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~l~n~vnlcos(oin
fl=l
+ an
di)

Pgi 
P,,
=
o
(4)
where Y is the admittance matrix V is the bus voltage
~ is the bus angle
The frequency, voltage and line flow are also required to be in certain range. It may be written as,
HI. 
CHARACTERISTIC AND MODEL 
OF 

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION 

_{A}_{s} 
_{w}_{e} 
mentioned 
in 
last section, 
the 
load shedding 
is 
needed in two cases. In the first case, the power system with distributed generation is still connected to the grid system. The system frequency is primarily decided by the grid system. In this time flame, only the steady state model of distributed generation is required. In the second case, the distributed generation system is disconnected from the grid system. The system frequency is decided by the power balance in the islanding system. The dynamic model is required to analyze the load shedding in such case. So two models for each distributed generation are developed in this paper.
For 
the 
steady state model, 
there 
are 
three 
kinds 
of 

_{d}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{u}_{t}_{e}_{d} 
_{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} 
The 
fwst 
kind 
of 
distributed 
generations may include gas turbine, combustion engines and hydro generation. Those generations are similar to the central
generation. They can be dispatched in emergency state. There may be two constraints for this kind distributed generation. That is the output and the ramp rate. It must be pointed out that minimum output of some generation is an important constraint because of the cogeneration. They must generate certain power to ensure the heat supply. The ramp rate exists because the generator needs certain time to increase its output. These constraints can be written as,
~git
~ Apgi
,,mit
_{(}_{9}_{)}
Where APgi, is the increasing output tlom moment t1 to
moment t.
The second kind of distributed generations include some renewable energy, such as wind turbine, photovoltaic array. These generations can not be dispatched in emergency state. Their outputs are mainly decided by the input energy, such wind or solar thermal. Some type of generation output may
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790
be slightly affected by the system frequency and voltage. It may be written as
Pg,= F’(f,
Vgi)
(lo)
distributed
equipment. Some storage equipment can be dispatched in the emergency state. However it has different characteristic. Usually, the storage equipment has certain energy E. If it release power fast, the energy would be consumed quickly. This constraint can be written as,
generation is storage
The
third
kind
of
_{A} P@At< E
t=l
(11)
where P@is the release power at time t.
E is the total available energy in the storage equipment.
Another consideration is the reactive power output of
generation that is more diversified than the
distributed
_{t}_{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} Some renewable energy based generation, such as wind generation, does not generate reactive power. There are three methods to handle reactive power for these generations. They may obtain reactive power from the system, by fixed amount of capacitor, or by controlled capacitor with fixed power factor. So there are two kinds of reactive output constraints for such distributed generation.
Q. = Qf. or Q. = W’g)
(14
The dynamic models of the distributed generation are more complicated. For the distributed generator that equipped with governor, a similar model for the central generation may be used. Their diagram is shown in figure 2 and can be written as
(14)
where Pm,is the prime mover input power
P. is the prime mover output power
P=is the power in generator
there is no governor control. Its
dynamical model can be represented as two connect
For the wind
turbine,
dynamical 
components [ 15], [17]. Its mathematical equation 
would be, 
●
^{t}^{o}^{~} ^{=}
_{.}
( DGD,)uG
_{M}_{G}
+( DGD,
_{M}_{G}
)m,
+~T
MG
_~pG
m
MG
(15)
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