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Enhance the Communicative Competence of Grade 12 students

in the eight (8) Secondary Schools of Magallanes using Gay

Lingo

Grade 12 Communicative Competence Enhancement through Gay

Lingo

ERICK E. ESPIEL
Graduate School
SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE
Sorsogon City
May, 2019
CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

Language is the system of communication used by a

particular community or country (source). It performs a

significant role in communication because language

identifies an individual, group, or community. Moreover, it

reflects the identity and culture of a person and a place.

The ability to use and acquire a language, is a natural

characteristic of humans different from other living

things. When one knows a specific language, he can speak

and be understood by others who know also that language.

This enables humans to communicate and interact

meaningfully with other people in different time and

contexts (source).

Language present inside the class room has a great

impact in the teaching and learning process. Learners learn

a language in various ways, such those flatforms help them

strategize, device and create their own unique style in

acquiring and using the language. Since these learners came

from different places with different cultural background


and language orientation, diversity inside the classroom is

really evident. The more diverse the learners are the

higher the possibility that they would acquire new language

and eventually create a language system that would

distinguish them from other speakers. This can be possible

through prolonged exposure and familiarity of the speakers

to the different languages that surround them may it be in

the school community or in the community at large. With

this, chances that learners would use the language

strategically and socially as what the context would

require. In this sense, meaning of every word might be

taken differently and would bear another meaning based from

the way they use it in a context and according to how they

practically apply it to interact and communicate with other

speakers in any speech event. Another, inside the

classroom we follow certain language conventions that

govern us in using them, however with the presence of

individual differences we tend to expand and widen our

perspective in using the language. It is of great

importance to note the nature of language that it is

dynamic and arbitrary. A language is dynamic for it changes

through time and is said to be arbitrary because it can be

agreed upon depending on the context.


For this reason, communicative competence is important

to be developed among learners specifically the

sociolinguistic and strategic competence. This is a tool

they must have for a comprehensive interaction or

communication with other learners in the classroom. Being

able to communicate well does not mean mastery of the rules

but being able to effectively interact and get across

channels using the rules in a communicative context.

Accordingly, communicative competence has to be

recognized as the most significant component in the

language user’s way of speaking, way of writing, way of

listening, way of reading and above all, the way of using

the language in the practical context.

Accordingly, the concept of communicative competence

was originally derived from Chomsky’s distinction between

competence and performance. By competence Chomsky meant the

shared knowledge of the ideal speaker-listener set in a

completely homogeneous speech community. (Paulston, 2003,

p. 27). Such underlying principle enables a user of a

language to produce and understand an infinite set of

sentences out of a finite set of rules. Performance on the

other hand is concerned with the process of applying the

underlying principle to the actual language use commonly


stated as encoding and decoding. Through period of time,

views on Communicative Competence have been changed. Noam

Chomsky (1957, 1965) – Competence, Dell Hymes (1967, 1972)

– Communicative Competence, Canale & Swain (1980) -

Competence (grammatical, sociolinguistic discourse. In 1983

Canale has explicated communicative competence into four

categories: Grammatical competence, sociolinguistic

competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.

It is stated grammatical competence includes the knowledge

of the language code (grammatical rules, vocabulary,

pronunciation, spelling, etc.), sociolinguistic competence

emphasizes the mastery of socio-cultural code of language

use (appropriate application of vocabulary, register,

politeness and style in a given situation), discourse

competence stresses out the ability to combine language

structures into different types of cohesive texts (eg.,

political speech, poetry)and strategic competence focuses

on the use of knowledge on verbal and non-verbal

communication strategies which enhance the efficiency of

communication and enable the learners to overcome

difficulties when communication breakdown occurs.

With that said, learners may use a language formally

or informally as long as they are understood by others.

Likewise, one of the commonly used languages that is


popularly known and widely familiar among learners at

present is the “gay lingo” where in speakers or users

invent new words with unique shades of meaning of actual

words which make it more informal, playful and interesting.

With the constant use of the language learners may get used

to it and may also apply it in different speech events.

This is one thing that everyone must be aware of since

every context requires a specific level of formality so we

would be able to get the intended meaning of the utterance.

Communication breakdown is an element of communication

where in a speaker experiences problem or difficulty

because of some intervening factors.

Gay lingo in this sense is widely spoken by people not

only in gay communities but also in other communities were

people are non-speakers of the language. With the common

use of gay lingo people become more aware and consider it

already as part of the language spoken by many.(source?) In

extent, the school is a significant place where the

languages are being used or applied where in learners may

have all the contact and might be using it without

considering its relevance and importance to the

communication process as long as they can express their

ideas or thoughts in their own unique way and style. With

this, difficulties and problems might arise or be lifted


that are considered unavoidable to the point it will bring

confusion and misunderstanding to both communicators, since

these are natural occurrences in communication. This means

to say, teachers and those who are in contact with learners

must also have a background knowledge and orientation of

this emerging language that is evident and commonly spoken

by the learners inside the classroom. Understanding this

would benefit both the teacher and the learners in terms of

communicating effectively especially in times where they

experience communication breakdown or barrier that hinders

a good flow of communication to transpire. In a similar

way, both communicators must have an array or range of

vocabulary using the language to satisfy the need to

express ones thought particularly in calling names,

greeting people, asking for request or giving a command,

asking for apology and giving commendation. These are

circumstances or situations where the use of gay lingo is

or can be applied as what the context demands. The use of

gay lingo helps learners express their ideas or thoughts

better because not all the time they can completely and

comprehensively deliver their insights. Thus, in this study

learners will be engaged in gay lingo specifically on the

difficulties and problems they encounter along

sociolinguistic and strategic competence. Furthermore, the


common gay lingo words that these grade 12 students use in

situations like calling names, greetings and commendation,

asking for apology, giving command or request, and how

could gay lingo enhance their sociolinguistic and strategic

competence for better communication.

Statement of the Problem

This study intends to enhance the communicative

competence of Grade 12 students in the eight (8) secondary

schools of Magallanes using gay lingo.

Specifically, it seeks answers to the following

questions:

1. What language difficulty do students have along:

a. Strategic Competence

b. Sociolinguistic Competence

2. What are the commonly used gay lingo of Grade 12

students to:

a. Apologize

b. Greet people

c. Request/Give a command

d. Commend

e. Call someone
3. How does gay lingo help in the enhancement of

strategic and sociolinguistic competence of Grade 12

students?

4. What can be proposed to enhance the strategic and

sociolinguistic competence of the Grade 12 students?

Significance of the Study

The study is primarily aimed to enhance the

communicative competence of Grade 12 students in the eight

(8) secondary schools of Magallanes, province of Sorsogon.

Specifically, the study may provide beneficial results to

the following:

Learners. The result of the study would help learners

enhance their strategic and sociolinguistic competence

using gay lingo in class room contexts.

Teachers. The result of the study would be of great

benefit to the teachers of Grade 12 specially in

understanding gay lingo in the delivery of basic

instruction to the learners.

School. The study would help schools promote

sensitivity and awareness of the language as used


inside the classroom that would aid learners and

teachers in developing communicative competence.

School Administrators. The study would help

administrators encourage teachers to become the

channel towards enhancing students’ strategic and

sociolinguistic competence using gay lingo inside the

class room.

Community. This study may help the local community

understand the importance of language as used inside

and outside the school context.

Parents. The study would also help parents guide the

learners in using the language and in enhancing

communicative competence on the language they are

commonly using.

Future researchers. The present study would serve as a

stepping stone towards a wider and clear perspective

in understanding more about gay lingo.

Scope and Delimitation

This study seeks to enhance the communicative and

strategic competence of Grade 12 students in the eight

(8) secondary schools of Magallanes province of


Sorsogon using gay lingo. Specifically, the language

difficulty of the learners along strategic and

sociolinguistic competence, the commonly used gay

lingo by the grade 12 learners, it also considered how

gay lingo helps in the enhancement of strategic and

sociolinguistic competence of Grade 12 students, and

what can be proposed to enhance the strategic and

sociolinguistic competence of the Grade 12 students.

Furthermore, the researcher made use of the

descriptive method to gather relevant data through

surveys and interviews. The study included the Grade

12 students in the eight (8) secondary schools of

Magallanes, province of Sorsogon.

Excluded in this study are the grade eleven and

junior high school students from the identified

secondary schools in the municipality, likewise to the

other public secondary schools in the province of

Sorsogon.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of this study, the following

terms were conceptually and operationally defined.


Enhance. Intensify, increase, or further improve the

quality, value, or extent of.

Language. Language is the system of communication used by a

particular community or country.

(LanguageOne, 2016) states each language is different where

in it reflects a country’s own culture and identity.

Difficulty. According to dictionary, it is the state or

condition of being difficult.

Communicative Competence. communicative competence has to

be recognized as the most significant component in the

language user’s way of speaking, way of writing, way of

listening, way of reading and above all, the way of using

the language in the practical context.

Gay Lingo. According to Cage (2003, p.23), gay language is

defined as a particular register or variety of language

that is employed in certain socio-cultural contexts by gay

people.

Red (1999, p.41) defines gay language is a type of

code used in the gay community for the purpose of

preventing people from outside the group (herein refers to

heterosexuals) making sense of it and helping link them in

“their own discourse”.


According to Cayabyab (2013), gay lingo is about

playing of words. Adding or omitting something from a

Filipino root word, twisting words to fit a new meaning or

rhyme it with popular names, brand or streets. Mostly

invented or coined to fill a gap in conversations like,

chuva and chenes or describe an indescribable event such as

ek-ek.

Strategic competence. focuses on the use of knowledge on

verbal and non-verbal communication strategies which

enhance the efficiency of communication and, where

necessary, enable the learners to overcome difficulties

when communication breakdown occurs.

Sociolinguistic competence. concentrates on the mastery of

socio-cultural code of language use (appropriate

application of vocabulary, register, politeness and style

in a given situation).

Sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation

to social factors which include gender, social class, age,

ethnic origin, and so on (Coupland & Jaworski, 1997;

Wolfson,

1989; Richards, Platt & Platt, 19


CHAPTER II

CONCEPTUAL, OPERATIONAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE

STUDIES

This chapter presents a review of related literature

and studies that have significance to the researcher’s

present study. Also included are the synthesis of the

state-of-the-art, the gap bridge by the study, the

conceptual framework and paradigm.

RELATED LITERATURE

The researcher came across varied readings that have

bearings to the present study. These gave the researcher

insights to conceptualize his work. The following

literatures have bearings to the present study.

(LanguageOne, 2016) states each language is different

where in it reflects a country’s own culture and identity.

According to Cayabyab( )gay language affects students’

vocabulary and understanding to the words which made them

misunderstood the intended meaning of the words. Almost

everyone could not resist the alluring and colorful

language among gay individuals because it is funny that is

why many of us were influenced by gay language.


According to a Philippine Star journalist, Samantha

King, “In the world of language, young people who find it

too torturous to expound on ideas simply invent new words —

or butcher the meanings of old ones instead.”. In this

sense, students may not run out words if they have a

universal substitute for a noun, adverb or adjective like

the use of the word “chorva.” Accordingly, this is famous

and popular among students. They use it when they lack of

right words to say. Some words from the gay lingo are used

by the students as fillers when they have to express

something and they cannot or could not find the formal

words to say. With gay lingo, students can speak easier and

express themselves easily.

Based from the experience of Eunice Beatrice H. Braga,

a journalist of the Philippine Star, gay lingo is easy to

be adapted and very influential. In her essay it says that

she had learned it when she was associating with University

of the Philippine’s resident members. Also, she explained

that she had no intention of speaking queer but she just

could not help to adapt gay lingo during her stay in UP

(TermPaper Warehouse,2016).

According to Cayabyab (2013), gay lingo is about

playing of words. Adding or omitting something from a

Filipino root word, twisting words to fit a new meaning or


rhyme it with popular names, brand or streets. Mostly

invented or coined to fill a gap in conversations like,

chuva and chenes or describe an indescribable event such as

ek-ek.

Abaya and Hernandez also shared the same observation

when they made their study ―Salitang Bakla:

Makapangyarihan? Makapagpalaya? In their study, gay

language is liberating and empowering. Moreover, as

speakers of gay language, they studied the language and

highlighted its veiling trait which had become the gays’

strategy to fight against the cultural violence they were

subjected to.

The following literatures sate that gay language can

be adapted and learned, in which speakers use it to express

thoughts or ideas and to fill a gap in conversations.

Moreover, using this language help speakers resist the

dominant world and establish their own unique identity.

Thus, these provide significant bearing to the present

study because it explicates the use of gay lingo as a way

of expressing oneself using a unique language.

Sociolinguistics refers to the language study in

relation to gender, social class or status, age, ethnic

origin, and so on (Coupland & Jaworski, 1997; Wolfson,

1989; Richards, Platt & Platt, 1997).


According to Marquez (Philippine Star, September 9,

2012), “baklese” also known as gay language is one of the

most dynamic yet informal language models evolved in the

Philippines. In the same way, gay language is widely known

among Filipinos because it is spoken openly on media,

streets, at home and even in school communities.

(Manalansan, 1995, p.203) States, the language in

Filipino gay communities known as swardspeak or gay lingo

is related to using words or terms that are part of

mainstream language namely Filipino and English in a

metaphorical way. This means to say that Filipino gays use

common and ordinary words without changing their actual

form only that they create different shades of meaning or

connotative meaning.

The abovementioned literatures are relevant to the

present study since it places emphasis on the emerging use

of gay language in the society. Also, it defines gay

language as used in context and how it adds meaning to the

generally accepted words in the community.

Cage (2003, p.23), defined gay language as a

particular register or variety of language that is employed

in certain socio-cultural contexts by gay people.


Red (1999, p.41) defines gay language as a type of

code used in gay communities for the purpose of preventing

people from outside the group to intervene. This definition

is known for “anti-language” as stated by Halliday (1976,

p.570) which refers to a special form of language generated

or created by some kind of anti-society. Likewise,

according to (Cage, 2003, p.25) this anti language uses

words and expressions with additions and alterations in

meaning for the purpose of creating and retaining its

unique identity.

One of the features that can be considered as markers

of gay identity is pronunciation. As Boellstorff (2004,

p.258) emphasizes, “speaking in what is considered to be an

effeminate manner is also sometimes asserted to be

indicative of gay language”.

Likewise, according to Bowen (2002) the indicator that

helps us identifies who is gay is through his sound

production. However, it should be noted and considered that

not all gay men produce the “gay sound”.

The literatures mentioned are necessary and relevant

in understanding the present study since it also seeks to

define and give meaning to the term gay language as used in

enhancing the communicative competence specifically the


sociolinguistics and strategic aspects of language. How is

language being produced and how could a common or ordinary

word be given another shade of meaning according to the

context that surrounds it.

Any language has been developed since it has a

function or a number of functions. Halliday (1973, cited in

Marasigan, 1983, p.58) suggests some functions of language

in general in oral conversation that language serves to

express social and personal relations (interpersonal), to

represent an experience, to impart factual information, to

control the behavior of others (regulatory), to get

involved in fantasies, and to show one’s identity

(personal). Gay language also serves one of these

functions. However, as mentioned earlier, gay language is

considered “anti-language”, so it serves more different and

special functions.

Even in some countries where concealment of gay

identity is not necessary any more, for example, in the

USA, Australia, Canada, the Philippines, and so on, gay

language is still used as “a secret language” to send

secret messages that are “inaccessible to others”, that is,

to people who do not belong to their sub-culture. This

situation of language use is described by Hayes (1981, p.


28) as the “secret setting” in which homosexuals use their

own language within the dominant, or straight society

without wanting to “draw undue attention to themselves,

even if they are not ashamed to admit their identity.”

Not only that the use of gay language functions to

foster a sense of belonging to a community but it also has

an intrapersonal function in that the language forms part

of the gay man’s identity and allows him to show his

identity and self-image (Oetomo, 2001, p.67; Cage, 2003,

p.36)

Similar to the identification mentioned above, the

revelation function allows gay people to reveal overtly

that they are gay and are candidates to be included in a

particular social set (Cage, 2003, p.36). In a more open

society today, this function helps gay people affirm their

identity in the gay world and the heterosexual world

The cited literatures are considered important to the

present study because it puts emphasis on the function of

gay language in communities that it forms a part in

identifying one’s identity, culture and status.

Hudson, 1987 stress that “Swardspeak” uses elements

from Tagalog, English, Spanish, and some from Japanese, as


well as celebrities' names and trademark brands, giving

them new meanings in different contexts. It is largely

localized and spread within gay communities, making use of

words derived from the local languages or dialects,

including Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Bicolano, and other

places.

According to Garcia, 1996 using sward speak, Filipino

gays are able to resist the dominant culture of their area

and create a space of their own. The language is constantly

changing, with old phrases becoming obsolete and new

phrases frequently entering everyday usage, reflecting

changes in their culture and also maintaining its

exclusivity.

The above statements show significance to the present

study because it introduces how the language came to be and

how it evolved to better understand its emergence and use

in the modern times.

RELATED STUDIES

The review of the related studies is important for

wider understanding of the present study. Several studies

have been reviewed to support the study. They may vary in


scope and nature; however, all of them are significantly

parallel to help them enhance the communicative competence

of grade 12 students in the eight (8) secondary schools of

Magallanes.

According to behaviorists and neuro linguists,

prolonged diverse language exposure and speaking multiple

languages have been found to increase activation of

language areas and phonetic processing in the brain, which

enhances abilities such as social and cognitive skills; and

oral, reading, and writing skills (Baker, Kovelman,

Bialystok & Petitto, 2003; Norton, Baker & Petitto, 2003).

The cited source relates to the present study because

it also explicates that exposure to different languages can

help enhance social and cognitive skills. In a similar way,

learners’ must have exposure to the language that could

increase his or her level of awareness and enhance

communicative competence specifically the social aspect.

In a natural language learning process, the speakers

of a language, even the very young, are capable of

understanding any utterance spoken in a language and of

producing utterances that can be accepted as meaningful by

other speakers (Pinker, 2007).


Language is used as a tool to share experiences,

needs, desires, thoughts, and ideas. Lindfors (1991)

expresses the benefits of teachers using language to

facilitate social, cognitive, and analytical communication.

As mentioned, it correlates to the present study that

language will serve as a tool responsible for expressing

and sharing thoughts and ideas. Furthermore, such language

will be beneficial in delivering a clear and comprehensive

meaning of an utterance. Also, a language that is

acceptable and relevant to other speakers.

Agar (1994) further expresses the benefits of using

language to create shared meanings with diverse student

populations. Knowing how language serves as a

communication device that uses rules of syntax, semantics,

and pragmatics and serves to mark class, culture, and

identity helps teachers become aware of language

differences.

Ruiz (1984) suggested reorienting classroom

environments to reflect a language as-a-resource model.

This model is based on research by Bialystok (2007) and

others that found benefits in knowledge and exposure to

more than one language. Many teachers, however, lack the

desire or ability to establish classroom environments that


allow for acceptance of linguistic diversity (Fillmore &

Snow, 2000).

Lippi-Green (1997) contends that all spoken languages

are equally capable of expressing meaning with a full range

of ideas and experiences and developing new vocabularies

and ways to meet the new needs of its users. However,

individual language development and personal language

preference is complex. “Spoken language varies for every

speaker in terms of speech sounds, sound patterns, word and

sentence structure, intonation, and meaning, from utterance

to utterance” (Lippi-Green, 1997, p. 25). Despite research

that suggests the importance of acknowledging a students’

linguistic background in the classroom, teachers express

concern about the difficulty in establishing an effective

linguistic environment suited to all learners. A teacher’s

linguistic knowledge, however, provides options for

addressing linguistic differences instead of discounting

these differences.

The above statements show relevance to the present

study since it advocates the equality and oneness of

languages in a diverse context but puts a great remark on

the language that learners are commonly using in the

classroom. Also, as mentioned acknowledgement of this


language may improve the social and cognitive skills among

diverse learners and more importantly the communication

skills necessary to interact with other learners in a given

context.

With an informed knowledge of language use and usage,

teachers have the ability choose appropriate language and

to teach basic proficiency in language. The effectiveness

of language hinges on language competence. In order to

help students’ gain language competence, teachers must

themselves be knowledgeable about language systems (Scollon

& Scollon, 2001).

Competency in communication involves “listening to

viewpoints different from one’s own, summarizing them in

ways others can recognize, comparing and contrasting

positions, spotting contradictions and non sequiturs, and

coming to conclusions that contribute to a continuing

conversation of ideas” (Graff, 2003, p. 23).

Teachers need an understanding of how to carefully

choose their own language to allow for student

comprehension, as well as knowledge about how to help

students learn negotiating language use with others.

Earlier studies of teacher/student discourse focused


primarily on the syntax of students’ speech (Larson-

Freeman, 1985).

An awareness of effective classroom communication is

critical in order to allow teachers to determine their

roles in students’ language development. Proficiency in

communication means different things to different speakers,

depending on the context in which it is being assessed

(Ottenheimer, 2009).

The following references, provide a relevant

connection and close relation to the present study because

it is also centered on classroom context where in teacher

and learners use language that may contribute to a better

interaction, enhance and develop these set of competencies

necessary for communication. Thus, it anchors the

awareness, orientation and understanding of teachers on the

different languages present in the classroom as a tool to

help learners enhance and develop language competence to

become linguistically and communicatively competent.

A student may have understood on one level what a

teacher has said, but on another level, they perceived

teacher talk completely differently than the teacher

intended. For example, some students display proficiency

on language tests, but their semantic knowledge does not


correspond to their teacher’s expectations. Also, a

student may have understood the vocabulary spoken, but may

not have understood the context or relevance of the

sentence. A teacher’s evaluation of student proficiency

must take into consideration many aspects of language use.

According to Chomsky (1968), “linguistic competence”

is the key to language proficiency. According to Hymes

(1972), however, “communicative competence” is the core

measure of language proficiency. Linguistic competence

requires producing and recognizing grammatically correct

expressions in language. Communicative competence relies

on speaking appropriately in a variety of social situations

and is more than correct syntax. The perspective of a

grammarian – who thinks of language as a system and the

perspective of a linguist, who views language as a less

strictly defined means of communication – may yield

different interpretations of language proficiency (Kachru,

2008).

Another type of competence that is important in

classrooms today is intercultural communicative competence.

According to Samovar, Porter, and McDaniel (2009),

intercultural communicative competence means having cross

cultural and cross-linguistic awareness, negotiation of


language, and conflict resolution typically among peoples

of different backgrounds.

The diverse population present in classrooms requires

diverse language use during instruction. Progressivists

believe that children acquire their native languages by

being immersed in rich, meaningful, and natural

communicative settings (Gee, 2001). Nieto and Bode (2008)

further explained that to support multilingual students,

teachers must understand how students learn subsequent

languages and have knowledge of multiple instructional

models.

The abovementioned statement shows significance to the

present study because diversity is one consideration why

learners learn another language which in turn necessary for

enhancing communicative skills and competence. Also, the

importance of linguistic competence as a key to language

proficiency anchored on communicative competence.

Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art

The reviewed literature and studies, both foreign and

local provided the researcher information, ideas, analysis,

facts and data to pursue and accomplish the study. The

literature and studies pointed the use of gay language to

enhance social and linguistic competence of the students.


Any language has been developed since it has a

function or a number of functions. Halliday (1973, cited in

Marasigan, 1983, p.58) suggests some functions of language

in general in oral conversation that language serves to

express social and personal relations (interpersonal), to

represent an experience, to impart factual information, to

control the behavior of others (regulatory), to get

involved in fantasies, and to show one’s identity

(personal). Gay language also serves one of these

functions. However, as mentioned earlier, gay language is

considered “anti-language”, in which it serves more

different and special functions.

Not only that the use of gay language functions to

foster a sense of belonging to a community but it also has

an intrapersonal function and that the language forms part

of the gay man’s identity allowing him to show his identity

and self-image (Oetomo, 2001, p.67; Cage, 2003, p.36)

Abaya and Hernandez also shared the same observation

when they made their study ―Salitang Bakla:

Makapangyarihan? Makapagpalaya? In their study, gay

language is liberating and empowering. Moreover, as

speakers of gay language, they studied the language and

highlighted its veiling trait which had become the gays’


strategy to fight against the cultural violence they were

subjected to.

Language is used as a tool to share experiences,

needs, desires, thoughts, and ideas. Lindfors (1991)

expresses the benefits of teachers using language to

facilitate social, cognitive, and analytical communication.

(Pinker, 2007) explained that in a natural language

learning process, speakers of a language are capable of

understanding any utterance and producing them that can be

accepted and understood by other speakers.

(Baker, Kovelman, Bialystok & Petitto, 2003; Norton,

Baker & Petitto, 2003) states that language exposure and

speaking multiple languages have increased activation of

language areas and phonetic processing in the brain, which

enhances the social and cognitive skills, oral, reading and

writing skills.

(Fillmore & Snow, 2000) stated that there is lack of

desire or ability among teachers to establish classroom

environments that allow or promote linguistic diversity.

Likewise, Ruiz (1984) suggested a reorientation of

classroom environments that reflect a language model. This

is based on the research by Bialystok (2007) and others


that found benefits in knowledge and exposure to more than

one language.

Teachers need an understanding of how to carefully

choose their own language to allow for student

comprehension, as well as knowledge about how to help

students learn negotiating language use with others.

Earlier studies of teacher/student discourse focused

primarily on the syntax of students’ speech (Larson-

Freeman, 1985).

(Scollon & Scollon, 2001) further stated that with the

knowledge of language and language use, teachers will have

the ability to choose an appropriate language and teach

basic proficiency in language. Thus, the effectiveness of

language rests on language competence. In this sense,

teachers must be knowledgeable about language system in

order to help students’ gain language competence.

According to Ottenheimer, 2009, proficiency in

communication means different to different speakers,

depending on the context in which it is assessed. In a

similar way, awareness on effective classroom communication

is important to allow them determine their roles in

language development among students.


According to Chomsky (1968), linguistic competence is

the key to language proficiency in which it requires

producing and recognizing grammatically correct expressions

in language. However, according to Hymes (1972),

communicative competence is an important measure of

language proficiency in which it emphasizes the ability on

speaking appropriately in various social contexts and is

more than correct syntax.

Another type of competence that is important in

classrooms today is intercultural communicative compet

ence. According to Samovar, Porter, and McDaniel (2009),

this means having cross cultural and linguistic diversity

among peoples of different backgrounds.

Diverse learners inside the classroom requires a

diverse use of language during instruction. According to

Gee (2001), progressivists believe that immersion in rich,

meaningful, and natural communicative settings helps

learners acquire their native languages. It was further

explained by Nieto and Bode, 2008 that to support

multilingual learners, teachers must understand how these

learners learn different languages and must also have the

knowledge of multiple instructional models.


From the reviewed literatures and studies researchers

explicates that to foster language proficiency, exposure to

language and immersion in rich communicative settings are

necessary and important. Moreover, Teachers understanding

and knowledge of language and language use have

significance in achieving communicative competence. Thus,

the need for awareness on effective classroom communication

is suggested.

Gap Bridged by The Study

The reviewed studies researchers explicate that to

develop language proficiency, exposure to language and

immersion in rich communicative settings are necessary and

important. Moreover, Teachers understanding and knowledge

of language and language use have significance in

developing learners’ language competence. Also, the need

for awareness on effective classroom communication is

suggested.

The present study covered the problems and

difficulties of grade 12 learners along sociolinguistic and

strategic competence. It looked into the commonly used gay

lingo words of grade 12 learners when they apologize, greet

people, request/give a command, commend, call someone.


In understanding how gay lingo helps in the

enhancement of sociolinguistic and strategic competence,

the study considered the commonly used gay lingo words of

grade 12 learners applied in different contexts in the

eight (8) secondary schools of Magallanes, province of

Sorsogon.

The study also investigated the difficulties

encountered by grade 12 learners along sociolinguistic and

strategic competence. The results and discussion obtained

from the survey and interview formed basis of compiling all

the basic gay lingo words to enrich and enhance the

communicative competence of grade 12 learners along

sociolinguistic and strategic competence. This is the gap

bridged by the study.

Conceptual Framework

In the light of enhancing the communicative competence

of grade 12 learners in the eight (8) secondary schools of

Magallanes using gay lingo, the study utilized the IPO or

the Input Process and Output model.

The input covers the following: language difficulty

students have along:(a) Strategic Competence


(b)Sociolinguistic Competence; the commonly used gay lingo

of Grade 12 students to: (a)Apologize, (b)Greet people,

(c)Request/Give a command, (d)Commend, (e)Call someone; how

gay lingo, help in the enhancement of strategic and

sociolinguistic competence of Grade 12 students; proposed

action to enhance the strategic and sociolinguistic

competence of the Grade 12 students.

In order to collect the necessary inputs, the study

utilized survey, documentation and interview to the

respondents, this served as process. The output of the

study is a compilation of basic gay lingo words used to

enhance the communicative competence of grade 12 learners

that may also serve as a reference or basis for future

study or researches.

The results of the data and information from the

survey and interview are the feedback which may serve as a

new input for the enhancement of students’ communicative

competence.
1. language
difficulty
students have
along:
a. Strategic
Competence
b. Sociolinguisti
c Competence
2. The commonly used
gay lingo of
Grade 12 students
to:
a. Apologize
b. Greet people
c. Request/Give a A compilation
command of basic gay
d. Commend Survey lingo words to
e. Call someone enhance
Documentation
3. Gay lingo, help communicative
in the Interview competence of
enhancement of grade 12
strategic and students
sociolinguistic
competence of
Grade 12
students.
4. Proposed action
to enhance the
strategic and
sociolinguistic
competence of the
Grade 12
students.
FEEDBACK

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, and

the instrument used by the researcher. Also included are

the data collection and data analysis procedures.

Research Design

This study intends to enhance the communicative

competence of Grade 12 students in the eight (8) secondary

schools of Magallanes using gay lingo.

This study used the descriptive method were in the

researcher interprets and analyze the data through

interpretations and descriptions. The respondents of the

study were the grade 12 students in the eight (8) secondary

schools of Magallanes, province of Sorsogon. A researcher

made questionnaire and interview were used to gather

important data about the strategic and sociolinguistic

competence of the respondents using gay lingo. The data


were analyzed and interpreted according to the result of

the survey and interview.

Research Instrument

This study used a researcher-made survey questionnaire

and interview schedule as the instrument to determine how

gay lingo help in the enhancement of the communicative

competence of Grade 12 students in the eight (8) secondary

schools of Magallanes.

The researcher drafted the questionnaire as per

recommendation of the panel of evaluators during the title

defense. The revised questionnaire was shown to the thesis

adviser for refinement and for final approval. The dry-run

was taken on ________________ for grade 12 students in

Magallanes National High School, Magallanes, Sorsogon.

Before conducting the dry run the researcher made the

respondents understood the purpose of survey and interview,

the manner of answering them specially with the items that

need clarifications.

The process was undertaken to ascertain that the

everything were within the level of respondents’

understanding and objectivity. Likewise, it was for the

purpose of measuring or checking the uniformity of the


materials, methods and procedure in the administration as

well as the interpretation of the results.

Data Collection Procedure

For the appropriateness and accuracy of the

questionnaire, the researcher presented it to his adviser

for technical assistance. In line with this, the researcher

has followed a considerable steps in gathering the data for

this study. Prior to the conduct of the study, the

researcher sought permission from the Schools Division

Superintendent of the Division of Sorsogon Province to

conduct this study. a letter was written and sent to the

School Head of the respondents’ schools with a copy sent to

the Schools Division Superintendent informing the school’s

involvement in the study at hand. Letters of similar

content were then given to the teachers and students of the

identified schools who are subject to this study.

After communication with the concerned individuals was

established, survey and interview were conducted and

administered personally by the researcher on October, 2019.

The respondents were guided by the researcher in the

interview and survey. Then the results were retrieved and

compiled afterwards.
Data Collection Analysis

The data gathered were consolidated and analyzed

qualitatively. The researcher provides descriptive

analysis and interpretation based from the results obtained

in the survey and interview with the respondents.