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Designing Gamification on Social Agriculture

(SociAg) Application to Increase End-User


Engagement

Ifrina Nuritha Vandha Pradwiyasma Widartha Saiful Bukhori


Departement of Information Systems Indonesia Cultural Centre Departement of Information Systems
University of Jember Dili, Timor Leste University of Jember
Jember, Indonesia vandhapw@gmail.com Jember, Indonesia
ifrina.pssi@unej.ac.id saiful.ilkom@unej.ac.id

Abstract— Social Agriculture (SociAg) application is a web example social media can be utilized as one of digital media
based social media application prototype which is used for dissemination to open up opportunity for distributing
providing active, interactive, and persuasive communication information to rural communities, improving relation among
among farmers, farmer communities and professionals as space research and dissemination, and supporting rural areas
for sharing information each other to improve science and
development. Based on the problems above, it has been
technology knowledge in agriculture. SociAg application is
developed by implementing gamification concept for increasing established a social media Agriculture (SociAg) web based as
user interest within using this application. Gamification is used dissemination media which can facilitate information
as one of strategy end-user engagement to attract enthusiastic exchange between farmers, farmer communities, and
farmers, farmer communities, and professionals in utilizing professionals in developing knowledge science and
SociAg applications to interact with useful information sharing technology especially in agriculture sector.
especially in agriculture. Through gamification concept, the
active SociAg application user will earn reward be in the form of One goal of increasing user engagement is to increase the
point in each the use of SociAg application activities. The contributions made by the users. However, maintaining users
achievement of these points are able to be used either by to be engaged is a challenge which is faced by new social
government or by policy maker as one of reference to grant the media application. In online social network, most user don't
agriculture assistance, in order the assistance is able to be participate very much, but they often simply lurk in the
provided on the right target. background (i.e., read or observe, but don't contribute
content). The users in online communities are usually falling
Keywords— agriculture; application; gamification; end-user
engagement
into three categories: 90% of the users never produce any
content, 9% contribute every now and then, and only 1% of
the user base is responsible for the majority of contributions
I. INTRODUCTION
[3]. How can we motivate users to use the new application
Agriculture in Indonesia is one of supporting aspect the with strong engagement? According to [4] gamification can be
majority of Indonesian people life. The agricultural sector implemented on a website-based application in order to
become one of the main component government programs and enhance motivation, concentration, effort, loyalty and other
strategies to solve poorness. According to data from world common positive values to all user.
banks, foretime, Indonesia's agriculture has achieved good
results and contributed for Indonesia’s economic growth Therefore, in this research, the SociAg application is
significantly, including creating jobs and solving poorness developed by implementing the concept of gamification. This
drastically [1]. However, from the decreasing of harvest concept could increase user liveliness and motivation to use
productivity of almost all kinds of staple, in addition, the this application. Gamification is an innovative concept of
majority farmers who worked in the field meet reduction, the driving and influencing end user adoption based on the
agriculture activities have potential lost to create additional concepts of game mechanics and social computing. In
job field and increase income. One of the factors which cause gamification strategies, game concepts are used to improve
decreasing the agriculture productivity is the lack of retention, attention and interaction between end-users and
information access for farmer to develop their products [2]. applications.
Increasing knowledge, information access and developing The main aims of this research are defining gamification
farmer capability can be increased by carrying out elements, and designing gamification concept on SociAg
disseminations regarding the latest update of world agriculture applications will be introduced. The gamification concept uses
development. The initiative for developing information game mechanics and game design elements to measure,
technology and communication (ICT) in rural areas, for
influence and reward user behaviors. It takes the essence of User Features
the game components such as goals, rules, playfulness,
e. Features to display notifications
elements of fun, feedback, reward and promotions. We hope f. Gamification feature that displays user point
that by implementing a game mechanism in a non-gaming information
context able to result a higher level of engagement. g. Account management features
a. Features to create meeting agenda for
Gamification has already been used successfully to achieve professional forums
improvements in a multitude of challenges. The effective b. Features to upload information related to
gamification usage has assisted Ford company success in agriculture
c. Features to display the information already
encompassing more than 100.000 new visitors within a day, Professionals posted
otherwise campusfood.com website integrate game mechanics d. Features to give like, and comment
into it as well which has impact to the successful increase in e. Features to display notifications
the number of new users up to 20% [5]. In this study, the f. Gamification feature that displays user point
information
gamification concept is used as a means to increase the g. Account management features
farmers, farmer communities, and professionals motivation as a. Feature for approval of new professional user
end-users to utilize the SociAg application within information additions
sharing in agriculture. This research use common and positive b. Features for all user's data management
Administrator c. Features for data management information that
feedback, such as points and leaderboards to build up the users has been posted by the user
motivations, and to engage and excite users. End-users earn d. Features for professional data management
points by completing simple tasks and activities. For example, e. Features for organizer data management
ask a question, give a response or feedback to the question are
all value-added tasks that present opportunities to earn points. III. GAMIFICATION DESIGN ON SOCIAG APPLICATION
Through the gamification concept, active users of SociAg
applications will earn points that can be used by policy makers Gamification is not converting the application into a game,
or governments in providing assistance to the right target. it is merely turning the user experience of the application into
an engaging and fun activity so that the users stay hooked and
interested. The success formula of Gamification is simply 70%
II. SOCIAL AGRICULTURE (SOCIAG) APPLICATION psychology and 20% strategy and 10% tools usage [6]. With
the proper design and implementation of a game concept
SociAg application consists of 3 integrated modules, (gamification) is also proven to play a role as a motivator even
including module for user administrator, farmers or farmer lead the user to perform certain actions.
communities and professionals. The main goal of this
Creating the gamification concept requires complex
application is making a better communication between the
planning and implementation, since there are several
farmers or farmer communities and professionals, therefore,
components and elements to considered. The several
this application provides key feature for those three users to
gamification components which will be applied in this design
post information, whether related to technological
are as follows [7]:
developments, methods, or products in agriculture.
Users must prepare information content and images less a) Rules : is an order that is used as a foundation in a game,
than 100kb to be uploaded so that the information can be usually this rule is used to explain what can be done and
posted into the SociAg application timeline. The information could not be done by the user.
that the user has posted will be readable by all SociAg users.
In posting information that appears on the timeline of the b) Feedback: users will earn reciprocity when they have
reached or completed something. Feedback is usually
SociAg application, users who upload information, as well as
related to gifts, points, or comments from users.
other users, can view, leave comments and give like to the
information. Another features in the SociAg application are c) Goal: is the main thing which should be achieved by the
presented in Table I. user.
d) Challenge: is a challenge which should be faced by users to
test level of user proficiency, and become an important
TABLE I. FEATURES IN THE SOCIAG APPLICATION
component in the games formation.
User Features Based on these components, the SociAg application is
All user Features that handle login and user register process formed using the achievement gamification approach, by
giving point to the active SociAg application user, which is
a. Feature to give like to professionals profile
b. Features to upload information related to
often sharing information, commenting or giving feedback on
Farmers and agriculture postings or answering questions from other users and posting
Farmer c. Features to display the information already various matters related to counseling in fields of agriculture.
Communities posted SociAg application focus on creating an engaging experience
d. Features to give like, and leave comment for by using the most basic game elements, such as [8]:
user news post
1) Points: If every time user completed a task, user information posted
received some kind of a virtual reward. It would keep user • Point earned by user when another user
encouraged to engage more so that they could complete more give ‘like’ appreciation to information
posted
tasks and get more rewards. Points are part of the reward • Point earned by professional when farmers,
system. Points are given to the users for the actions on farmer communities and another
completing simple tasks and activities. Points are actually professionals give ‘like’ appreciation to
immediate feedback given to the user for their actions to professional profile.
understand the correlation between effort and rewards. Mechanic Getting bigger point then user get greater
chance to rank upwards
2) Leaderboards: Are exactly like in games, where the users
Goal Gameplay User should post information, leave
can compare their rank among the other user. The mere presence comment, receive like from their posted, and
of leaderboard induces the competitive spirit in any user because receive profile like (special for professional)
they see their peers climbing up so they set a goal to participate as much as possible to earn points.
more and compete with them. Basically, people want to be the Objectives • Posting information relate to agriculture
best, to be on the top of the leaderboard. This plays major role in • Leaving comment to information posted
enhancing and boosting user engagement. • Giving like to information posted
• Giving like to professional profile
3) Avatar: The way the users choose to express themselves
Challenge Problem • Validating a posted
to the other user. This is a graphical representation of domain link • Giving information posted which is factual
themselves in the game. Avatars can be powerful mechanics in and educational
any application. Letting the users personalize their profiles can • Becoming top user
be a major step in engagement. Whenever the users are given Progression • Every user earn point that continue to grow
a freedom to be creative in how their profile images should when post information, leave comment,
look like. That eventually influences other people to come up and receive like from another user
with better ideas to look cooler or to show off better images. • Every professional earn point that keep
growing when farmers or farmer
SociAg application has a lot of learning context which is to communities give like to professional
profile.
be conveyed to users, especially to educate how the farmers • The number of posts that keep growing
and farmer communities could share information and when users post information
communicate directly with farmer professional which is joined • The number of comments that keeps
in this application easily and pleasurely. Each component growing as users comment
• The number of likes that keep growing
(Rules, Feedback, Goal, Challenge) will interplay to another
when another users give like
component, therefore designing gamification should relate to
learning context which can be obtained by users. Tabel II
shows the representation of gamification design on SociAg
Application by using achievement gamification approach, with Gamification may be defined as applying game designs
component based gamification framework. and mechanics in non-gaming apps to make user interactive
and also to boost user engagement. To maximize engagement,
SociAg application use rewards. These help users not only
TABLE II. THE REPRESENTATION OF GAMIFICATION DESIGN ON become engaged, but also retains their engagement and
SOCIAG APPLICATION attention. User performs the activity to accomplish the goal
Component Domain Representation (e.g. get points). Each user's engagement is awarded with
Rules Game theme SociAg game theme is to become a farmer, certain points. The number of points awarded to the
farmer community and professional who engagement depends on the type of activity. Activity is a task
actively share information. that should be done by a user to receive a reward. In this case,
Action • Post information the defined activities to create a gamification concept for
• Like Information farmers, farmer communities and professionals are shown in
• Like Professional Profile Table III.
• Comment Information
Rules of • Only for registering as one user
In order to give a better explanation, we define an activity
Games • Post information many times is formulated in Definition 1 [9].
• Leaving comment to information posted
Definition 1. Let a be the identity of activity and p be the
• Giving like / dislike to each information
posted point of activity, then an activity A = (a, p).
• Giving like / dislike to each professional Each activity is rewarded with a pre-defined number of
profile
points. Users will earn 10 points each time posting agricultural
Feedback Reciprocity • Point earned from information posted related information. Users will get 1 point each time giving
apply in every giving a single information
posted.
comments. Users will get 1 point each time another user gives
• Point earned from leaving comment apply like to the posted information. Professional users will earn 1
in every comment to information posted. point each time a farmer or famer community user gives a like
• Point earned from leaving comment apply to a professional profile. Total points are obtained from
in every giving a single comment to accumulated points ranging from posting information, leaving
comments, and giving like, both like for posting information Information posted activities are marked by the information
and professional profile. appearance which is uploaded to SociAg timeline page. The
achievement of the user in doing post activity will be marked by
reward as point. Points can change with two conditions, that is: a)
TABLE III. LIST OF ACTIVITY IN GAMIFICATION
point increases when farmers, farmer communities and
Activity Point professionals carry out information posted activity, and b) point
Post Information 10 will decrease when administrator remove post.
Like Information 1
Like Professional Profile 1
User receives like based on information which has posted,
will earn additional point as much as 1 point, however if
Comment Information 1
another user cancel like activity then point from user who post
information will decrease 1 point.
In order to calculate the total of points that received Activity for giving like professional profile which is
by a user, a log of activities is required which is carried out by farmers or farmer communities used to give
formulated in Definition 2 [9]. appreciation for professional in the form of like by performing
Definition 2. Let u be a user in this application, then click like button to every professional. This activity will have
log(u) is a list of tuples for user u with attributes user an impact to increased professional user activeness in
u, activity A and timestamp t which can be defined in Equation conveying latest information about agriculture. Professional
1 [9]. user which receive like will get 1 additional point.
(1) Leaving comment activity is marked by the comment
appearance under user’s posted information which carry out
For example, user professional has these following information post. The users who leave comment will earn one
activities: additional point.

1) 17-1-2017 Post Information Total point accumulation which is obtained by each user
2) 18-1-2017 Comment Information will be showed to SociAg application. Administrators are able
to see total point for each user and leaderboard for user who
then, log (professional) = {( professional, post information, 17 reach top level within points acquisition.
í 1 í2017), (professional, comment information, 18 í 1 í
2017)} IV. CONCLUSION
Gamification method is able to applied in SociAg
After storing all activities in log (professional), the application. Gamification of SociAg application is designed as
collected points by user professional after doing some effort to improve user engagement and create a higher level of
activities is formulated in Equation 2 [9]. motivation. The concept of gamification in the SociAg
(2) application is developed in noticing the components of
gamification, which contains: rules, feedback, goal and
challenge. This research is focus on user aspect of ease in
using SociAg application as well. This aspect of ease is based
on format and layout of web site by noticing the most basic of
Given log(professional) as the example, the the total of points game element, such as point, leaderboard and avatar.
that are collected by user professional is 10+1=11.
In SociAg application, gamification located to points
Based on gamification design description in Table II, acquisition of users who are obtained from posted information
Definition 1 and 2, then the description from application which points, number of user’s likes from posted information,
has formed can be seen into Figure 1. There are four kinds of number of comments from users, and number of another
activity which would be made gamification as in Table III. user’s likes to professional profile. Users can compare their
rank among the other user. User who reach top level within
points acquisition will appear on the leaderboard as a winner.
Based on this research, is going to carry out the further
research regarding to evaluation measurement the impact of
gamification on SociAg application.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research is supported by DIPA University of Jember in
Fiscal Year 2016, Number SP.DIPA-042.01.2.400922/2016,
07 December 2015. We would like to say thank you for
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada masyarakat
Fig. 1. SociAg Application Page for Professional User
(LP2M) University of Jember for the kindly support and
advice. In addition, we are very thankful to the reviewers for [4] F. Llorens-Largo, F. J. Gallego-Durán, C. J. Villagrá-Arnedo, P.
their helpful and useful comments. Compañ-Rosique, R. Satorre-Cuerda and R. Molina-Carmona,
"Gamification of The Learning Process: Lessons Learned," vol. 11, no.
4, pp. 227-234, November 2016.
[5] A. Kardinawati, H. Haryanto and U. Rosyidah, "Penerapan Konsep
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