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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

An oil reservoir has been discovered in the North Sea. A vertical well has been drilled, a test string inserted and flow characteristics measured. Fluid properties at stock tank and laboratory conditions have been obtained. Reservoir simulations have been performed to predict the change in watercut over the field life. The reservoir pressure will be maintained by water injection and the preference is to avoid the use of artificial lift methods. The engineer is asked to perform the following tasks:

l

Develop a blackoil model to match the laboratory data. It is necessary to develop a method of predicting the fluid physical properties so that the pressure losses and heat transfer characteristics can be calculated.

l

Develop a well inflow performance model applicable throughout field life. This provides a relationship between the reservoir pressure, the flowing bottom hole pressure and flowrate through the formation.

l

Select a suitable tubing size for the production string.

l

Engineering data.

Task 1. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model

No analysis work can be carried out until a blackoil fluid model has been developed. This allows all of the fluid physical properties to be estimated over the range of pressures and temperatures encountered by the fluid. These physical properties are subsequently used to determine the phases present, the flow regime, the pressure losses in single and multiphase flow regions, and the heat transferred to or from the surroundings. The following steps are to be carried out:

l

Obtain a partially calibrated blackoil model using the stock tank and bubble point properties.

l

Plot the partially calibrated oil formation volume factor (OFVF) over a range of pressures and temperatures to identify any differences between the measured and the predicted properties. Any discrepancies will lead to fluid flow modelling errors.

l

Apply calibration to the OFVF above the bubble point pressure and observe how the property curves are corrected.

l

Apply calibration to the OFVF below the bubble point pressure and observe how the property curves are corrected.

l

Apply calibration to the oil viscosity using first the measured dead oil data and then further tuning with live oil data.

l

Apply calibration to the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility.

1. After starting PIPESIM use the <File/new/well> menu to open a new well performance

model and save this in your training directory (for example, c:\training\

).

2. Use the <Setup/blackoil

>

menu to enter the stock tank oil properties and the bubble point

properties given at the end of the case study. Help on the definitions and valid ranges of

these stock tank properties can be obtained by selecting the header bar and clicking on the relevant data entry field.

header bar and clicking on the relevant data entry field. button from the dialog 3. Press

button from the dialog

3. Press the OKbutton and save the model.

4. Use the <Setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>menu and press the plot PVT

data

button.

(Note: do not enter the advanced calibration data at this stage).

5. Use the <Series> menu to plot the oil formation volume factor on the y axis.

Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

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The following plot should be obtained:

Design Page 2 of 10 The following plot should be obtained: The partially calibrated curve for

The partially calibrated curve for a temperature of 210 °F shows that the predicted OFVF is higher than the measured value both above and below the bubble point pressure. At 4,269 psia the predicted value is 1.52 compared to the measured value of 1.49 and at 2,000 psia the predicted value is 1.41 compared to the measured value of 1.38. Therefore further calibration is required.

Calibration

1. Apply OFVF calibration above the bubble point pressure. The measured value is 1.49 @ 4,269 psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained:

Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design Page 3 of 10 2. Apply OFVF calibration

2. Apply OFVF calibration below the bubble point pressure. The measured value is 1.38 @ 2,000 psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained:

psia and 210 °F. The following plot should be obtained: Calibration of the oil viscosity requires

Calibration of the oil viscosity requires two dead oil data points. The uncalibrated default approach is to use the Beggs and Robinson correlation which gives values of 1.561 cP @

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200°F and 23.27 cP @°70°F. The Beggs and Robinson correlation uses the oil API gravity to predict two dead oil data points based upon data obtained from around 2,000 data points from 600 oil systems.

3. Plot the uncalibrated oil viscosity. The following plots should be obtained:

oil viscosity. The following plots should be obtained: In this case it can be seen that

In this case it can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70°F and 14.7 psia is 23.27 cP as specified by the Beggs & Robinson correlation. This is significantly different from the measured dead oil data and would lead to errors in the prediction of pressure loss.

4. Open the <Setup/blackoil/viscosity data>menu and select the correlation option "user data". Enter the two measured values of 0.31 cP @ 200°F and 0.8 cP @ 70°F. The following plot should be obtained:

Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design Page 5 of 10 It can be seen

It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 70°F and 14.7 psia is 0.8 cP consistent with the laboratory dead oil data.

5. Open the <setup/blackoil/advanced calibration data>menu and enter the live oil calibration data of 0.29 cP@ 2,000 psia and 210°F. The following plot should be obtained:

psia and 210°F. The following plot should be obtained:

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It can be seen that the predicted oil viscosity value at a temperature of 210°F and 2000 psia is 0.29 cP consistent with the laboratory live oil data.

6. Proceed to calibrate the gas viscosity and the gas compressibility using the calibration data given earlier.

Task 2. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model

A straight line productivity index (PI) method is considered adequate in this case because the fluid flows into the completion at a pressure considerably above the bubble point and no gas comes out of solution at this stage. This applies throughout field life and the productivity index is not expected to change. The PI will not be affected by changes to the reservoir pressure because the reservoir pressure is to be maintained by water injection. The PI will not be affected by changes to the watercut through field life because the oil and water have similar mobilities in this reservoir structure. The following step is to be carried out:

l Use the drill string test data to obtain a representative productivity index.

First it is necessary to add a vertical completion to the model. This is done by pointing and clicking on the vertical completion button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area. A vertical completion appears asshown below.

the work area. A vertical completion appears asshown below. vertical completion button vertical completion Double click

vertical completion button

completion appears asshown below. vertical completion button vertical completion Double click on the vertical completion

vertical completion

Double click on the vertical completion in the work area to enter data relevant to that item. Enter the static reservoir pressure of 4,269 psia and the reservoir temperature of 210°F. Press the "

"calculate/graph

button and this will calculate a productivity index to be used throughout the analysis work.

button and enter the drill string test data given below. Press the "plot IPR"

Task 3. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String

Find the smallest tubing size that will allow this production plan to be met on the basis that the production string will not be replaced during field life. The tubing sizes available are 31/2", 41/2" or 51/2" for which the I.D.'s are 2.992", 3.958" and 4.892".

This can be determined as follows:

l

Use the systems analysis operation to generate a plot of oil flowrate against watercut for each of the three tubing sizes.

l

Overlay the production plan data and identify the smallest size that allows this plan to be met.

First it is necessary to extend the model to include a tubing string.

1. Add a boundary node to the model by pointing and clicking on the boundary node button at the top of the screen and then pointing and clicking in the work area:

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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design Page 7 of 10 boundary node button boundary

boundary node button

Study - Oil Well Design Page 7 of 10 boundary node button boundary node 2. Then

boundary node

2. Then use the tubing button to connect the well to the boundary node:

Completed Model

to connect the well to the boundary node: Completed Model tubing button Note that the red
to connect the well to the boundary node: Completed Model tubing button Note that the red

tubing button

Note that the red outline indicates that essential data is missing for that component. Double click on the tubing to enter the well depth and the tubing thickness, roughness, overall heat transfer coefficient and ambient thermal gradient.

1. Select the <Operations/systems analysis> menu and setup the operation so that the calculated variable is liquid rate. The x axis variable is watercut with values of 0, 12, 20,35, 40, 47, 54 and 60%, representing the various stages of field life. The sensitivity variable is tubing I.D. with values of 2.992", 3.958" and 4.892".

2. Configure the output to give the water cut against the stock-tank oil rate at the outlet (this is achieved using the series option of PSPLOT):

Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design

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Well Performance Case Study - Oil Well Design Page 8 of 10 It can be seen

It can be seen that 41/2" tubing is the smallest size that will satisfy all of the production plan conditions.

Note: Don't forget to now set the tubing ID to 3.958 to reflect the 41/2" tubing for all subsequent simulations.

Data Available

Reservoir Conditions

Reservoir pressure 4,269 psia

Reservoir temperature

210°F

Stock Tank Oil Properties

Watercut 0%, GOR 892 scf/STB, Gas SG 0.83, Water SG 1.02,API 36.83

Bubble Point Properties

Pressure 2,647 psia, Temperature 210°F, Solution Gas 892scf/STB

Blackoil Calibration Data

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OFVF (above bubble point pressure)

1.49 @ 4,269 psia and 210°F

OFVF (below bubble point pressure)

1.38 @ 2,000 psia and 210°F

Dead oil viscosities

0.31 cP @ 200°F and 0.8 cP @ 70°F

Live oil viscosity

0.29 cP @ 2,000 psia and 210°F

Gas viscosity 0.019 cP @ 2,000 psia and 210°F

Gas compressibility (Z) 0.85@ 2,000 psia and 210°F

Deviation Survey

The well is vertical from the well head on the sea bed. Mid perforations are at a depth of 9,500 ft from the well head. The ambient temperature varies linearly between 210°F at mid perforations and 60°F at the wellhead. The minimum casing inner diameter is 10". The generally accepted overall heat transfer coefficient of 2 BTU/hr/ft 2 /°F for well bores can be used throughout.

Minimum Pressure Allowed at the Wellhead 300 psia

Multiphase flow correlation

Beggs & Brill revised

Production Strings Available:

I.D. (")

Wall thickness (")

Roughness (")

2.992

0.5

0.001

3.958

0.5

0.001

4.892

0.5

0.001

Drill String Test

Oil Flowrate (Q), sbbl/d

Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure (P wf ), psia

2,000

4,186

3,000

4,152

4,000

4,106

5,000

4,072

Production plan obtained from reservoir simulation

Year

Watercut (%)

Oil Flowrate, sbbl/d

0

0

12,000

4

12

10,500

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5 20

9,400

6 35

7,500

7 40

7,000

8 47

6,000

9 54

5,000

10 60

4,300