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Breafly describe the possible remedial strategies to help students with LD is

improving fluency, comprehention is reading and writing based on Moudule 4.

A good remedial program must be research-based, using proves teaching


methods Teach step by step without skipping over contact. Be conducted at the
student’s pace offer regular reviews and practice exercise to reinforce learning
and practice applying new knowledge, include a way to assess what the student
has learned and whether he is ready to move ahead.

Intervention strategies for learning and teaching.


1. Establish a supportive relationship with student.
2. Simplify language, repeat words and classify meaning.
3. Provide the student with tasks that are with in his/her capacity.
4. Use short sequential steps when teaching
5. Utilize active learning, participation and collaboration with peers.
6. Provide work sheet that minimize the among of writing required.
7. Provide immediate feel back and opportunities for self-assessment.

Multi sensory teaching methods.


1. Writing in sand or on sand paper letters.
2. Air writing
3. Work building
4. Reed it build it and write it and thumb
5. Tapping out each sound with their fingers.
6. Story sticks can help students who struggle with reading comprehension
to visualize the elements of a story.
7. Follow along as a teacher reads aloud or while children listen to as audio
version of the book.
8. Interest with the text by underlining sight words or circling short or long
vowels.
9. Use wide ruled paper with bold lines at the top and bottom with a dotted
line in between.
10.Training is an effective way to teach handwriting by having the child
track shapes and maze like paths from left to right top to bottom, through
lagged and curvy lines.

Individualized instruction and differentiated instruction.


Individualized instruction to cuses on the needs of the individual student.
Teaching is specific and targets one need at a time. This teaching method can
be used onits own it can be part of differentiated teaching. Students who
receive special eduation ses…………have an individualsed education
prpgrame (IEP).

Differentiated instruction
This method implies students with LD are supplied with instructional
methods and materials that are matched to their individual needs.

Peer-mediated instruction and intervention (PMII)


PM11 are a set of alternative teaching strategies that employ the use of
students as instructors for students in their class. Peer provided instructioin
can be direct (tutoring) or indirect (modeling) can focus on either academic
or social emotional development.

Peer tutoring
Peer tutoring is flexible peer-mediated strategy that involves students
serving as academic tutors and tutees.
Inclusive teaching strategies co-teaching
Co-teaching is a methods that one subject teacher and another teaches
(special teaches) work together in a class, methods used are described below.
1. One teacher, one assist
2. Station teaching
3. Parallel teaching
4. Alternative teaching
5. Team teaching.

Adopt student specific teaching learning strategies and


approaches-examples for children with dyslexia.
1. See the student as a whole unique person.
2. Adopt strategies suitable to pupil’s specific difficulties.
3. Identify and support pupil’s strengths and failure.\
4. Be flexible
5. Teachers work as a team and tell the pupil grow on challenges and
success.
6. Give good comments as a teacher’s gift.

Tips for working with numbers


1. Handle real coins\
2. Discuss time
3. Use board games, dominoes,
4. Use math words, how many, the same
5. Discuss symbols and signs.

Tips for written work


We lined paper
Use spell checker
Use word bank
Cloze procedure

The cloze procedure is a reading comprehension activity in which words


are omitted from a passage and students are requested to fill in the blanks. This
procedure is incredibly useful in reading instruction because it can be done by
any teacher and provides valuable reading comprehension information.

Tips for reading


Limit readin demands
Paired reading
Prepare subject word list
Listen to taped books
Ensure appropriate reading level

Teachers who apply those kinds of intervention should:


1. Use multisensory materials and strategies.
2. Administer prober
3. Supply regular, quality feed back
4. Provide prompts of strategies.

RTI procedure to promote reading achievement


1. Screen all students: Screen all students for potential reading problems at
the beginning of the year and again in the middle of the year.
Use bench marks or growth rates: to identify children at low, moderate or
high risk for developing reading difficulties.
2. Provide differentiated reading instruction.
3. Provide intensive systematic instruction
4. Monitor progress
5. Instruction on daily basis.

The problem of reading and remediation


a. Roughly 85% of children are diagnosed with learning difficulties have
primary problem with reading and language skills.
b. Most reading disabilities are nuro developmental in nature.
c. When a child’s reading disability is identified early, that child is more
likely to learn strategies that will raise his or her reading to grade level.

Various approaches to reading and developing language skills


1. Phonics approach
2. Linguistic method
3. Multi sensory approach
4. Neurological impress technique
5. Language experience approach

Cultivate five essentialreading skills

1. Phonemic awareness
2. Phonic skills
3. Vocabulary
4. Reading comprehension
5. Fluency-(Oral reading)-ability to read text accurately and quickly. Use
knowledge of sounds symbol relationship in phonics to decode words.
When they build their sight words: As their sight words vocabulary
grows they gain fluency. The ability to read text in a steady pace with
accurate to me finally students learn to understand what they read or
comprehend.
Reading comprehension-The ability to understand and get meaning from
what has been read. Understanding what we read and rembering is central to
the act of reading. There are often more complicated reasons. Students with
learning difficulties struggle to comprehend.

1. Lack of vocabulary
2. Inability to connect ideas in the text
3. Low attention or concentration issues while reading.

Grouping and Arrangement for reading practice


Recommendations to support reading comprehension and fluency
for class room materials
a. Before reading : preview the title, pictures chapter names, and bold faced
words in order to make a prediction.
b. Connect new information to previously learned information by talking
about a personal experience related to the theme.
c. Verbalise or write questions prior to reading the text.
d. Discuss reading schemes for different types of text books.
e. Pre-teach key vocabulary for a particular unit or chapter before
introducing the text.
f. Pre teach themes for reading fiction
g. Explicitly teach “how to use” the table of contents, glossary, index,
headings, side bars, charts, captions, and review questions in a text book.

During reading
1. Provide a set of text books for the student to take home and to high light.
2. Provide audio recording for the student to use while reading the text.
3. Give the student a choice of what to read within selected genres, topics
and themes.
4. Model self-monitoring skills with the following questions.
5. Encourage multiple reading of a text.
6. Train students to silently read at various rates.
7. Comprehension of idioms.

Supporting vocabulary while reading


After reading - verbalise or write answers to the pre-reading questions and share
the answer with a friend.
Challenge the student to draw inference from the text.

Oral reading : Increase reading fluency through a reading apprenticeship”,


through 1
Models of fluent reading, repetition of the same passage, until reading is fluent,
Dramatic reading regular tracking and graphing of reading rate and fluency.

Reading intervention plannes for struggling students.


1. Assisted cloze - fluency is the goal of this reading intervention.
2. Choral reading – This simple strategy to build reading fluency can by
used within individuals and groups of students.

Duet reading – This strategy targets reading fluency. Sessions last for 10-15
minutes.
Echo reading – to boost student reading fluency, the teaches selects a text at
the students instructional level.
Listening passage preview - This intervention targets student reading
fluency in session of 10-15 minutes.
Paired reading – The student is told that the teacher and student will begin
session reading aloud in unison.

Repeated reading – During 15-20 minute session the student practices


difficult words in isolation modeling, repeat student reads.

Remedial intervention is writing good writing requires juggling a lot of


skills, four writing interventions. (1) Strategy instruction (2) dictation (3)
goal setting and (4) process writing.

Writing difficulties for students with LD.


This writing interventions provide insight in to the difficulties students
withLD face when they attempt to write. Written expression includes the
basic skills of hand writing and spelling but other important skills-related to
executive (brain boss) functions play a critical role.

Handwriting : Visual-tactile-motors
Connections : The physical act of handwriting may cause some students
difficulty.
Spelling : Understanding and producing sound-symbol connections. Spelling
is an important part of writing that many students struggle with.
1. During writing tasks students must
2. Brain strom main and supporting ideas so they are presented in logical
order.
3. Write sentences that include nouns and verbs that logically convey ideas.
4. Monitor their writing to ensure sentence are grammatically correct.