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Automobile Components and

Technology – ME 7730

Unit - I
Unit - I
Types of Automobile – Vehicle
Construction – Chassis – Frame and Body –
aerodynamics – Components of Engine – Their
forms, Functions and Materials – Review of
Cooling and Lubrication Systems in Engine –
Turbo Chargers –Engine Emission Control by 3-
way Catalytic Controller – Electronic Engine
Management System
Introduction
 An automobile is a self propelled vehicle which is used for
the transportation of passengers and goods upon the
ground.
 A vehicle is a machine which is used for the transportation
of passengers and goods.
 A self propelled vehicle is that in which power required
for the propulsion is produced from within.
 Aeroplane, ship, motor boat, locomotive , car, bus, truck,
jeep, tractor, scooter, motorcycle are the examples of self
propelled vehicle.
 Mobile or motive means one which can
move.
 Automobile or automotive means one
which itself can move.
 Railway wagon, trolley
 Aeronautical Engg., Aeroplane, helicopter,
rocket
 Marine Engg., - ship, motor boat.
Types of Automobiles

1. Purpose
 Passenger vehicles – car, jeep, bus
 Goods vehicles – Truck
2. Capacity
1. light motor vehicles – car, motorcycles, scooter,
2. Heavy motor vehicles – bus, coach, tractor
3. Fuel use
1. Petrol vehicles – car, jeep, motorcycles, scooter
2. Diesel vehicles – truck, bus, tractor, bull dozer
3. Electric cabs – battery truck, fork lift
4. Steam carriages – steam road rollers
4. No. of wheels
1. two wheeler, 2. three wheelers, 3. four wheelers, 4. six
wheeler
5. Drive of the vehicles
1. single wheel drive, 2. two wheel drive, 3. four wheel drive
and 4. six wheel drive.
Specifications of Automobile – while
purchasing
1. Type: car, truck, scooter, motorcycle, bus
2. Capacity: 5 ton, 3 ton, 4 seater, 6 seater, 30
seater and 45 seater.
3. Make: Tata, Leyland,…
4. Drive: Left hand drive, Right hand drive, single
wheel drive,…
5. Model: Year of manufacture or code number
Functions of the Chassis Frame
1. To carry load of the passengers or goods carried
in the body.
2. To support the load of the body, engine, gear
box etc.,
3. To withstand the forces caused due to the
sudden braking or acceleration
4. To withstand the stresses caused due to the bad
road condition.
5. To withstand centrifugal force while cornering
Types of Chassis Frames
There are three types of frames
1. Conventional frame
2. Integral frame
3. Semi-integral frame
Layout of Chassis
1. Conventional frame:
It has two long side members and 5 to 6
cross members joined together with the help of
rivets and bolts. The frame sections are used
generally.
a. Channel Section - Good resistance to bending
b. Tabular Section - Good resistance to Torsion
c. Box Section - Good resistance to both bending and
Torsion
A- Longitudinal
member
B- Cross member
C- Body supporting
Brackets
E1- Dumb iron (act as
bearing)
E- spring mounting
brackets
2. Integral Frame:
• This frame is used now a days in most of the
cars.
• There is no frame and all the assembly units are
attached to the body.
• All the functions of the frame carried out by the
body itself.
• Due to elimination of long frame it is cheaper and
due to less weight most economical also.
Only disadvantage is repairing is difficult.
3. Semi - Integral Frame:
In some vehicles half frame is fixed in the front end
on which engine gear box and front suspension is
mounted.
It has the advantage when the vehicle is met with
accident the front frame can be taken easily to
replace the damaged chassis frame.
This type of frame is used in FIAT cars and some of
the European and American cars.
Various loads acting on the frame are
1. Short duration Load - While crossing a broken
patch.
2. Momentary duration Load - While taking a curve.
3. Impact Loads - Due to the collision of the
vehicle.
4. Inertia Load - While applying brakes.
5. Static Loads - Loads due to chassis parts.
6. Over Loads - Beyond Design capacity.
Vehicle body
Vehicle body is the super structure of
the vehicle. Body is bolted to the chassis.
The chassis and the body make the
complete vehicle. Body is just like a cover
to the chassis.
Requirements of Bodies for Various Types of
Vehicle
1. The body should be light.
2. It should have minimum number of components.
3. It should provide sufficient space for passengers and
luggage.
4. It should withstand vibrations while in motion.
5. It should offer minimum resistance to air.
6. It should be cheap and easy in manufacturing.
7. It should be attractive in shape and colour.
8. It should have uniformly distributed load.
9. It should have long fatigue life
10. It should provide good vision and ventilation.
Influence of flow characteristics on the
operation of vehicles
Objectives of improvement of flow past vehicle
bodies:
 reduction of fuel consumption
 more favourable comfort characteristics (mud
deposition on body, noise, ventilating and cooling
of passenger compartment)
 improvement of driving characteristics
(stability, handling, traffic safety)
Vehicle aerodynamics includes three
interacting flow fields:
 flow past vehicle body
 flow past vehicle components (wheels, heat
exchanger, brakes, windshield)
 flow in passenger compartment
Drag Force: Acting in the direction of
vehicle motion with the wind acting the
longitudinal direction axis. This force is
also called as air resistance.

Lift Force: Vertical component of the


resultant force caused by the pressure
distribution on the body.
Engine Components
 Cylinder block,
 cylinder head,
 crank case,
 cylinder liner,
 piston,
 piston rings,
 connecting rod,
 crank shaft,
 cam shaft,
 inlet and outlet valves,
 spark plug,
 valve mechanisms and
 fly wheel.
Cylinder Block

 Cylinder block, cylinder head and


crankcase form the foundation and
main stationary body of the
automobile

 They serve as support and


enclosure for moving parts
A Cylinder block consists of three parts

1. The cylinder in which the pistons slid


up and down

2. The ports or openings for the valves

3. The passages for the flow of cooling


water

Materials: Cast iron/Aluminium


Cylinder Head
 The top of the cylinder is covered by a separate
cast piece known as the cylinder head.

 Bolted to cylinder block

 It contains combustion chamber

 Spark plug and sometimes valves are mounted in


it

 It incorporates passages for the flow of cooling


water

 It is cast separately from the cylinder block so that


it may be removed for cleaning carbons.

Material: Gray iron / Aluminum alloy


Cylinder head Gaskets
A gasket is place between the cylinder head
and cylinder block – to retain
compression in the cylinder
- To prevent leakage
- To ensure metallic tight fit joint
- Withstand high pressure
- Withstand high temperature
Materials:
1. Copper asbestos gasket
2. Steel asbestos gasket
3. Steel asbestos – copper gasket
4. Single steel ridged or corrugated gasket
5. Stainless steel gasket
Crankcase
 Attached to the bottom face of the cylinder block

 It acts as the base of the engine

 It supports the crankshaft and camshaft in suitable bearings

 Provides the arms for supporting the engine on the frame

Materials: Ferrous alloy or semi steel – to provide a stronger and


harder casting, Aluminum alloy

Oil Pan:

The bottom half of the crankcase is called the oil pan or sump

The oil pan serves as a reservoir for the storage, cooling and
ventilation of engine lubricating oil.
Cylinder liners
 a bore in which an engine piston moves
back and forth
 replaceable
 the material of the liner must withstand
extreme heat and pressure developed
within the combustion space at the top of
the cylinder, and at the same time must
permit the piston and its sealing rings to
move with a minimum of friction
Cylinder liners

 The problem of cylinder wear is


considered and this has been
solved by the use of cylinder
liners

 They are in the form of barrels


made of special alloy iron
containing silicon, manganese,
nickel and chromium
1. Dry liners
 Is made in the shape of a barrel having
a flange at the top which keeps it into
position in the cylinder block.

 The entire outer surface of the dry liner


bears against the cylinder block casting
and hence has to be machined very
accurately from the outside

 It is not in direct contact with the


cooling water and hence is known as
dry liner

 Thickness from 1.5 mm to 3 mm


2. Wet liners

 A wet liner forms a complete


cylinder

 The liner is in direct contact with


the cooling water

 The outer surface of the liner


does not require accurate
machining

 Wet liner are thicker than dry


liner
Piston
Functions
1. To receive the thrust generated
by the explosion of the gas in
the cylinder and transmit it to
the connecting rod
2. To reciprocate in the cylinder as
a gas tight plug causing
suction, compression,
expansion and exhaust strokes
3. To form a guide and bearing to
the small end of the connecting
rod and to take the side thrust
due to the obliquity
Piston must posses the following qualities

1. Rigidly to withstand high pressure

2. Lightness to reduce the weight of the reciprocating


masses and so enable higher engine speeds

3. Good heat conductivity

4. Silence in operation

5. Material having low expansion and provision to allow for


different expansion rates of cast iron cylinder block and
aluminium piston
Piston clearance

1. It provide a space for a film of lubricant between the


piston and cylinder wall to reduce friction.

2. It prevents piston seizure. Due to very high operating


temperature, piston and cylinder block expand.

3. If there is no clearance between the piston and cylinder, it


will be impossible for the piston to reciprocate in the
cylinder
Combustion Chamber
- Is the space enclosed between the piston head
and cylinder head when the piston is at the top
dead centre position.
- air fuel mixing and combustion takes place in
it.
Types
1. Spherical
2. I- Shape
3. T- Shape
4. F- Shape
5. L- Shape
1. Spherical Shape
2. I- Shape

High speed vehicle and racing cars


3. T-Shape Combustion Chamber
4. F-Shape Combustion Chamber
5. L-Shape Combustion Chamber
Combustion Chamber for Diesel
Engines
1. Open Combustion – Medium Speed
2. Pre-Combustion – High Speed
3. Swirl combustion Chamber
 Swirl is a circular motion which is given to
the incoming air during the suction stroke
4. Squish Combustion Chamber

Squish is a flow of air which goes from periphery to the


centre of the cylinder
5. Air cell and Energy Cell
Piston Rings
 Is fitted into the grooves of the piston to maintain good
seal between the piston and the cylinder wall.
Functions
1. To provide a pressure seal to prevent blow by of burnt
gases. Blow-by is the name that describes the escape of
burnt gases from the combustion chamber
2. To form the main path for conduction of heat from the
piston crown to the cylinder walls.
3. To control the flow of oil to the skirt and rings

Materials: Fine-grained alloy cast iron


Piston Rings - Nomenclature
Types of Rings
1. Compression rings seal in the air – fuel
mixture as it is compressed, and also the
combustion pressure as the mixture burns.
2. Oil control Rings – Scrape off excessive oil
from the cylinder wall and return it to the oil
pan.

The piston rings are split so that they can be


expanded and slipped over the piston head
Joints
Connecting Rod
 Connection between the piston and crankshaft
 Function: To convert linear motion of the piston into rotary
motion of the crankshaft
 Material : aluminium alloy
Crankshaft
 Is the first part in the power transmission system
 Material: Alloy steel
Valves
 Valve is a device to close and open a passage
 It is made of austenitic stainless steel

Poppet Valve
Valve mechanism for
operating the valve in
engine block (Straight
poppet valve)
Valve mechanism for
operating the valve in
cylinder head (overhead
poppet valve)
Camshaft
A camshaft is simply a shaft on which
cams are mounted.

A cam is a device that changes rotary


motion of the camshaft into linear
motion of the follower or lifter.
 Cooling systems in Engine
 Purpose
 Types/methods

 Lubrication systems in Engine


 Purpose
 Types/methods
What is the necessity of cooling in IC engines?
• When the air-fuel mixture is ignited and
combustion takes place at about 2500º C for
producing power inside an engine, the temperature
of the cylinder, cylinder head, piston and valve,
continuous to raise when the engine runs.

• If these parts are not cooled by some means then


they likely to get damaged and even melted. The
piston may cease inside the cylinder.
……What is the necessity of cooling in IC
engines?
• To prevent this, the temperature of the parts
around the combustion chamber is maintained to
200º to 250º C.
• Too much of cooling will lower the thermal
efficiency of the engine.
• Hence the purpose of cooling is to keep the
engine at its most efficient operating temperature
at all engines speeds and all driving conditions.
Cooling system is provided on an engine for the
following reasons
 The even expansion of piston in the cylinder may
result in seizure of the piston
 High temperature reduce strength of piston and
cylinder liner
 Overheated cylinder may lead to preignition of the
charge, in case of spark ignition engine
 Physical and chemical changes may occur in
lubricating oil which may cause sticking of piston rings
and excessive wear of cylinder.
Two methods of cooling IC engine
1. Air cooling
2. Liquid cooling
1. Air cooling
 Heat is carried away by the
air flowing over and around
the engine cylinder.
 It is used in scooters,
motorcycles etc.
 Here fins are cast on the
cylinder head and cylinder
barrel which provide
additional conductive and
radiating surface.
Advantage
1. The design of the engine becomes simpler as no
water jackets are required. The cylinder can be of
identical dimensions and individually detachable and
therefore cheaper to renew in case of accident etc.
2. Absence of cooling pipes, radiator etc. makes the
cooling system simpler.
3. No danger of coolant leakage etc.
4. The engine is not subjected to freezing troubles.
5. The weight per B.H.P of the air-cooled engine is less
than that of water cooled engine
6. In this case engine is rather a self contained unit as
it requires no external components e.g., radiator,
headers, tank etc.
7. Installation of air-cooled engines is easier.
Disadvantage
1. Their movement is noisy
2. Non-uniform cooling
3. The output of air-cooled engine is less than that
of a liquid cooled engine
4. Maintenance is not easy
5. Smaller useful compression ratio.
2. Liquid Cooling
 The cylinder walls and heads are provided with
jackets through which the cooling liquid can
circulate.
 The heat is transferred from cylinder walls to the
liquid by convection and conduction.
 The liquid becomes heated in its passage through
the jackets and is itself cooled by means of an
air-cooled radiator system.
 The heat from liquid in turn is transferred to air.
Various method for circulating the
water:
1. Thermo-syphon cooling
2. Forced or pump cooling
3. Cooling with thermostatic regulator
4. Pressurised water cooling
5. Evaporative cooling
1. Thermo-syphon cooling
1. Thermo-syphon cooling
• The basis of this type of cooling is the fact that water
becomes light on heating.

• The top of radiator is connected to the top of water jacket


by a pipe and bottom of the radiator to the bottom of the
water jacket.

• Water travels down the radiator across which air passed to


cool it.

• The air flow can take place due to vehicle motion or a fan
can be provided for the purpose.
………1. Thermo-syphon cooling
• Advantage:
• it is quite simple and automatic and is without
any water pump unless there is leak, there is
nothing to get out of order.

• Shortcoming:
• cooling depends only on the temperature and
is independent of the engine speed. The rate of
circulation is slow and insufficient.
Forced or Pump System
 In this system, a pump is used
to cause positive circulation of
water in the water jacket.
Usually the pump is belt driven
from the engine.
Advantage:
 cooling is ensured under all conditions of operation.
Demerits:
 The cooling is independent of temperature. This may
under certain circumstances result in over cooling the
engine.
 While moving uphill the cooling requirement is
increased because more fuel is burned. However, the
coolant circulation is reduced which may results in
over heating the engine.
 As soon as the engine is stopped the cooling also
ceases. This is undesirable because cooling must
continue till the temperatures are reduced to normal
values.
3. Thermostat Cooling
 Too lower cylinder
barrel temperature,
may result in severe
corrosion damage due
to condensation of acids
on the barrel wall.
 To avoid such a
situation it is customary
to use a thermostat (a
temperature controlling
device) to stop flow of
coolant below a pre-set
cylinder barrel
temperature.
5. Evaporative Cooling
Lubrication
 Lubrication is the admittance of oil between two surfaces
having relative motion.
Purpose of Lubrication:
1. Reduce friction and wear between the parts having relative
motion.
2. Cool the surfaces by carrying away heat generated due to
friction.
3. Seal a space adjoining the surfaces such as piston rings and
cylinder liner.
4. Clean the surface by carrying away the carbon and metal
particles caused by wear.
5. Absorb shock between bearings and other parts and
consequently reduce noise.
Properties of Lubricants
1. Viscosity
2. Fire point
3. Pour point
4. Flash point
5. Cloud point
6. Corrosion
7. Oiliness
8. Emulsification
9. Physical stability
10. Chemical stability
11. Neutralisation number
12. Adhesiveness
13. Film strength
14. Specific Gravity
Main parts of an engine to be lubricated
1. Main crankshaft bearings
2. Big end bearings
3. Small end or gudgeon pin bearings
4. Piston rings and cylinder walls
5. Timing gears
6. Camshaft and camshaft bearings
7. Valve mechanism
8. Valve guides, valve tappets and rocker arms
Classification of Lubrication System
1. Wet sump lubrication system

2. Dry sump lubrication system

3. Mist lubrication system


1. Wet sump lubrication system
 These systems employ a large capacity oil sump
at the base of crank chamber, from which the oil
is drawn by a low pressure oil pump and
delivered to various parts.

 Oil there gradually returns back to the sump after


serving the purpose.
This system is used for
a) Splash System some small four stroke
stationary engines.
In this case the caps on
the big ends bearing of
connecting rods are
provided with scoops
which, when the
connecting rod is in
the lowest position,
just dip into oil troughs
and thus direct the oil
through holes in the
caps to the big end
bearings.
…….Splash Lubrication
 Due to splash of oil it reaches the lower portion
of the cylinder walls, crankshaft and other parts
requiring lubrication.

 Surplus oil eventually flow back to the oil sump.


Oil level in the troughs is maintained by means of
a oil pump which takes oil from sump, through a
filter.
b) Semi-pressure system
This method is a combination of splash
and pressure systems. It incorporates the
advantage of both.
c) Full pressure system
 In this system, oil from oil sump is pumped under pressure to the
various parts requiring lubrication.
 The oil is drawn from the sump through filter and pumped by
means of a gear pump.
 Oil is delivered by the pressure pump at pressure ranging from
1.5 to 4 bar. The oil under pressure is supplied to main bearings
of crankshaft and camshaft.
 Holes drilled through the main crankshafts bearing journals,
communicate oil to the big end bearings and also small end
bearings through hole drilled in connecting rods.
 A pressure regulating valve is also provided on the delivery side of
this pump to prevent excessive pressure.
 The general
arrangement of wet
sump lubrication system
is shown in figure. In
this case oil is always
contained in the sump
which is drawn by the
pump through a
strainer.
 In this system, oil
from the sump is
2. Dry Sump Lubrication System carried to a separate
storage tank outside
the engine cylinder
block. The oil from
sump is pumped by
means of a sump
pump through filters
to the storage tank.
 Oil from storage
tank is pumped to
the engine cylinder
through oil cooler.
 It is adopted for
high capacity
engines
3. Mist Lubrication System
 This system is used for two stroke engines.
 These engines are lubricated by adding 2 to 3 per cent
lubricating oil in the fuel tank.
 The oil and fuel mixture is induced through the carburetor.
The gasoline is vaporised; and the oil in the form of mist,
goes via crankcase into the cylinder.
 The oil which impinges on the crankcase walls lubricates
the main and connecting rod bearings, and rest of the oil
which passes on the cylinder during charging and
scavenging periods, lubricates the piston, piston rings and
the cylinder.
Engine Emission
Air pollutants
1. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- Is produced because of insufficient supply of air for combustion
- This reduces the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the
body tissues
- It will affect nervous system, vision and heart
2. Oxides of Nitrogen
- In high temperatures, nitrogen reacts with oxygen and
produces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide
- They affect living organisms, blood purification system
- it may be mixed with moisture and produce dilute nitric acid
and affects hearts
3. Hydrocarbons
- is produced due to incomplete combustion
- it produces smog, this affects vision
- smog is the mixture of fog and smoke
4. Photo chemical smog
- Some hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen in exhaust
react with atmospheric air in the presence of sunlight and
produce photochemical smog
- It affect vision and respiratory system

Fog: Droplets of water vapour suspended in the air near the ground
Smoke: A cloud of fine particles suspended in a gas
5. Smoke:
- Is produced because of insufficient mixing of fuel and air.
- It contain carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
- This causes irritation of the eyes, coughing, headache and
vomiting
Blue white smoke – when more carbon particles are mixed with
exhaust
6. Lead:
- Lead is poisonous
- It is produced from the combustion of gasoline
- It affects liver and kidneys
- It causes mental effects to children
7. Particulate:
- Are minute separate particles found in the air.
- They may be solid and liquid particles. The dust soot and fly ash
are included in it.
- It causes respiratory diseases, lung cancer and allergic disease
8. Sulphur oxide:
- Is produced, if fuel contains sulphur
- It causes irritation to eye and throat and respiratory system
- It corrodes materials
Engine Emission Control by Catalytic Converter
Motor vehicle emission are emission produce by motor vehicles. They
include

 Hydrocarbons (HC)

 Carbon monoxide (CO)

 Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)

Types

Two way catalytic converter

Three way catalytic converter


Exhaust Gasses

HC increases NOx
increases

Richer 14.7 – 1 AFR Leaner

HC and CO
NOx
decreases
decreases
 The basic materials of the three-way catalytic converter are
platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and palladium (Pd), and
a thin coat of their mixture is applied onto a honeycomb or
porous ceramic (carrier).
 To avoid damaging the catalytic converter, only unleaded
gasoline should be used.
 The catalytic converter reduces HC, CO and NOx in
exhaust gases through chemical reactions (oxidation and
reduction). These concentrations vary with the air-fuel
ratio.
 The ideal air-fuel ratio for reduction of these components is
the stoichiometric ratio.
 Therefore, the air-fuel ratio needs to be controlled to
around the stoichiometric ratio to purify the exhaust
gases most efficiently.
THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER
Chemical Reaction
Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide:
2 CO + O2 = CO2

Oxidation of un-burnt hydrocarbons (HC) to carbon


dioxide and water:
2 C2H6 + 7 O2 = 4 CO2 + 6 H2O

Reduction of nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and


oxygen:
2 NO + 2 CO = N2 + 2 CO2
Air Fuel Ratio
Electronic Engine Management System
 Is made up of sensors, actuators and related wiring and
connected to central processor called microprocessor
 It monitor and gather information and even send feedback
signal to control it
 Minimises emissions
 Maximises fuel efficiency and engine output

Sensors: Any device that receives a signal and responds to it in a


distinctive manner
Actuators: A mechanism that puts something into automatic action
Block diagram of engine management system