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Optimal
Shedding
Strategy
in Power
Systems with
Distributed
Generation
Ding
Xu,
Student
Member,
IEEE
A. Girgis,
Fellow,
IEEE
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Clemson University,
SC29634, USA
Abstract: An optimal load shedding strategy for power systems with
multiple distributed generation is presented. According to
distributed generation’s role in emergency state, they are classified
as the centraI generation type, non-dispatchable type and storage
type. The dynamic and static models of each type following a major
disturbance are developed. Based on the analysis of major
disturbance in grid system, interconnection or distributed generation
system, the load shedding is formulated as an optimization problem
subject to system, operation and security constraints. To handle the
differential equationsthat representthe dynamics of different
types
of generators, a discretization
technique
is
used to
transfer
differential equations into algebraic equations. The final non-linear
optimization problem is then solved by mathematical programming.
The method is first tested on a small system. Then a 30-bus
distribution system with multiple distributed generation is adopted
to test the proposed method for a more practical application.
Either utility or end user can install distributed generation.
Both of them will play a great role in restructured power
industry. Deregulation separates the power generation,
transmission and distribution. It is hoped that the competition
would reduce power generation cost. However, there will be
electricity price fluctuation in new environment. The
transmission and distribution cost may also be shown clearly
in the electricity bill. To avoid the effect of price fluctuation
and T& D cost, installing distributed generation is a better
comprise for end user. It is also predicted there will be more
distributed generation in utility systems. After deregulation,
the utility
distribution
companies
may
no longer
own
the
traditional power plants. And the competition makes them to
provide the best service to customer. Distributed generation is
good choice for utility distribution
company
to improve
power
quality,
power
supply
flexibility
and
optimize
the
Keywords:
Dynamic model
distribution
system.
In
the
future,
not
only
the
industrial
customers, but
also
the
utility
distribution
company
will
I.
INTRODUCTION
install distributed generation,
The primary function of power systems is to supply
electricity to its customers. However, whe,n the system itself
is in emergency state, it may shed partial loads to ensure the
power supply to important loads, as the last resort to maintain
system integrity. Load shedding in bulk power system has
been studied many years [1 ]-[6]. Basically, these methods
are either based on the simplified dynamic model that treat all
the generators in the system as one equivalent generator, or
shedding problem was treated in a different way, The
dynamic model was used and they were not cohered to one
equivalent generator. ‘The problem was then formulated as an
optimization tlmction with system, operation and security
constraints. In solving this problem, the discrezation
technique was used to transfer the differential equation to
algebraic equations.
More
distributed
generation
in
the
power
systems will
change the structure of distribution system and will introduce.
the new problems. One of the problems is the optimal load
shedding. There are some researches for end-users have been
finished in this field. In [11], the power system in a large
pump station is simulated by computer program. The studies
show the load shedding scheme can maintain
the power
supply to important load during disturbance. In [12], the
islanding and load shedding design for captive power plants
is presented. The main duty of load shedding is to maintain
the power
balance afler
islanding.
In
[13],
the simulation
method is used to design the load shedding in an integrated
process plant. [14] also describe a simulation based load
shedding design process for an integrated steehnaking
cogeneration facility. For the utility system, load shedding
with multiple
distributed generation is a new issue. However,
shedding
in
the
power
systems with
distributed
it will become an important subject in restructured power
system.
generation is studied here. Distributed generation is small-
scale power generation that is ‘usually connected to the
distribution system. It could be combustion engine, small
hydro, photovoltaic arrays, fiel cells, microturbines or battery
storage [8]. For utility, distributed generation can help to
maintain system stability [9], provide the spinning reserve
[10] and reduce the transmission and distribution cost. For
end user, the distributed generation can provide power supply
flexibility and improve power quality. For society, the
renewable energy can reduce the emission from the
This paper will fnt study the emergency state in the power
system with distributed generations and formulate the load
shedding problem as an optimization problem. Then the
characteristic of different distributed generation is discussed
and models are developed. Afler describing the solution
approach, the test results on a small system and a bigger
system are given.

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II.
EMERGENCY
STATE AND
SHEDDING
FORMULATION
A
power
system
with
distributed
generation may
have
following
structure.
shedding. In the past, when distributed generation system is
in emergency state, most loads may be shed, Only important
loads are supplied by the nearby distributed generation. This
method may maintain the power supply to important loads,
However, it can not utilize the maximum capacity of
distributed generation. Besides, if there are multiple
distributed generation in the distribution
system, it may be
difficult to define nearby generation. In this paper, we
formulate the load shedding problem in the power system
with distributed generation as an optimization problem. Its
I objective fimction is to minimize cost of load shedding afier
disturbance while maintain power supply to important load.
I
II
I
I
In formulating
this problem, we first establish the objective
function that is to minimize the cost of total load shedding. It
can be written as
o-j pK&’D3
(1)
1=1
where m is the number of loads to be
shed.
Ci is
Fig. 1 Typicrd power systems with multiple
distributed
generation
The
distributed
generation
may
around
the
This objective function should be subject to system,
security and operation constraints. These constraints may also
exist in the bulk power system. However, for the power
system with distributed generation, there may be some
special requirements. Firstly, to ensure the uninterrupted
power supply to certain load is the primary function of some
distribution
system that is connected to a grid system.
distributed- generation.
can not be shed at
constraint
So there may be some important load
any time. This will add following
When ‘tiere is a major disturbance, the power system with
distributed generation may enter the emergency state. Load
shedding is one of the emergency control actions. It is needed
in three cases. First, when there is a disturbance in the grid
system, the system operator may request the distribution
utility or industrial customer to shed load to maintain the
system integrity. Sometimes, the distributed generation
system has agreement with the grid system to curtail power in
emergency state [16]. Second, when there is a major
disturbance in distributed generation system itself, for
example, one or more distributed generation is lost, the load
shedding is needed to ensure the power consumption within
certain limit. Third, when there is a major disturbance in the
interconnection, the power systems with distributed
generation may be disconnected horn the grid system. To
maintain the power balance and. system stability, the load
shedding may be conducted in the power system with
distributed generation. All the three cases can be divided into
two categories. In the first category, the distributed
generation system is still connected to the grid system.
Usually, the tiequency in such system is maintained by the
grid system. In the second category, the distributed
generation system is separated ffom the grid system. It
becomes ishmding system. The dynamic model is needed in
analyzing such islanding system.
(2)
where P/iis the remaining load (after shedding) at bus i
~fiin
is the amount of load that cart not be shed at bus i
Secondly, the distributed generation exists in the
distribution system. Unlike the meshed transmission system,
the distribution system is usually radial system. Because the
restriction of protection system, the reverse power may not be
allowed in some lines. So besides the overload constraints,
there are constraints on power flow direction for certain lines.
It can be written as,
~j>o
(3)
<J is the active power flow from bus i to bus j
Thirdly,
there are some special characteristics for different
distributed
generation. We will
discuss them in detail in next
section.
Some other constraints are also included in formulating
this problem. Load flow equations are the system constraints.
It maybe
written as,
Basically,
there are two objectives for load shedding. The
fust
one is to maintain
the power
supply to the important

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789

~l~n~vnlcos(oin

fl=l

+ an

-di)

-

Pgi -

P,,

=

o

(4)

where Y is the admittance matrix V is the bus voltage

~ is the bus angle

The frequency, voltage and line flow are also required to be in certain range. It may be written as,

 HI. CHARACTERISTIC AND MODEL OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION As we mentioned in last section, the load shedding is

needed in two cases. In the first case, the power system with distributed generation is still connected to the grid system. The system frequency is primarily decided by the grid system. In this time flame, only the steady state model of distributed generation is required. In the second case, the distributed generation system is disconnected from the grid system. The system frequency is decided by the power balance in the islanding system. The dynamic model is required to analyze the load shedding in such case. So two models for each distributed generation are developed in this paper.

 For the steady state model, there are three kinds of distributed generation. The fwst kind of distributed

generations may include gas turbine, combustion engines and hydro generation. Those generations are similar to the central

generation. They can be dispatched in emergency state. There may be two constraints for this kind distributed generation. That is the output and the ramp rate. It must be pointed out that minimum output of some generation is an important constraint because of the cogeneration. They must generate certain power to ensure the heat supply. The ramp rate exists because the generator needs certain time to increase its output. These constraints can be written as,

~git

~ Apgi

,,mit

(9)

Where APgi, is the increasing output tlom moment t-1 to

moment t.

The second kind of distributed generations include some renewable energy, such as wind turbine, photovoltaic array. These generations can not be dispatched in emergency state. Their outputs are mainly decided by the input energy, such wind or solar thermal. Some type of generation output may

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be slightly affected by the system frequency and voltage. It may be written as

Pg,= F’(f,

Vgi)

(lo)

distributed

equipment. Some storage equipment can be dispatched in the emergency state. However it has different characteristic. Usually, the storage equipment has certain energy E. If it release power fast, the energy would be consumed quickly. This constraint can be written as,

generation is storage

The

third

kind

of

A P@At< E

t=l

(11)

where P@is the release power at time t.

E is the total available energy in the storage equipment.

Another consideration is the reactive power output of

generation that is more diversified than the

distributed

traditional generation. Some renewable energy based generation, such as wind generation, does not generate reactive power. There are three methods to handle reactive power for these generations. They may obtain reactive power from the system, by fixed amount of capacitor, or by controlled capacitor with fixed power factor. So there are two kinds of reactive output constraints for such distributed generation.

Q. = Qf. or Q. = W’g)

(14

The dynamic models of the distributed generation are more complicated. For the distributed generator that equipped with governor, a similar model for the central generation may be used. Their diagram is shown in figure 2 and can be written as

(14)

where Pm,is the prime mover input power

P. is the prime mover output power

P=is the power in generator

there is no governor control. Its

dynamical model can be represented as two connect

For the wind

turbine,

 dynamical components [ 15], [17]. Its mathematical equation would be,

to~ =

.

-( DG-D,)uG

MG

+( DG-D,

MG

)m,

+~T

MG

_~pG

m

MG

(15)

x,+l=xi
+At*dxldt
(17]
APm,
APm
Aco
1
The
dx/dt
is
treated
as
an
independent
variable
in
the
Ref.
+
optimization
problem.
So
only
the
algebraic
equations
is
z
involved in the entire problem. Similar to the first case, the
problem can be solved as a non-linear optimization problem,
AP
v. EXPAMPLE
FOR SAMLL
SYSTEM
The proposed
method
is first
tested on small system as
1
shown
in figure
1. Generator
1, 2
and
3
generate 6MW,
F
10MW and 2MW. Generator 2 is non-dispatchable generator.
Load 1, 2 and 3 consume 8MW, 6MW and 8MW. The
Fig 2. Generator Model
distributed generation system obtain 4MW from the grid
system. In the first case, the power systems with distributed
generation lose its 10MW generation and there is contract
between the distributed generation system and grid system
Iv. SOLUTION
APPROACH
that limits the power
transmission
to 6MW.
In
this
case the
static
model
is needed, We also assume the 2MW DSG is
As
we
mentioned
before,
there are two
kinds
non-dispatchable
generator. Using the optimization
algorithm
shedding problem. ln the first
case the distributed
generation
to conduct load shedding, we obtain following
results
system is still connected to the grid system. In this case, the
generator is using static model. However, the generator ramp
rate and storage constraints need to be included in this model.
Table 1
Although there is no differential equation
involved in this
optimization problem, the discretization is still needed
because of these time-related equations. In solving this
problem, the load shedding is divided into several steps. The
system, ,operation and security constraints should be satisfied
in each step. Then the time related equations, such as the
generator ramp and storage feature can be represented as the
additional constraints. So the entire problem become a typical
non-linear optimization problem. The mathematical
programming can be used to solve it.
In
the
second case, there
is a disturbance
in
the grid
system. The distributed generation system is required to cut
the total electricity consumer tlom the grid system to 2 MW.
The distributed generation system needs to conduct load
shedding. This is still a static load shedding. Using the
developed algorithm, we can obtain,
In the second case, the distributed generation system is
disconnected from the grid system. In this case the frequency
is changed because of power unbalance, Here brings two
problems, fwst one is how to estimate the power unbalance in
such system, If we neglect the oscillations between different
distributed generator, at the power change and frequency
have this relation,
Table 2
(16)
In
the
third
case,
there
is
a
disturbance
in
the
This equation can help us estiinate the power unbalance.
From measurement, we can obtain the frequency and its rate
of change. Using these two parameters, total power unbalance
in the system can be estimated. These unbalances are divided
among the dispatchable generators according to their inertia.
This value can be used as the initial value of each generator.
The second one is the dynamic models that is needed in the
islanding system. The dynamic models is represented by
differential equations. To handle the differential equation in
the problem, we also divide the load shedding into several
steps with time. The differential equations can be discretized
by following formulaj
interconnection. For example, one line is open in the double
line connection. The power limit in the interconnection
becomes 3MW. This is still a static case. Using the proposed
method, we obtain,
Table 3

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791

In the fourth case, we simulate the disconnection of the
grid system and distributed generation system, In this case,
the generators are modeled as the traditional generator with
dynamical model. So the load shedding is divided into several
steps.
29
I
Table 4
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
0.08
0.0796
0,0703
0.0521
0.0504
0.0501
0.0625
0.0616
0.0704
If
the
generator
1
is
a storage
equipment,
and
it releases
I
power
at 5MW, then we obtain
Table 5
If the releasing speed change to 7MW, them we have
Table 6
Fig 330
bus system
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
0.08
0.08
0.0736
Table 7
0.0551
0.0541
0.0533
0.0654
0.0649
0.0733
step 1
step 2
step 3
0.522 0.4818
0.397
Compare the above results, we found the releasing speed of
storage affects the load shedding schemes.
0.936 0.8368
0.731
0.189 0.1799
0.148
0.336 0.3101
0.271
VI. EXPAMPLE
FOR 30-BUS DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM
0.657 0.5742
0.473
0.783
0.7454
0.651
,. A. AA
‘ 14
u. (ZY
‘--
U.!305J
0.608
To test the possible application
for
a bigger
distribution
m-
0477
0.4193
0.366
system with multiple distributed generation, the proposed
method is also tested on a 30 bus distribution system [15].
This is a typical distribution system with radial structure. In
this system, we assume there are distributed generation at bus
10, 17, 24, 29 with different characteristics. Before the
disturbance, the grid system supply 4MW to the system with
49
0.5226
0.512
- 17
t
0477
04403
0.385
.,.
1==i=l
-.
.
-
-.
I
0.432
0.3776 0.348
0.672
0.6397 0.559
—-—- —-
0.495
0.4569
,
n MR
-.
.
.-
I
t,
distributed generation. When there is a major disturbance in
the interconnection, it may cause the disconnection between
the grid system and distributed generation system. This
equals to the system loss about 1/3 of its generation. To make
sure the power supply the important load, we use the
proposed method to decide the load shedding. Because of the
loss of interconnection, the distributed generation system
––
I
mfiaaln
AnAnt
-
---
J-.
.-———— I
nsd
92
1 CM71
17
r,
“.””
1
,
I
n
KAal
nbmm[
-
A~
becomes
a
islanding
system.
We
use
the
dynamic
system
29
I
model
to
formulate
the
optimization
problem.
The
0.81
0.8[
,
.,
-
.-1
shedding
is conducted
in
three
steps.
Table
7
is
the
final
I
result
of this
method.
This
case shows
the proposed
method
can be used for the relatively
larger system

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VII.
CONCLUSIONS
[8]
John Doughlas, “Power Delivery in the 21st Century,” EPRI
Journal, summer 1999
The optimal load shedding strategy in power system with
distributed generation was studied. According to its role in
the emergency state, the distributed generation is divided into
central generation type, non-dispatchable type and storage
~pe. Then the dynamic and static model for load shedding is
developed. The load shedding problem is formulated as an
optimization problem. The proposed discretization method
solved the problem successfully. The test results show the
proposed method may be used in the distribution system with
multiple distributed generation.
[9]
M.K
Donnelly,
J.E. Dagle,
D.J. Trudnowski,
and G,J. Rogers,
“Impacts of the Distributed Utility on Transmission System
Stability,” IEEE Transactionson Power Systems, vol. 11, N0,2,
May 1996, pp. 741-747
[10]
P.J, Okane, B. Fox and D.J. Morrow, “Impacts of embedded
generation on emergency reserve”, IEE Proc- gener. Transm.
Distrib. Vol. 146, No, 2, March 1999, pp. 159-163
[11]
S.R. Shilling, “Electrical transient and underfrequency load
shedding anatysis for a large pump station”, IEEE Transactions
on Industry Application, vol. 33, No. 1, Jarr/Feb 1997, pp. 194-201
There are two potential applications for this method.
The fwst one can be used in the planning stage to study the
system for emergency plan. For this application, the
calculation speed is not very important. So the more detailed
system can be used. And the more cases need to be prepared.
The second application is for real time application. In this
application, this method can be good helper for system
operator to decide load shedding. With today’s powerti.d
computer, this method can be successfully applied to the
increasing sized system in real time.
[12]
K. Ragarnarri and UK
Hambarde, “Islarrding
schemes for captive power plants,” IEEE Transactions on Power
Delive~, vol. 14, No. 3, July 1999, pp. 805-809
[13]
G. S. Grewat, J,W. Konowalec
and M.M.
Hakim,
“Optimization
of load shedding scheme in an Integrated
Process Plant,”
IEEE
Transactions on Industry Application,
1999, pp. 959-967
vol. 35, No. 4, July/August
[14]
C.T Hsu, C.S. Chen and J.K Chen, “The load shedding scheme
design for Integrated steelmaking cogeneration facility,” IEEE
Transactions on Industry Application, vol. 33, No.3, May/June
1997, pp. 586-592
VIII.
REFERENCES
[15]
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Ding Xu, is a Ph.D student at Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina.
He obtained his B.S and M.S. horn Tsirrghua University, Beijing,China.
[6]
M.A. Mostafaj M.E. E1-Hawary, G.A.N. Mbsmsdu, M.M.
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Adly A. Girgis, is a fellow of the IEEE. He received the B.S. (with
distinction first class honors) and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering
from Assuit University, Egypt. He received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical
Engineering from Iowa State University. He is currently Duke Power
Distinguished Professor of Power Engineering in the Electrical and
Computer Engineering Department, Clemson University, and the Director of
Clemson University Electric Power Resewch Association (CUEPRA). His
present research interests are rerd-time computer applications in power
system control, instrumentation and protection, signal processing, and
Kalmarr filtering applications in power systems

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