Sei sulla pagina 1di 2

# 1. A geothermal reservoir is estimated to have a volume of 15.0 km3.

## The average porosity

across the reservoir is 7%. It is estimated that the reservoir is two phase with a
temperature of 240°C with a liquid saturation of 0.4. Calculate the stored heat in the
reservoir relative to a final condition of saturated liquid of 160 C .
Use rock density of 2500 kg/m3 and rock specific heat capacity of 0.9 kJ/kg K.
(2 mark)

2. Plot mixture density vs liquid saturation for a boiling mixture at 180 °C.
Liquid saturation Sl =volume fraction of water
Vapour saturation Sv =volume fraction of steam
Sl +Sv = 1

(2 mark)

3. Several hot pools and hot springs discharge into a small stream over a distance of 0.5
km. At a downstream site, stream gauging showed that the mean flow velocity was 0.5
m/s, cross section of stream 1.2 m2. At an upstream site (above the uppermost spring)
the creek temperature was 15 °C; at the downstream site the creek temperature was
15.6°C. How much heat was discharged into the stream, and at what mass flowrate, if
the mean temperature of the hot springs and pools was 65°C.

(2 mark)

Diketahui;

 Upstream Site

## 𝑇1 = 𝐶𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 = 150 𝐶

𝑚1 = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒(𝑘𝑔/𝑠)
ℎ1 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔)
𝐴1 = 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑚2 )
𝑚
𝑉1 = 𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 ( )
𝑠

## 𝑇2 = 𝐶𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 = 150 𝐶

𝑘𝑔
𝑚2 = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒( ⁄𝑠)
𝑄2 = 𝑇ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑤𝑎𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚
ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑜𝑙𝑠 (𝑘𝐽/𝑆)
ℎ2 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔)
𝐴2 = 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑚2 )
𝑉2 = 𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑚⁄𝑠)

 Downstream Site
𝑇3 = 𝐶𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑘 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 = 15.60 𝐶
𝑚3 = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒(𝑘𝑔/𝑠)
ℎ3 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑙𝑝𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔)
𝐴3 = 𝐶𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑚2 )
𝑉3 = 𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 (𝑚⁄𝑠)

It is assumed that all liquid is compressed water and in the atmospheric pressure.
Enthalpy of the compressed water in the each site at certain temperature in
atmosphere pressure (0.1Mpa) is:
ℎ1 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑢𝑝𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑡 150 𝐶 = 63𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔
ℎ2 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑦 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑜𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑜𝑙 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 650 𝐶 = 272.1 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔
ℎ3 = 𝐸𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑝ℎ𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑜𝑤𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑎𝑡 15.60 𝐶 = 65.6𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔

𝑚1 + 𝑚2 = 𝑚3
𝑚1 ℎ1 + 𝑚2 ℎ2 = 𝑚3 ℎ3

## Thus, to find mass flowrate of the downstream site (𝑚3 ) is

4. a) Write down the names of the 10 geothermal fields in the world producing the highest
non-condensable gas (CO2 and H2S) emissions.
b) Compare their rate of CO2 production (e.g. in grams per kilowatt-hour) with those of
various types of fossil fuel thermal power plants.
c) Write down the name of geothermal fields in the world that non-condensable gas
(CO2 and/or H2S) reinjection back into the reservoir has been applied.
(4 marks)