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WRC ANALYSIS

Paresh P Tulankar
TOYO ENGINEERING INDIA LIMITED

HEAT TRANSFER & APPLIED TECHNOLOGY


Why WRC Analysis

The stresses at the integral welded attachment (IWA) locations


are commonly evaluated using Welding research Council
(WRC) analysis.

Loads which are supposed to be considered for WRC analysis :

Loads due to weight (W),


Loads due to Pressure (P),
Loads due to thermal expansion (T).

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WRC ANALYSIS

Applicability of WRC Analysis :

In code always the word, “ Attachment ” has been specified.


Following are supposed to be the cases where WRC Analysis is
applicable :
1.Trunnion
2.Nozzle Shell Junction
3.Trunnion-shell Junction
4.Lugs

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WRC ANALYSIS

The calculation of localized stresses are done by following


methods :

1.Stress intensification factor (SIF)


2.WRC 107 approach with the limitation of β (Attachment
parameter) and γ (Shell parameter).
3.Approach based on utilization of any finite element analysis
(FEA) results.

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WRC ANALYSIS

SIF
 Applicable to some IWA configurations only
 It is not applicable to Lugs, irregular shapes.
 Reinforcement pad equal in thickness of pipe or
maximum up to 1.5 times the thickness of pipe.
[Depend on the code].

Attachments on fittings : Cross multiplication of SIF


[Example : (SIF)TEE x (SIF)Elbow

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WRC ANALYSIS

WRC Approach
Basis :
 Bijlaard’s approach is based on shell theory
 Strength of material formulas
 Shell and attachment laodings.

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WRC ANALYSIS

Approach based on utilization of any finite


element analysis (FEA) results.

Reduction factors are supplied relative to WRC-107.

Rigorous Finite Element Approach.

3-D finite model of the shell and the attachment has


to be built.

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WRC ANALYSIS

Approach Based on ASME Code cases

 ASME Bulletin 198 with some conservative graphs


of WRC 107 , the ASME code cases gets formed.
 The results of this are more conservative as
compared with Bulletin 107.
Attachment ASME code ASME code
Class 1 Class 2 & 3
Rectangular Code case N-22 Code case N-318
Hollow Circular Code case N-391 Code case N-392

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WRC ANALYSIS

Shell Parameter (U) : It is basically a ratio of the


square root of the nozzle outside radius to the
square root of the product of shell radius and
thickness.

ro
U= For Spherical & Cylindrical Attachment
RmT

C1
U= For square Attachment
0.875 RmT
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WRC ANALYSIS

Hollow Cylindrical Hollow Square


Attachment Attachment

r m
γ = rm
t γ =
0 . 875 t

T T
ρ = ρ =
t t

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WRC ANALYSIS

The stress concentration factor should be


considered in the following cases :

Ni 6M i
σi = Kn ± Kb 2
T T
 The vessel is constructed of brittle material
 A fatigue evaluation is to be taken into consideration.

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WRC ANALYSIS

Spherical Shell Cylindrical Shell

V1 - Concentrated shear Vc - Concentrated shear


load in Circumferential load in Circumferential
direction direction
V2 - Concentrated shear Vl - Concentrated shear
load in longitudinal load in longitudinal
direction
direction
M1 - External overturning
Mc- External overturning
moment in circumferential
direction moment in circumferential
M2 - External overturning direction
moment in longitudinal ML - External overturning
direction moment in longitudinal
direction
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WRC ANALYSIS

Case 1 Case 2
Local bending occurs , tensile
bending stresses occurs on The overturning moment may be
inside of the vessel A and B while considered to act as a couple
compressive bending stresses composed of equal and opposite
acts on outside. and radial forces.
Tensile membrane stresses acts at
A while compressive membrane
stresses at B.

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WRC ANALYSIS

Shell Parameter
It is the ratio of nozzle outside
radius to the square root of the r0
U =
product of shell radius and RmT
thickness.

Attachment Parameter
For Hollow cylindrical attachment rm T
τ = ρ =
t t

rm T
τ = ρ =
For Hollow square attachment 0 . 875 t t

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WRC ANALYSIS

The stresses are get calculated for Spherical Shells with


respect to the three major considerations :

 Radial Load
 Overturning moment
 Torsional moment

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WRC ANALYSIS

Step 1 : Determine the values of U,G and ρ*


Step 2 : Take out the values of the dimensionless bending moment
(M x/P) from the applicable curve.
Step 3 : Using the applicable values of P and T , calculate the
membrane stresses (Nx/T) using ,
Nx/T=(NxT/P) x (P/T2)
Step 4 : Similar to procedure used in step 3 , calculate the radial
bending stress ( 6Mx/T2) thus :
6Mx/T2=(Mx/P) x (6P/T2)
Step 5 : Combine the radial membrane and bending stresses by the use
of general stress equation :
Mx = (Kn*Nx/T) ± Kb ( 6Mx/T2)

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WRC ANALYSIS

Tangential stress :
Following the same procedure as for the x member .
The same procedure from step 1-5 can be applicable and get followed for the y
member.

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Thanks !

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