re( z1 ) | z1 | | z1 |  Re( z1 ) 
 x1  iy1   , 

 2 2 

| z1 |  x1 | z1 |  x1
If y1 < 0   , y
2 2

 (Re( z1 ) | z1 | | z1 |  Re( z1 ) 
 x1  iy1   i 

 2 2 

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Complex Numbers

Illustration 2 :
Find the square root of 8 – 15 i .
Solution:
Here y = – 15 < 0
 Re( z) | z | | z |  Re( z)  1
 8  15i =   i = 

(5  3i)
 2 2  2

An Alternate method to find the square root of a complex number is as follows


(i) If the imaginary part is not even then multiply and divide the given complex number by 2.
1
e.g. z = 8 – 15 i, here imaginary part is not even so write z  (16  30i) and let
2
a + ib = 16 – 30 i.
(ii) Now divide the numerical value of imaginary part of a + ib by 2 and let quotient be P and
find all possible two factors of the number P thus obtained and take that pair in which
difference of square of the numbers is equal to the real part of a + ib. e.g. here numerical

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value of m(16  30 i) is 30. Now 30  2 15 . All possible way express 15 as a product
o f t w o a r e 1 15, 3  5 , etc, here 53 – 32 = 16 = Re(16 – 30i) so we will take 5, 3.
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(iii) Take i with the smaller or the greater factor according as the real part of a + ib is positive
or negative and if real part is zero then take equal factors of P and associate i with any one
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of the them, e.g. Re(16 – 30i) > 0, we will take i with 3. Now complete the square and
write down the square root of z. e.g.
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1 1 1 1
z  [16  30i]  [52  (3i) 2  2  5  3i]  [5  3i]2   (5  3i) .
2 2 2
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2
3.4 Solving Complex Equations
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Simple equations in z may be solved by putting z = a + ib in the equation and equating the real part
on the L.H.S. with the real part on the R.H.S. and the imaginary part on the L.H.S. with the
imaginary part on the R.H.S.

Illustration 3 :
Solve for z i.e., find all complex number z which satisfy |z|2 – 2iz + 2c(1 + i) = 0 where c is real.
Solution:
Put z = a + ib then a2 + b2 – 2ai + 2b + 2c + 2ci = 0
 ( a2 + b2 + 2b + 2c ) + (2c – 2a)i = 0
 a2 + b2 + 2b + 2c = 0 and 2c – 2a = 0  a = c
Now b2 + 2b + (c2 + 2c) = 0  b =  1  1  2c  c 2

Since b is real, 1  2c  c 2  0  c   1  2, 1  2 


 z  c  i 1  1  2c  c 2 

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Complex Numbers

Solution of the given equation does not exits for c   1  2,  1  2 

3.5 Conjugate of a Complex Number


The conjugate of the complex number z = a + ib is defined to be
a – ib and i denoted by z . In other words z is the mirror image
of z in the real axis.

If z = a + ib, z + z = 2 a (real), and z – z = 2 ib (imaginary)


and z z = (a + ib) (a – ib) = a2 + b2 (real) = | z |2 = | z |2.
zz zz
Also Re(z) = , Im(z)  .
2 2i

DRILL EXERCISE - 2

x y
1. If (x + i y)1/3 = a + i b , x , y, a , b  R . Show that + = 4 (a2 – b2) .

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a b
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2. Find the number of solutions of Re(z2) = 0 and | z | = a 2 , where z is a complex number and a > 0.

3. If the area of the triangle formed by the points represented by, z, z + iz and iz is 200, then find the
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value of | z |.
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4. Prove that the sum and product of two complex numbers are real if and only if they are conjugate of
each other.
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5. Find the value of x3 + 7x2 – x +16, when x = 1 + 2i.


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4 PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE, MODULUS, ARGUMENT


4.1 Conjugate
 z is the mirror image of z along real axis.
 z = z  z is purely real
 z = – z  z is purely imaginary
zz
 Re (z) = Re ( z ) =
2
zz
 Im (z) =
2i
 z1  z2  z1  z2

 z1  z 2  z1  z 2

 z1z 2  z1 z 2

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Complex Numbers

 z1  z1
   (z 2  0)
 2
z z 2

 z1 z 2  z1 z 2  2 Re (z1 z 2 )  2 Re (z1 z 2 )

 z n  (z) n

 If z = f(z1), then z = f (z1 )

Explanation
Let f(z) = a0 + a1z + a2z2 + a3z3 + .........+ anz, where a0, a1, a2, ........, an are real numbers and z is
a complex number. Then
f ( z )  a 0  a1z  a 2 ( z ) 2  a 3 ( z ) 3  .......  a n ( z ) n  a 0  a1z  a 2 z 2  a 3 z 3  ......  a n z n .

4.2 Modulus of a Complex Number Im. axis

Distance of a complex number z from origin is called the modulus of |z|


y

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the complex number z and it is denoted by |z| . Therefore if z = x + iy, 
x Re-axis

then | z | = x y .
2 2
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4.3 Modulus :
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 |z| = 0  z = 0 + i0
 | z1 – z2 | denotes the distance between z1 and z2.
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  | z |  Re( z)  | z | ; equality holds on right or on left side depending upon z being positive
real or negative real.
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  | z |  Im(z )  | z | ; equality holds on right side or on left side depending upon z is being
purely imaginary and above the real axes or below the real axes.
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 | z |  Re( z )  Im(z ) |  2 | z | ; equality holds on left side when z is purely imaginary or


purely real and equality holds on right side when | Re(z) | = | Im(z) |.
 | z |2  z z
 | z1 z2 | = | z1 | | z2 |. In general | z1 z2 ........zn | = | z1 | | z2 |........| zn |
 | z n |  | z |n , n  I

z1 z |z |
  1 = 1
z2 z2 | z2 |

 | z1  z 2 |  | z1 |  | z 2 |  | z1  z 2  .....  z n | | z1 |  | z 2 | ........ | z n | ; equality holds if


origin, and the points represented by z1, z2, z3,..........zn are collinear and are on the same
side of the origin.
 | z1  z 2 |  || z1 |  | z 2 || , equality holds when arg(z1/z2) = 0 i.e. origin and represented by
z1, z2 are collinear and are on the same side of the origin.

 | z1  z 2 |2  (z1  z 2 ) ( z1  z 2 )  | z1 |2  | z 2 |2  z1z 2  z 2 z1  | z1 |2  | z 2 |2 2 Re(z1z 2 )

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Complex Numbers

 | z1  z 2 |2  (z1  z 2 ) (z1  z2 ) = | z1 |2  | z 2 |2 z1 z2  z 2 z1  | z1 |2  | z 2 |2 2 Re(z1 z2 )

Illustration 4 :
If |z – 2 + i|  2, then find the greatest and least of |z|.
Solution:
We have |z – 2 + i|  | | z| – |2 – i|| = ||z| – 5|
 ||z| – 5 |  |z – 2 + i|  2
 –2  |z| – 5 2  5 – 2  |z|  5 +2

Hence greatest value of |z| is 5 + 2 and least value of |z| is 5 – 2.

4.4 Argument of a Complex Number y


x z (x, y)
We have cos   ... (1)
x y
2 2

 y

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y O x x
and sin   ... (2)
x y
2 2
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Value of  , –     , satisfying equations (1) and (2) simultaneously, is called the principal
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argument of z.
yS

4.5 Method of calculating principal argument


y
First calculate   tan 1 . Now ,   ,    or 2   becomes the principal argument of
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x
z according as point P(z = x + iy) lies in Ist, IInd, IIIrd or IVth quadrant respectively.
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Note: Whenever we have to calculate the argument of a complex number, it is obvious


that we have to calculate the principal argument.

4.6 Properties of Arguments


 arg (z1 z2) = arg (z1) + arg (z2) = 1   2
In general arg (z1 z2 z3) ... zn) = arg (z1) + arg (z2) + arg (z3) + ... + arg (zn), n  N

 z1 
 arg    a r g z 1  a r g z 2 = 1  2
 z2 
 arg (–z) = arg (z)  
 
 arg (iy) = if y > 0 =  if y < 0
2 2

 arg (z  z)  
2

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Complex Numbers

1
 arg ( z )   arg (z)  arg  
z
 arg (z) = 0 or   z is purely real number  z  z

 arg(z) =   / 2  z is purely imaginary number  z   z

Note: Here arg(z) means general argument of z.


Polar form : z = r cos   ir sin   re i , where r = |z|, and  = principal argument of z.
Note that the property of argument is the same as the property of the logarithm.

Illustration 5: y
What does arg(z) =  / 4 represent?

Solution:  /4
)=
Obviously all z satisfying arg(z) =  / 4 will lie in the first quadrant a rg
( z

whose join with origin makes an angle of  / 4 with the positive

.in
x
direction of x-axis. Hence locus of z is an open ray as shown in the
figure.
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4.7 Complex Numbers Represented By Vectors
It can be easily seen that multiplication by real numbers of a complex number is subjected to the
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same rule as the vectors . The addition or the subtraction of two complex numbers is also the same
yS

as the addition or the substraction of two vectors. This fact is fundamental in theory and very useful in
practice.
It should be noticed that if a number z is represented by points P and OP by a vector OP then
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| z | is the length OP and arg(z) is the angle which the directed line OP makes with directed OX.
Please note that if z = x + iy and P is the point (x, y), a one–to–one correspondence exists between
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the number z and any of the following : (i) the point P; (ii) the displacement OP ; (iii) the vector
(or directed length ) OP .
Any one of these three things may therefore be said to represent z, or to be represented by z.

Illustration 6 :
For any three complex numbers z1, z2 and z3, prove that
z1Im(z2 z 3 )  z 2 Im(z3z1 )  z 3Im(z1z 2 )  0 .

Solution:
1
As Im(z)  (z  z)
2i
 z1Im(z2 z 3 )  z 2 Im(z3z1 )  z 3Im(z1z 2 )
1
= ((z1 (z2 z 3  z 2 z3 ))  (z 2 (z3 z1  z 3 z1 ))  (z 3 (z1z 2  z1 z2 )))
2i

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Complex Numbers

1
= (z1 z2 z 3  z1z 2 z3  z 2 z3 z1  z 2 z 3 z1  z 3 z1z 2  z 3z1 z2 ) = 0
2i

Illustration 7 :
Consider a quadratic equation az2 + bz + c = 0 where a, b, c are complex numbers. Find the condition
that the equation has
(i) one purely imaginary root (ii) one purely real root
(iii) two purely imaginary roots (iv) two purely real roots
Solution:
(i) Let z1 (purely imaginary) be a root of the given equation  z1   z1
and az12  bz1  c  0 .............(i)

 az12  bz1  c  0  az1  b z1  c  0


2

 az1  b z1  c  0 (as z1  z1 )


2
.............(ii)
Now (i) and (ii) must have one common root.
2

.in
z1 z1 1
  
( b c  c d ) ( ca  a c )  ( a b  ab )
ps
( b c  cb ) (ca  ac ) 2
 z1  
2

 (ab  ab) (ab  ab) 2


te

 ( b c  c b ) ( a b  ab )  ( ca  a c ) 2  0
yS

(ii) Let z1 (purely real) be a root of the given equation  z1  z1


and az12 + bz1 + c = 0 ..............(i)
ud

 az1  bz1  c  0
2
St

 az1  b z1  c  0
2

 a z1  b z1  c  0
2
..............(ii)
Now (1) and (2) must have one common root.
2
z1 z1 1
  
( b c  b c )  ( a c  ac ) ( a b  ab )
Required condition is
 ( b c  c b ) ( a b  ab )  ( ca  a c ) 2  0

(iii) Let z1 and z2 be two purely imaginary roots then


z1  z1 , z 2  z 2
Now az 2  bz  c  0 .........(i)
 az 2  bz  c  0
2
 az  b z  c  0
 az 2  b z  c  0 .........(ii)

Page 11 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
Equation (i) and (ii) must be identical as their root are same
a b c
  
a b c
(iv) Let z1 and z2 be two purely real roots then
z1  z1 , z 2  z 2
In this case az2 + bz + c = 0 .........(i)
2
 az  b z  c  0  az 2  b z  c  0
Equation (i) and (ii) must be identical, as their root are same
a b c
  
a b c
Illustration 8 :
Consider two pairs of non–zero conjugate complex numbers (z1, z2) and (z3, z4). Find the value of
z  z 
arg 1   arg 2  .
 z3   z4 
Solution:
z  z  zz   2
arg 1   arg 2  = arg 1 2  = arg | z1 | 
 .in (as z 2  z1 and z 4  z3 )
ps
 z3   z4   z 3z 4   2 
 | z3 | 
=0 (as argument of a positive real number is zero)
te

Illustration 9 :
yS

1 1 1
If | z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 | = 1, prove that | z1 + z2 + z3 | =  
z1 z 2 z 3
ud

Solution:
We that | z | = | z |
St

z1.z1 z2 .z 2 z3 .z3 | z |2 | z |2 | z |2
 | z1  z 2  z 3 |  | z1  z 2  z 3 | =    1  2  3
z1 z2 z3 z1 z3 z2

1 1 1
=  
z1 z 2 z 3  | z 1 
|2  | z 2 |2  | z 3 |2  1

Illustration 10 :
Let z1, z2, z3 be the three distinct complex numbers satisfying | z 1 – 1| = | z2 – 1| = | z3 – 1|.
Let A, B and C be the points represented in the Argand plane corresponding to z1, z2, and z3 respectively.
Prove that z1 + z2 + z3 = 3 if and only of  ABC is an equilateral triangle.
Solution :
| z1 – 1 | = | z2 – 1| = | z3 – 1 |
 The point corresponding to 1 (say P) is equidistant from the points A, B and C
 P is the circumcenter of the  ABC
z1  z 2  z 3
Now if z1 + z2 + z3 = 3, then the point corresponding to centroid of the  ABC is 1
3

Page 12 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

  ABC is equilateral
Conversely if  ABC is equilateral, then centroid is the same as the circumcenter i.e. A.P. Hence
z1  z 2  z 3
c e n t r o i d  1  z1 + z2 + z3 = 3
3

Illustration 11 :
If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers, then prove that | z1  z 2 |2  (1  k ) | z1 |2 | z 2 |2  k  R  .
Solution:
 z 
| (kz1  z 2 ) |2  0  (kz1  z 2 ) (kz1  z 2 )  0   z1  2  (kz1  z 2 )  0 as k > 0
 k 
1
 k | z1 | 2  | z 2 |2  z1z 2  z1z 2  0  (1  k ) | z1 |2 (1  k 1 ) | z 2 |2  | z1  z 2 |2
k

Illustration 12 :
Find the greatest and the least values of the moduli of complex numbers z satisfying the equation
4

.in
z
 2 . Find also the corresponding complex numbers.
z
Solution :
ps
4 4
We have | z |   z 2
te

z z
yS

4
 2  | z |  2
|z|
ud

 | z |2 2 | z | 4  0 and | z |2 2 | z | 4  0
 | z | 1  5  0 and | z | 1  5
2 2
St

  
 | z | 1  5 | z | 1  5  0 and  | z | 1  5 | z | 1  5  0   
 greatest value of | z |   5  1 or | z |  5  1 and 5  1  | z |  5 1
4
| z | 5 1   5 1
|z|
4 4z 4
Now,  2  lying in the direction of z
z |z| z
4
z  PR  2 (given )
z
We have OP  5  1 and OR  5  1

 cos 2 
OP 2  OR 2  PR 2

  
2
5 1  5 1  4
1
2

2OP.OR 2(5  1)

2  0, 2  z   5  1  

Page 13 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

Similarly for | z | = 5  1

We get z   5  1 
Alternative Solution :
2 2
4 4
|z|   z2

In OPQ cos 2  OP  OR  PR 
2 2 2
z z
2OP.OR 4
1| z | .
|z|
2
16  4
r  2  22
2
 r    12
r , (Let | z |  r  0)  r
= =
8 8
Since  1  cos 2  1 .........(i)
2
 4
 r    12
2
 4
 8   r    12  8
 1  
r
1  r
8
 4
2
 
2

.in
  r    4 , which is always true and  r    r  4  2 5 (as r  0)
4
ps
 r  r r
 r2  2 5 r  4  0  5  1 5  1
te

Hence max . r  5  1 and min . r  5  1 and it occurs at the right end of the inequality (i)
yS

Hence cos 2  1  2  0 or 2
 
   0 or   for r  5  1, z   5  1 and for r  5  1, z   5  1  
ud

DRILL EXERCISE - 3
St

1. If z1 and z2 are two complex number such that | z1 – z2 | = | z1 | – | z2 |, then find the value
of (arg z1 – arg z2)
1  ix
2. Show that a real value of x will satisfy the equation  a  ib if a2 + b2 = 1 (a, b real ).
1  ix

3. Show that 2z  5 ( 2  i)  3 | 2z  5 | , where z is a complex number..

4. If z and  are two non-zero complex numbers such that |z| = 1, and Arg (z) – Arg() = /2 , then
find the value of z  .

5. Let z , w be complex numbers such that z  i w  0 and arg zw = . Then find the value of
arg z .

Page 14 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

5. DE-MOIVER’S THEOREM
If n is any integer, then (cos   i sin ) n  cos n  i sin n.
REMARKS
 Writing the Binomial expansion of (cos   i sin ) n , n  N and equating the real and the
imaginary parts , we get cos n  cos n   n C 2 cos n  2  sin 2   n C 4 cos n  4  sin 4   ...

sin n  n C1 cos n 1  sin   n C3 cos n 3  sin 3   n C5 cos n 5  sin 5 ...


n
C1 tan   n C3 tan 3   n C5 tan 5   n C 7 tan 7   ......
 tan n  
1  n C 2 tan 2   n C 4 tan 4   n C 6 tan 6   .......
 If n = p/q, where p and q are integers (q > 0) and p, q have no common factor, then
(cos   i sin ) n has q distinct values, one of which is cos n isin n .

 2k   2k   
 If z = r (cos  sin ), n  N, then z1/ n  r1/ n  cos  i sin ,
 n n 
k = 0, 1, 2, ..., n – 1.
.in
Here it can be noted that any ‘n’ consecutive values of k will save the purpose.
ps
5.1 Application of De Moiver’s Theorem
This is a fundamental theorem and has various applications. Here we will discuss few of these
te

which are important from the examination point of view.


yS

th
5.2 T Roots of Unity
h e n

Let x be an nth root of unity. Then xn = 1 = cos 2k  i sin 2k (where k is an integer)
ud

2k 2k
 x  cos  i sin , k = 0, 1, 2, ... n – 1
n n
St

2 2
Let   cos  i sin . Then the n, nth roots of unity are  t
n n
(t = 0, 1, 2, ... , n – 1), i.e., the nth roots of unity are 1, ,  2 , ...,  n 1.

Sum of the Roots


n 1 1  n
1 +     ....    0
2

1 
Thus the sum of the roots of unity is zero.
Product of the Roots
 n 1  A 2( )
2
n (n 1) n 
 2 2   2  A 2(
1.. 2 ...  n 1   2
  cos  i sin 
 n n  2/n
2/n
 cos{(n  1)}  i sin{(n  1)} A1(1)
O 2/n
Ann

Page 15 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

1, n is even

 1, n is odd
Note : The points represented by n, nth roots of unity are located at the vertices of a regular
polygon of n sides inscribed in a unit circle having centre at the origin, one vertex
being on the positive real axis.

5.3 Cube Roots of Unity


Roots of x3 – 1 = 0 are called the cube roots of unity
Now x3 –1 = 0
 (x – 1) (x2 + x + 1) = 0

1  i 3 1  i 3
Therefore, x = 1, .
2 2

If second root be represented by  , then third root will be 2 .

 Cube roots of unity are 1, , 2 . 1 is real cube root of unity and  and 2 are non-real
cube roots of unity.

.in
Cube roots of unity can be taken as vertices of an equilateral triangle ABC inscribed in a circle of
radius 1 and centre at origin.
ps
Properties of Cube Roots of Unity
 1    2  0  3 1
te

 1  n  2n  3 (if n is multiple of 3)  1  n  2n  0 (if n is not a multiple of 3).


yS

Illustration 13 :
ud

n
 1  sin   i cos    n   n 
If n  N, prove that    cos   n   i sin   n 
 1  sin   i cos    2   2 
St

Solution:
   
We have 1  sin   i cos   1  cos      i sin    
2  2 

        
 2cos2     2isin    cos   
 4 2  4 2  4 2

           
 2 cos     cos     i sin      2 cos    ei ( / 4   / 2)
 4 2   4 2  4 2   4 2

     
Similarly 1  sin   i cos   2 cos 2     2i sin    cos   
 2 2  4 2  4 2

 
 2 cos    e  i(  / 4 / 2)
 4 2

Page 16 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

n
 i 4  2 
n   
 1  sin   i cos    e    in   
 n   n 
     e  cos   n   i sin   n 
2 
 
 1  sin   i cos     i 4  2    2   2 
e 
Illustration 14 :
Find the value of the expression 1.(2  ) (2  2 )  2.(3  ) (3  2 )  ...  (n  1) (n  ) (n  2 ),
where  is an imaginary cube root of unity..
Solution:
We have, (z – 1) (z –  ) (z – 2 )  z3 –1
 1(2  ) (2  2 )  2(3  2 )  ...  (n  1) (n  ) (n  2 )
n n n n
  (r  1) (r  ) (r  2 )   (r 3  1)   r 3  1
r 2 r 2 r 2 r 2

 n   n(n  1)   n(n  1) 
2 2
 n 
   r 3   1    1     1  (n  1)    n
 r 1   r 2   2   2 

Illustration 15:
.in
If 1, 1 ,  2 ,...,  n 1 are the n, nth roots of unity, prove that (1  1 ) (1   2 )...(1   n 1 )  n . Deduce
ps
 2 (n  1) n
that sin sin ...sin  n 1 .
te

n n n 2
Solution:
yS

1, 1 ,  2 ,...,  n 1 are the roots of xn = 1


xn–1  (x – 1) (x – 1 ) (x –  2 ) ... ( x –  n 1 )
ud

xn 1
 (x – 1 ) (x –  2 ) ... (x –  n 1 )   x n 1  x n  2  ...  1
St

x 1
By taking lim x  1, we get (1  1 ) (1   2 )...(1   n 1 )  n
n 1

 |1  1 ||1   2 | ... |1   n 1 |  n   |1   r |  n
r 1

2r   2r 
n 1 2 2

 r 1
 1  cos

   sin
n   n 
 n

Page 17 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

2 r  r r 
n 1 2 2
 
 r 1
 2sin

   2sin cos  = n
n  n n 

n1
r r r n1
 r 
n 1
 r  n
  2sin sin2  cos2  n  2sin    n   sin  n   2 n 1
r1 n n n r1 n r 1

Illustration 16 :
Find the value of
10
 2k 2k 
  sin
k 1 11
 i cos 
11 
Solution:

 2k 2k  
10
 2k 2k 
  i
10
Let S    sin  i cos
2
 i cos 
sin 
k 1  11 11  k 1 11 11 
2 k
10
 2k 2k  10 i
  i  cos  i sin  e
 i 11

k 1  
.in
11 11 k 1

 10 i 2 k 
ps
  i   e 11  1 = -i (sum of 11th roots of unity –1)
 k 0 
te

= –i(0 – 1) = i
yS

5.4 Logarithm of Complex Number


In order to find log(x + iy), we write log(x + iy) = a + ib
ud

 x + iy = ea + ib = ea[cos b + i sin b] = e a (cos(2k  b)  i sin( 2k  b))

 e a cos(2k  b)  x and e a sin( 2k  b)  y


St

Solve for a and b,  e2a = x2 + y2


1 y
or a  n ( x 2  y 2 ), tan( 2k  b)   
2 x
When k = 0, corresponding values of a and b are referred to as principal values.

a + ib
5.5 M e t h o d t o F i n d ( x + i y )

For evaluating (x + iy)a + ib we write, c + id = (x + iy)a + ib


 log(c + id) = (a + ib) . log(x + iy)
Now evaluate log(x + iy) and then solve c + id = e(a + ib) log(x + iy)

Illustration 17 :

Page 18 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

If z  (1  i tan )1i , then find the magnitude of z.


Solution:
i
(1  i tan  )1i = e (1 i ).n (1 tan  ) = e (1i ).n ( e / cos  )
= e  (   n cos  )  i (  n cos  )

 | z | = e  (   n cos  )

DRILL EXERCISE - 4

1. If z = ii , then find the value of z – | z |.

2. Write in the form A + iB :

  (1  i) 2 n 1
6

(A) 1  cos  i sin  (B) n (1  i) (C) (n integer)
 3 3 (1  i) 2 n 1

 
3. If x r  cos r
 i sin r , prove that x1  x 2  x 3 .........  1 .
2 2

4. If ,  are the roots of the equation x 2 – 2x + 4 = 0, prove that  n   n  2 n 1. cos


.in n
3
.
ps
5. If 1, , 2 are the three cube roots of unity, show that
te

(A) (1    2 ) 5  (1    2 ) 5  32
(1  ) (1  2 ) (1  4 ) (1  5 )  1
yS

(B)
ud

6. CONCEPT OF ROTATION
z
If z and z are two complex numbers then argument of is the
St

z
angle through which Oz must be turned in order that it may lie
along OZ.
z | z | ei | z | i ( ) | z | i
  e  e
z | z | ei | z | | z |
In general, let z1, z2, z3, be the three vertices of a
triangle BC described in the counter–clock wise
sense. Draw OP and OQ parallel and equal to AB
and AC respectively. Then the point P is z2 – z1
and Q is z3 – z1 and
z 3  z1 OQ
 (cos   i sin )
z 2  z1 OP

CA i | z 3  z1 | .e i
= .e 
BA | z 2  z1 |

Page 19 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

Note that arg.(z3 – z1) – arg(z2 – z1) =  is the angle through which OP must be rotated in the anti–
clockwise direction so that becomes parallel to OQ. Here we can write
z 3  z1 | z 3  z1 |  i ( 2    )
 .e .
z 2  z1 | z 2  z1 |
In this case we are rotating OP in clockwise direction by an angle (2  ) . Since the rotation is
in clockwise direction, we are taking negative sign with angle (2   ) .

Illustration 18 :
Consider a square ABCD such that z1, z2, z3 and z4 represent its vertices A, B, C and D respectively.
Express ‘z3’ and ‘z4’ in terms of z1 and z2.
Solution:
 z z |z z |
Consider the rotation of AB about A through an angle . We get 3 1  3 1 e i / 4
4 z 2  z1 | z 2  z1 |

  
= 2  cos  i sin 
 4 4

 z 3  z1  (z 2  z1 ) (1  I)
.in
ps
z 4  z1 | z 4  z1 | i  / 2
Similarly,  e i
z 2  z1 | z 2  z1 |
te

 z4 = z1 + I(z2 – z1)
yS

Illustration 19 :
ud

Consider an ‘n’ sided regular polygon with the origins its centre. If z1 be the complex number representing
a vertex A1, or the polygon, find the complex number associated with the vertex that is adjacent A1.
Solution:
St

Vertex adjacent to A1 is either A2 or An. Let z2 and zn represent the


vertices A2 and An respectively. Considering the rotation about the
z 2  0 | z 2 | i2 / n
origin, we get  .e  e i 2  / n  z 2  z1e i 2  / n
z1  0 | z1 |

zn
Similarly,  e i 2  / n  z n  z1e i 2  / n
z1

Illustration 20 :
Complex numbers z1, z2, z3 are the vertices A, B, C respectively of an isosceles right angled triangle
with right angle at C. Show that (z1 – z2)2 = 2(z1 – z3) (z3 – z2).
Solution:

Page 20 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

In the isosceles triangle ABC, AC = BC and BC  AC . It


means that AC is rotated through angle  / 2 to occupy the
position BC.
z 2  z3
Hence we have  e  i  / 2   i  z 2  z 3   i ( z1  z 2 )
z1  z 3

 z 22  z 32  2z 2 z 3  ( z12  z 32  2z1z 3 )

 z12  z 22  2z1z 2  2z1z 3  2z 2 z 3  2z1z 2  2z 32 = 2(z1 – z3) (z3 – z2)


 (z1 – z2)2 = 2(z1 – z3) (z3 – z2)

DRILL EXERCISE - 5

1. The roots z1, z2, z3 of the equation z 3  3 z 2  3 z    0 correspond to the points A, B and C
on the complex plane. Find the complex number representing the centroid of the triangle ABC, and
show that the triangle is equilateral if  2   .

2. .in
If z12  z 22  2z1z 2 cos   0 , prove that the points represented by z1, z2 and the origin form an
ps
isosceles triangle.
te

3. Complex numbers z1, z2, z3 are the vertices A, B, C respectively of an isosceles right angled triangle
with right angle at C. Show that (z1 – z2)2 = 2(z1 – z3) (z3 – z2).
yS

4. A, B And C are points represented by complex numbers z1, z2 and z3. If the circumcenter of the
triangle ABC is at the origin and the altitude AD of the triangle meets the circumcircle again at P,
ud

then find the complex number representing point P.

5. Let z1 and z2 be the roots of the equation z2 + pz + q = 0, where the coefficients p and q may be
St

complex number. Let A and B represent z1 and z2 in the complex plane. If AOB    0 and

2  
OA = OB, where O is the origin, prove that p  4q cos   .
2

2

7. GEOMETRICALAPPLICATION
7.1 Section Formula
Let z1 and z2 be any two complex numbers representing the points A
and B respectively in the Argand plane. Let C be the point dividing
AC m
the line segment AB internally in the ratio m : n i.e.  , and let
BC n

the complex number associated with point C be z. Let us rotate the


line BC about the point C so that it becomes parallel to CA. The

Page 21 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

corresponding equation of rotation will be,


z1  z | z1  z | i  m
 e  (1)
z2  z | z2  z | n

nz1  mz 2
 nz1 – nz = – m z2 + mz  z =
mn
nz1  mz 2
Similarly if C(z) divides the segment AB externally in the ratio of m : n, then z  .
mn
z1  z 2
In the specific case, if C(z) is the midpoint of AB then z  .
2

Illustration 21 :
If z1, z2 and z3 ( In anticlockwise sense) represents the vertices of a triangle, find the centroid, Incentre,
Circumcenter and the orthocenter of the triangle.

Solution:

.in
Let G be the centroid and let the line joining A and G meet the line BC at the point D.
We have BD = DC
ps
z 2  z3
D
te

2
G divides AD internally in ratio 2 : 1
yS

(z 2  z 3 )
2  z1
 G= 2 z z z
 1 2 3
ud

2 1 3
Let I be the incentre and let the line connecting A and I meet the line BC at D1.
St

BD1 AB | z1  z 2 | A I AB  AC
We have   and 
D1C AC | z1  z 3 | ID1 BC

| z1  z 2 |  | z1  z 3 |
=
| z 2  z3 |
z 2 | z1  z 3 |  z 3 | z1  z 2 |
 D1 =
| z1  z 2 |  | z1  z 3 |

D1 (| z1  z 3 |  | z1  z 2 |)  z 2 | z 2  z 3 |
and I =
| z1  z 2 |  | z1  z 3 |  | z 2  z 3 |

z1 | z 2  z 3 |  z 2 | z1  z 3 |  z 3 | z1  z 2 |
=
| z1  z 2 |  | z1  z 3 |  | z 2  z 3 |
Let ‘O’ be the circumcenter–centre and let the line connecting A and O meet the line BC at D2.
BD 2 sin 2C AO sin 2B  sin 2C
We have  and 
D 2 C sin 2B OD 2 sin 2A

Page 22 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

z 2 sin 2B  z 3 sin 2C
 D2 
sin 2B  sin 2C
D 2 (sin 2B  sin 2C)  z1 sin 2A
O
sin 2A  sin 2B  sin 2C
z 2 sin 2A  z 2 sin 2B  z 3 sin 2C
=
sin 2A  sin 2B  sin 2C
Let ‘P’ be the orthocenter let the line connecting the points A and P meet the line BC and D3.

BD3 tan C AP tan C  tan B


We have  and 
D 3C tan B PD 3 tan A

z 2 tan B  z 3 tan C
 D3 
tan B  tan C
D 3 (tan B  tan C)  z1 tan C
and P =
tan A  tan B  tan C
z1 tan A  z 2 tan B  z 3 tan C
=
tan A  tan B  tan C
.in
ps
7.2 Condition for collinearity
te

If there are three real numbers (other than 0). I, m and n such that Iz 1 + mz2 + nz3 = 0, then
complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 will represent collinear points.
yS

7.3 Equation of a straight line


 Equation of straight line with the help of coordinate geometry
ud

zz zz y  y1 x  x1
Writing x  , y etc. in  and rearranging terms, we find that
2 2i y 2  y1 x 2  x1
St

z z 1
z  z1 z  z1
the equation of the line through z1 and z2 is given by  or z1 z1 1  0
z 2  z1 z 2  z1
z2 z2 1

 Equation of straight line with the help of rotation formula


Let A(z1) and B(z2) be any two points lying on any
line and we have to obtain the equation let us take
any point C(z) lying on this line. Since
 z  z1  z  z1 z  z1
arg    0 or , 
 z 2  z1  z 2  z1 z 2  z1

Page 23 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
This is the equation of the line that passes through A(z1) and B(z2). After rearranging the
z z 1
terms, it can also be put in the following form z1 z1 1  0 .
z2 z2 1

 General equation of the line

z z I
z  z1 z  z1
Equation of straight line through z1 and z2 is given by  or z1 z1 I  0.
z 2  z1 z2  z1
z2 z2 I

 z(z2  z1 )  z1 z2  z1 z1  z(z 2  z1 )  z1z 2  z1 z1

 z(z2  z1 )  z(z1  z 2 )  z1z 2  z1 z2  0


Here z1z 2  z1 z2 is a purely imaginary number as z1z 2  z1 z2  2i lm (z1z 2 ) .

Let z1z 2  z1 z2  ib, b  R  z(z2  z1 )  z(z1  z 2 )  ib  0

 z i (z1  z2 )  zi(z 2  z1 )  b  0
.in
ps
Let a = i (z2 – z1)  a  i (z1  z2 )  za  za  b  0
te

This is the general equation of a line in the complex plane.


yS

 Slope of a given line:


Let the given line be za  za  b  0. Replacing z by x + iy, we get
ud

(x  iy)a  (x  iy)a  b  0  (a  a )x  iy (a  a)  b  0.

aa 2 Re(a) Re(a)


It’s slope is   2 
St

 i(a  a) 2i lm(a) lm(a)

 Equation of a line parallel to the line za  za  b  0 is za  za    0 (where  is a real


number).

 Equation of a line perpendicular to the line za  za  b  0 is za  za  i  0 (where  is a


real number)

 Equation of Perpendicular Bisector


Consider a line segment joining A(z1) and B(z2).
Let the line L be it’s perpendicular bisector.
If P(z) be any point on the ‘L’,
we have PA = PB  |z – z1| = |z – z2|
 |z – z1|2 = |z – z2|2
 (z – z1) ( z – z1 ) = (z – z2) (z  z2 )

Page 24 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

 zz  zz1  z1 z  z1 z1  zz  zz2  z 2 z  z 2 z2
 z(z1  z2 )  z (z1  z 2 )  | z 2 |2  | z1 |2  0

 Distance of a given point from a given line


Let the given line be za  za  b  0, and the given point be zc
Say zc = xc + iyc .
Replacing z by x + iy, in the given equation, zc

Distance of (xc, yc) from this line is,


| x c (a  a)  iy c (a  a)  b | | z c a  zc a  b | D

(a  a) 2  (a  a) 2 4(Re(a)) 2  4(im(a)) 2 za + za + b = 0
| z c a  zc a  b |

2|a|
 arg (z – z0) =  represents a line passing through z0 with slope tan  (making angle  with
the positive direction of x-axis).

Illustration 22: .in


ps
If | z | = 1, then prove that the points represented by 1  z lie on one or other or two fixed
1 z
te

perpendicular straight lines.


yS

Solution:
Since | z | = 1, z lies on a unit circle having centre at origin.
ud

1 z   3
arg    or 
1 z  2 2
St

1 z
 = ke i  / 2 or ke i 3 / 2
1 z
where k is a real parameter and its value depends upon the position of z.
1 z
Let  
1 z
   k e i  / 4 or k e i 3 / 4
  lies on one or other of the two perpendicular lines.

Illustration 23:
Consider the complex numbers A(z1), B(z2) and C(z3) as the vertices of a triangle ABC. Let P be the
altitude from A on BC. Find the complex number associated with the point P.
Solution:

Page 25 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

  z  z1   
APC   arg   or 
2  z 2  z3  2 2

z  z1
 is purely imaginary
z 2  z3

z  z1 z  z1 z z1 z  z1
  0  
z 2  z 3 z2  z3 z2  z3 z2  z3 z 2  z 3
Also P(z) is lying on the line through B and C
z  z2 z  z2 z z2 z  z2
    
z 2  z 3 z 2  z3 z 2  z3 z 2  z3 z 2  z 3

z  z2 z2 z1 z  z1
   
z 2  z 3 z 2  z3 z 2  z3 z 2  z 3

1  ( z  z ) (z  z ) 
 z   1 2 2 3  z1  z 2 
2 z 2  z3 
Illustration 24 :
.in
ps
Let bz  bz  c, b  0 be a line in the complex plane, where b is the complex conjugate of b. If
z1 is the reflection of a point z2 through the line, then show that c  z1b  z 2 b .
te

Solution:
yS

Since z2 is the reflection of point z1 through the line. So, the mid-point of PQ lies on the line
z1  z 2
i.e. lies on bz  bz  c.
ud

2
 z1  z 2   z1  z2 
 b 2  b 2 c
St

    P(z1)
b(z1  z 2 )  b (z1  z2 )  2c ... (i)
Since PQ  AB. Therefore,
A R B
Slope of PQ + slope of AB = 0
z1  z 2  b 
  0 ... (ii) Q(z2)
z1  z2  b 
From (i) and (ii), we get
z1 b  bz 2  c

DRILL EXERCISE - 6

1. If a, b, c are three complex numbers such that c  (1   )a  b , for some non-zero real numbers

Page 26 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

 , then prove that the points corresponding to a, b, c are collinear..

2. One vertex of the triangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in the curve
| z – 2 i | = 2, is 2 + 2i, then find the remaining vertices.

3. Find the locus of z which satisfied the inequality log 0.5 | z  2 | log 0.5 | z  i | .

4. If the vertices of a triangle ABC are represented by z1, z2, z3 respectively then show that the
(a sec A ) z1  ( b sec B) z 2  (c sec C) z 3
orthocenter of the  ABC is .
a sec A  b sec B  c sec C

z 1
5. If z = 2 + t + i 3  t 2 , where t is real and t2 < 3, show that the modulus of is independent of
z 1
t. Also show that the locus of the points z for different values of t is a circle and finds its centre and
radius.

8 EQUATION OF A CIRCLE
.in
Consider a fixed complex number z0 and let z be any complex number which moves in such a way
ps
that it’s distance from z0 is always equals to ‘r’. This implies z would lie on a circle whose centre is
z0 and radius r. And its equation would | z – z0 | = r
te

 | z – z0 |2 = r2  ( z  z 0 ) ( z  z 0 )  r 2  zz  zz 0  zz 0  zz 0  r 2  0
yS

Let – a = z0 and z 0 z 0  r 2  b  zz  az  az  b  0
It represents the general equation of a circle in the complex plane.
ud

REMARKS
St

 zz  az  b  0 represents a circle whose centre is – a and radius is aa  b . Thus


zz  az  b  0, ( b  R ) represents a real circle if and only if aa  b  0 .
 Now let us consider a circle described on a line segment
AB, (A(z1), B(z2)) as its diameter. Let P(z) be any point on
 
the circle. As the angle in the semicircle is , APB 
2 2
 z1  z   z  z1
 arg     is purely imaginary
 z2  z  2 z  z2
z  z1 z  z1
   0  (z  z1 ) ( z  z 2 )  (z  z 2 ) ( z  z1 )  0
z  z 2 z  z2

Page 27 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

 Let z1 and z2 be two given complex numbers and z


be any complex number such that ,
 z  z1 
arg    , where   (0, ) . Then ‘z’
 z  z2 

would lie on an arc of segment of a circle on z1z2,


containing angle  . Clearly if   (0,  / 2) , z would
lie on the major arc (excluding the points z1 and z2)
and if.‘z’ would lie on the minor arc(excluding the
points z1 and z2 ).

Note : The sign of  determines the sides of z1 z2 on which


the segment lies.  Thus is positive and negative
figure.


.in
Let ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral such that A(z1), B(z2),
C(z3) and D(z4) lie on a circle. Clearly A  C  
ps
 z 4  z1  z z 
 arg   arg 2 3   
 z 2  z1   z 4  z3 
te

z 4  z1 z 2  z 3
yS

 . is purely real.
z 2  z1 z 4  z 3
ud

Thus points A(z1), B(z2), C(z3) and D(z4) (taken in order) would be concyclic if
( z 4  z1 ) ( z 2  z 3 )
is purely real.
( z 2  z1 ) ( z 4  z 3 )
St

 Equation of tangent a given circle at a given point


Let | z – z0 | = r be the given circle and we have to obtain
the tangent at A(z1). Let us take any point P(z) on the tangent

line at A(z1). Clearly PAB 
2

 z  z1   z  z1
Arg    
 z 0  z1  2 z 0  z1 is purely imaginary..

z  z1 z  z1
  0  (z  z1 ) ( z 0  z1 )  ( z  z1 ) (z 0  z1 )  0
z 0  z1 z 0  z1

 z ( z 0  z1 )  z ( z 0  z1 )  2 | z1 |2 z1z 0  z1z 0  0

Page 28 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
In particular if given circle is | z | = r, equation of the tangent at z = z 1 would be,
zz1  zz1  2 | z1 |2  2r 2

z  z1
 If  (  R  ,   1) , where z1 and z2 are given complex numbers and z is an
z  z2
arbitrary complex number then z would lie on a circle.

 Explanation
Let A(z1) and B(z2) be two given complex numbers
and P(z) be any arbitrary complex number. Let PA1
and PA2 be internal and external bisectors of angle

APB respectively. Clearly A 2 PA1  .
2

AP z  z1 z  z1
Now,    (say)
BP z  z 2 z  z2
Thus points A1 and A3 would divide AB in the ratio of  : 1 internally and externally respectively..

.in
Hence P(z) would be lying on a circle with A1A2 being its diameter.
Note :
ps
(i) If we take ‘C’ to be mid–point of A2A1, it can be easily proved that CA.CB = (CA1)2 i.e.
| z1 – z0 | | z2 – z0 | = r2, where the point C is denoted z0 and r is the radius of the circle.
te

(ii) If   1  | z1 – z0 | = | z2 – z0 | hence P(z) would lie on the right bisector of the line A(z1)
yS

and B(z2). Note that in this case z1 and z2 are the mirror images of each other with respect
to the right bisector.
ud

Illustration 25:
zi
St

If   , show that, when z lies above the real axis,  will lie within the unit circle which has
z 1
centre at the origin. Find the locus of  as z travels on the real axis from   to   .

Solution:
From figure, it is clear that | z – i | < + | z + i |
(as z lies above the real axis)
| zi|
|  | 1
|zi|
  lies within the unit circle which has centre at the origin
Now if z is travelling on the real axis Im(z) = 0 and
Re(z) varies from   to  
Let z = z + i 0
x  i |  | | x  i | 1
  = (as | x  i |  | x  i |  x  R
xi | x i|
  moves on the unit circle which has centre at the origin.

Illustration 26:

Page 29 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
Two different nonparallel lines cut the circle | z | = r in points a, b, c and d respectively. Prove that
a 1  b 1  c 1  d 1
these lines meet in the point z given by z  .
a 1 b 1  c 1 d 1
Solution:

z z 1
Since P, Q, R are collinear, c c 1 0
d d 1

 z ( c  d )  z (c  d )  (c d  c d )  0 ..........(1)
Similarly, z(a  b )  z (a  b)  (ab  ab)  0 ..........(2)
From {(1)  (a  b)}  {( 2)  (c  d )}
z[( c  d ) (a  b)  (a  b ) (c  d )]  (ab  ba ) (c  d )  (cd  cd ) (a  b) .........(3)

r2 r2 r2 r2
Now aa  r  a  , similarly b  , c  , d 
2

a b c d
 r 2 r 2   r2 r2  
From (3), z    (a  b)     (c  d ) .in
ps
 c d  a b 

 ar 2 br 2   cr 2 r 2 
te


=    ( c  d )    d  (a  b)
 b a   d c 
yS

 1 1 (a  b ) c  d
 z    = 
ud

 cd ab  ab cd

a 1  b 1  c 1  d 1

St

a 1b 1  c 1d 1

Illustration 27 :
2 1 1
If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that   , show that the points represented by
z1 z 2 z 3
z1, z2, z3 lies on a circle passing through the origin.
Solution:
Since P(z1), Q(z2), R(z3) and S(z4) are concyclic points
PSQ  PRQ
z2  z4 z z
 arg .  arg 2 3
z1  z 4 z1  z 3

 z  z   z  z  
 arg  2 4   1 3    0
 z1  z 4   z 2  z3  

Page 30 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

(z 2  z 4 ) (z1  z3 )
 .
(z1  z 4 ) (z 2  z3 ) = real

z 2 z1  z 3
If z4 = 0 + i 0, then . = real ..........(i)
z1 z 2  z 3

2 1 1 zz
We have   from which z 3  1 2 ..........(ii)
z1 z 2 z 3 2 z 2  z1

z1 z 2
z 2 z 2  z1
From (1) and (ii), 2  = real
z1 z  z1 z 2
2 z 2  z1
2

z 2  z1 1
 = real  = real, which is true
2 ( z 2  z1 ) 2

Therefore z1, z2, z3 and the origin are concyclic.

Illustration 28 : .in
ps
  z  1  2
Plot the region represented by  arg  in the Argand plane.
3  z 1  3
te

Solution:
yS

 z  1  2
Let us take arg  , clearly z lies on the minor
 z 1  3
ud

arc of the circle passing through (1, 0) and (–1, 0).


St

 z 1 
Similarly, arg   means that ‘z’ is lying on the
 z 1  3
major arc of the circle passing through (1, 0) and (–1,
0).
Now if we take any point in the region included between
the two arcs, say P1(z1).
  z  1  2
We get  arg  .
3  z 1  3

  z  1  2
Thus  arg  represents the shaded region
3  z 1  3
(excluding the points (1, 0) and (–1, 0).

Page 31 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

DRILL EXERCISE - 7

1. Consider a square OABC in the Argand plan, where ‘O’ is origin and A  A (z 0 ) . Then find the
equation of the circle that can be inscribed in the this square. (vertices of square are given in
anticlockwise order)

2. Find the radius and centre of the circle , z z – (2 + 3 i) z – (2 – 3 i) z + 9 = 0

3. z lies on the circle centered at origin. If area of the triangle whose vertex are z, z and z  z ,
where  is the cube root of unity, is 4 3 sq. unit, then find the radius of the circle.

 | z | 2  | z | 1 
If log (1 / 
3) 
 > –2 then show that z lies in the interior of a circle with centre at the
4. 
 2 | z | 
origin and radius 5 units.

5. Find the locus of a complex number ‘z’ in the Argand plane such that

 z  1 
arg   =
 z  1 4
.in
ps
9. SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS
 The triangle whose vertices are the points represented by complex numbers z1, z2, z3 is
te

1 1 1
equilateral if    0 i.e. z12  z 22  z 32  z1z 2  z 2 z 3  z 3 z1 .
z 2  z 3 z 3  z1 z1  z 2
yS

 | z  z1 |  | z  z 2 |   , represents an ellipse if | z1 – z2 | <  , having the points z1 and z2 as


its foci. And if | z1  z 2 |   , then z lies on a line segment connecting z1 and z2.
ud

 | z – z1 | ~ | z – z2 | =  , represents a hyperbola if | z1  z 2 |   , having the points z1 and z2


St

excluding the points between z1 and z2.


Illustration 29 :
If || z + 2 | – | z – 2 | = a2, z  C representing a hyperbola for a  S , then find the least set S.
Solution:
Here foci are at – 2 and 2 at a distance of 4. Hence the given equation represents a hyperbola if
a 2  4 i.e. a  (2, 2) .

Illustration 30 :
Let z1 and z2 be the complex roots of the equation 3z2 + 3z + b = 0. If the origin, together with the
points represented by z1 and z2 form an equilateral triangle then find the value of b.
Solution:
z1, z2, 0 will be the vertices of equilateral triangle if z12  z 2 2  0 2  z1z 2  0z 2  0z1
2b b
 1   b=1
3 3

DRILL EXERCISE - 8
1. If for a complex number z, | z – 1| + | z + 1| = 2, then prove that z lies on a line segment.

Page 32 of2.47 Show that the equation of a circlewww.StudySteps.in


on a line segment joining points having affixes z1 and z2
Complex Numbers

ANSWER KEY
Drill Exercise -1

2. (A)   n (B) n  ( n  I) 3. 4
3
4. (i) Mod = 5, arg = 0 (ii) Mod = 7, arg = 0
(iii) Mod = 9, arg = /2 (iv) Mod = 18, arg = –/2
(v) Mod = 2, arg = /3 (vi) Mod = 2 , arg = –/4
(v) Mod = 2, arg = –/6 (vi) Mod = 2 3 , arg = /6

Drill Exercise -2

2. 4 3. 20 5. –17 + 24i

Drill Exercise -3

1. 0 4. –i 5.
.in
3
4
ps
Drill Exercise -4
te


(B) n 2  i
yS

1. 0 2. (A) – 27 (C) 2(n is even), –2 (n is odd)


4
4. x 2  2 x cos n   1  0
ud

Drill Exercise -5
St

z 3z 2
4. z  
z1
Drill Exercise -6
2. 
1 i 2  3 ;  
1 i 2  3  3. 4x – 2y > 3 5. centre is (2, 0); radius = 3

Drill Exercise -7
z 0 (1  i)
1. 2z  | z0 | 2. Centre (2 , – 3) ; Radius 2
2
3. 4 units 5. x2 + y2 – 2 y – 1 = 0

Page 33 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

SOLVED SUBJECTIVE EXAMPLES

Example 1 :
Construct an equation whose roots are  i, sec( 2 / 5) .
Solution :
Let 5   2n, n  I
 cos 3   cos 2
 4 cos 3   2 cos 2   3 cos   1  0
2 4
Put cos   x , here note that  may be 0 or or for n = 0, 1, 2 and also if we take n = 3, 4,
5 5
5,.........then the value of cos  will start repeating.
 4x3 – 2x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
2 4
 4x2 + 2x – 1 = 0, where x  cos , cos
5 5
 x4 – 2x3 – 3x2 – 2x – 4 = 0
.in
ps
Example 2 :
If ‘a’ is a complex number that | a | = 1, find the values of a, so that equation az2 + z + 1 = 0 has one
te

purely imaginary root.


Solution :
yS

az2 + z + 1 = 0 ........(i)
ud

Taking conjugate of both sides, az 2  z  1  0


 a (z)2  z  1  0
St

a z 2  z  1  0 (Since z  z as z is purely imaginary) ........(ii)

Eliminating z from both the equations, we get (a  a ) 2  2(a  a )  0

Let a  cos   i sin  (since | a | = 1) so that (2i sin ) 2 2(cos )  0

1 1 4
 cos  
2

5 1
Only feasible value of cos  is
2

 5 1 
Hence a  cos   i sin  , where   cos  2 
1

 

Example 3 :
It is given that n is odd integer greater than 3, but not a multiple of 3. Prove that x3 + x2 + x is a factor

Page 34 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
of (x + 1)n – xn – 1.
Solution :
We have x3 + x2 + x = x(x2 + x + 1) = x ( x  ) ( x  2 ) , where , 2 are cube roots of unity but not
equal to 1. Moreover 3  1.x 3  x 2  x is a factor of (x + 1)n – xn – 1. It means that
(x + 1)n – xn – 1 should be zero at x = 0, x  , x  2
At x = 0, (x + 1)n – xn – 1 = 1n – 1 = 1 – 1 = 0
At x   , (x + 1)n – xn – 1 = (1  ) n  n  1 = [2 n  n  1]  0
as n is not a multiple of 3
At x  2 , ( x  1) n  x n  1  [n  2 n  1]  0
 x3 + x2 + x is a factor of (x + 1)n – xn – 1.

Example 4 :
z  12 5 z  4
Find the complex numbers z which simultaneously satisfy the equations  ,  1.
z  8i 3 z  8
Solution :
.in
ps
z  12 x  4  iy
Here 1  1
z  8i x  8  iy
te

 (x – 4)2 + y2 = (x – 8)2 + y2  x = 6
yS

z  12 5

z  8i 3 
With x = 6, y2 – 25y + 136 = 0
ud

 9(36 + y2) = 25[36 + (y – 8)2]  y = 17, 8


Hence the required numbers are z = 6 + 17 i, 6 + 8i.
St

Example 5 :
1
If | z |  3 , then determine the least value of z  and the corresponding.
z
Solution :

1 1 1 1
z  |z|  |z| | z |  as | z |  3
z | z | |z| |z|

1
Let f(x) = x  for x  3
x
1
f ( x )  1  0
x2
 f(x) is increasing function  f(x)min at x = 3

Page 35 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

1 1 8
z  |z| 
z min | z | | z|  3 3

1 1 8
To find z : let z  r ei , where r = 3, then z   r e i  e  i 
z r 3
2 2 3
 10  8 8  

   cos     sin    
2 2 i
   z  3 e 2  3i
 3 3 3 2

Example 6 :
ABCD is a rhombus. Its diagonals AC and BD intersect at the point M and satisfy BD = 2AC. Its
points D and M represent the complex numbers I + i and 2 – i respectively. Find the complex number
represented by A.
Solution :
Let A be (x, y)
It is given that BD = 2AC  MD = 2AM

.in
Also DM is perpendicular to AM
 (1 – 2)2 + (1 + 1)2
ps
= 4[(x – 2)2 + (y + 1)2] .........(i)
y 1 11
 1  2( y  1)  x  2
te

and .
x  2 1 2
yS

With x – 2 = 2(y + 1), (i) gives (y + 1)2 = 1/4


 y = – 1/2, –3/2  x = 3, 1
 A represents z = 3 – i/2, or 1 – 3i/2
ud

Example 7 :
St

If z = x + iy is a complex number with x , y  Q and | z | = 1, show that | z2n – 1| is a rational number


for every n  N .
Solution :
| z | = 1  z  ei  x  iy  x  cos , y  sin 
Now cos  and sin   Q
Now, | z 2 n  1 |2  (z 2 n  1) (z 2 n  1)

= ( zz ) 2 n  z 2 n  z 2 n  1  2  ( z 2 n  z 2 n )

= | z 2 n  1 |  2 | sin n |

 Now, sin n  n C1 cos n 1  sin   n C 3 cos n 3  sin 3   .......


= Rational number ( sin , cos  are rationals )
 | z2n – 1| = Rational number

Page 36 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers
Example 8 :
Find the equation of the circle which touches the line iz  z  1  i  0 and has the lines
(1 – i)z = (1  i) z and (1 + i)z - (1  i) z = 4i as its normals.
Solution :
Clearly point of intersection of normals would be the centre of the required circle.
1 i
(1  i)z  (1  i) z  z  z
1 i
4i  (1  i)z
(1  i)z  (1  i) z  4i  z   (1  i) (i  1)z  4i(1  i)  (1  i) 2 z
i 1
 z ( 4i)  4i(1  i)  z  (1  i)
Now equation of tangent can be rewritten as,
1
(iz  z )  1  0  i(1  i)z  (1  i) z  2  0  (i  1)z  (1  i) z  2  0
1 i
| (1  i) (1  i)  (1  i) (1  i)  2 | 1
Now distance of z = (1 + i) from this line = 

.in
2 |1 i | 2

1
ps
Thus the equation of required circle is, | z  (1  i) | 
2
Example 9 :
te

Find a  R if atleast one complex number z is to satisfy | z + 3 | = a2 – 2a + 6 and z  3 3i  a


2
yS

simultaneously.
Solution :
ud

| z + 3 | = a2 – 2a + 1  z lies on a circle whose centre is (–3 + i.0) and radius is a2 – 2a + 6 >


0  a  R (as the roots of the corresponding equation are imaginary)
St

And | z  3 3i |  a 2 .........(i)

 
 z lies in the interior of a circle whose centre is 0  3 3 i and radius is a2
Clearly atleast one complex number would satisfy both the equations if the two circles cut in two real
and distinct points or first circle lies entirely inside the second circle. We know that two circles with
centres at c1 and c2 and radii r1 and r2 respectively, will never intersect and will no overlapping region
if c1c 2  r1  r2

i.e. if  3  3 3 i  a  a  2a  6
2 2

or if a  [0, 1] .........(ii)
Now condition for the second circle to lie entirely within the first circle is that
r1  r2  c1c 2  a 2  2a  6  a 2  6  a  0 ..........(iii)
From (ii) and (iii) a  ( , 1]

Page 37 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

Hence desired values of a is R  (, 1]  (1, )


Example 10 :
Find out region in which the roots of the equation,
sin  0 z 2 n  cos 1.z 2 n 1  sin  2 .x 2 n  2  .....  cos  2 n 1z  sin  2 n  b lie, z being a complex
number and 0 , 1 ,.......,  2 n being real and | b | > 1.
Solution :
sin  0 z 2 n  cos 1.z 2 n 1  sin  2 .x 2 n  2  .....  cos  2 n 1z  sin  2 n  b

 | sin  0 z 2 n  .....  sin  2 n |  | b |

 | b |  | sin  0 | | z 2 n  | cos 1 | . | z |2 n 1 ........ | cos  2 n 1 | z |  | sin  2 n |


as | cos  |  1 and | sin  |  1 |    R

 | b | 1 | z | .......... | z |2 n
This will be true for values of | z | > 1. Let | z | < 1

| z |2 n 1 1
 | b |
| z | 1
 | b | (| z | 1)  | z |2 n 1 1
.in
ps
| b | 1
 | z |
|b|
te

| b | 1
Hence all roots would be lying outside the circle | z | 
yS

.
|b|
ud

Example 11 :
Let z and z0 be two complex numbers. It is given that |z| = 1 and the numbers z, z0, z z0 , 1 and 0 are
St

represented in an Argand diagram by the points P, P0, Q. A and the origin respectively. Show that the
triangles POP0 and AOQ are congruent. Hence, or otherwise, prove that
|z – z0| = |z z0 –1|.
Solution :
Given OA = 1 and |z| = 1
 OP = |z – 0| = |z| = 1  OP = OA
OP0 = |z – 0| = |z0|
and OQ = |zz0 – 0| = |zz0| = |z| |z0| = 1 |z0|

 z0  0   z0 
Also P0OP  arg    arg  
 z0   z 

 zz 
 arg  0 
 zz 

Page 38 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

 zz 

 arg  0    arg z z 0
 1 
 Y
P0(z0)

 1   1 0 
  arg (z z0 )  arg    arg   = AOQ P(z)
 zz0   zz0  0  A(1)
O X

Thus, the triangles POP0 and AOQ are congruent.


Q(zz0 )

 PP0 = AQ  | z  z 0 |  | z z0  1|

Example 12 :
A cubic equation f(x) = 0 has one real root  and two complex roots   i . Points A, B and C
represent roots  ,   i and   i respectively on the Argand diagram. Show that the roots of the
derived equation f (x)  0 are imaginary, if A falls inside one of the two equilateral triangles described
on base BC.

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Solution :
Let f(x) = k(x  ) (x    i ) (x   i )  k (x   )[(x  ) 2   2 ]
ps
B()
 f (x)  k[{(x  ) 2   2 }  2(x   ) (x  )] y
2||
te

Discriminant of equation f (x)  0 is given by L ||


x
O P A(, 0) (, 0) Q
yS

D = 4 [(   2) 2  3(2   2  2) ] ...(1)


C()
ud

Let PAB and QAB be two equilateral triangles with base BC.
Let L be the mid point of PQ, so that
3|  | .
St

PL =

If a lies inside the equilateral triangles, then |    |  3 |  | or (   ) 2  3 2


or 2   2  3 2  2  0
 From (1), D < 0 and hence roots of equation f (x) = 0 are imaginary if A lies between P and Q on
the line segment PQ.

Example 13 :
(x  ) n  (x  ) n sin n1
If ,  are the roots of the equation t2 – 2t + 2 = 0 and  n , (x  R)
(   ) sin 1
then prove that x = cot 1  1.
Solution :
t 2  2t  2  0  t 1  i
Let 1 i and 1 i   2i
Now, x    x  1  i, x    x  1  i

Page 39 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

Let, z = x +   (x  1)  i  Rei  z  Re  i  (x  1)  i  x  

1
Where R2 = (x + 1)2 + 1 and tan    x = cot   1
(x  1)

(x  ) n  (x  ) n R n (ein  e in )
in
Now, (x  )  R . e , (x  )  R . e
n n n n  in
 
  2i
= Rn. sin n  sin n.(cot   1) (as x + 1 = cot )
2 n/2

sin n sin n1


 
sin n  sin n 1 (given)    1  x  cot 1  1 .

Example 14 :

1 z 2n  1
If z   2 cos  , prove that 2n = |.
z z  1 | tan n
Solution :
1
z  2 cos ,  z 2  2 cos .z  1  0

.in
z

2 cos   4 cos 2   4
ps
z  cos   i sin 
2
te

1
Taking positive sign z = cos   i sin  ,  (cos   i sin )
z
yS

1
zn  n
z 2n  1 z (cos   i sin ) n  (cos   1sin ) n 2i sin n

ud

z  1 zn  1
2n  n   i tan n
n
(cos   i sin )  (cos   i sin )
n
2 cos n
z
St

taking negative sign similarly we get,

z 2n  1 2i sin n z 2n  1
   tan n ,  |  i tan  |  (tan n) for |  i |  1 .
z 2n  1 2 cos n z 2n  1

Example 15 :
z1, z2 and z3 are three non-zero complex numbers such that z1  z 2  z3 , and a = |z1|, b = |z2|,

a b c 2
z   z z 
c  | z3 | . If b c a  0, then show that arg  3   arg  3 1  .
c a b  z2   z 2  z1 

Solution :
a b c
b c a
We have = –(a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca)
c a b

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Complex Numbers
Imaginary axis
(a  b  c)
 {(a  b) 2  (b  c) 2  (c  a) 2 }  0 z2 z1
2

Now a, b and c are positive, as modulus of
non-zero complex numbers z3
2
 a=b=c

So z1, z2 and z3 ; lie on a circle with centre at origin. O Real axis

 z3 
Now Arg   = arg (z3) – arg (z2) = 3  2
 z2 
2
 z z 
arg  3 1   2BAC  2
 z 2  z1 
Now 2  (3  2 ) (As we know that angle subtended by a chord on centre of a circle is double
the angle subtended by the same chord at any point on the circumference of the circle). Hence
Proved.

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ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 41 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

SOLVED OBJECTIVE EXAMPLES


Example 1 :
If arg(z1 )  arg(z 2 ) , then
( A ) z

2
= kz1–1 (k > 0) (B) z2 = kz1(k > 0)
(C) | z2 | = | z1 | (D) none of these
Solution :
z1z1 1
z1   | z1 | 2 z1  arg(z1–1) = arg(z1 )  arg(z2)  z2 = kz1–1 (k > 0)
z1
Hence (A) is the correct alternative.

Example 2 :
If x = 1 + i, then the value of the expression x4 – 4x3 + 7x2 – 6x + 3 is
(A) –1 (B) 1
(C) 2 (D) none of these
Solution :
We have x – 1 = i  (x – 1)4 = 1
.in
ps
(x – 1)2 = – 1
1=1
te

Adding, we get x4 – 4x3 + 7x2 – 6x + 3 = 1


Hence (B) is the correct answer.
yS

Example 3 :
ud

If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that | z1 | = | z2 | + | z1 – z2 |, then

z  z 
St

(A) Im 1   0 (B) Re 1   0


 z2   z2 

z  z 
(C) Re 1   Im 1  (D) none of these
 z2   z2 
Solution :
We have | z1 | = | z2 | + | z1 – z2 |
 | z1  z 2 |2  (| z1 |  | z 2 |) 2

 | z1 |2  | z 2 |2 2 | z1 | | z 2 |

 cos(1  2 )  1  1  2  0

z1 z 
 arg(z1 )  arg(z 2 )  0  is purely real  Im 1   0
z2  z2 
Hence (A) is correct Alternative.

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Complex Numbers
Example 4 :

z1
If  1 and arg(z1 z2) = 0, then
z2
(A) z1 = z2 (B) |z2|2 = z1z2
(C) z1z2 = 1 (D) none of these

Solution :

z1
Let z1  r1 (cos 1  i sin 1 ) . Then  1  | z1 |  | z 2 |  | z1 |  | z 2 |  r1
z2

Now arg(z1 z2) = 0  arg(z1 )  arg(z 2 )  0

 arg(z 2 )  1
Therefore, z 2  r1 (cos(1 )  i sin(1 )  r1 (cos 1  i sin 1 )  z1


 z 2  z1  z1  | z 2 |2  z1z 2
Hence (B) is the correct alternative.
.in
ps
Example 5 :
te

If | z | < 4, then | iz + 3 – 4i | is less than


(A) 4 (B) 5
yS

(C) 6 (D) 9
Solution :
ud

| iz + ( 3 – 4i )  | iz | + | 3 – 4i | = | z | + 5 < 4 + 5 = 9
Hence (D) is the correct alternative.
St

Example 6 :
If z is a complex number, then z 2  z 2  2 represents
(A) a circle (B) a straight line
(C) a hyperbola (D) an ellipse
Solution :
Let z = x + iy, then z 2  z 2  2  x2 – y2 = 1, which represents a hyperbola.
Hence (C) is the correct alternative.

Example 7 :
If a  0, a  R , z  a  2i and z | z | – az + 1 = 0 then
(A) z is always a positive real number (B) z is always a negative real number
(C) z is purely imaginary number (D) such a complex z does not exist
Solution :

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Complex Numbers
Putting z = a + 2i in the given equation and comparing imaginary parts, we get a2 + 4 = a2, which is not
possible.
Hence (D) is the correct alternative.

Example 8 :
1  i
If = A + iB, then A2 + B2 equals to
1  i
(A) 1 (B)  2

(C) –1 (D) –  2
Solution :
1  i 1  i
A + iB =  A – iB =
1  i 1  i

(1  i ) (1  i )
 (A  iB) (A  iB)  1
(1  i ) (1  i )

.in
 A2 + B2 =1
Hence (A) is the correct alternative.
ps
Example 9 :
te

If  is the angle which each side a regular polygon of n side subtends at its centre, then
1  cos   cos 2  cos 3  ..........  cos( n  1) is equal to
yS

(A) n (B) 0
(C) 1 (D) none of these
ud

Solution :
ir
St

n 1 n 1

 cos r  Re  e
r 0 r 0
n
= sum of the n roots of unity = 0

Hence (B) is the correct answer.

Example 10 :
If points corresponding to complex numbers z1, z2, z3 and z4 are the vertices of a rhombus, taken in
order, then for a non-zero real number k
(A) z1 – z3 = i k(z2 – z4) (B) z1 – z2 = i k(z3 – z4)
(C) z1 + z3 = k(z2 + z4) (D) z1 + z2 = k(z3 + z4)
Solution :
Since the diagonals are perpendicular to each other
z1  z 2 
arg    (z1 – z3) = i k(z2 – z4)
z2  z4 2
Hence (A) is the correct answer.

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Complex Numbers
Example 11 :

x 1  2
If  is an imaginary cube root of unity, then a root of the equation  x  2 1 = 0 is
2 1 x2
(a) x = 1 (b) x = 
(c) x =  2 (d) x = 0
Solution :
Let us denote the given determinant by  . Applying C1  C1  C2  C3 , we get

x  1    2  2 x  2
  x  1    2 x  2 1  x x  2 1
x  1    2 1 x x 1 x

Clearly   0 for x = 0.

Example 12 :

.in
If (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + ... + a2x2 + ... + a2n x2n, then the value of a0 + a3 + a6 + ... is
ps
(a) 1 (b) 2n
(c) 2n–1 (d) 3n–1
Solution :
te

Putting x = 1, w, w2 in (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + a2n x2n , we get


yS

(1 + 1 + 1)n = a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + 1/4 + a2n,


(1 + w + w2)n = a0 + a1w + a2w2 + a3w3 + 1/4 + a2n w2n,
ud

and (1 + w2 + w4)n = a0 + a1w2 + a2w4 + a3w6 + 1/4 + a2n w4n


Adding the above three equations and using 1 + w + w2 = 0, w3 = 1 we get
St

3n = 3(a0 + a3 + a6 + ... )
 a0 + a3 + a6 + ... = 3n–1.

Example 13 :
If ,  are the roots of x2 + px + q = 0, and w is an imaginary cube root of unity, then value of

(w  w 2) (w 2  w) is


(a) p2 (b) 3q
(c) p2 – 2q (d) p2 – 3q
Solution :
We have      p,   q

Now (w  w 2) (w 2  w) = w 3 2  w 4   w 2   w 3

=  2  2  (w  w 2 )    2 2   = (  )2  3  p 2  3q


Example 14 :

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Complex Numbers

1 1 1
If 1, ,..., n 1 are the nth roots of unity, then the value of   ...  equals
2 22
2  n 1
1 2(2n  1)
(a) (b)
2n  1 2n  1

(n  2) 2n 1
(c) (d) none of these
2n  1
Solution :

1 1 1 1 n(x n 1 )
We know that    ...  
x  1 x   x  2 x  n 1 x n  1

1 1 1 n(2n 1 )
Putting x = 2, we get   ...  
2   2  2 2  n 1 2n  1
Example 15 :
 
If   cos  i sin , then value of 1   2  ...  n 1 is

.in
n n
(a) 1 + i (b) 1 + i tan (p/n)
ps
(c) 1 + icot (  / 2n) (d) none of these

We have , 1   2  ...  n 1  1  
n
te

Solution :
1 
yS

 n   n 
But n  cos    i sin   = cos   i sin    1
 n   n 
ud

       
and 1    2 sin 2  2i sin cos   2i sin    cos  i sin 
2n 2n 2n  2n   2n 
St

2n
2[cos( / 2n)  i sin (  / 2n)]
Thus, 1    2  ...  n 1  = 1 + i cot (  / 2n)
2i sin ( / 2n)

Page 46 of 47 www.StudySteps.in
Complex Numbers

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ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 47 of 47 www.StudySteps.in