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HEROICS
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wanGAirft Contents
Illurlraled Pag€
13 Stephen Simpson Rulesfor theMid-Eighte€nth
16 G.J. KennerleJ Franco-Prussian
C€ntury
Wrr scenarios
As I think I saidlastyearit's difficultto musterup Christmas 2I} Richad Marsh 'OperationNo6tdgia',PartII
spirit for the Decemberissuewhenone'sactuallyputtingthe CanpaEDruIes& ttio sampleganes
mag togetheron a misty, moisty Octoberday! But - Merry 27 GDyHaisall Dsth! Dis€ase rnd DisabilitJin
Christmas& a HappyNew Year to all our readers.This year Pre-InduslrialWarfare
Christmas seesWI's 75thissueandthe endofmy 12thyearof 32 hvid Bickley rMJRightHandGotTi.ed'
putting wargamesmagazinestogether(128 issuesto date). TheIndian Corysin 1914(Westen
However,sinceI don'tfeelwarwearyjustyet,I'll try andcarry
on for anotherdecadeor two. Stepheo Simpson ThreeNormanbattl€s,1066-1l57AD
The January 1994 issue will be publishedon the third 3: Th€Bnttl€of Hastings,1066
ThursdayofDecember'93- don'tforgetit amidstthewelterof 38 S.EdFBorrett Battalions,Eaglet& Flags
turkeys,geese,minc€pies,Christmas crackers,etcl PartIII: Ofspain,crenadi€rs& Olhers
42 Martin Hackett TheBat eof BDttington, 894A.D.
Front Cover Photo: Napoleon & his Marshab ('|e , some ol Ebu ientEnglishdulftheDanet!
them)somewherein EasternEurcpe.25mn WargamesFoundtj
6 RendersL€tt€n & Reyi€ws
fiBuresJron the coqectionof hen designer,Alan Pett!. Resin 54 Classifi€dAdj
Russian buildinssareby TheDrum. Ba elfronHotels.

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S?re YearsWarttuaps lromlhe o ectianof vtetutl Hull\aryanw Keith Rotherham (Keith b also a wry ke"n omithologL\t
h?nce the'WiLd Geese perhap!?) Figurct arc 25mtn Frant Raik Figutines (see&en ad on pase 59). Hedses are rcsin f/on
hapdraqan Stullio (seeth?ir ud in lastmonth s issue).Backdtop painterlbJ AIan Perrl.

RUTESFORTHEMID.EIGHTEENTH
CENTT'RY
By Stephen
Simpson

INTRODUCTION RBQUIREMENTS
Like a lot of other warganers.I beganwargainingwith rhe This is my list of requirernenls.Sone were obviousat the
horseandmusketperiod 20 ycarsagoin fact. beginning.Othersweremoregraduallvperceivedastimewent
Overtheyearslhaveplayednanyperiods.horseandnusket
included,using a variety of rules. ln receni times I have
concentrated 1. Mininum cost I am a l5mm manmostlr'(l) but of linired
on medieval.but I havealwayshada yearningfor
thosemassedranksofinfantryandcavalryin brightlycoioured means,so I haveto keepcoslsdown.
uniformsandI havedeveloped 2. Minimumpainting-I like painring.but I donl haveenoueh
asystemfor lhe mid Eighteenih
c€nturywhichsuilsme. time.This meansthatwhartime I do spendpainringmustbe
productive.I find it verytediousto paintbig unils.
Rather thail stan with a set of rules and work back, the
Limitedtine whichI haveforwargaminghas 3. Camesshouldbe ableto be plalredio compleiionin 2 or 3
forcedmero clarify
whatmy actualrequiremenrs hours I havebeenfrustratedby playinggarneswhichonly
are andthenwork forwardfrom
getinteresting by the time thatyouhaveio siarl lo packup.
ihat. In this article I would like to describewhat those ,1.
Optimum numberof units in orderto r€create thehorseand
requirements are and thengo on to describethe ruleswhichI
hale producedin orderto meeithem. rnuskelperiodeffectivelyI th ink thatthereshouldbearound
They are intendedfor straighlfoNardplayingof gamesto 12to l5 unitsperside.
completionin a reasonable 5. Pretty uniforns the visualappealis very importanland
lime. Onc oflheir mostdistincriv€
featuresis their modularapproach.Thcreis a basicsetof rules there is no poinl in putlinga lot ofeffo into creatingunils
whichI don t like the lookof.
andthen, dependingon thescenario.anoduleofspecial rulesis
addedto give the requiredfeel to the game.This keepsrhem 6. Plentyof spaceon the table to recreatethe horseand
unclutleredandconstantly musk€t period on ihe tabletop there must be room for
focussedon thc g.tneNhichisbeing
prayeo. manoeuvre. On a tableofabout6'by4'or lesstheremustbe
spacefor flank no\enents androomin the middleaswell.I
l,l
don't believein cranminga tablewith figuresuntil it is too lot offlagsandit givesthe opportunityto createthe maximum
tull for manoeuvre. number of units- This meanslarger battles, more variety
7. Thef€elof the period- it is importantto meto havea correct between regimentswith different uniforms €tc. and because
feel for the period in rny gameand the modular style of my eachunit is quitesmallthe tabledoesn'tgetqampedandthere
rulesis intendedto achievethisdirectly(moreoI thislater). is enoughroom for manoeuvring.
8. Minimumof bookkeepingandremovalof casualtiesIfifld In oth€r words, two simple mecha sms,smal unit sizeand
that writing things down and then having to refer to them useof morale teststo resolvecombat situationsgo a long way
interrupts the flow of the game.Likewise, casualtyremoval towardsmeetingmostof my requirements.
canbe fiddly and aggravatingunlesskept under control. what I would like to do now is to describethe basicrules and
In order to satislf theserequirementsI hav€developeda then give a few nodules which can be added to theseto give
€onceptwhichon the faceofit mayseema little strange,but if scenarioswhich are orientated towards what I am trying to
youstickwith it I thinkyouwill seewhatI amdrivingat. achievein a particular game. The modules are of two types.
They either give rules to provide a specifichistorical game,eg.
Frenchand Indian War, or they providerulesto emphasise
BACKGROUNI) particularfacetsof a standardgame,eg. variationin troop
It seemsto me that all wargaminginvolvescompromises. The
nameof the hobbyitsef showsthis. It is war portrayedas a
game,andthisautomatically involvesmanycompromises with BASICRULFS
reality. Some of these are more obviousthan othersl For
example,supposethat you recreatethe armiesofthe battleof Each unit of infantry, cavalry or artillery can be in one of two
Cullodenin miniatureto aparticularman-to-figure ratio.These states: Deployed or Not Deployed. Deployed cavalry and
armies,fine though they are, are only exactlysuitablefor infantry are in line. Cavalry and inJantry not deployed are in
Cullodenitself. The momentthat you decideto do the battlesof column. Deployedanilery are unlirnbered.When not de-
Falkirk or Prestonpans (in the sameJacobiteRebellionof ployedtheyarelimberedup. lnfantryandadlery canonlyfire
1745-6) you haveto put somebackin a box andpaintup some when deployed. Cavalry carnot charge unless they are
nore if you want to be exactlycorrect.Altematively,for a deployed.
purelyfictionalscenarioevenmorc compromises haveto be Turn S€quenc€
madesinceit is entirelymadeup. So, unlessyou are goingto 1. MovenentsandActionsfor tust side.
re6ghL Culloden everylime.)ou compromise yourarmie! every 2. Moraletestsfor secondside.
time you usethem.Now, thismayseemlike an obviouspoint, 3. Movementsand Actionsfor secondside.
but onceyou acceptit andstareit squarelyin the face,youcan 4. Morale testsfor first side.
useit to your conscious advantage to creategameswhichare
Movement
stillrealistic,but whi€hwork for you.
when considering the horseandmusketperiod,I decidedto Infantryin lineandunlimberedartilery (deployed) 5'
Infantryin columnandlimberedartillery(nordeployed) 10'
concentrate on the middleofthe Eighteenthcentury.This era
containstwo particularlyinterestingconflicts(the Jacobite Cavalryin line(deployed) 10'
Rebellionandthe FrenchandIndianwar) aswellasthe whole Cavalryin column(notdeployed) 15'
SevenYearsWar. By the sametoken I decidedto avoidlhe Commanders andMessengerc 15"
NaDoleonicDeriodbecauseit seemsto me lhat the critical Infantryonly are allowedthroughobstacles suchaswoodsand
confrontation in Napoleonics is the columnversuslinesituation buildingsat half speed.lnfantry and cavalryonly take half a
moveto crosswallsandhedges.
and I haveto saythat I haveneverfully understoodhow this
operated.On the other hand,the cilical confrontation in the
mid-Eighteenthcenturywas iwo lines firing at each other, Thefollowingactionstakeonemoveto carryout:
whichis easi€rto representon the tabletop(and,to me, more
Fromlineto columnor from columnto line.
interesting).There are no squarcseither, infantrystayingin Artilleryto limberor unlimber.
theirlinesto conftontcavalrv!
Chargeinto a newmCl€ewithinrnovedistance(mustaheadybe
The keymechanism ofmy rulesis the firing.Thereisn'tany. deployed).
To put it another way, if there is a unit of infantry iD line and Enteran existingm€l€ewithin movedistance(mustalreadybe
frcing )our waywilhin firing range.then il i< shoodngat you. deployed).
Likewise,ifyou arein contactwith an enemyunit thenyou are WithdrawfrornamCl6e.
in mel6ewith it. In bothinstances a unit wouldhaveto testits Fouowup thosewithdrawingfrom a mel6e.
moraleonly. I don't seethe point in whittlingdownunits*ith For an actionto be performedsuccesstully,
a 4 to 10on a d10
casualai€s.In anygivensituationthey eitherrun awayor they dicemustbe thrown,otherwisetheunit doesnothing.
don'tandI donl believerharworkingout casualties moveafter
move really helpsvery much. It is the situation a unit is in that Firing
counts.Casualties Rangefor deployedinfantyis 10'.
are only one facrorand thereis no need,I
think, to put a dispropo(ionateamountof effort into keeping For deployedartilery it is by line of sight.
trackofthem. As a furtherconsequence Unitsexposedaftera m€16€ because tbeiropponents
routedor
ofthis, the actualsize
of a unit in numbersof figuresbecomeslessimportantand withdrewcannotbe firedat in the samemove.
doesn'tneedto varyhom unit to unit whenall otherfacton are Moral€
takeninto accountaswell. Because of this I havebeenableto For any unit under fire or in mcl6e,count up the factorsas
standardise the sizesof my units.
With thisin mindI settledon stardardsizesof8 menfor each Notdeployed -2
infantryregiment,4 menfor eachcavalryregimentand6 with Firstmovebeingcharged
in m€l6e -1
eachcannonfor an artillerybattery.This mayseemsmall,but Uphillinm€16e +l
therearea numberofgoodreasons for thesesizes.Itkeepsthe +1
costsandpaintingtime down(whilestill enablingme to havea Cavalryor limberedartillery under fi re -l
15
Infantry or anillery in m€l6ewith cavalry - I
For eachunit overoneunder firc fiom or in mCl6ewith I
Under fire from artillery over 18"away +1 K&MTrees
Throw 2 dice, a d8 which counts plus and a d6 which counts are nowofferinga direct order
minus. Add or subtract the tull difference betweentnesetwo M.O. serviceon all products.
dice to or from the factor total. If the score is b€low 0 then
remove% of the unit. ffthis hasaheadyhappened removethe Pleasesendlarge S.A.E.for colour
unit because it hasrouted. brochures & prices.
And that is it. Theserules producea basicgamewhich is fast
movingandhasa realisticfeel to it. The fe\y factoN havea large Minimum order:!5. Ordersoveri10 postfree.
effecton moralebecauseof the narrow rangeof possibleresults. Postage15EoOverseaa
This meansthat infantry are encouragedinto fuefights and
40Eo.
cavalryintomC16es. Thereis a goodbonusfor applyinggreater 4 Norttr Street . Be'min.ter . Dorset m8 3DZ
strength to a particular part of the enemy'sarmy and a large Tel: 0308863420
penalty for being caughtnot deployed(although you can nove
fasterof course).
I haveplayedthese rulesoverandoverandtheyconsistently
givea well balanced gamewith lotsof movementandcombat, command.The brigadieris ratedas -1 or 0 or +1 andrhis
and a result! Gamescan easilybe foughato cornpletion. I have numberis addedto all moraletestsandanemptsat actions
produced 5 modules to add to these rules and these ar€ fo' rheunit5inthebrigade.
describedbelow. lt is important not to usetoo manyat the sam€ 2. The army alsohasan overall Commander-in-Chief,alsowith
time, asthis slowsthe gamedorn and candistortthe morale a rating of - 1 or 0 or + 1. If the cornmanderis with a brigade
rules. However, oDe or two modules together can really his rating replacesthat of the brigadier (but doesnor add to
emphasisea particular historical conflict or a required feature tt)
3. A brigadier or commandercan be kiled if a udt in the
brigadewhi€hhe is with hasto take a morale test. A scoreof
MODTJLES 12 on a d12 die hasto be thrc*n for this to haDDen.A new
A. Variafion in trcop t'?€s brigadierorcommander auiomaiicallytakeshiiplaceaDdis
Units which are aboveaveragefor any reasoncan lose2 x yaof ratedbythrowingad6die. Arcllof l,2or3meansaratingof
theunitbeforeroutingonlhe thirdfailureofamoraletest.They - 1, whilea ro[ of 4, 5 or 6 meansa mtingof 0.
alsoaddI ro rhescoreon lhedl0 $henarlempling anacrion. E.
Control
Belowaverageunitsrout on the first failureof a moraletest If there
are brigadien and/or a commanderon the battl€freld
a n d d e d u Icfrr o m l h e d l 0 s h e n a r t e m p t i n g a n a c t r o n . rhen this
module can be used to represent the difficulty of
I indi€atewhichunitsareaboveor belowaverag€ by placinga controlling
an armyin themiddleofa battle.
redorgreencounternextto themon the table. 1. Each unit or brigadebeginsthe battle with a coloured
B. Frenchand Indian War countermeantng:
1. Al units are initialy r€presentedon the table by a tumed Red = advanceto\rards the enemy(canattempt to deploy if
over card. The ullit which each card representsis only required, but must contilue to advanc€after each failed
revealedand set out when it comeswithin fidng rangeof an attempt),
enemy unit. For each Indian unit ther€ is an extra dunmy Blue = rcmain in position, although can tum to lace the
card. This mechanismreflectsthe poor visibility and dificult enemy,attemPtto dePloyetc.,
terrain ove{ which this war wasfought. Green : moveawayftom the enemy,
2. Indiansrout on the first failure of a moraletest. but are Thesebasic orders have to be adheredto and can onlv be
alwaysdeployedand canmoveup to 10'. changedin rhefolloqingcir.uo$tanc€s:
3.A unitshaveanextla - 1 on theirmoraletestwhenattacked a. Automatically,when a commanderor his messenger
by Indians. reacha unit or brigade.
4. Thereis no cavalry. b. A brigadiercanchangehisown ordersby throwing a 5 or
The rulesfor Indiansin this module are designedto reflect their 6 on a d6 die after addinghis own rating.
ferocity alongrvith their unwillingnessto take casualties. c. If a brigadier or a commatrderq/ith a unit or brigade is
killed, then a d6 is rolled add the orders are changedas
C. JacobiaeR€h.Iion
1. Highlandersrequirea 6 to 10 on a d10whenattemptingto followsr 1 or 2 meansa red counter.3 or 4 neans a blue
join counter, while 5 or 6 meansa greencounter,
chargeinto a m€leeor an existingmel€e.They can
howeveimove10"inoder to do this,althoughtheymuststill 2. Messengersfail to reachtheir destinationif a 12on a d12die
be deployedofcourse. is roled in anytum that they arc moving.
2. Extramoralefacton: The mechanism in this modul€ can produce interesting
Inmel6ewithHighlanden - 1 results. It doesnot prevent you from fomulating a battle plan
Fired at by Highlanders +1 and follolving it through, but it does introduce a reasonable
3. Only inJantry cao climb wa[s. Deployed infantry can degree of uncertainty andreflectsthe difficulty of co-ordinating
groupsof units or bdgadeswith eachother. As suchthis module
demolisha sectionof wall by standingnextto it for onetum
is alsousefulwhenplayingsolo watgames.
andnot doinganythingelse.
And there you have it - modulaJisedrules for the mid-
The rules in this module are intendedto recreatethe effect of
'wall' Eighteenth .€ntury which can be usedto fight any encounter,
the wild and ferccious chargeby Highlanders. The rule
with the emphasison whatever feature you might want to
comesfiom an incident at the battle of Culloden when some
infantry broke down a wal to alow cavalryto ride through. concentrateon h that gameto suit yourselJ.I wouldn't really be
so big headedasto expectthat anyonemight usemy rulesjust as
D. Command€$atrdBdgadiers they stand,but I do hopethat someaspectsof my rules might b€
1. Eachgroup of 2 or 3 units is in a bdgadewith a brigadier in
F.Plf. troops in 25tnnt lrom WatgatnesFaundr\ l.\isrers ALut & )li.hdel Perr\. rha dt\a t.ruth-buit! ei age. trench
cuirassie
rs apt itnisticallj charqe P nlstiak S.|?s.

FRANCO.PRUSSIAN
WARSCENARIOS
Bt G.J. Ketmerley

T h e F r i n c o P r u s s i . n\ V u r $ r s a m o m c n k , u \c \ e r t i n l h . l t t t h
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CIVILWARrangeincludingmoremercenaries
ancl
hostofmedium
cavahv
LOWCOUNTBIES Merceharies Medw cavaryarelhreepadcasrngswithsepa@te legs.bodes and
Theseliqurescomewith tixed heads. headsTherearesevend ljerenttypesol egs pa rcd 6ndom ywrh the
CWl08 LowCounlresoli ce rnp a n clorhesslandngwfh srafl bodes.andlhe headsareeithersofl wh ch arebrimfredandp umed.or
CW109 LowCounlfesslafdad bearer hardwhcli arevanouslypesol obsrerP easespecilywhichheadtype s
CW110 LowCounlr€smlskeleerftng
CW111 LowCounlresmuskereer presenrng
CW112 LowCounlresmuskeleer rammn! dowf shor CWHs MedumrheavlcavaLryhorsewalk.g
CWl13 LowCounlresp kemanadvancinq atlheclrarge CWH6 Medumiheavlcavary ho6e l@ning
C W l 1 4 L o wC o ! n l r e sp k e m a ns l a n d . q . l h r u s l r n g CWHT Medumirieavy
cavary ho6e canlerng
C W l 1 5 L o wC o u n r r epsk e m a ns l a n d . qw t h u p rq h tp k e CWHa cavary ho6e ga lopng
Medumrlieavy

C W s 1 0M e d i u m
c a v ar y o f c e r b u f c o a t . b r e a s r p ahroed n g h a n d d e Cavaryhorsescomewlhoulp slo hoslers whichareavalabe n packsol
CW511 Mediumcavary comet bLlicoal,breasrplare wrlhancelagpoe tenlromlhe exlrasran!elotl anyhoGe
C W 5 1 2M e d i u m c a v a r y t r u m p ed leecro r a t e d c o a l w l h l a s e s e e v e s
CW513 Medilmcavaryman.idlng swordonshoulderbuffcoatgorget.
CWX4 Sanlele d commandsel:Genera:oll cerstandingdicrarng:cled
C W 5 1 4M e d! m c a v ar y m a nr d i n g s w o r d o n s h o u d e br e a s r p a r e wrl n! arrabe qenrem€nsearedallab e wilhmuoiseroeanl:
C W s 1 5M e d L m c a v a / r y mr a
dni n g p. i s t oh e d u p g o r q e b
t u n c o a st a s h genlemanslanding. w p n! sword:courerawaI no despalches
cw516 Medum cavalryman fding.pisto hed!p bullcoal.breaslpale labe bench.cha.s
C W 5 1 7M e d u m c a v a l r y m a n c h a r g n g . s w o r d o u r b. guoi l€ceola t . s a s h CWX5 len son nranlry/ghtcavary heads t1 00
Cw518 Medum cavalryman charqn! swordour.breasrplare CWX6 Tenhard nlanrryiLqhtcavalry heads !1 00
cwslg Medum cavalrymafchargng ps(o hetdoul gorger.buflcoal CWXT Tensoll fred um/heavycavalry heads a1 00
CWXSTenhard medum/heavycava ry lreads t1 00
chargng pslo h€rdoll breastpare
CW520 Medum cavalryman C W X 9T e np s l o lh o l s l e ros p e na n d c o s e d t o l l a n y h o r s e el o0
CW521 Medum cavarymansrr kingdownwdhssord areasrpate
FooVCavalryFiqures50peach.
Horses- Light 75p-Medium/leavy 35p.

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USA AUSTRALTA & N ZEALAND50% ol order vaue larmai) M.mum t3.OO.
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AUSTRALIAN STOCKIS-IS: AUFORA D STRSUIOBS2MapeH C.un woodvae penh.WA 6026

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l8
Frenchgunsthrow 1dice,5/6tohit, rangewholeboard. The Uhlansstartasleep,2loeachhouse.
gunsthrow2 dice,6/6to hit, rangewholeboard.
Prussian The Frenchstarton the edgeof the board,3 to eachedge
Guns: t diceforcasualties. spacedout equally.Ifyou areusingalargerboard,simplystart
A6 thrownto hit in€ounterbatteryfire disables
ta.getgun. the Franc'Tireursin a circle at a suitabledistancefrom the
Eachfigurehit throws1dice. village,say9".
Savingthrows:
TheFrenchstartfirst eachmove.
=
Cavalry automatichit. At the endof eachmovethe Prussiansthrcw onedice for each
Infantryin open: 5/6to save. Uhlanstill asleep.
Infantryin softcoverorskirnishing= 4/5/6
Infantry in hard cover = 3/4/5/6. End of firstmove= 6 to wake-
Gunners= 4/5/6. End ofsecondmove= 5/6to wake.
Melee
Cavalrycutdownl gunneror in{antryman per figureattacking, Ifan Uhlanawakes,a fiewe is placednextto the ftont ofthe
otherwiseeachfigurein the front rank who is in base-to-basehouseandmaymovenextmove.
contactwith an opposingfigurethrows1dice.Overlapsthrow2 If a FrancTireurreaches thefrontof a house,anyUhlansstill
dice.(eg.ifyou have6 €avalryattackins5therewill be 5 even asleep in the housearecaptured.
combatsand I doublethrow on the attackingside against1 Objectives
singlethrow.) French:To kill or captureasmanyUhlansaspossible.(What
Winnersdicethrowmusthavea differenceof 2 mayhappento themaftertheyarecapturedis another
naner!)
Morale
Takenin rhisordet. L Unirawaiting a charge. Prussian:As manu Uhlansas possibleto es€ap€off
2. Unit altemptingto charge. anyedgeofthe board(or throughtheringof
3. Unit sufferingcasualties. French).
4. At the endof a meleeround(1heside Rul€ amendments
with the most casualtiesthrowing 1. FrancTireurshavea rangeof 6' andmayonly fire oncein a
firsr). move,exceptif an Uhlan is advancingto contactwith the
=
Unitsthrow: Guard 5 dice. Franc-Tireur in which casethe Franc'Tireu may fire and
=
Veterans 4 dice. only requiresa 4/5/61ohit him.
Conscripts= 3 dice. 2. Uhlansaulomaticallyride down a Franc-Tireurthey come
GuardNationaleetc. = throw 1 d'cefor number into contactwitb.
of dice. 3. Moralerulesdonot apply.
4. All figureshavetheirrnovement thrownfor individually-
+1dice: Ifforce commander wilh unit.
Ifunit in hardcover. SCENAXIO2:'GRAIN RAID'
-1dice: Eachsetnumberof casualties suffered
by unjt. (Thiswill, ofcourse,dependon Metz, September1870.B^zaine'sarmy, blockadedby the
rhesizeof yourunils.) Prussians, is runningout of food. An assaultis madeon the
Prussianlines with a view to recoveringgrain storedin the
Result:4/5/6on anyof rhedice: unit OK. surroundingvillages nowheldbythePrussians. Onesuchattack
1rl3 asbelow. is madeby a Frenchforceon the fortifiedvitlageof Fleury . . .
If advancing,
unit halts. Forces
Ifbalted,unit retiresl move(nexlmove)facingtheeneny. Frenchl
Commander.
Ifretiring or aftera nelee round,rout 2 movesdistance(next 4 companiesofinfantry.
move)backstowardsthe enemy.Continuetorout I moveeach l gun-
subsequent nove (hrowing eachmove)uniil moraleOK. l squadronofcavalry.
Note: Onlyonesidecanroutefrom a melee,throwto seewho 3 wagonswith 2 driverseach.
throwsfirst at the endofthe meleeround. (Each*agon mayhold 3 sacksof grain).
Pru!.sian:
SCENARIO1:'FRANC-TIREUR' Commander.
2 companies of infantryin thevillage.
October1870.The regularFrenchforceshavebeendestroyed
or are blockadedin Metz, soonto capitulate-In rear of the
victoious Prussianarmiesblo€kadingPansbandsof French 2 €ompanies of infantry.
irregulars known as Franc-Tireu^ are conducting guerilla 2 squadrons ofcavalry.
warfareagainsttheirlinesof€ommunication. 2 guns.
Onesuchbandis aboutto descend on the villageof Tronville Setting
with the intentionof annihilatinga squadronof the hated A fortified villageoccupiedby the Prussians as above,plus
Uhlanswhichis billetedthere.As dawnbreaksthey havethe
placesurrounded, . . In the middleofthe villageis a granarycontaining6 sacksof
grain.
Forces
French:12Franc-Tireurs. The Frenchstartat a suitabledistancefrom the village,the
Prussians:6 only criteriabeingthatPrussianreinforcements muststartatthe
Uhlans.
samedistance from the oppositesideof the village.
Setting At theendofeachmovethe Prussians throw I dice-Ifa 5/6is
TheboarCis 2' squarewith 3 housesin themiddle,plusassorted throwna unitmaybe broughton nextmove.It is at thePrussian
commander's discretionwhichunitsarebroughton.
19

SIMON'S SOLDIERS
A prcfessional painling seMc€ for walgame6 by a wdgm€r
AI scal6 catered fo! (qp to 1lotrm) but 15tm a speciaiitv, with a
osmber of slanddds a%ilable to suit yo( t4le dd yM poclet.
Fd a 15!m sepl€ sdd rl.SO io 14 Cae FftDnoo. BF.(Ia,
Brldtad, Mtd. GId. CF31 2HG or coriact PUB|-tslNC
Shor Chalesorih d 0656 764556 for del.{5. N Err !...N EW !...NEW !...N EW !...N EW !...NEW !
At lons|ld... THE t8l2 CAMPAICNIN RUSSIA is silh u!
SMOLENSK. ByN PR'hi" U
objective
The Frenchto exit as muchgrain as possibleoff the westem
edge.thePrussiansto preventthis.

1 Wagonsmoveat I dicex inchesper go and needat leasti


dnvertooperate.
2. A wagonmustbe at theentranceto thegranaryat thestartof
a movein orderto be loadedand only one wagonmay be
loadedatatime.
3. To loadonesacktakesonemove.
.1. A wagoncanbedestroyedbya illerywith a 6.
5. Any figurescanbe subslitutedasdriversaslongastheyare
alongsidethewagon.
6. Wagondriverssaveon a 4/5/6frominfantryfire.

3: 'SORTIE
SCENARIO TORRE\TIALE'
Paris,December1870.Despairing ofbreakingthestranglehold
of the Prussians on the capital.the Govemmentof National
Defencedecideson a last-gasp effortto breakout andjoin the
forces in th€ provinces.The governmentis not short of
numbers,but theirtrainingleavesmuchto be desired.
A tortie Torrentiale'is theonlyoptionlefr.A massassauhin POSTACE
& PACKNG wslb
whichit will be seenwhethersheernumbers,howeverpoorly
trained,canoveNhelmtrainedregularsinpreparedpositions.
Onesuchattackis on the Prussian hetdvillageof Buzancy.Ir
is occupiedby PrussianGuard infantry. Their commander.
disdaining(probablycorrecdy)the capabilitiesof his oppo, Wherecan I find 2000 MilitaryBooks?
nents,hasnot botheredto fonify the viUage. In the
The assaultbegins.However.due to the infantryhavingto
funnelacrossthe Seineovera singlebridge,the accompanying KENTROTMAN
catalogue
gunshavebeenleft farbehind. . . ot course!

Ken Trotman Ltd


2 companiesPrussian
Guardinfantry.
l squadronUhlans. on Milit ry History
3 guns. ind Wapoory
Theinfantryandcavalrystanin thevillage.thegunsfirefrom

A largenunber of;nfantry!
ObjectiYes
Frenchlo occupyvillage.Prussians
topreventthis.
Rul€Anendments
L Prussian rifle range: 24'. urrlGJE
Ufll rull r!32
2. Frenchintanlr)mayf'reonlyoncein a mo\e &oh ii ffjil iii lodL{r{ r,hl i€rjds
L Onlyrhefronlrankof frenchInfantry mayti'e.
4. Frenchinfantryhavenosavingthrows. Send lot afrce cataloguenow
5. Onediceisthrownformovementforthe wholeoftheFrench Mailorderjs our speciality.
line.
6. Thereis no limit to the numberofranksofFrenchinfantry,
KENTROTMANLTD.
but there can only be one line, which must remain UNIT11,'135DITTONWALK.CAi/BRIDGE,
continuous and maywheelat eachend by up to 30 degrees CBs 8QD
per move(ie. sothatit maylaproundthevillage).
m
.OPERATION
NOSTALGIA'

Tvrophotosof 'Owrution Nost4lgia'at sbgedat Wafton N h Bbninih4m in SePtenberby membos of the Plfrnoulh & Grirrnbt
clubs.

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IcljO7r.5199521
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LORDLOVAT!COMMANDOS_ SWORDBEACH.D-DAY1944
ArLr tord Lovat,Piper,Radioop. f1.50 SOII AGENTUSA
ATU Platoonofficershouring 25P The EliteGroup,2625Fore.t GIenTrail,
85P Riverwoods.lll. 50015Usa-
Aru Erencunteamadvandng
ATL4 Advancingwith rffle 25P POSTAGE - All UKotd€R over €30 FOSTIREE
ATL5 Advancinq.ifle at ready 25P UKBFPo17%%of order,min.50p.oveE€assurfac 33%,min.
AIL6 Crouchingfiring lhonpson 25P f1.50.Ov€MaiAiftdl50%, min.f2.50.Aunralia/New Z€aland
An7 Advandng with Thompdon 25P 50%oford€L min.f5.00.
ATL8 RunningwithThompson 25P PIIASE OIE: As{rom 1 lanuary 1994the basi. priceof a 20mm
ATu) Throwing grenade 2sP trgure will be 30p.Sony about the increasebut we're ttill th€
ATLIo sniperkneelingfrring 2sP <heap€ston the markeL
AMP1 British LandingClaft &aultwith 3 R.N.('ew t675
CREDTT CAADS:ACCESS .Vl9A' MASIERCAnD'EUROCARD
IIEWRELEAsIS AVAIIAELEII{ OUNl|O GRAI{DERAIIIGE, rEL RU COR (092E)t64t105.
RII{GFiORDEIAIIS. MAI ORDER:Pleaseprint your name,addrets& detaik
co llrlcSOO : UsnA GERsPOll{TDUHoc,1944' in BLOCKCAflTAls.

WEWOUI.DLIKETOWI5HALLOURCU'TOMERSAHAPPYXMA5ANDIHANKTHEMFORTHEIRsUPPORT DURING1993,WE HOPETHAT


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TOWARDS
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21

A llcttonalWWll AmphtbtousCampalgnsetln theAegean,


PartII
Presentedfor vour amwementby Richard Marsh

TIIE CAMPAIGNRULES WEATHER


It is assumedthat the reader will use his own selection of Throw 1 x d6 per move. 6 = Storm
tabletoprulesfor land and navalactions.The followingrules (lstDaymove only)4,5 = Mist. (OtherDaynoves)5 = Mist.
apply only to noves on the hex-gdddedcampaignrnaps.They ALL OTHER SCORES= FINE.
owe a great deal to thoseformulated by PaddyGriffith for his
'SandhurstWaryames'collectionof board games.
The rules are phrasedwith the use of an umpire and hidden INTELLIGENCE
'mastermap' in mind. However,the canpaignrules can be
Representinginformation gleaned ftom air recce, radio
operated by two playen if counten are moved facedown and 'Enigma'de€odes
intercepts, etc.A d6 throwper move:
eachforceoDerates severaldummvunits.
FineDaylightminscore 4,5,6
Night minsmre 5,6
SCALES Storm,Mist minscore 6
4 Onehex : an approximateareaof r0 milesx 10miles. IFSUCCESSFUL-thepositionand typeof oneoftheopposing
b) Eachmapmoverepresents 4 houls. forcescountersis revealedfor onemove.
c) 24hoursis madeup of 1x night move,4 x daymovesand 1x
nightmove.
AIRCRAFT
No flying in Storm, Mist or at Night.
DEPLO}MENT OFFORCES May attackin onehexonlypermission.
THEATRE MAP| All Allied naval forcesmust besin the
campargn In Alexandriaor Limasol. Assauhshipsarea;sumed Aircraft Movement(TheaareMap)
to be combatloaded. Aircraft must be alloted to either oort bv For STRATEGIC MAP deduct 20 hexes for Ilight to Allies
squadrons andlheserepre\eortbeirbase\(aroutlyingarrfieldt entry point along right edgeof map (and don't forget 20 to get
for the rcmainderof the campaignunlessflown onto a c-aptured back!)
airfield. Aircraft permission
Maxmovement
Axis navalforcesmustbeginthe carnpaign in suitableports. Shortrange 7s(3s)hexes
Aircraft mustbe allocatedto one of the four airfields. Garrisons
l-ong range 130(60)hexes
shouldbe allocatedto islandsup to the permiuedpointslimits.
Mi$ion Raaes
CAMPAIGN MAP: Allied invasionforcesmove onto the map If an aircraffstotal movementin a movedoesnot
exceedthe
ftom any hex on the right-hand edge. Axis mnditions rernain figure in bracketsit may fly one missionper daylight
move
(shortrange)orone missionper 2 daytightmoves(longrange).
MAXMOVEMENT Ifthe figurein bracketsis exceeded thismissionrateis halved.
(In hex€sp{r move) (in moves) If RADAR contactis obtained,or INTELLIGENCE, or
Normal NightMisrstormf,ndu.affe visualCONTACT revealsan enemyunit, missionsmay be
Cruiser 8 7 2 4 launcheddirectlyon to that hex if the targeth within range.
Destroyer t o 7 t2 How€ver, squadronsmust throw for CONTACISIGHTING
'in the samehex' beforeatracksare launched.If they fail they
Subs(surface) 5 3
Merchantme aredeemedto havefailedto locatethe targetandthemissionis
LandingShip 4 3 abo(ed.
MTBS/S-Boats t2 8
MUR-Boats 8 6 t2
LargeLandingcraft COUNTERS
Caiques/Trawlenetc 3 2 25 Theseshouldbe providedfor anyvessels or aircraftoperating
independently and for groupingssuchas Flotillas,Squadrons
andLandingForcesoperatingtogetherin onehex.
CONTACT/SIGHTING RANGES Withoutan umpireI suggest numberedcountersare usedto
Minimumscorerequired on a d6. represent the various forces (the playen decide and list what
eachnurnberrepresents). However,up to 25%of thesemaybe
ln $me Hex In AdjacenlHex 2HexesAeay 'dummies'with no strength- representingfalseinformation or
DAY mistaken sightings. Only visual contact itr th€ sam€hex wil
Fine 2,3,4,5,6 3,4,5,6 4,5,6 verify whether these consist of warships,landing craJt,
Mist 3,4,5,6 4,5,6 transportsor thin airl
Storm 4,5,6 5,6 6
MGHT
Fine 4,5,6 5,6 SAMPLEACTIONS
Mist 6 Ratherthanoffer a blow by blow accountof a full campaignI
Storm 6 offertwobattlerepons,basedrespectivelyon a navalanda land
22
gamethat resulted from play{esting the rules included in this Move2
Leipzig efforttesdy gainedon the slowmovingassaultforce and
openedfire assoonasthenearest vesselwasin range.TheAllies
couldhardlybelieverheireyeswhen.aher rwonearmisse.on
1. "Assaulton Lero6" ,4,fridr,the destroyersuddenlyroseout of the water with a great
The €ommanderof the Allied Task Force decidedto Iaunchhis roar and droppedba€k beneaththe surfacein two halv€s.
initial attack on Leros, which, with its excellentport facilities, Ls,pz4 had scored a direct hit on her aft magazineand the
couldbeusedasa spdngboardtoassault Kos.In doingsohewas Cermanattackwasoffto a chillingl)luck) stan.
takinga tremendous risk, asall four airfieldswerestillin enemy The Germandestroyenweresimilarlyusingtheir speedto
handsand wouldbe ableto launchshortrangeattackson his closewith the Task Force- aiming to crossthe convoy's'T' and
ships.Only long rangeAllied fighterswould be availableto pourmaximumfue InLoLhesbepherding escorts.
provide ai cover the escoft canier waslaid up in Alexandria Move3
with enginetroublel The drone of aircraft enginesnow alertedthe Allied sailorsto a
After a miraculouslyuneventful voyage(guesswhich map I new threat, asa staffel of six Stukas- escortedby two Mel09s -
used!)the three elementsof the task force approachedthe lunberedin ftom the west(a d6 throw at the beginningof the
Straits of Karpathos in the eaiy hours of Sundaymoming, 27 table game determines on which move close-rangeAxis air
May 1943 just over 24 hoursafter leavingClprus. strikesarrive).
Unbeknownto the Alliesno radarhadbeenreceivedby the
Axis forces a d the first sighting of the Task Force came Providentially, thiswasthecuefor threeUSAAF Lightnings
mid-moming,whenan Italianlook-outon the northerlytip of to swoop in from the east, the Allied air €over aniving at
precisely the moment it wasmost required!(As for the Ards
Karpathosspotteda group of vess€lsheadingNNw, on a
bearingfor Kos. Galvanisedby this report, tbe int€lligence strike, but roll a d 10 for longrangeair support). Two Lightnings
officen on Rnodosrequesteda recceflight, which in the early tangledwith the Me109sinconclusiv€lyasthe remainingAllied
aJternoonspottedlight craft (MTBS) turther north on a similar fighter slicedthroughrhe tight formation of dive bombers,only
heading(bothsuccesstul INTELLIGENCE throws). to be driven off by somevery accuratetail gunners!
-
The Axis commandernow dithered uncertainwhetheror Dividinginto two kettesof three,the Stukasnow launched
not to commithislimitedair power against what could *ell be attacks on the landingshipStDavid ar]dthe q.riser Manchestet.
dive$ionary forces. Confirmation of his fears came at dusk, Each vessel sawone of its attacken d.iven off by AA fte, but
when an Italian corvette identified a larger group of vessels20 the Sr Davrd sufferedtwo direct hits and the Mancl,erlerlost a
miles south of Kos and on a bearing that would take them secondary turret to a 2501b bomb.
towardsLeros orbeyond, Damage control parties on thelandingshipmanaged to shor€
As darknessfe the Task Force commandercould hardly up the huI danage incuned by the first hit, but the second
believehisluck.He wasnowin theheartof theDodecanese and bonb had penetrated the upper decks and a tangle of trusted
preventingaccessto platesthat had been sprung
hadyetto bechallenged. Undercoverofdarknesshissmallfle€tmetal was
of two cruisers,Iour destroyels,a landing ship and two below the water line.Thecaptainradioedfor assistance. He had
transports wouldbe ableto closervithin20 milesof Leros,and the survivors of two battalions of infantry to disembark and
air coverrvas to be providefor thefinal assaulton the island. estimated hisshipwouldsinkwithinminutes!
He night havefelt a little lesscoflfident if he had kno*n that Aturthermenace nowmaterialised. astwoJU88slaunched a
at midnightthe €orvettehad rendezvoused with the German high level attack on the Task Force. This time, however, the
hght cnriser Leipzig (alternative history limel), which con' Lightningsweremoreeffectiveanddrcveoff bothbombersfor
tinuedtoshadowthe Allied forcethroughoutthenight.Shewas
to be joinedsoonafterdawnby a Germand€stroyerflotilla of The Allied commander now realisedthat the ae?zig hadto
two LebrechtMaasclassvesselswhich hadslippedout of Naxos be dealt with rapidly and ordered Mdncrerler to drop out of the
€onvoycordon and go about to intercept. Her first salvoof 6"
Meanwhile, Luftwaffe ground crew on Kos and Rhodoshad shellsjammed ktpzigt steenng,sta(ed afire aft andreduced
toiledthroughthenightto bomb-upStukasandJU88s.As dawn her speed by 2 knots (lcn in my rules!)
broke pilots gave the thumbs up and the Junkels'engines Letpzr? single-mindedly devotedher fire to the nearest
coughedinto life. transport,which alsosuffereda jamrnedrudder,a fire and 2
knotslossof speed,but no substantial damageto her hull or
From Map aoTable. Baatleis Join€d cargo.
28 May 1943.{M.00hrs. On the other flank Penelop?had pulled aheadand acrossthe
Move I path of the convoyto engaEeTheodorcReidel.T\e latter hither
Fint light saw frantic signaling betweenthe shipsof the Task twice,only to starta smallfire which wassoonextinguished.
Force,asfi^t the Letpztgwasspottedto the southandthenthe The big German destroyer, however, was hit by an accurate
TheodorcReidelandBruno Heinemannto the nofth \9est. broadside ahatknockedout Y turet (oneof five) andreduced
The Alliea commander now had to decide *hether to her speed by 4 knots.
interceptthesetwin threatswithelements of hisnaval{orce,or Move4
closeup on the convoyof tloop shipsandbetter offer protection As the Stukasheadedfor homethe JU88sattempteda second
againstthe expected air attacks. attackon the Allied ships,thistime escortedby both Me109s.
He chosethe latter, but r€alisedthat if the Axis forc€s The intercepting Lightningsfoundthemselves dogfightingthe
synchronised theirattackhisshipswouldbe horriblyvulnerable escortsasthebombersflew on, but bothGeman fighte$were
to gunfire. shor down and AA fire fiom Mdori accountedfor one of the
The mainAlied force hadbeenjoined during the night by the Junkers.
diversionary flotila of Tribal class destroyen spotted off The secondbomber- attackingastem of a transport-
Karpathosthe day beforc. M.orl and Atidr now took station manageda nearmissthat jammedher steering,but wasthen
astem the convoy, alongside Obdurate; the light cruisers chasedawayby thetbird Lightning.
Penelopea':,dManches@positionedthemselveson the flanks, Manchesternow uossed Le,pz,g'sbows and poundedher A
aid OtLslcw,Jeni: ar.dlupte. fannedout to leadthe way. turret into silence,whikt alsowreckingthe cruiser'storpedo
23
tubes-adpzig strangelycontinuedto concentrate her fire on
other vessels,but was rewardedwith severaldirect hits on
Obdurate- \,;hich,wrackedby multiple explosions,tumed
THE SMALLBACK ROOM
M iniatur e Painting Seruice
tunle andsank.
.w€achideco6isi€n..yinstyle,accuncf
In the vanof the convoyPenelopewassrillenE gtngTheodorc 3nd qurliiy ol anish, to8dher wirh a pDnpt
R?rd€l.The destroyerlost both forward tunets to the cruiser\ 6" €spoE rnd friendly *ryice, conper ively
gunsandher helm andbridge were wreckedwhen.I?rvir scored
turtherhits.
Nevertheless,she attempted to even the score by firing a 2tm smple, or four ltrd cbs sumps for
a ltnnsmpleanda. infofuion prk
spreadof torpedoes at theBdtishdestroyer.
. Plusfordery510spe an orde6.
AboardtheStrarl, troopshadbegunto transfertoO6lore
whenthe captainannouncedthat damagecontrolpartieshad '
our prize dR-. Prize - i{jo *onh or
somehowachievedthe inpossibte(only a r could do itl) - painred ff3lrcs or th. win.6 choic.
shoringup the holein her sidejust beforethe weightof water Telqbone oa31445671
overwhelmed herpumps. fiB& 42ASHMLDSROAD. SHREVSBIJRY, SHROPSHIRE
SY13SB
Move5
The resilient l,",pztg, now stuck on a coursetaking her away steeringdamage,and althoughnot essentialfor the initial
from the convoy,managedto extinguishher fires. Despitea assauk.lhe, would require a naval escorra! repairswere
safuofrcm Manchester,\\hich knocked 4 knots (2cm) off her undertakenat sea limiting the force availablefor support of
speedanddestroyed a 3.9"AA gun,shemanaged to retum fire thelandings.
so effectively that the British cruiser sutrered extensivehul To addto the TaskForcecommander\problems,a solitary
damageandthe lossof her radiomast.Both cru$efswerenow coastalgun on Leros had yet to be contendedwith, and, of
effectivelyout of the fight. course.the Aris air force could still Iaunchone more attack
Ahead of the invasionforce Bruno Heinenann - urhichhad beforenightfa . . .
playedlittle part in the action turnedfor home,havingseen
Theodorc Reidel appajently stopped dead in the water and
ablazefrom stemto stem. GAME NOTES
ln fact, with no steering,shehad stoppedto avoid torpedoes Thetable-topgame wasfoughton a6'x4'table using1/3000th
fuom Jupite\ Jelyir having had to tum away to avoid the s€alevesselsand my own navalrules,which are designedfor
Gernanvaiety travellingin theoppositedirectionl quickplayandno book-k€epingl
Move6 The risky courseembarkedupon by the Allies wasspecifically
As Leipzig limped south to effect emergency repairs and designedto test the balanceof air and navalforcesand the
Manchestet's€rew struggled to plug her perforated hull the effectivenessof the campaign rules. The outcome of rhis
actionseemedover. engagement showshow dangerousthe air threat is, (even
TheodorcReidelhad other ideasho*ever. for helmed from without playing the lengthy crossingon the CAMPAIGN
an emergency positionaathe srernshesuddenlygotundeiway, MAP) andsuggests a nore prudentcours€mightbeto securean
tumed behindJapireland headedstraightfor the transports. airfield before attemptingto swanaround in mid-Aegean.
This aggressivegesturelvas sho(lived, asJewir sweptback to The Allies also committed almost all their warships as an
cut her off and the two J classdestroyen knocked out her escortto whatamountedto lessthana thirdofthe landforces,in
ar attemptto capturea mediun-sized island- whichis riskinga
So, as a defiant captain scuttled Theodore Reidel belo.e lot for a litde. If you want to secure just terrorise)a lesser
(or
joining hLtmenon thefloots, bothsidescoun@dthe cost. islandin the centralDodecanese prior to your main'push'it is
probably more prudent to use light craft or aircraft to deliver
Alied Losses \omeof lhosemuhifariousspecialforcestypes.
Afridi The Ads bomben suffered from a lack of escort fiehters
ObduruE 2x Me 109s heldbacklo counterexpectedAllied raidson rheatrfields,bul
1xJU88 their navalforce found the goingeventougher.The cannyl\.jKis
HeavilyDamaged HeavilyDamag€d Admiral needsto husbandhis meagreresourcesand usethem
Leipzis decisivelyand in co-ordination with air power when the right
S.Ddvd(LandingSbip) moment comes. Even doing most things right, the cerman
force off kros took a hammerins.
Liehtly Darnaged LightlyDamaeed
2 x tansports
2. *ASSUAITONKOS"
On this occasionthe Allied commanderdecidedthat the
AFTERMATH captureof an aidield was an essentialgoal for his first landing.
Leipzig ^nd Manchesterhad to make for friendly ports with AJter avoyagethat sawthe lossof two destroyers,onetransport
repairfacilities- the formeroptingwiselyfor Vathi on Samos, and one LCT - all from air attacks the survivine Allied
and the latter for Limassolon Cyprus.(Oncein dock a dlO amphibious lorceof oneLandingShip.onelranspoft;ndtwo
determineshow manycampaignmovesit rakesto repair the LCTSwaspoisedfor a dawnlanding on Kos, with supportfrom
oamage., the covering forces of two cmisers, two destroyersand the
The Task Force wasarguably stitl in a position to reach and (repaired) escortcarrier.
assault L€ros that day, although a company and a halJ of Long range bombers had systematicallyweakenedthe
infantryandfour caders hadbeenloston rhe,trDdvid,which defencesand installationsof Kos airfield. As the landins forc€
could ony steam at half speed lashed ao O/tdow and could approached the i\landanall-oulairassaultwaslaunched;nrhe
thereforeonlylaunch3 LCASand2 LCM - halfitsconplimenr two Rlodes fields to ninimalise intervention. The sarrison of
of landingcraft. Moreover, the two transportshadboth suffered Samos*as alsokeprbusywirhfeinl alracksandrardJbyspecial
24

41

TOUN

forces. in the form of the battalionof Fallschirmj


reinforcements aegei
With the Luftwaffe hard pressedto maintain a presenceon basedon Rhodes.
theheavily-cratered fieldthebattlefor Koswasaboutto begrn.
As can b€ seenfrom the TACTICAL MAP. our campaign The Allies
Kos is a dumbbell-shaped island,with two areasof high land Theattackers
hadmanaged
to concentrate
thefollowingassault
bisectedby a nanow plain. Th€ only beachessuitabl€for trooPs:
landings(both 'A' BEACHES) are situatedeithersideof the FirsaWave
'pinch', with road accessto Kos town at one end of the island Beach I - LCT with British tank squadron (Valentines and
andAntimachiaairfieldat theother. Crusader),l batteryof25pdrandcarrierOP.
3 LCAS with Infantry Battalion
Dispositions pany.
(Stt sketchmapofthe table ser-up) Beach2 3 LCA with the bulk of a Commando.

The Axis
Beach1 - 2 LCM with HQ, carriers, 2pdr portee and softskin
With a maxinum of 30 points to ga[ison this Large lsland the
transport.
Geman player has usedthem tully, but mainly on troops and
LCA with infantry cornpany.
weapons,aiming to hang on to the vital airfield. The defended
Beach 2 - LCM with 6pdr and carrier. Commandosupport
weredistdbutedasfollows:
weapons.
In Kos to\ln - the bulk of an Italian coastal def€nce
barlalionfDZ - rheairfield).
An airdropof a parachure
battalion,1 x German50mm AT gun
andI x 47mmSemovente.
InKardamena - I companyand 1 MMG from the above THE ASSAULT
+ 1 x SPGermanfield gun. Moves1-3
Mt Agamemnon - 2Italian 75mmfield guns. Th€ Allied cornmanderhad opted for three movesof prelimin-
ary bombardment from a supporting destroyer (4 x 155mm
Mt Hydra a GermanMountaincompany+ MMG
roundson beachdefencesper move).This hadthe disadvantage
of waking the entire garrison, but on the debit side destroyed
Katos - a Panzer Grcnadier battalion minus 1 oneofthe 75mmguns,the SP105mmandthe mountaintroop
company.47mmSemoventein support, MG clewon MtHydra.
Airfield - a Luftwaffe defencecompany. Move4
Air support ---
2 srukason Kos (otheraircraftd*-
I'.lid:l-"::T'd
onbeachA tobemetwitha hailof
ashore
trovedorevacuated).:f*:"ff'-I",1";1113'.T'""viilil"J,fllfii"#:T
Once a landing was the garison command€rcould
detected ;rnplac€d in Kardamena shook the tank squadron's morale
(at no points cost due to their specialistrole) request sufficientlyto prompt an insranrwirhdra;al, but like rbe
Commandoslanding under fire on BeachB, the infantry took
andpressed
theirheavycasualties on. MILI'ART
(Established1902)
Move5
Just as the Stukas were preparing to take off to support the A PERSONIL QUAIITY SERVICEFOR lsnlrl &
d€fenden, a Hurricane skimmed over the island to strafe and 25Etn WARGAME FIGUruS OF ANY ERtr
"
ReadvDair ed rsM lsm' lsM' 25M 25M' 2stm"
decimatethe gun cre*s on Mt Agamemnon. With their air ;; rn?o mm .2o tl.so tl,?s l?.50
suppon helpless to inte ene (in the rules we use fighten ii,iir"a al.,l0 il.m" l24o 1300 r3so ts00
automatically 'drive off bomben), the defenders of Kar- :Nrror,EoMc&s y.w.I'lcuPcs coNNoIssEuRsrAxDAlD
damenalost sevemlinfantry to fire ftom the assaulttroops on Atl Dft* uEludeth€co6lol lners@
i;limswie lsM lsrih' ls'm' 2s'm 25M' 25m"
beaches1 and 2. The secondAllied wavelanded suc€esstully, i-r !!.55 m 6s el 00 Cl l0 tl 30 t2 m
but the Italian Semoventesnear Kos town and in Katos scored Mou!,led tl,D xrio !300 A.r0 1260 1400
Yd prdide lh€ ngiB
hits on the newly-landed6pdr crew ard the infantry battalion's Clrd€Bder troo 596di$lrt
mortarrespectively. Ords ova 1200l0% dislm
Ordds oYs ,300 1596disut
Mov€ 6
The British Parassutrered4 €asualtiesfrom accidentsas they
SUPERAVI[IIE!!
descendedon Kos aidield, somelanding on tie lower slopesof
EssexlsDm Pairted artny Packs**'
Bv @ular dersd th* miet 4 rcw avajLble painred
The Cyclops. However, turther casualtiesftom the Luftwaffe b'6mssdard Nortut sr.ndads Oten q a hisher Ete
defencecompanyandtheir armouredcar failed to preventthem oldisNr.
gaininga foothold. '{d.r
NaDolsc & SYWRMA 1109.95 t169.95
The battle for Kardamenahad now reachedits climax, with orrerRMA t9995 t169.93
the AT gun destroyedandthe attackingCommandosbelowhalf PAtltlED ESSEi D.BIr
strength.The British infantry beganto pushback the defenders AFjlalle al C.Moiseu ud Ndnal sr.ndads
on Mt Hydra and the motor nfle companyusedits mobility on MATI,ORDER
the island\ rough tracksto drive on Kos town. - S S.AE. elalosue dd sples 5 tusl cla56dmps a hmh€r 5 tusl
- ldoe
cl4 tups k{ D'l A l$ls lll.Ihm t5 50
MoYe7 Pdase & Pacladins lo9i, Mhinhlop' MallrM rs 50
otha dis.sts atohol aPPiYlo uus6Pe@ ou
With supporting strafing from the Hurricane th€ Paras
tightenedtheir grip on the airfield and occupiedkey buildings. SBJBALEBA.RI{,
Their morale still high, the Commandosplugged away at the CASTAI,I,ACX,PENZANCE,
stubbom handful of survivols in Myda, now firmly squeezed
CORNIIIAI,I,
fet 0?36231236
betweenthem and the infantry from Beach 1. The motor rifles "OUAIITA
6 STIXDARD'
reachedtheoutskinsof Kostown.
Move8
The Fallschimjager reinforcementsd€scendedon their pre-
designated DZ: the airfieldlThey tost3 casualties in the drop irnmobilityand soononly a handful of the latter remained.
andwatchedtheir recoillessgun drift lazily into the sea. Survivors6nally surfendered.but only afrer a promhine
Meanwhile.theBritishtank souadron - nowrecovered - was counter-attackby a combinedBritish lnfantry and Commando
at the gates of Katos, where the panzer grenadieE were force had attemptedto sweepdown ftom The Cyclops.Despite
directing a withering firc at the infantry and 25pdrs ranged initial good moralethis faltered andwent to ground, but left the
agamsttnem. Axis forces (now consisting solely of the Fanschirmjager)
On the opposite side of the island the Commandos*erc Dennedin thetunhestcomerof the airfield.
unableto dislodgea solitaryItalian MG in Kardamenabut With bothsidesbledwhiteallno\vdepended on morale.The
pressed on despiteslowlymountingcasualties. victoriousMotor Rifles andthe restof the infantry were deemed
Mov€9 unableto take further action and escortedtheir prisonen back
As the Motor Rifle companyoveran the GermanAT gun to Beachl andevacuation.
guardingthe road into Kos Town, the Fallschimjagerwere With ever,,thingnow hinging on litde more than a troop of
havinga tough time on the aideld losing over a companyto Commandos the Fallschirmjager managed to inflict one
casualtyfrom long rangefire. Suddenlyit rvasall over. The
British Paraand25pdrfue. However, casualtiesinflicted by the
Commandoswere compelledto pull back to Beach 2 and
Luftwaffe Defence Companyand its 20mm AA gun left Para
moraleon a dangerous knife-edge. embarkation;the British attempton Kos was a costly and
frustrating failure.
Move l0 Nevertheless, ftom tre dL\isside thingslooked decidedly
This key move saw all the 6lite units on the island required to grim.With onlya handtulof Fallschirmjager holdingtheisland
test for morale after a furious exchangeof firc. The result left andall suppot weaponscapturedor disabled,it seemedlikely
the now dwindling number of commandospinned down in the that another Allied assault if swiftly mounted - would be
ex-ltaliandugoutsin Kardamenaandthe Parasunableto take certainto achievesuccess,
offensive action. The Fallschirmjager - unaffected - nov,/
surprisinglyhadtheupperhand.
Mov€ll-19 GAME NOTES
The Motor Rifles continuedto pushsteadilythrough Kos Town, To my relief this game vindicated the points system for
eventuallyforcing an Italian surrenderon move 14. ascertainingthe strengih o{ attacking and defendingforces -
'With
British armour finally ddven back by accunte fire from both sides fielding their maximum allowed 'pointage' for a
the Luftwaffe 20mrn, a duel developed between the Panzer Large Island and the end result being an incredibly close-run
Grenadien in Katos andthe 25pdrs.One gun- alsoresponsible thing.
for elininating the troublesomeflak gun - kept firing till the Koswasrccreatedon ColinRumford's8' x 5' table,with its
end,finallyforcingthe Grenadiers to suBend€ron move16. ownerstubbomlydefendingthe islandand m,$elf and Dave
On the airfield, the Falschirmjager nade futl useof the Paras' Tuck attacking.Total playing time wasapproximat€lysix houls
50,000 + sEcoND HAND WARGAMES FTGURTS
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lazALIlIOraS of the IDARK AQES

Deluxe Miniatures
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wluiam AndeNor
NEWPDNANIS!
This monrh the membersof the s.eat unwashedshuffle off
5 AbbotshallAvenue,GbsgowG156PW the desisnbenchandrd o gace lour Dark Age amies
T.k Ul - 9446174 Somerevoltinc,somesell behaved- all aie full of chancter,
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it{..e: Youth.dvancing
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@unctuated
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The island was constructedfrom a tiedyed cloth suitably Fisvrd in bosrof l0 @tr.55 PLIA P d P
shaped with scisson, topped with mountains, buildings and CATALOCUE t2.00 (or $5.00lntemdonal ReplyCoupotu)
olherrerrainfearuresfromthe Rumfordcollection.
The lackof roadsseriouslyinhibited the mobility andeffectof
amour, strictlylimitingit to an infantrysupportrole, with the TWODRAGONS
Axis SPgunsbarelymovingduringthecourseofthe game.As a
rcsult, small villages became veritable fortresses, taking a
PRODUCTIONS
gorp8
considerableamountof effo( andtime to subduc.
However, it wasthe role played by airbome forcesthat really
threw the cat amongstthe pigeons.Landing on the sameDZ in
quick successionthey demonsttated the dramatic effect a
suddenconcentration of elitetroopscanhaveon a battle;their
durabilityandfirepowermakingupforthe
$uei tE 1smmMetalFigures
lossesinflictedin the
vulnerablelandinemove. New- Part 2 Fnnco-PtBsbn Wt
Pru$h & eeman Statest5.50 Pott FtE€
,Iabtlanb & l]lohhndeE
WIIAT REALLY HAPPENED Gui.le to SVWln Nofth Ai.tica e8.50Post Fte

Like all good fiction the idea behind this campaignis basedon HellenislicGrceks NOWAUAILABLE!
Romans & Gauls NEWETIPIRESEAGLES&
truth. In September1943(aft€r the Sicilian landings) British
Elizabelh'slish War LIONSt4.50 each
troopslandedon Kos, Lerosand Samos;their occupationof U.K.Sub426.00pd 6 i$ues
theseandother smallerislandssuchasSimi beingspear-headed ThidyYoarsWar
Enolish CivilWar Euop.e2s.mp€r6 i$us
by the SpecialBoatSection. sevan Yea6 War THEWOBLD'S LEADING
F€nch&lndianWals NAFOLEONIC MAGAZIIIE
The spur for this action was the €apitulationof Italy and the
Cliveinl.dia
opportunityto .tum' the largelyItalian-occupied Dodecanese, AmencanWarol Independence CanadaAomls
but theGermans wereruthlessin theit handlingofthewavedng GAMEKEEPER
SeriinoleWar 75 MacdonnelSt.
Italian ganisonsand with rhe all-important aidelds of Rhodes GuelPh
Uq\,bxican War ont N1H227
intheirhaDds(an earlierBritishDlanto assaultthisislandwitha lndianPlainsWars
full division,tank battalionand paratroopswas abandoned) Maimilhne\pedition
were neverin serioustrouble. G€al ParaouavanWar il.w Z..lrnd Aq€nts
llalianWds ollndapendence APiL P.O.8oxi2250
Despite the temporary use of Antimachia airfield, Kos and Auslro-Prusian wd Christchurch,NewZealand
then L€ros fell to determineGermanassaultsutilisins seabome F6nco frussian War
Spanish AmeicanWal
andparachute troops.As much-needed Bnt,shbarra-iion! w€re MIRLITON S,G,
herdedoff to captivity th€ SBSand other raide^ setup shopon We are Mi iton S.G.s ViaA. Barducci,
the Turkishcoastandembarkedon a far more'cost-effective' u,K. Agenls 50029Tavarnuzze,Fircnze
campaignagainstthe increasinglyreinforced bur nevertheless
beleagueredGermans.
WORLDWIDE MAILORDERSERVICE
Surprisingly, General von Klemann, the commandetof the
S.A.E. Iot ILLUS|RATED LISTS.
Dodecanesearea. was not on the best of terms with his
FREIKOnPS l5t 25 P.incotownRoad,B.ngor,
counterparton Crete, General Bauer . . . and the rest, asthey Co. Down BT2O3tA, Norlhern lreland.
Telsphone No.0247472860
27

DEATH.DISEASE ANDDISABILITY
IN PRE.INDUSIRIALWARFARE
By GuyHalsall

Thereis a strong,undentandable undercurentof oppositionto century,becauseofthe natureof therecord,it isfar easierto say
long-runningwargamesdebates.Egos are at stakemor€ often howmanytroopsdiedofillness,ordeserted,or wereexecuted
thanissues.However,my recentexchang€ of viervswith Chris in certainarmies(suchasthe Spanisharmyin the Netherlands')
'active
Peers,has,on the whole,beencondu€ted cordially,sparingus than it is to know how many were actually killed on
from the mud-slinging which hashelpedto give debatea bad
nane.Therepresentation ofcasualtiesin wargames iscentralto As I hopeto show,manymedievalandancientsources make
the concerns of all 'historicalwargamers' (andChdsandI have estimatesof the victonous side'sdead which are not radically
both evidentlyreceivedmuchpositivefeed'back),so I hopeI dissimilarto thosefrom modem periods. They are not precise
will be forgivena tu her contribution.I will, in the courseof (or even accurate) but they have the value having been
thispiece,attemptto widenthe debateandin doingsoeamestly consideredplausible, These so$ces are almost entirely con_
inviteotherpeoplemoreknowledgeable thanmyselftosubmit cemed with numbersof men killed, and almost alwaysignore
theirideas. otherbattlefieldcasualties, thoughtherei! no reasonat all to
Chrisrcorectlydrawsattentionto thefactthatlamno expert discountthe latter (woundedtempomrily,disabled,or cap-
in the fields of classical,central and later medieval,early tured),asChrisdoes.Indeed,hereis onecontrastwith modem
modernor modemwarfare.I wouldnot claimto be anexpertin sources,which very often expresscasualtiesasa total sum.This
any field of history. Chris deals self-confidentlywith all too will blur the differencebetweenpre-industrialand modern
recordedhumanactivity adossthe wholeworld (arguingthat he casualties. A third point concemscasualtiesamongleaders.I
hasa lot more time and opporunity to punue his historical hopeto showthat it is not possibleto deduce(asChrisdoesin
hobby than I do); asa mere 'nanow specialist'I can only offer his discussionof Alexander)an overall lack of battlefield
more'unhappyflounderings' in hiswake.But seriously,let'sget casualties from a lack of lossesamongthe 'high conmand'.
one tbing straight. Neither Chris nor I can claim to be Conversely,however,where there are many dead leadersI
'floundering'any lessthanthe otherwhenit comesto 90% of think it is safeto assumehigh lossesall round. Fourthly,the
world history. Chis knowsmoreabout Chinesehistory or about battles(andthereweresome)in whichone sidefled and was
WWII than I do (not that that\ sayingmuch); I have the annihilatedwhilstthe other sidewasbarelyscratchedare the
advantage in medievalEurope.WhichIeadsme to repeatthat exceotionratherthanthe rule.
I'd welcomethe viewsof all thosemore knowledgeable than
myselfon,say,Hoplitewarfare,theseventeenth centuryorthe
AmericanCivilWar.I dothirk thatthisisanimportantissue,so 2. PLATAEA,479BC
let'sgetmorc headsroundit. As Chrissays,the lrue enemyof So, back to Plataea.Chris doesnot seemto have read my
improvedunderslanding is not controversybut apathy. comments upon Herodotus very carefully, but leaving that
I wasgladthat Christook up the challenge,but somewhat aside, he has fallefl for an old trick of ancient and medieval
disappointed that, perhapsasa resultofhis hasteto rejointhe writers: sDuriousDrecision.Arab historianstoo showedthis
fray, there were a numberof puzzlingcontradictions in his
tendency: and it is not only wargamerslike Chris who have
articlewhich I'd like to haveexplained,and that (in one of beenfooled.Many histo anshavefallenfor it. Herodotusis
sevenl methodologicalquirks at which one might raise a quite simply trying to increasea story's plausibility by adding,
friendly eyebrow)he reshuflledsomeof my examplesin an possiblyentirely fictitious, detail. Chds sayshe would prefer to
attemptto underminemy point. In doingso he seemsto have rely upon Herodotus than upon 'a mass of unfounded
missedit. It mustalsobe saidthat,not beinganhistorian,Chris speculationbasedon him'. He is never going to get very far in
is (forgivably)bothill-informedandout-of-date whenhemoves medieval or ancient history if he refusesto speculate.In his
away from wargaming and military minutiae to general original piece he states that the Pe*ian almy at Plataea
histodcalinterpretation,but that is not the subjectof this numberedabout40,000.Herodotussaysitwas300,000 sfong,
article.I will try to structuremy argumentherearoundsome so here Chds has reiected Herodotus in Iavour of modem
keyissuesand€ase-studies. speculation.You can'thaveit bothways.
To repeat, Herodotus, if he had a r€Iiabl€ source,saysthat
roughly 100Spanannotablesdied at Plataea.How many other
1. EVIDENCE Spartansdied? We don't know.a How many mote l{ere
Chris'sadcles do not tackle the fact that before the early wounded?This is an imponant point andit wasgood that Chris
modemperiodwesimplydonothavedetailed evidencetoallo$ addressedthis issue.I would beg to differ, however. Archery
us to pronounce with any degree of conJidenceabout the may not havebeer a masskiler in 4?9BC, asit perhapswasin
numbersandbattlefi€ldimportanceof casualties. wherever,as 1346(seebelow), but Chds is wrong to saythat unlessan arfow
is usualythecase,theyhavea panisanaxeto gdnd,ancientand hits a vital organ or major artery it leavesa fairly cleafl wound
medievalsources,in just the sameway as modernnewspaper (evenprovided it is neither di(y nor barbed, asa lot of arrows
accounts,tendto play up 'enemy' lossesandeffectivelydiscount w€re). Arrowheads leave nasty laceratedwounds.sThe body
friendly ones. Even in the early modem peiod and later, contains a lot of things like tendons and ligaments, and it is
battlefieldlossesare more estimatesthan precisefigures, unlikely that evena Spartanis going to run very far or very fast
although,with musterrolls and so on, the marginof enor is with an arrow through his foot or knee; or do much more
steadily reduced. we have precious few detailed accountsof fighting after a missilehaslaid his faceopen. Therewerc a lot of
battles before the modem period (consider how vague is lame people about in the ancient and medievalworlds, whose
Froissart'saccountof Cr6cy). As late as the seventeenthinfirmities could be tracedto this kind ofwound. A fleshwound
I-igrrtnelttrerritt nor permanently disable,but you can,aswe archersavailable.Whythechangewasonly effectivein the late
all know, lose an al'ful lot of blood from one. Apart from the fifteenth century hasmore to do with the beginningsof the ise
archery,theSpa(anshadto fighttheirwaythroughthe Persian of the modern state (its ideasof war and its ability to pay and
line,wheremorewouldhavebeeninjured. equiplarge'state'armies),asI statedin my first adcle, than
Theconclusion doesoot seemat all unreasonable ihat, out of with the simpleavaitabilityoftechnology.In the mid-fifteenth
a Spartanforceof 5,000or so, therewere,in all, perhaps300 century, Alfonso V of Aragon still refusedto arm his infantry
casualties.This wouldconstitute6% of the force.which.as I with handguns. His more"Machiavellian"successor, Fenante
wil argue below, would not be out of place in the early ofNaples,hadno suchscruples, butnor didhehavetheefficient
Aragonese/Catalan archersthat his father had. By the 1490s
evenAragon (by then part of the newly united kingdomof
Spain) had gone over to the skilful employmentof large
3. CR'CY. 1346AD: TIIE KILLING-POWEROF numbersof firearm-amedinfantry.
TIIE LONGBOW
Thesepointscan be underlinedby retumingto the battle of Thischange,asI saidin my W.I.64article,alteredthewayin
Cr6cy. Leaving asideChis\ rather perplexing misrepresenta- whichbattlesare fought,long boutsof hand-to-hand fighting
tion ofmy argument(the point I make[W.I.64,p.27]is almost beingreplacedby more important,longer'shootingphases';
exactlythe samepoint as Chrismakes[W.I.67, p.22],rather here,I maintain,is thecrucialdifference betweenmostpre-and
undernininghis claim that things changedin the modem post-industrialwarfare, andthe'Longbowperiod's'atypi€ality.
period), I find it hard to see how Cr6cy supportsChris's It isin mehesthatthepre-gunpowdereras makeuplostground.
argument.In his initial articlehe arguedthat casualties were Ancienaand medievalspears,axesand swordsare infinitely
moreor lessequal,andnegligibl€, on bothsides,untilone side more effective killiflg instrumentsthan the close fighting
ranaway.Then,in pursuit,arosethedisparityin casualties. He weaponsofthe modemera.Hand-to-hand fightingwas,by all
arguedthat the ideaof one sidesufferingsignificantlybefore its accounts,longerand moredeadlyin the pre-modernera, and
moral broke could 'effectivelybe discounted'.But French we cannotdiscountlarge numbersof woundedand disabted
knightlycasualties at Cr6cywereinflictedasthey closed,and evenamongthe winningside.Nithard,in his fl,riodpr (III.1)
then in prolongedspellsof hand-to-hand fighting,ftom which saysof the battle of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye (841;and he was
they frequentlyfell back,to chargeagain-They sufferedtheir there)rhatafterthebattlewhilstsomewereburyingthe deadof
hugelosseslargelyb€for€their moralebroke (if it ever did), noa boih sides,othen gave comJort 1o 'lhose felled by blows and
duringa longpulsuit.It is a validpointto makethatmuchof the only half-alive'.ltis not the only occasionuponwhichNithard
discrepancy in lossescanbe put downto the Frenchdisadvan- refento'woundedandhalf-dead'after a battle.Also talkingof
tageinterain andtactics,but socanhugelosses in anyperiodof Fontenoy.anothercontemporary, Prudentiusof Troyes,then
history(thefiIst dayat the Somme,to takean obviousmodern compilerof the.4,nalso/St-Bp.lrn,wrote'manywerekilledon
example,and one quotedby Chris);it will noi do ro dismiss bothsidesistill more*ere *ound€d'(myenphasis):aneloquent
Cr6cyasananomalyon thosegrounds. testimonyto the natureofcasualties in medievalwarfare.
Crecy, Froissartand longbow fire deservea litde more Froissart's responseto the slaughter of French knights at
thought. Froissartis a difficult souiceto use.His Crron,tle runs Cr6cyis subtle,but significant.Whathe saysis that therewere
to a dozenvolumesand hasneverproperlybeenedited.He 'no greatfeatsof armsthat day',whichis hiswayof sayingthat
wrote severalversionshimselJand frequently changedhis mind this was in no wav the usual kind of battle between
(for ourpuryoses, in oneversionhegivesdoublethenumberof rnen-at-arms, andheregretsit.Tltisindeedanegativeresponse
casualties at Cr€cygivenin another).His work is a mire into to the abilityof non-nobles io kill knightsin largenumbers(as
whichnon-specialists, suchasChrisandmyself,musttreadwith they had done at Courtrai [1302]and Bannockburn[131a]).
extremecaution.I lookedat a full-lengtheditionandwhat he Therewasa widespread andvocaloutcryin fourteenth-century
saysis fairly unequivocal.As the French knights milled about Fmnceagainstthe HundredYears'war and at the nobilityh
amidstthe Genoese,the Englisharrowsrained down upon right to lead the country in it, which ChristopherAllmand
them, 'layinglow' many. The verb Froissartusesin c/reoil, attributespartlyto thelevellingpoweroflongbowandcannon."
whichmeansto fall; not necessarily aobe killedbut, aswith the It h simplynot true that therewasno negativeresponse to the
Englishverb'to fall'thatis usuallytheimplication(it is exactly killingpowerofthe longbow-or, for thatmatter,thepike.The
what Monstreletmeanswhen he usesthe wod). ADart fron rancour that Courtmi left amongstthe French aristocracywas
thosewho werc 'lelled .ays Froissart.otherswere wounded suchthateightyyearslatertheirdescendantsbumtthe townand
more thrown from dying horsesso that they could not get up massacred its inhabitantsin revenge.In its chillingway,that is
withouthelp.All these,thedead,thewoundedandwinded,the aninfinitelynore eloquentresponse to changes in warfarethan
horseless, andthosehelpingthem, as hasbeenexplicitin the De Bayard'stestimony,or Cervantes'antiquarianlongings.
reasoningbehind casualty-removal since the early days of Chris'sappealto thesewriteE is simplistic.NeilherDeBayard
wargaming,are in wargamesterms out of aclion. Both nor Cervantesever faced massedlongbow Iire on the
proportioflately and tactically they were as significant as fourteenth-c€ntury model, but much more importantly,as
casualties broughtaboutby laterfirepower.Thechoicesofhow cunent studiesare showing,pretty well all of EdwardIII'S
to rcpresent thison the tableremainthe samefor bothpre-and longbowmen wereof the 'armigerous' classes;theyweregentry.
post-industrial warfare. Theywerealsosoakedin ideasof chivalry.In bothrespects they
The question of whether gunpowder makes a difference to were thus a wholy differentkettle of fish from the peasant
killing power requiresfurther thought. Hale6arguesthat it was arquebusienof De Bayard\ day. What De Bayard and
only the adventof the nusket whichreallymadea difference. Cervanteswere saying,as Chris says,is that now any old
The rate of fire of the longbowwasbetter and therewasno nobodycould kill a man-atarms. Hundred Years' war English
appreciabledifferencein accuracy.Therc rvas a differencein archenwerc not nobodies,and nor, for that matter,werethe
thata longbowrequireda lot of trainingbeforeit couldbeused, burgherof Couftai. Chriscan'tbe blamedfor not beinga*are
whilst massforcesof peasantscould be instructed quickly and of this- but it makeshis choi€eto closehis W.I6? articlervith
effectivelyin the use of handgun,arquebusor musket.The accusations of 'floundering'in unfamiliarwaters singularly
pointis amplydemonstrated by thecaseof England,whichkept unfortunate I His anthropological references similarlyleavehim
its longbowmen Ior aslong astherewereenoughsuchtrained indeeDwater.but I will returnto thoselater.
4. TOTALCASUAI-TIES
I'd now like to make a few brief points about casualties in
winningarmies,the barometerof pre-routlosses.Perusalof
ancientand medievalsourceswill showthat, when wounded
and disabledare added,overall losseson the winning side
frequentlyconstituted10% or more. Here is a range of
victoriouslatemedievalarmies'casualties in maiorbattles:
Courtrai(1302): 'a few hundred'd€ad lowlanders
out ofc.9,000.
Monsen Pevel(1304); 2,000French out ofc15,000.
Cr6cy(1346): 40deadout oI2,400men-atarms+
unknown numbers ('dozens) of
dead archersand lesserinfantry
(knifenenetc.).
Oiterburn(1388): 100deadScots,plus200prisoners
andmanywounded,out ofc.4,000.
Shrewsbury ( 1a03): 3-7,000 royalistdeadout of alleged-
ly 30,000(=estirnateof 10-23%of
the arrny).
Oth6e(1408): 5-600dead out of c.8,000in the Bffi
lowlanddukes'army.
Agincourt(1415): c.500Englishdeadout ofc.10,000.
Vemeuil(1425): 1,000Englishdeadout of 9,000.
Wakefield: 200 dead Lancastians out of
c.12,000.
Towton(1461): Figuresunreliableiestimatesput
Yorkistlosses at 20%of theirarmy.
Edgecote(1469): 1,500 d€ad 'northemers' out of
c.15,000.
Note that Cr6cy,\ttirh2-4oh,is unusuallylow; in 33% of
'MarlburianAge'battles the victorslost 5% or lessof their
troops(fig. 1). lt beconesclearthat the overallpercentage of
losseswas not radicallydifferencein pre,industrialand in
eighteenth-century warfarc. Most victoriousarmresbetween
1688and 1748lost underten percentof their strength.Paddy Basing,andwin. In theLancastiancatastrophe of ToMon, one
Griffith informsme that an ACW graphwouldnot be radically of the tlorst defeats suffered by a late medieval army,
dissimilar.Note too the disparitybetweenwinnersandlosers. contemporary estimates put thei lossesat no morethan50%.
Losingarmieshabituallylost over one third of their fighting Furthermore,asChris,ratherself-defeatingly, pointsout, if
strength(evenexcluding,asI havedonehere,the exceptional onecouldexpectto win a battlewithoutsignificantlosses, why
occasions whenan entirearmywaskilledor captured).There did ancient and medievalarmies habituallyfight in de€p
arefew reliablefiguresfor ancient/medieval losers.Fairlywell formations? Snorri,writingin the thirteenthcenturyaboutthe
documented instances rarelyif eversuggest casualtiesabovethe battleof stiklesrad(1030)recordshis beliefthat a fouf-man-
30-50%mark,asin eighteenth-century battles.Furth€rmore,it deepshield'wallwas thin. There are other reasonsfor deep
is disingenuous of ChrisPeersto discountPOWSfrom modem formations- morale,weightof attack,ease of keepingforma-
casualties.WWII canpaignsproduced,eventually,a huge tiion,andsoon-but replacement in mebewaspart
of casualties
discrepancy in casualties;the 'hugenumbersof prisoners taken oIit.
at the end'wouldhavebeenbewndownor butchered in earlier We can look at casualtiesamong leaders,but this is
times.We haveto takeinto accountchanges in mentaliryand problematic.At Clontaf (1014)15-18of the winningside's
attitudestowardsthe defeatedin this kind of trans-secularleaderswerekilled and 14 of the defeatedLeinstermen's and
theirallies'.Here losseson both sideswerecatastroDhic: 1.600
It is importantto stressfurtherthe problemsof the evidence. to 3-6,000 (see my article in Miniaturc Wargames32). Ar
Losing sides' losseswere habitually inflated out of all Brunanburh(937)the Englishvi€torslostat Ieastsixnotables to
proportion(look at the battlesin Heath'smedievalAmiet and 12 of their enemies'.This againis a reasonable indexof the
En€mierbooksandathowoftenestimates ofdeadsurpassthoseferocious,close-fought natureof the battle,and that winning
of the army'soriginalsize!).Plataeawasunusual.Ofcoune an losseswerc heavy.Sourcesrecorda 'multitude'of lessermen
afmystrandedamidsta hostilepopulationandsuffering a heavy werekilledon tbe winningside.Butit doesn'tal$ayswork like
defeatwill sufferdisastrously, but thisislrueofallperiods,from that. We do not haveto believeAgnellusof Ravenna's 50,000
Plataeathroughthe Italian Warsto the first Afghanwar and deadto acceptthat, asall our sourceshaveit, Fontenoy(841)
probablybeyond.It is not a presere of the ancientpedod. wasa blood-bathfor the Frankishnobility. Nevertheless, no
Instances wherearmieswereall but wipedout in pursuitwere oneofanynotelosthislife there.
highly exceptionalin pre-industrialwarfare. An interesting In ancientandmedievalbattles,significantnumbersof men
examplemightbe thebatdesin Wessexin 871.At Ashdownthe werekilled,disabledandwounded, trcforeonesideranaway.In
West Saxonsdefeatedthe Danes ' and, accordingto the percentageterms they were not significantly dissimilar from
(heavily biased)Anglo-Saron Crron,c/e, pursuedthem far into thosein laterbattles.Thechoicebetween'no casualry-removal/
the night, slaughtering'thousands'. Nonetheless there were elements'or retainingcasualties is equallyvalid in pre- and
enoughDanes,and the WestSaxonshad lost sufficiently,for postindustrialwarfare,andeitheropiionis historicallyjustifi,
the invadersto take the Englishon againa fortnightlater, at
30

5. WIIAT KIND OF WAR? 877: The Annals of Fulda record that 'in this yearltalian fever
... troubledthe Germanpeople... and a tenible
ChrisPeercdrawsour attention to an €arly modemEuropeanin
malady(possiblywhoopingcough)followedCarloman's
Ameica commenting upon light lossesin native American
army on its return from ltaly so that many coughedup
warfarein pre-gunpowderdays.This is simplisticandc-annotgo
rheirlives.'
unchallenged.Ch s might like to read part 1 of my paper on
883: Berengar of Friuli has to cut short a €ampaignagainst
anthropologyand Anglo-Saxonwarfareroor ch.4 of Bryony
Cuy II ofSpoletobecauseofillnessandweakness among
Orme's Anthropology for Archaeologistsas a start towards
hisarmy.'
more sophbticated awarenessof pre-industrial concepts of
887: A Frankisharmycanpaigningin DenmaJkis smittenby
warfare. In many pre-industrial societies warfare is waged
oseaseounnga stege,
constantly for yean at a deliverately low, itualisedlevel,which 924: Flodoard of Rheimsrejoicesthat a Magyarraiding force
servesvaluablepurposeswithin the functioningof society.
hasbeenwipedout bydisease insouthemFrance.
Periodi€aly,though,stressbuildsup and much moreviolent
1167:EmperorFrederickI's armyde€imated by nalariawhilst
l€vels of warfare break out in which many more people are
on campaignin Italy.
killed. Oneoutbreakof 'non,ritual'wafare amonsstthe New
GuineanDani in the 60sresuhedin moredeathsi;a fortniphr To this list we might add one of kingswho diedof illnesses
rhancouldbeerpecredin manyyeanofnormalwarfare.So,-an contracted on campaign orsimilarlongjoumeys. Herearea few
English observercould \vell have been a decadein North Carolingianand Ottonian examples:CharlesMartel (probably
America without seeingthe Naragansett really set about each fever contracted in Provence); King Pippin I ('a fever' in
otherin majorwarfare.But whatisundeniable is thatthearival Aquitaine);Kingl-ouis'theYounger'(unspecified illnessin the
of the White Man introduced a hugenew elementof stressinto Rhineland);King Lothar Il (of an ilness which also'carried of|
the North American system- that is what ser off the orgy of 'many of his magnales'and 'heaps'of other men in Italy)i
killing,not newtechnology pel re. EmperiorCharlestheBald(dysentryin Italy); EmperorOuo II
So,we needto considerwhat kind ofwar we arerepreseflting (malariain Italy);EmperorOtto III (malariain-you guessed -
in our wargames.Chris, in his first article says he is only Italy).
considering large-scale set piecebattles;in thisdebateit won't An army does not just comprisemen; horsestoo were
do, therefore,to adduceevidencefrom dtualizedskirmishing. vulnerableto sickness.ln 791a Frankishanny of Saxonand
Here the casualties debatetakesa more interestinetum. In Frisiancontingents campaigningin Bohemiaallegedlylost90%
some warlare casualriesremainver! lighl. bul oi enreme of its horsesto disease;in888'morehorsesthananyrnonalcan
importance,as, indeed, in pre-industrialwarfare of, for remember' perished on Kiflg Amulfs way back to Germany
instance,the North AmericanIndians.the south,eastAsian fromltaly;.. .andsoon.Itismistakentosaythatmostancient
Nagas,or the BrazilianYanomamd." Late medievallralian andmedieval people'builtup a resistance'to disease. Theybuilt
condottiei wafiarc is ^flother casein point. Chds ignoresrecent up aresistance to their localwater,but not to that evena short
work on this subjectwhich showsthat suchwa arewasbloodier distanceaway.Ever a superficialperusalof medievalnaratives
thanhe supposes. If casualties nevertheless werelighterthanin will showa proliferationof 'geat sicknesses', pestilences and
other theatresof conflict, this was becauseof the expenseof 'modaliliesamicring thepopulation. Majordisease in armies
replacinglost troops. The condortleriwere businessmenaswell wasnot, asChrisimplies,some.hingwhichbeganin the early
aswarriors,andcasualties werea financialaswell asa human modemage;eventhe classic'renaissance'disease, sphillis, h
loss.Evenifnot numerous,theywerethusvitalin the conceprs now believedto havebeen known in the ancientMediterra,
andpracticeof Italianwarfareandmustbe represented. I made nean.l hopethisinformationwill be ofuse ro ihoseorganising
the point beforethat we must take culturalattitudestowards Pre-gunpowder wargames campargns.
warfareinto accountiit aloneforcesusto reiectthenonsensical
ideaof the 'millennial'wargames rulesset,but I will retum to
thatinafuture araicle.
To sumupthissection,casualties
do not 7. CONCLUSION
need to be numericallyenonnousto be imponant and to To conclude,we can say that casualties were significanlin
demandwargames representation. pre-industrial
*arfare, bothin victoriousbattlesandin gen€ral
attrition.This leavesus with a histodcallyjustifiedoption to
persistin 'old-fashioned'casualtyremoval.Chris raisesthe
6. ATTR]TION IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL excellentpoint that this does lead to a spurioussenseoI
CAMPAIGNING prccision,but spuriousprecisionis the stockin-tradeof the
A turtherissueusefullyopenedup by ChrisPeersis attritionon wargamesrule-writer- we have no firm knowledgeof how
campaign.Here, unfortunately,he h again ill-infomed. troops in a given situation will neressarilJbehave, bul
Faniliaritywith ancientandmedievalsourceswouldshowth€ rule-writershave1odecidewhatis likely.The argumenrabove
importanceoldiseasein the ancientworld.Therewereregular showsthatin a close{oughtbartlean}rhingup to20% ormore
outbreaks ofplague(suchasdecimated theMarcomanniin 161, ofa winningarmymightbecomecasualties, thefiguredropping
and also killed their arch-enemy,Marcus Aurelius). Each with the relativeeaseof the victory.As with wargaminglater
majorirruption(wecanaddthe mid-fifth-century plagues;the pedods,it issimplyaquestionof jugglingmechanicsand figures
cataslrophic 'yellowdeath'ofthe540s,andsoon) wasfollowed unlil, a1the end of the game,approxirnately the right kind of
by longspellswhenit wasendemic.Evenmore commonwas figureis produced.
malaria(readGregoryof Tours',andothersimilarsaints'lives Doesabandonment of casualties
anda switchto an elements
to get an indicationof the ubiquity of the diseasein the systemnecessarily evadethisspuriousaccuracy? W€ll, no, not
post-Roman west),and dysentry.Illnessregdarly haddrastic really.Phil Barker(W.1.64,p.35)sensiblydefinesan element
effecason pre-industrialarrnies,and on their commandeA. as'thesmallestpossible independent sub-unit'.Butwe haveno
Herearejusta fewearliermedievalexarnples: moreideawhatconstituted'the smallestpossibleindependent
539: A Frankishinvasionof Italy is all but wiped out by sub-unit'in the warfareof almost any area of the ancient/
oysenrry. medievalperiodthanwedo ofhow manymenwouldbe ldlledin
820: 'A consid€rable number'of a Frankisharmycampaign, two minutes of mCl6e.As I argued before, the idea of the
ing in UpperPannonia iskilledby dysentry. elementhas to bebaseduponcontemporary notions,andthese
31
lie almost entirely beyond our ken (sourcessuch as Byzantine
military manualsare grosslyunreliable in this matter); China, G.J.tI.FIGURINES
for all I know, may be different, but if really so, this is Wargm€s Figur€spaint€dio cott€cioBsr.rdard.
exceptional.What c-anbe said with certainty is that there will snn to 30nm.smmsamd6n6 withSAEor 5 tFCs.
Fq smds 15hh fisuE dd isrs s€nd!r.95 or e2.95
have been a galaxy of variety in this matter, mating a single lor z&rm ssple fiOU€.pay6bt6to c€.ad Crcnin,
wargamesdefinition of the pre-industdal inJantry or cavalry 24 Cngbfi€ldM€qs,SlanlonCtos, Omrndon.
element a farce. As I have said before, such definition is oDly Kenl,B854RN rct*rtcpt*numL.
possibl€for short, geographicallyrestrictedperiods,and bestin snma€p€.ialiry. rd.pnon :06890e0tt 5 (24nr)
early modervmodem warfare. US.$iomar! pl€|sa $nd a5 blll tor t5rflm samota+ st
Chds makesa far better point when he saysthat casualties,
especiallyfrom missilefire, can be subsurned under general
'disorder'rules,but, again,I seeno histodcaljustificationfor
seeingthis asmore of an optios in the ancienrmedievalperiods Warfarein theAgeofRealpolitik
thanin the'hone andmusket'otlater. I€t the cohpute! do thework while you enjoythe
Finally,a fewwordsaboutsnobbery.Myinitial phnsingwas g6]ne.Engli.6hColnpute!WargEmea presentthei!
a little unfo(unate; I includedmy own writingsin my comments latestcomputermoderatedwrrgameslules fo! lhe
on lack of'seious history'. Nothing I have written for a pedod 1830to19001
wargamesmagazinecould be called serious history, even my
'Fra*s' articles,someaspectsofwhich do derivefrom doctonl TheNew'Blood& Iron'
andpost-doctoral research. But accusations ofsnobberyarenot Completelyle-written,but ircluding aI the usual
lightlybandiedabout,andindeedsit iI in the samesentence as features,120newAtlny liEtswith over 1500individual
rcferenceslo the ramblingsof the hobbit brigade'. Ctuis ought EoopenEie5.220+difretentsmallatnr, 24machine
to askhimself how many other academichistorianswould take $IIls and over200anilery $rns. Newformationsand
the time and effort to rcply to his article in a wargames Eoopclassesetc.In short,a[ thatyou wouldeapect
magazine.I derive no histoical kudos from so doing, but I do for the completelgth cenbry ereerience.Ca.rnpaign
believein the academic/amateurinterface. Indeed my job is to updareprognammeincluded lhe AmericanCivil
teachdegee-levelhistory to peoplelike Chris (mature students War,FrancoPru.ssian War anddiversColonial
interested in history, but without formal qualification). conllictsto nane but a few, andall fo!:
[Perhapsifhe livesin the Londonregion,he'd like to apply?]
History, like all disciplin€s,is about more than metely having $29.95inc. pErp
the time aodopportunity' to readbooks;there arc methodsand
skills to be leamt. Chds takes his history seriously, but can't
Availablefrom lst Decenber ftom:
claim to be a 'serioushistorical researcher'.He does however
write very intercsting 'historical walgames'anicles. l-ong may p.nglis\ @orr'rflrter @urgamer
he continueto do sol 253SelyOalRtf,KbgBNonm,Bitoilgha!830tln
NOTES .q&oavailable:Eard Polldhg computeimoderated
lules for NapoleonicWarfareU89to 1830alld Oeer
1.'On casualties,the "wider conrext" and the increasins
tLe EII!8 . , , cornputermode!-ated
rulesfo! the Age of
leLbatityof wargamesanicles Wargame!lllusrrared67:
Reaso[ 1660to l?89.
Apnl 1993, pp.21-2i As ever, Chris raised more
interesting issuesthanthereis spaceto dealwith here.I aim ForAlad ST.AnigB andIBMCohpatibles.
to tackle the questionsof history, 'expertise'and so on in a
future article.
2 Chris'sremarkson the Spanishanny in the Netherlandsare involved less archen and more hand-to-hand fighting
'feats of arms' for Froissan. Moreover, the English
a little misleading.Parker's graphof atllition (The Militaty took
Revolution,Cambndee,1988,p.56) indeed showslittle prisoners for ransodr,something they didn't do at Cr€ry
differenceon the outbreat of war, but coversfour years,and and which also contributed to both Froissart'sdismavand
even in thar time rhe tercios losr almost 50% of their the bigbFrenchburcher'sbill .
'War and its critics in late fowteenth-
strength.The graphshouldalso,in faimess,be compared 8 . C. T. Allmand,
with thaton p.57.Ro€roiwasnot'asingledefeat'serving to centuryFrance.' Paperwhich I waslucky enoughto hear at
finishoff theallegedlyuntouchedtercios.Themanpowerof the annualconferenceof the Societyfor the Studyof French
the army was changingregularly, asjust shown, and it had History in Warwi€k in April. Someof his argunent can be
suffered previous defeats. Rocroi finished off the Nether- found in his book lie Hu n*ed Yean Wat (Ca'J:,brrd9e).
lands army becausethe collapseof the Spanishstatein the 9. Asser, incidentally, saysthe Danes fled b€causethey had
1640sendedthe previouslyefficient systemof replacements. lost so manymen (a,F o/ Aryred,.h.39).
'Anthropology and the study of pre-Conquestwarfare and
3. Roger Colins, Ea y Medieval Spain. Unity in Divercity, 10.
400-10(nI* ediljorl (Loldon 1983),p. 147. society: The ritual war in Anglo-Saxon England' in
4. Here it is worth saing that Thucydides (Peloponnesisn weapo anel Warfarc in Anglo-Sann England, ed. S.
Wat 5.6; the same chapter ai the 'rightward-drifting ChadwickHawkes(OUCA Monograph2r; Odord 1989),
phalanx' story) placesHelots in the Spartanbanle-line at
Mantinea,so it is perhapsnot so 'doubttul' that some 1 1 .Here, it is wonh pointing out that the Yanomamdwer€one
numberof t]|embecamecasualties at Plataea. of the societiesI had in mind in discussingthe negative
5. My thank to Mr. R. Russoof SaltLake City for poinring aspeclsof warfare. Had Chris read N. Chagnon'sfield-
thisout to mein aletter. work among the Yanomamit, or M. Harrids analyses
6. Wu and Societyin Renaissance Europe, 1450J520 (Lon- thereof,he wouldseethat,in the'60s,theirpopulationhad
don 1985). beendrasticallycul to below the region's carrying capacity
7. In this respectthe battle is different 10 Poitiers,which by warfare.33%of adultmalesdiedviolently.
32
"MYRIGHTIIANDGOTTIRED"
The Indtan C.otpstn 1914
(TheWesternFront)
By DavidBickley

no socialstatuswhatsoever, Officersofthelndian cavalrywere


INTRODUCTION tolerable,for manyhadheardof thoseexoticandcolourfulunits
In a numberof articleswhichthe Editor hasbeenkind enough suchastheBengalLan€ersandthe Guides,andtheirpoloskills
to printin thisjoumalI havepreviously considereda numberof weretoo sharpto be easilyignored.For the restofthe Indian
actionsfought by elementsof the Bdtish Expeditionary Force Army there was less enthusiasmor understanding.Many
(B.E.F.)in northemFranceandBelgiumin theearlymonthsof regulanhadservedin India,of course,andhadrespectfor the
the Greatwar. t had hopedin thosearticl€sto suggest to the Gurkhasand Sikhsandtheir rerc\,vned fightingskills.For the
wargamerthat the early period of that war offered a numberof remainder,Baluchis,Pathans,Rajputs,Mahrattas,Garhwalis
opportunities for tabletop gaming by simulating the roles of andothen, they were all lumpedtogetheras 'blackinJantry',
individualunitsor elements.Inadditiontothis.1994will seethe and their otricen dismissedasbeyondthe pale. The feelingsof
eightieth anniversary of the opening of that 'war to end all the British Army's officer class\las only exceededby the
wars',andit seemsappropriateto exploreotheraspects of the ignoranceof the Bdtish kess on the subjectof the Indian
earlymonthsofthe conflictwhichwill deepenthe wargamert Army.Carewquotesoneexampleof Gurkhasd€scribed as'tall,
appr€ciationof the possibilitiesof the period. Added to that beaded wariors. who storm into actionarmedwith their razor
factor, the mnge of figuresand accessories availablededicated edgedchalumchis'(sic)- a crdlulrcrt is actuallya 'washbasin'!
specificallyto the period bas blossomedin rec€nt months,
openingup a rangeof possibilities for tabletopconflict.Ifl the In 1914the Army of lndia wastrained for a frontier war or for
light of these developments I have d€cided to offer a minor overseasexpeditions, but nothing else. It was short of
consideration of the role of the IndianCorpsbetweenOctober almost all matedal - machineguns,artillery, mechanical
and early December1914,and to outlinesomeactionswhich transport,medicalfacilities,signallingequipment- but it was
lend themselvesto the tabletop, either as skirmishgamesor as not short of men. Gemany had madeplansfor a settlement
more extendedwareames. with Britain,but had countedin its calculations upon a native
insurrectionagainstthe British rule in India. That there wasno
majorincidentshowedacomplete miscalculationon Germany's
BACKGROIJIIDTO TIIE DEPLOYMENTOFTHE Dart in this.asin othermatters.Indiaos did not wait to havethe
II{DIAN CORPS causeexptained to them, it was sufficient to know that the
Empire was at war with Germany. There was to be no
Betweencominginto actionin mid-Augustand4 October1914 conscription, India wasto providethe largestvolunteerarmy
the B.E.F. hadsuffered31.709casualties. At the sametime its the worldhadthenseen.
field strengthhad beenincreasingftom 120,000to sorne200,000
by the steady drafting of Reservists from the Regimental
Depots.However,if the increasing flow ofcasualtieswasto be ORGANISATION OFTHEINDIANCORPS
repla€ed, or the B.E.F. wasto be increased in strength,thenan
additionalsourceof manpowerhad to be tapped.In the first The lndian Corps,commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir J.
instance this would mean tuming to the Territorial Force's Willcockscomprised theLahoreDivision(Major-General H.B.
elementsreadyfor Imperial Serviceandto the volunteersof the Watkins), the Meerut Division (LieuteDancceneralC.A.
'New Army' envisag€dby Kitchener whilst Seqetary for war. Andenon), and the SecunderbadCavalry Bngade. These
Soldie$ of the RegularArmy viewed the Territorialswith formationscontainedsomeof the finest units in the lndian
mixed feelings, regarding them at their most charitable as Arny. They were further strengthened by the practice of
amateurs: th€ 'New Aimy' theyhadno rcgardfor at all. What brigadingone British Regular Baualion with three native
theyrequiredwere recruits, but trained throughthe Regimental Battalions. The composition of the force is given by Hayth-
Depotsandshippedout whenrcadyto the existingunits.In any
event, the elementsof the 'New Army' would not be available Lel'ore (3rd) Division:
to meettheB.E.F.'SmostimmediateneedsandtheTeritorial FerozeporeBrigade: 1 ConnaughtRangers;57th Wilde's
Forcecouldnot bereadiedin time,althoughsomeunitssuch as Rifles;129thRifles:9th BhopalReg'l.
the l-ondon Scottish r{ere alrcady in France and would soon JulunderBrigade:I Manchestersi 15thSikhs;47thSikis;59th
facetheir first challengeand not be found wanting. In its search ScindeRifles.
for additionalmanpowertheB.E.F. hadto look no furtherthan SirhindBrigade:I HighlandLight Infantry; l/1st Gurkhas;
tothe Ernpireandto itsjewel,India,withthe largestvolunteer 1/4thGurkhas:lxth NaDier'sRifles.
army in the world. From this source it intended to stem the Cavalry:15tbLance$(Cureton'sMultanis)
German advance.It is wonh rememberingat this point that Artilery: 5, 11 & 18 BrigadesR.F.A.;'109'Battery R.G.A.;
even with this massivesupport from the Indian Corps, the 34thSikhPioneers.
Germanswould still enjoy an overall superiorityof about six to
M€€rut (7lh) Division:
DehraDun Bdgade:1 SeaforthHighlanderc;Z2nd Gurkhas;
1,9thGurkhas;6thJatLight Infantry.
Garhwal Brigade: 2 Lricestershire; ?3rd Gurkhas; I Garhwal
TIMINDIAI! ARMY Rifles;2GarhwalRifles.
In late 1914the Indian Army was little undentoodin Great BareillyBrigade:2 BlackWatch;28th Gurkhasi4lstDogras;
Britain,indeedBritishotricenof the lndianArmy hadlittle or 58thVauPhan\Rifles.
l3
Cavalryr4thCavalry.
R.F.A.;'110'BarteryR.c.A.
Artillery:4,9& 13Bdgades WARRIORMINIATURES
14 Tive.ton Av., Glasgow G32 9tt(XScottand,
S$undGrbadCavalrJBrig.de: Newcaralosuef1.50plusa stamp€d
addrBs€d€nvelop€.
7th DEgoon Guards;20thDeccanHone;30th PoonaHorse; Pl@ 3lat. intdEts for impl€. 24 hou @wdDbonq hobite
Jodhporelnncers;'N' BatteryR.H.A. T.t 041-77Aij1126
W€ a@Dr VilE A.G. Manddd €r..
GeneralWillcocksdescribedhis Bdtish officen of the Indian l5mAlrMlES odi 49,95 + 41.50e€t Cho@non, FEmh orBrftish
regiments.s 'the saltof the earth',and indeedthey had to be N.pol6ntc6t nol|@, ECW Ro!,allsr or P'liMrarla
South, l&h Catorv. Colmi.l ZulG dd BritiJL Fs6v
ACW North dd
c6d or EvU,
quile remarkable men. Few Indiansoldiers,e!en iunior Midnmofr(x,p|eBin...h.mvEct cqtV.tu€.
o8lcers.spokeany English.Their Brirish officershad'ro be 25m ITAPjOEOMC AAr ES orly 116,95 - 42.75 pst r(l0 Dted,
Brtkh, Fr€nct! PrEio. REld. A'ein SDnt h
fluent in the local languagesif they were to undentand and 25[m AmllES ooly4l9.so + €3.0S D6t G'ek, Bonm. pftie.
commandtheir troops. While they were to prove quite ThFctd, M.@donian, Nom6a Sdhi MqEoLr, r,n&t nech6
remarkable leaders in the coming baptism of fire, they were M.dl€vdL dc
Full dsll6 ol an 6slE tn dr sDa ntu d.l@!.
equallyto prove too few in numberto sustainthe very high rate 25DD dg|E bob 25p. rim trDd | 0p. A! mad€ toE iop qu.tflr 6no!.
of casualtiestheywereto experience.Without hisBritish officer N.s zomlobm 6p.ni.h ctvtl wd,
sD.nLh clltl w'r- u€rnu
vr.h.- .d r|d;
.".1 lode; IusA-
F^
the Indiansoldier,while individuallybrave,wasto prove an lim EqulDndt 25@L.obtt .35p..ci
ineffective proposition for the developing warfare on the
Westem Front, and the Corps was to be withdrawn for the Sikhsat NeuveChappelle,28 October1914.I hope that the
Middle Eastin the followingyear; but not beforeit had had reasonsbehind thesechoiceswill becomeobviousto the reader
somehardandbloodyfighring. asthe incidentsunfold.
Not withour a hitch the Indian Corpsembarkedfor Europe, l: Xhudadsd Xhan V.C. - Eolebeke - Me-ssines, 31 Octob€r
fiIst stoppingoffin Egt?t, andthenin Malta.At eachstagetb€ 1914.
convoy was plagued with rumour thar they were not ro be The 129thBaluchishad beenrushedstraight into the trenches,
deployedin France, but in Egypt or in Malta to releaseother in support of the Cavalry Brigade, under murderousartiltery
Regular units for the front, or that, following news of rhe fire which none of them had previouslyexperienced.They did
German defeat on the Mame, that it would all be over beforc not haveto long endureit, for soonthe Germanattackbeganin
they arived. Eventually, on Saturday26 Seprember1914,the
waves. The 129tI had two Maxim machinesunsunder the
convoy reachedMarseilles and began to dis€mbark to a very
command otCaptainDrll. Earlyin rheengagemlnr onegunand
two oI its clew were blown to piecesby shell fire. Its remaining
threecrewj oined Dill with the other gun which wascausingthe
attacking Germansseriouslosses.Dill was severelywounded,
DEPLOYMENTOFTTIEINDIAN CORPS but remained with his gun until loss of blood led ro
A largesectionof the Indian Corpswasfortunate to be allowed unconsciousness and he could be taken uncomplainingto the
a reasonableperiod of time in which to acclimatiseitself to the rcar. The gun team continued to seIve their Maxim and soon
conditionsthenfoundin NorthemEurope;the bitingsleet,icy therewasa wailofdeadandwoundedGermansastestimonyto
slush, and rain soaked fogs of Flanders.However, two thei resistance. However,casualties continuedto mount,and
battalionswererushedforuard at oncero help filt alaming gaps soononlySepoyKhudadadKhanrenainedwiththegun,when
in the line of the rnuchdiminishedCavalry Corps. Thosdrinits his position was eventually overrun Khan sustained three
werethe 57th Rifles and the l29th Baluchis. bayonetwoundsin additionto shnpnel wounds,but survived
While mostofthe officersand meninvolvedhad experienced by feigning death and crawled back to his lines. DiI also
ftontier warfare, where often a disciplinedbayonetchargehad suwivedhiswoundsandwasawadedtheD.S.O.Khanbecame
caded theday,theywereto beshockedby boththe conditions the first Indian soldier to win the Victoria Cross.Dinnedon him
and the form of warfarewhich they wereto encounter.Both by the King Emperorin personin mid Deceriberas he lay
battalions expectedconfidently ro enjoy the samesuperioriry woundedin an lndianFieldHospital.
over the Germansasthey had over the Pathanson the far away This incident seemsto me to bejust right for either a skirmish
North West Frontier. They were plungedinro a warfare which game,with playentakingon the role of Khan,Dill andother
neither oficers nor men had rrained for; where death came named membercof the Maxim's clew (see Carew) with the
ftom gunsfive milesor more beyondtbeir areaand wherethey Umpire controlling the cerman attacks, or to rhe solo
must co$,erin cover to save their lives. Indeed. the main wa.gamerwho may take on all mles. Large numbeEof figures
problem of the British officer was often to keep his Indian neednotbe provided,indeedthe attackingcermanscaneasity
troops in cover dudng these bombardments.Their narural be 'recycl€d' as needs arise. The relatively small number of
sentimentsand experiencesled them to want to clos€wirh rhe figures required, by Grcat War standards,mean that players
enemyandsettlethe issue,not a welcomingpropositionin the will prcbably be drawn to either the 20mm scalefigures ftom
world of machinegun,dug in rifle positionsand high explosiveI Br atrni, Mini.turer range, now cast in a more user-friendly
metal,orto the 25mmscalefiguresfrom the expanding'Great
War' Iange Foduced by Wargam€sFoundfy. At the time of
ACTIONSOFTHE INDIAN CORPS writing (June 1993) neither range produces any dedicated
From the many actionsfought by elementsof the lndian Corps Indianfigures,but somesimpleconveNions shouldbe possible
during its deploymenton the WestemFront I havechosenthree for most rargamers. Although lhe Indian Army s uniform
incidentswhich I believewill makefor interestingwargameson differed in look from that of the B .E.F. in fact manvunits were
the.tabletopbattlefield and provide somethingof the flavour of uniformedin Brilishdressasa concession to lbe cu;afic shock
which the Indian trcops und€rstandably suffer€d on the
These three actions are: the engagement of the 129th Westem Front. Thus, either the headwearcould be addedby
Baluchis at Hollebeke - Messinesin support of the Cavalry Mr',[4D!tto the standad British figues from the Eady War
Brigade,31 October 1914;the contributionof the puniabi rangeor perhap,s figurescould be utilised or cannibalisedfrom
'Nonh WestFrontier' range.
Mussulman Company of the 57rh Rifles in rhe fighting for Foundry's
Messineson 30October1914;andfinally,thechargeof the47th The scenariofor the gamewould be as outlined above,with
the 129thBaluchisoccupyingprimitive trench positionsafford-
ing somecover from shell and small armsfire. The umpire may fire. The British officers of the Regiment *ere prominent
allocatea numberof periodsof ofl tablefire to theGermans,to amongstthe earlycasualties of theircharge.In a madbloodlust
be used to soften up the Baluchis for the wavesof attacking the survivorsenteredthe village and beganto put its defenders
infantry, and a lessernumber to the lndian player(s)to support to the bayonet,whethertheystoodandfought,fled, or tdedto
their outnumbered defenders. The Germanattacksshouldbe capitulate.Germansurvivorsspokeofa vinualparalysis which
made over relatively open and unbroken ground. It will be swept over the defenders in the face of such a fierce and
necessaryto adapt or write rules for such an action; perhaps sustained attack.
taking a leaf from the role players' book and giving Dill and No soldier of the 47th Sikhs was more intent upon murder
(han 'hero' status,or modifyingthe moralechecksto ensure than Naik RangalSingh.He had alreadyaccountedfor two
that the a€tion hasthe opportunity to run true to events.The Cermanswhenhe becameseparatedfrom the remainderof hh
number of figures neededshould reflect German superiodty, company.Outsidea derelictfarm buildinghe heard sounds
perhapsby as much as six to one. It would even be possibleto which he could not identit. Enteringthe buildinghe con'
include in the game the joumey Khan made back 1o his fronted eight Gernans who had ctearly had enough for the
regiment's newposition, moment and were cowering in the hope of avoiding turther
2: Corporal Colgrav€andth€ PuqiabiMussulln€n- Messin€s,30 combat.It wasnot theirluckyday.Settingaboutthemwith his
Octob€r1914. bayonet and rifle butt, Rangal Singh had soon killed fiv€ of
During the bitter fighting around Messinesthe order camefor them.Haltingin hisonemanwaveofdestructionheoverlooked
the 3rd Cavalry Brigade to retirc, astheir generalposition was the remainingthrce. Having recently expedenceda war on the
becominguntenable.That order did not reachall of the units North west FrontieragainstthePathans,RangalSinghdid not
engaged,amongstthem the Punjabi MussulmanCrmpany of seewhythe Sahibt War shouldbe anydifferent,hewasusedto
the 57thRifles,commandedby aCaptainForbes. His company not takingprisoners. However,two daysbeforehe hadbeenin
found itself attackedin overv/helming strength,frontallyand some difficulty with his officer and perhaps felt that three
from both flanks. Despite fierce rcsistance it was soon captivesmight go someway to restoringhis standingin the
surrounded.In vicioushand-to-hand fightingCaptainForbes Company. Wten he reported to his officer with his three
sustained mortalwoundsandLieutenantClarkwaskilled. but prisoners RangalSinghwasaskedwhyhehadnot killedthemas
about fofty Indian fioops managedto break out and head well.He replied,"My rightarmgottired."
towards the rear. All the Indian officers had also become The dark humouroI the story shouldnot disguisethe heroism
c-asualtiesor prisoners,and none above the rank of Naik ofthe 4?thSikhsnorof RangalSinghhimself, whokilledat least
(Corpoml) was left alive or uncaptured. The survivo$ found sevenmenin hand-to-hand combatduringthatchargeatNeuve
shelterin a shell-damagedbam and awaitedtheir fate. Chapelle. As a game the charge of the 47tb Sikhs offers a
There they were discoveredby one Corporal Colgraveof the scenario ofconsiderable complexity,asa defendedvillagemust
5thLancers,anoldlndia man.ColgravehadservedinIndiaasa be atiackedunderheavyfire and then ea€hbuildingmustbe
SquadronQuartemaster-Sergeant, but had been reducedto sear€h€d andanyoccupants put to th€bayonetortakencaptive.
the ranks due to a fondnessfor drink. Now he had worked his Itis possibleto recreatetheactionaseitheraconventionalgame
\{ay back up to corporal. He and a squadof about twelve men or as a smaller skirmish action with players taking the role oI
had beendetailedto lookingafter horsesa mile in the rear of RanealSinghandother memben of his company,or evenof the
Messines when they were hurriedly ordered forward as eightGermansin the farmbuildingfacinganumpirecontrolled
rcinforcements, soweakhadthe linebecome.At the bam now RangalSinghinarole playinggame format!
holdingthe Mussulmen theybiefly halted.
Colgrave and his men entered the bam and discoveredthe
forty or so native infantry who were unsure what to do,
POSTSCRIPT
Colgrave'ssmatteringof Hindustani enabledhim to urgethese The introduction of troopsof the Indian Corpsto the fighting on
men foruard againafter a bdef but spidted exhortation, and as the WestemFront wascriticisedby someat the time and since.
aconsequence thelinereceivedthe additionof thirt€enLancers Many felt that the climatewould damagetheir health and
and forty once-more-belligerentIndians .nd was held for fightingqualitiesor that the constantpoundingof a war for
anothertwentyfoul houn. which they were completelyunpreparedwould destroytheir
The wargamerwho might wish to recreate this action, or moraleandwill to fight. In fact the major problem provedto be
more corectly, actions, will need figures to represent the the alarminglyhigh casualtyrate amongsttheir British Officers.
MussulmanCompany,the attackingGermansand the 5th ff on occasionunits were blastedout of their positions by shell
Lancels. Numben involved point towards a semiskirmish fire or lost thef cohesionthrough the death of their officers,
therewerestill ampleincidentswhichshowedtheifine fighting
format, with th€ addedinterestof ihe role play of the incident in
thebamwhen,who knows,thelndiansmayproveunmovedby qualitiesto advantage. A majorhandicapalsoprovedto be t}lat
the player\ inability to masterenoughoftheir dialect! of reinforcements. Any unit whichin its earlydaysin Flanden
suffered very heavycasualti€swas soon reducedto a skeleton
3: The 47thSjkhsat NeuveChaFll€, 28 Octob€r 1914. with the accompanying adveneeffecton its morale.TheIndian
In the lndian Army the reputation of the Sikh as a fighter has soldier fought for his officer, his honour and fifteen rupeesa
beenacknowledgedeversincethe hard fought Sikh Warsof the month- aboutfl sterlingin 1914values.
nineteenth century. The Sikh battle cry of "Sar St tral" has
struck teror into generationsof their enemiesand was no\{ to
do soto their new Germanfoes-The Sikhshad not taken to the ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPI{Y
developingstatictrench warfar€with anythinglike the stoicism
of the Gurkhas, indeed they actively resentedits impositions Carew:wiperr,CoronetBooks/Hodder & Stoughton(1976).
andlongedto takethe bayonetto the enemy.They weresoonto Ha)thomethwaite: World Wat One: 1914. Arms and Armour
be giveothat opportudty. Press (1989).
In the desperatefigbting around Neuve Chapelle the 47th Ha)'thomethwaite: Wo d Wat One Sourcebook, Anns and
Sikhs went 'over the top' and chargedthe enemyholding the Armour Press(1992).
village. As they clearedthe parapetsthey found themselvesin
an open and exposedposition s$ept by machinegunand shell
35

3.THEBATTTEOFHASTINGS,
1066
By StephenSimpson
INTRODUCTION of the potential army wasmissingandthat someof hh best men
had beenkilled in the two northembaules,but that he still
As the third battle in this seriesof Normansagainstnon- advancedas fast as possible into Sussexto get at William.
Normanfoes,I havechosentheBattleof Hastings.In doingthis Williamof Jumidges saysthat he rejectedcaution,althoughon
I am a*are that I may be movingonto contentiousground.It the other hand he recordsthat Duke William even took
seemslikely to me that nearlyeverybodyhasat leastheardof precautions againstthe unlikelypossibilityofa nightattack.
this battle and probablymost peoplealreadyhavetheir own William alsousedsomeof his mountedtroopsasscouts,so
opinionsaboutit. I havemy opinionsaswell, andwhatfollows that he waswell informedofthe progressofthe English.Soit
here is - as usual- rny personalview, basedlargelyon rny wasthaton the momingof14 Octoberthetwo armiesmeta few
interpretationsof the chronicles
whichI haveread,baiJk€dup miles from Hastings. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles saysthat
William took Harold by surpdse,but even so Harold still
My mainobjectiveis the productionof an entertainingand managedto dlaw up his army io a powerful position on a hill
playablewargamescenariowhich is true to the spidt of the which could not be easily outflanked. Florence of Worcester
originalencounter. Theinterestingthingisthat (aswill beseen) describesthe position as a narow place,while William of
this is actuallyquite hard 10 achievefor this baide and the Poitiers describeshow the Normans were slowed up in their
creationof a suitablescenariowhere the Normanshave a attacksby havingto €omeup the hill.
reasonable chanceof winningis quitedifficult.ThemoreI have
studiedthe battle, the more I am impressedby the scaleof
Williamthe Conqueror's achievemenl. TIIEBATTLE
Becauseof this I have concentrated on the detail of the DespiteHarold'senthusiasm
waryamesscenarioand the battle itself and only presenta to get to gripswith Wiliam, he
choseto fight a defensivebattle appropriate for his infantry
pottedviewofthe eventssunoundingit. In thisway I hopeat
army againsta Norman army which includedso many mounted
leastto be originalin my treatmentof this mostsignifi€antof
troops, especiallysincehe managedto be uphill from his
battles.
attacker. His army consistedpartly of hh heavily armoured
housecarles, who were presumablyin the flont ranks and
towardsthe centreof his position.The majority of the army
BACKGROUND
TO THEBATTLE would have beenthe lesswell aJmouledfyrd, assembledftom
Whatevertherightsor wrongsof it, inearly1066william,Duke the southof Englandtogetherwith thosehe would havebrought
ofNormandy,€ouldseehiswayto becomingKingofEngland. downwithhimftom thenorth.
Whetherthe recentlydead King Edwardthe Conlessorhad William's army, a€cordingto the chroniclerWilliam of
nominatedHarold or him ashissuccessor, he believedthat he Poitiers, hadthree typesof troops: foot archerswho were at rhe
couldsucceed in his questfor the kingdom.King Edwarddied front, other heavilyarmedinfantryin hauberksbehindthem,
on 5 January1066and Harold, Earl of Wessexand his right and knightsbringingup the rear. lt seemsthat basicallythere
handman,hadhimselfcrownedkingstraightaway. Throughout wereBretonson theleft,Normansin thecentreandFrenchand
the yearWilliamnade hispreparations. Accordingto William Flemingson the right. This dispositionreflectsthe varied
of Jumibges thisincludedhauberks andhelmetsaswellashorses characterof the army which William had assembled for his
andnen. Duke Williamandhisarmycrossed theseaat the end
of September, landingat Pevensey on thecoastofSussex- The chronicleswhich I haveread do not appearto be any
It rvashisgoodfortunethatHarold,who hadbeenexpecting more vagueor contradictoryabout Hastingsthan about any
him all summer,wasawayin the northofthe counrntrywith his other battle of the times, but since Hastingswas such an
army dealingwith anotherinvasionwhich had alreadytaken importantbattle it has generatedmuch interest.Also, the
place.Harold'sdisaffectedbrother,Earl Tostig,had enlisted existenceof a contemporarysourcein picturcsinsteadof lvords,
the aid of King Harold Hardnda of Norwayagainsthim and i.e., the BayeuxTapestry,makesthe battle more accessible
togetherthey had defeatedthe Englishon€eat the battle of rhanothersof rhesaneperiod.Wharfollowsnowis myopinion
Gate Fulford before Harold could arrive on the scene. of howthe battleprogiessed.
However.Harold restoredorder at the battle of Starnford Throughout the dayWilliam's archeNcausedmuch aggava-
Bridgeon 25 September, where,in agreaivictory,bothTostig tion to the English,who, althoughable to respondto some
and Harold of Norway were killed. Alt this gaveWillian a degreewith hand-held tfuowingweaponssuchasjavelins,were
breathingspacein which to consolidatedhis position and significantlywom down by archery fire- Indeed, even Harold
accordingto WilliamofJumiCges hequicklybuilt castles
at both washiteventually.
Pevensey andHastings. William'sfoot soldielswould haveb€enin the fray, but it
Haroldnow madea seriouserror ofjudgement.Althoughit would havebeenprincipally the knighrswho carfied the fight ro
wouldappearto havebeena goodideato rushbackdownthe the English. Going uphill against powerful infantry would
country to engagethe Normansbefore they were too well howeverhavemadeit a longjob. But, of course,the Normans
established, he seemstohave goneonthe offensivetoo quickly had nothingto loseand everythingto gaio. Harold waseven
and without properly regrouping and resting his army- thought to have sent a fleet of ships to cut off any hope of a
Althoughnowvictorious,muchof hisarmyhadrecentlyfought retreat over the sea.The stakeswere therefore very high, sothe
oneor two battles,aswell ashavingcoveredthe lengthofthe Normanspersisted,
countryoneor two times,by the timehe wasgettingnearto the At onestagesomeofthem, includingBretons,stanedto run
No.mans. away.Thepro-Williamchronicler,WilliamofPoitien, explains
This precipitateadvan€eis well recordedin the chronicles. this by sayingthat they thoughtthar Duke William had been
The Anglo-Saxon Chroniclesaysthat he foughtbeforehe had killed and this would haveiustifiedtheir lossof morale.But
all hisamy assembled. Florenceof Wor€ester saysthatonehalf maybethis wasinventedaftelwardsto explaina situation which
must have precipitated such a crisis that it couldnl have been 1066
HASTINGS
easily folgotten. In any case wiliam rallied his troops,
removinghis helmetto showeveryonethat he wasstill aliv€.
This incident tumed out for the best for him an'.{ay as this
flight brought many of tie English off the hill to be
oveNhelmed by the rest of William's army away from their
defensiveDosition.Later in the battle the Nomans are alsosaid
to have us€d feigned flight as a meansto draw more of the
English ftom the safetyof their hill.
Eventually it camedown to a test of stamina,determination
and endunnce,and in the end the experiences of the two
leadeB of the armiesgive the bestindication of how the battle
went. William in the thick of battle had three horseskilled l ,& l r&
under him, but with the pdze of a wholecountry within reachhe
continually inspired his army to greater efforts. Harold on the
other hand had possibly seen both his brotheN, Gyrth and 16]
Leofuine, killed, as well as being vroundedhimself. His army
hadnot properly recoveredfrom its recenttrials andin the endit up the army in tfuee blocks with archen at the front of each
was all too much. He was killed and his army was decisively followed by spearmenand then knights. Sincethe English are
defeated.Although the pursuit of the routed English was not not goingto move,at leastto startwith, theNomans
essentially
straightforwaid- someevenseemto havetumed to fight whilst might as well set up accordingto the requirements of their
in retreat- thevictorywaswilliam's. playeraslongasthearmyis spreadalongthe wholefront of the
Englishpositiionandthereis somereasonable mixingof troop
types.The diagramshowshow thiscouldbe done.
AFITR TIIE BATTLE
Harold and three of his brothers had all perished within the The actualamies shouldbe asfollows:
spaceof a f€w weeks.willian insteadhad effectively achieved 113.Anglo-D.nish2x4Bd(or 3x4Bd)
what he hadsetout to do, andhe had doneit in a singleday. He 7x4sp(or8x4Sp)
wasacceptedasking andqowned on ChristmasDay. He ruled 1x2Ps
untit 1085and foundeda dynastywhichlasteduntil 1154.But 102{,Norman 4x3Kn
more than that he arguablychangedthe whole courseofhistory 2x3Cv
on that fateful day in 1066. 3x4Sp
3x3Cb
Thesearmiesare taken direct from the Army Lists.
THESCENARIO Further factorswhich could be incoryoratedare to count the
I have designedthis s€enarioto use the excellent Wargames English Speanasan extra - 1whenin combatwith the Norman
ResearchGroup D€ B€lir -Arriqdatr (DBA) rules and under SDears.This would be becauseof their lesserarmour and
theserulesthe two armiesto useare 120c.Noman and 113. greater fatigue, aod is in line with the Variation in Troop
Anglo-Danish. Quality rules in DBA. Likewise,sin€eWilliam *as clearly
Now at first glanceHastingsis a straightfowardbattle to set exceptionalon the day he could have a +l addedto a his
up as a wargame.The English are on a hill and the Normans movementdle scores,
attackthem.However.closerexaninationrevealsa nunber of IJ you hav€ followed my reasoningthis far, then hopefully
prcblems.For example,it is difficult to decideon the siz€sof the you €anseeyour wayto a straightfonlard refight of the Battle of
armies. william of Poitiels quotesDuke William as sayingat Hastings,becauseonc€ all oI the potential variations as I have
one stagethat he would be happyto fight with only 10,000nen described themhavebeenresolved thenthebattlecanbefought
insteadof the 60,000which he reckonedthat he actually had, as a straightforwardwargame-The more I have looked al the
whichis not muchhelp. Battle of Hastings,the nore I am impressedby william's
So, it would be a reasonablestarting place,for the sakeof the achi€vement. lt reallvwasaaainsttheodds.
scenado,to usetlvo amies straight from the lists. However, as
will becomeapparent when you play the game, the odds are
stackedagainstWilliam andso somefurther tailoring shouldbe TO SUMUP
madein order to producea morebalancedgame.Here are a few 1 Use arny 113 for the Anglo-Danish,rcduceit to 10
ideas.Wlich onesyouuseareup to you. elementsifyou wantto. Harold (thegeneral)isin oneof
Fnsdy, despiteWilliam having had to transport all his arny the Bladeselementsand his army is deployedfirst.
ove. the sea"Harold probably had lessmen than he did. The 2. Usearmy 102cfor the Normans.William (the general)is
choniclesdo seemgenerallyto agreethat he foughtbeforeall in one of the Knights elementsand the Normans move
hisarmywasassembled (seeabove)andthiscouldbe grounds
first,
to allowHaroldonly l0elementsinhisarmyratherthanthe 12 3 . Set up the English army on a hill (which meansthat they
elementsfor William. Florenceof Worcesterevensuggeststhat will have a +1 tacticalfactor for being uphill in close
someof Harold'sarmydeserted. combat)with imoassable terrain on the flanks.The hill
The English army should be set up on a hill which can fit 9 shouldnot be quiie long enoughto accommodatethe army
elementsalong it with impassableteffain at each end. This in a oneelementdeeprank.
rneansthat william wil make a frontal attack, but wil also 4 . The Nomans canbe set up as required,but with mixed
mean that the English are fairly stretched, thus giving the typesacrosstheir front asshownin the diagram
Normansthe chanceto get up on the hill if the English suffer 5. William can be a +1 commanderfor his movementdie
The dispositions of the Norman army are a bit more o . The English Spearscan hav€ an extra I tactical factor
prcblematic.I do not believethatit is appropriate
to actuallyset againstNormanSpears.
37

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There are no specialrulesrequircd to administerwhetherth€


English come off the hill at any stag€,whether in responseto REFERENCES
genuinelyrouting Nomans or feignedflight. That canbe left to 1. The relevant pans of all the chronicleswhich I usedfor this
the judgementof the playercontrolling Harold's army, and it is battle are to be found in Enelish Historical Docungntt
mor€ tun to.leave it that way. But remehber that the rul€s Voltone II 1042-1189edited by David c. Douglas and
thems€lv€sdo advise against breaking formation for a short George W. Greenaway(Eyre Methuen, 1981).They are:
term advantage.In its simplestsens€rhat is what the English did The Anglo-SaxonCkonicle.
at Hastings,andthey paid the price. Annuals ascribedto "Flor€nceof Worcester".
After you have played the basic batde you might consider William of JumiCges:description of the invasion of
someof the altemaiives. You could stan by amendingany of Englandby William the Conqueror.
the scenariodetailsto suityour own rcquiements. But therc arc William of Poitiers: "The Deedsof Wi iam, Duke of the
otber options. What if Harold had waited lo accumulatehis Normansand King of the English".
largestpossiblearmy, saymore than 12 elem€n6, and what if The BayeuxTapestry.
then Willian hadengineereda situationwhereHarcld attacked 2. TheFeudalKingdamof England, 1042-l2l6FolurthEditioa
him on more open and level ground, so that he could use his by Fmnk Barlow (Irngman croup UK Limited, 1988).
knights to best advantage,and what if the Normanshad b€en 3. A History of theArt ofwaL TheMiMle Ageslrom thefoutth
b€atenand had had to fight a batde on the beachto es.apein to thefourteenthcenturyby CharlesOman (Methuen & Co.,
their ships.The possibilitiesare considerable.Have fun! 1898).
38

BATTATIONS,
EAGTES
& FIAGS
PartIII Of Spaln,Grena&ers& Others
by StephenEde-Boneft

As well asthe infantry's battalion fanions coveredin Pan II of lions, organizedinto "Provisional Regirnents" (31) and num-
this series (see wl73) the inJanty of the French Army used bered as 1er bis Regiment D'Infantede de Ligne, 2me bis
fanions for various other battalion-sized units dudng the Regiment . . . etc. The initial twelve regimentswere expanded
NapoleonicWaIs. I havecoveredsom€of thesebelow, but this to eighteenin January1808.
is by no means exhaustive. Although nany regiments and On 6 ADril 1808NaDoleonwrcte to Murat of his intention
battalions which were not given Eaglesdid receiv€Coloun of that each6f theseprovisional regimentsshouldhavea flag and
the 1804 pattem (of both Challiot and Picot designs)many Murat consequentlywrote that eachregiment(32) wasto have
othe$ carried fanions of various unique regimentalpattems ". . . a guidon rcsembline those borne by the reeiments of
and, of course,this latter was true of the whole of the Middle genadiers."The use of the telm "guidon" is odd, but the
andYoung Guad Infantry Regiments(seeAppendix II). intention h obviously that this was to be a fanion such as
Oudinofs battalions had been carrying in the 1805and 1806
campaigns.As stat€dabovewe haveno accurateiDfomation on
OFGRENADIERS the appearanceof thesefanions beyond the surviving example
On 2l October 1806 an '€lite' division was formed under shownasillustration C.
General Oudinot from the converyedgrenadier and voltigeur The organisation of the regular regiments in the Spanish
companiesof the depot battalions of those infantry regiments campaignswasidentical to that of thosewith the Grand Army
then with the Grande Armee. (A similar division had been and after 1808/9they confomied to the Emperoft orders and,
form€d in January 1804under General Junot, and in March albeit reluctantly, gave up their battalion Eagles,which were
1805 under General Ouditrot (29). This division was not usuallyretumed to the appropriateregimentaldepot in France.
dissolveduntil after the 1809campaignagainstAustria. Also as with the rcgiments serving with the Grand Army, the
The orgadsation of the companieswas into six-company various battalions of the sameregineDt were rarely split up,
battalions and two-battalion reginents, often termed 'demi- exceptfor thosebattalionsdetachedasganisons(33).
brigades'in the old Revolutionary Warsway. The lossesof the Grand Army in the 1812campaignand the
As with all military units it was felt necessaryfor these resultant rccall of many Spanish veterans, however, was to
regimentsto have flags, albeit that the formations were odly causea manpowershortageduring 1813and 1814and this
temporary. Similady the 1805 formations had had battalion resultedin various reorganisationsof the Frcnch Line InJantry
fanions(cf illustration C). Someof theseearlier fanionsmay, in and during 1813many 3rd and 4th battalions *ere disbanded
fact, have still been in use, since barely thrce months had atrdtbeir persoDnelincorpomtedinto the 1stand2nd battalions
elapsedsincerhe disbandmentof the five regimentsofthe 1805 -the effectsof thiscanbe quicklyseenin the FrenchO.O.B.'S
formation and the cr€ation of thoseof 1806. from thisperiod(34).
The idtial sev€nr€ginents of grenadienprov€deffectiveand As an example the 100th Line may stand for many other
b February 1809Oudinofs Division wasexpandedto thirteen regirnentsi
three-battalion regiments, now fomally titled demibdgades The 1st and znd Battalions were sent to SDainin the late
and shonly after thh expansion provision was made by the Summer of 1808. wbiist lhe 4tb (Depot) Battalion
Emperor to prcvide drapecar for the new units. The Emperor remain€d at Metz, and the 4th's eiite companiesfought
wtote to Benhier on 8 April 1809orderingthat eachbattalion of under Oudinot in Gennany. In Februarythe reconstituted
"...
the d€mi-brigades was to have a smal flag of sinple 4th Battalion (now a 'field' battalion) joined its regiment
tdcolou cotton, beariry on one side the number of the dudng the siege of Badajoz. The 4th B.ttalion and
demi-brigadeand on the other the numb€r of the battalion. elements of the new5thweretempomrilydetached aspan
Thus for example4th Battalion of the 6th Light Infantry on one of a rcvr 2ne Demi-Bigade Prcvisoire in the Army of
sideandon the other1stDemi-brigade.. ." Portugal in October 1812(the rcst of the 2nd Provisional
No illusFationsof thesefanions exist, asfar asmy researches were the 4th Battalions of the 64th and 103rd Line). ln
haveshownanlvay, but in the AImy Museumin Vienna is an March 1813the battalionsrejoined their parent units, but
exampletaken from the lst Battalion of the 4th Demi-Brigade the shonageof manpowerdemandedth€ disbandmentof
(30) at Ebelsberg dudng the 1809 campaign. This fanion is all save the 1st and 2nd Battalions. On 16 April the
shownas IllustrationA, the legendis "4 Br 1 8a", i.e.4th situation hadn't improved and the 2nd Battalion was also
Deni-Bdeade, lst Battalion. The reverseis in the folm of a disbanded.The lmth of the Line fought the restof the 1813
plain tricolorir without inscription, which serv€sto demonstrate campaign as a single battalion regiment, although its
yet again that, whatever th€ regulations say, the reality was strengthwas25officen, 262genadiers, 325voltig€un, and
often differ€nt . 1295 tusiliers. (These figur€s include 525 men sick or
The Grenadiersd'Oudinot were dissolvedbit by bit after the wounded,but sti on strength(35).)
1809campaignhad endedand no comparablefomations were
rais€d for the later campaigns- the meteoric growth in the This, a R?ical regimental history of those units in Spain,
numberof Young Guard rcgimentsprecludedthe needfor such causedthe Emperor to be concemedover the potential lossof
tempomryexpedients. Eaglesin action andon 16August 1813Marshal Soultissuedan
Oder of the Day dircctingthat th€ inr€ntion "... of the
Emperor is that in eachBrigadethereis to be only one Eagleto
OF SPAIN servefor rallying andone band, this arrangementto take effect
immediately. ln consequence,only the regimentsdesignated
The first French foops to be sent to Spain in November 1807 below wil retain their Eaeles and Band. . ." the othet
were composedof disparate battalions; mainly depot batta- rcgiments were straight away to retum their Eagles to the
39
relevant depot in France (36). The relevant privileged Regim- APPENDIXI
Eaglescapturedby theBritish Army 1809.1815
15th,28th,40rh,43rd,45rh,47rh,64th,65th,69th,?0th,
75th,86th,94th,96th,103rd,105th,130thLine Regiments. DATE PI,ACf, I]NIT CAPTIJRf,DBY
Note that therewere no Light Regirnentson this list. Chani6 1tos
(37)giveshisopinion that noneof thesereginents usedthe 1812 24February Capitulation
of 26thLine,2nd BritishArmy
pattem Colour and canied insteadeither the 1804pattem or a FortDesaixon Btn,82ndLine,
barestaff- the 130thcanbe definitely statedto haveus€da bare Martinique 1st,2nd&3rd
staff as it was not formed until January 1811and there is no Btns
record of the manufactureof an 1804pattem Coloul for it I
Those reeiments and battalions not ganted the dght to 1810
continue the carrying of their Eaele were to carry battalion Z7Ja1rary Capitulation
of 66thLine,lst BdtishArmy
IanionsolthetormcoveredmPan llo( rhisseries (seeWl73). Guadeloupe Btn(l)
tEll
5March Barrosa SthLine,lslBtnSTrhFool
OF OTIIERS
l6March ThroY,ninto 39thLine Recovered by
Wlilst the greatestpart of the unnumberedregimentsv,/hich RiverCeira BritishArmyon
formed part of the French Infantry, the Hannoverian Legion, 5June
the Regimentof westphalia, the Prussianl-egion, €tc, carried
Colourc of the 1804and, occasionaly, 1812pattem wheiher lEt2
with or without the much coveted Eagle (which the Emperor ?2July Salamanca 22ndline,1st 30thFoot
personallydecidedto awardor not, as the casemay be), a Btn
numberhadto makedo with fanions,In manycasesthey also nlv Salamanca 62ndline ,l4thFoot
possessed battalionfanions.
Very little is knownof the fanionsof theseunits, but wherewe nIy Salamanca 10lstFoot 1
do havesuchinformation it is sufficient to leadto the conclusion August Foundinth€ 13thLine
that they wereof a regimentalandnot rcgulation pattem. RetiroinMadrid
The Neuchatelbattalion, nised in 1807by Berthier, Princ€of
Neuchatel, may have used a Colour with the AIms of the August Foundinthe slstline
principality and, despiteBerthier's many attemptsto p€rsDade RetiroinMadrid
the Emperor, wasneverpresentedwith an Eagle.The battalion t8l5
did, however, possessa tricolou fanion with the legend 18June 4sthline Sergeant
Ewai
BATAILLON DU PRINCE DE NEUFCHATEL on it. A ofthe2ndRoyal
reconstructionis shownasillustration D. NorthBritish
Another battalion fanion is shown as illustmtion B. This Dngoons
fanion is preservedin Vienna and althoughit carriesthe legend
"3e Illyrien.. ." there was no 3rd lllyrian Regiment!It is l8June Waterloo losthline Captclark
therefore probable that this fanion is ftom one of the
Kennedyofthe
ProvisionalCroatian Regimentsraisedfor generalfield service
lst(Royal)
in 1812(38).The Third Croatiansareknownto havereceived
Dragoons
an Eaglewith an 1812Colourin January1812(soby inferenc€
the lst and 2nd did aswell), but from this fanion it seemsthat, Additionally Wellingron'sArmy took the three battalion
like the French Line regimentson which they were modelled, Coloursfrom the Rdgimentde Prusseat Almarazin 1812.
Thesewereof the usual1804pattem,but somewhat largerthan
the two-battalion provisional Croatian regiments also had
normal (being 162cmsquare)and ca.ried on staveswith simple
battalionfanions.
spearhead finialsasthe regimentwasneverpresented with an
Eagle.
Not€worthy is th€ fact that the PortugueseArmy is not
IN CONCLUSION creditedwith the captureof even a singleEagleduring the War
Theseshort articles can only scratch the surface of what is a andthe Spanisharmiescapturedonly two thoseof the 2nd
highlycomplexsubjectandone,parti€ularlyin the caseofthe Battalionsofthe1stand2nd RegimentsoftheGardede Paris,
battalion fanions, where a great deal of original researchstill capturedat thesurrenderof Baylen,22July 1808.
remainsto be done. But I hopethat fellow Napoleonic'gamers
will havefound thesenotesuseful. Any additional information
mouldering in the 6les of readers of this magazine which APPENDIX tr
complementsor contradictswhat I've written wouid be TheFanions oftheGuard1806.1814
gratetullyreceivedby the author. Pleasecontactmethrough the
In the Guard infantry only the Grenadieff and Chasseurs
of the
Editor of this augustjoumal. lActually Stev€, this is the
Old Guard receivedEagles(39). All other regimentsreceived
D€c€nb€rissuell
fanionsof a distinctivecolour for eachregimentaldesignation:

CHELIFERBOOKS fusilier Gr€nadi€rs& Fusilier Chasseurs


It $as originally intended that these should have Eagles,but
Mike Smith they *ere never presented and they received blue fanions
Todd Close,Curthwaite,Wi8lon, Cumbria instead,
Tel: 0228 711388 Tireill€urGrcnadier3oaterju3tTirsileuN)
MILITARY BOOKS Officially thesewere to havewhite fanions, but in practicethey
Bought and Sold Send sae fot catalogue seemto haveusedfiimson rcd ones-
Tiraill€ur Chasseurs(lat€r voltig€urs)
KEEPWARGAMING Otficially their fanionswere to be crimson,of the two surviving
examples that of the lst is crimson,thatofthe 13this whitel
PaulandTeresaBailey
TheKeep nanquer-Gr€nadiers& Fhnquer-Chass€urs
LeMarchantBarrack,LondonRoad, Bothhadfanionsofyellow.
Wltshire,SN102ER,UK
Devizes, P[pilles
Tel & Fax10380)72i1558
Velit€sde Tulin et de Florence
Wo sh.ll b6 .t the followingshowsinlh. n.arlutlre:
An 1804pattem Colour without Eagle.
zlhl2arh November PooleOpenDay
PooleHighSchool Marines
(Hen.yHarbin) This r€giment,not strictlyinfantry,did receivean Eagleand
5lh December Marcher'93,Shrcwsbury 1804pattern Colour, but are aho known to havecarried a dark
TeleposlHall,TownWalls
lDd advancsnorice
bluefanion.
5th/6thFebruary PAw'g4,Plymouth
R€fectory,
Collegeof Fudher
Education NOTF-S
SIOCK CLEARANCE 29 Both of theseshortlivedearlierformationshada different
Weareno longerimponingEmpirePrcssprcducts,andhave make-upto the 1806formation.
thefollowing!tl€s availablein limiiedquanritieson a lirst
come,fi6t seruedbsis, 30 Composedon I May 1809of the six companies of the 4th
AncientEmpiresRules Battalion of the 4th Line lnfantry. The 2nd Battalion
CaesarModule(fo.usewithaboverul€s) 15.00 comprised the sixcompaniesof the4th Battalionof the 18th
Successor Module(forusewithaboverules) 15.00 Line Infantry.The whotedemi-brigade wascommanded by
Revenge(lvledievalRulesl t12.00
Nlemoi6of a PolishLancer fr6.50 Colonelen deuxiameCnmminet.
f16,00
Armiesonthe Danube €1t.00 31 A nurnberof provisionalcavalryregimencwereorganised
S t a 6 ' nB a 6 ( A C W F u l e s ) €15.00 ftom similarorigins.Theselaterbecameregularregiments
Armiesat Firstldanassas €5.00 suchasthe 13thCuirassiers.
RedBaron0a/WlAeriaI Rules) €9.!t5
PIOSTALTERMS 32 Probablythiswasactuallytobeeachbattalion.
Postage& Packing;Plus10%i,,|inimum50p lvlaximumE3.00 suchasthesixbattalionsofthe 17th
33 Therewereexceptions,
POSTAGEOVEFSEAS Light which se ed in two three-battalionregimental
Postage& Packins I grouprngs.
Plus25% S u d a c e , & A i m a i l ! r ' o p g . . . . U , n'. r . o o
Plus50%Aimail Re$ of world 34 See, for example,the O.O.B.S given in the numerous
Pleasemak€chequespayabletoP.&T. Bailey. Anschluss publications
on the Peninsular
War.
W. now srockMus€umMini.tu6 DBAArmies
MINIFIGS STOCXIST
35 Rigo,plate218.
OFFICIAL
lfyou cannotattenda showwhy notvisitourshopor useour 36 The Eaglesofthe l3th and51stLine nevermadeit further
mailorderseNice?Ourstocksareamongstthemost thanMadrid,wheretheyhadbeenleft.
comprch€nsive in the business. forlulldetails sendan s.a.e.
or 2IRC'srothe abovoaddress,stating,if possible,your atea 37 Charri6(seesourcet, pp205-214.
olinterest.
Fisur.s 38 The nain regimentswere,of course,guardingthe frootier
MiniaturcFigurines:All 1smmand most25mmranges with theTurks,astheyhadfortwocenturie!
&BalPanha
H€roics& RosFigurcs& BoundwayMiniatures 39 The Marinesand Gendarmes d'Elile alsoreceivedEagles,
-allfigurcranses but neitherwerestricdycombatiofantry.
Oixonslvliniaturcs-All15mm& 25mmEnses,
NILB- sglected.anges
Triron,Davco& Firelighr-sel€ct€dranges.
Navwar& Naismith-selectedranses. SOURCES
MuseumlL'liniatures.
Charri6, Pierre: Dtupeaut et EEnda .s de la Revolunonet de
PlasticKits
MarchboxvehrclesiAirfix; Fevell;Fujimi,Esci. L' Empire P^is 1982.
Vidsos
Regnault, J: Les AiSles Inperiales et le Dnpeau Ticolorc,
War Documentaries; war FeatureFilms,elc, 1e'04-t815Pans1967.
'Rigo'(Albert Rigondaud):Le PlurnetPlateSeries,especially
. Compuierc.m€5&Ful..
TurcanEesearch System(Dreadnoushl etc)EnslishComputer Plates 142.143.166 & 218.
Warcames.EagleSoftware. Contemporary platesby Malibran,SuhrandVem€t.
Eook3& Rul€s Secondary a(icles from numerousmodernmagazines particu-
Waruamesnessarch Group;TabletopGames;Newbury larly Tmdition, Sabrcache, and Uniformes.
R u l e sO
: s p r eMy s na l A r m s i E l i t eV; a n g u a r&d C a m p a i g n
SeriesjRaidel,lvl.O.D. GamssiAnschlussiActiveService
PrcsstEmp€ro/sPress;plusselect€dtitlesfrommanyother
publisheB. Opposite:,4r.rtran /ra$drs outsidethe "AIte SaclBen"- a real
TetrEin& ModolBuildings ale pub some||here north of Vienna. Figurcs arc 25mm
K&lvlTrces;Hovels{resinl;lvlainlylvlilitary{resin);TheDrum Napobonicslrom the WargamesFoundr) runge,painted by the
(resin);Hardcover Oesign{cad)i D6per Nlodels{15mm 'Units to Amies' painting sen'ice. (See thei
ad. in the
N a p o l e o n i c c abdu i l d i n s s l
) Theinn (a Drun rcsin buiuing, I think) waspainted
classifred:.
ShopopenTues-Sat('10.00am'600pm). b! MatkAlbn.
VISAand ACCESSA@epted
41

A Baualion Fanion, lst Bsttalion 4th Regimentof'Grenadie^


d'Oudinot', c. 1809.
B Battalion Fanion, lst Battalion 3rd Prcvisional Goatian
Reeiment, c.182.
C Banalion Fanion, 4th Regiment'Crenadierc.le la Resene',
c.1805.
D Battalion Fa ion, NeuchatelBsttalion, 1809-14.
42

THEBATTLEOFBUTTINGTON
894A.D.
by Mafin Hackett
EVIDENCETJNEARTHED difficulttodayto determinewhatthe couneofthe riverSevern
wasovera thousandyears ago,but the valleyisproneto severe
In 1838at Buttington,Montgomeryshire (now PosTs),three flooding,andtwo daysofcontinuousrain canturn manymiles
burialpitswereuncovered. Placedinthe centreofeachpit were of farmlandinto a massive,nuddy lake. The main Oswestry-
skulls,totalling400.thewallsbeinglinedwiththelonSerboneswelshpoolroadis closedonaverageoncea yeardueto flooding
of the bodies.The skullswerereputedro be in fine condition, at Butrington,wirhina mile ofthe battlefieldsire.My beliefis
andbelongingto menwhowouldhavebeenin theprimeof life, that the Danesmovedby river up the Thames,then dragged
althoughsomeof them showedfracturessuggesting a violent their boatsacrossand downthe Cotswoldsuntil they reached
death.Th€jaw ofahorsewasalsofound,alongwith numerous the Sevem.This river let them reachthe Welshborders.then
smallbones vertebrae,fingersand teeth for example.The havingrea€hedthe Vyrnwy/Severn junction at 'Watersmeef
ReverendDawkins who made the discoverv(within the theychosethe routeup the upperSevern.I believethat at this
south-west courtyardof his churchyard),waslittle concerned tine theriverwashigh,approaching a flood,andbecause ofthis
with them and did nothing,as far as one cangather,and the
they encampednear nightfallon an islandin the river. The
boneswere reinterredon the northsideofthe Churchyard. The battleof Maldonin 99l suggesrs thattheDaneswerestill happy
clergymancould then completerhe foundationsfor his new to usean islandasa basea hundredyearslater.As thisrivei can
schoolroom.What has happenedto them sinceis unknown, rise and flood or drain awayand sink in a matterof hours,it
thoughat the time the deadmen'steethweresotdfor between wouldseemthatthe nextdaywhateverstate theriverwasin had
sixpence anda shillingeach,astheywererhoughlin rhislocaliry renderedthe shipsuseless, perhapstheywereleft highanddry
to be a cureforthat mostpainfulmalady,toothache. wherethey had beenanchored.Perhapsthey had beenlost.
The Reverend,beingmoreconcerfledwiihtheproperburial BetweenButtingtonand Watersmeetthere are placeswhere
ofthe bodies,left no otherinformationon the subjectibut rhe the river goesvery shatlowand wouldonly be navigablewilh
Wehh HistoricalSociety,z\rrhotsof the Archaeologica Com- highwaters,theDanesmayhavetriedto leave,butwereunable
b/enrr, eventuallysifted through the evidence.From rhe
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,year894,we seethatrhereis nention
of a greatbattle fought betweenthe Danesand a combined Imaginethe situation.An unexploredarea,the iver is rising
English,Avelsh force. For many yearsrhere have been rwo fas1,indeedbeginningto burst its banksand flow acrossthe
claimantsto thissite.One in Gloucestershire (on whichI have Iand. Fearingthe lossof their boatsand lives the invaders
been unable to ascertainany details), and the orher in choosea highpieceof groundand makecampthere, a place
Montgomeryshire, namelyin Buttington. with sufficiefltheighrso rhat theywouldbe out of the reachof
Giventhe description ofthe Anglo-Saxon Chronicleit would the floodwaters.Oncethe decisionwasmadethe Danesbuilta
seemthat the latter is the strongestclaimantof the two, and campto enablethem to resistattack.Thentheyeitherwaited
giventhe amountof bonesdiscovered it certainlystrengthens fortheir enemiestodisappear;fall out with oneanother;failin
Buttington\ €ase.It h rhe scantdetaihfor Buttingronthat I their attemDt1o attackthe Danes:or for the meansof their
shallexpandupon,andI trustthatat leastsomeofthe mystery escape to becomeavailable.
might be unravelled.If anyonehasany informarionon either
Buttingtonor the Gloucestershire locationI shouldbe mosr
pleasedto receiveit. viathe editor. TIIE DEFENDERS
Despitethe absence of the King, the Englishreactedswiftly,
and it wasdecidedto gatheras many troopsas possibleand
THEANGLO.SAXON CHROMCLE shadowtheinvadingforce. Thecallofthe Englishwentfar. The
In the year 894the Danes,probablyunderahecommandof King, awayin Devon with his fleet fighting anotherDanish
Haesten.left Beamfleet(or Benfleet) in Essexand wenl force, was obtiged to leave the defenceto Ethercd and
plundering.They ravagedMercia and rhen regroupedat A€thelnoth,two Haldormen.Theseleadersgatheredforces
'every town east of the Parret and from all around
Shoeburybackin Essex.At Shoeburythey gatheredan army from
fromboththeEastAngliansandtheNorthumbrians. Thenthey Selwood'.Also rnenweregatheredfrom north of the Thames
went up the Thamesand over onro rhe Severn.It is unclear (Mer€ians), weslof the Sevem(he WelshMarchet, andeven
whethertheDanesadvancedby landorriver.Certainlymodern ftom the north-welsh peoples.W}lenall thesetroopshadbeen
evidenc€has shown th€ Severnto be navigabteas far as gatheredtheyarrivedat Buttingtonon the bank ofthe Severn,
Wroxeterinabout300A.D. But did theydragtheirshipsfrom and'thesetroopsbeset the Daneson eithersideinafastness'.
the sourcew ters of the Thamesdown to nearcloucesteror
Worcesterandthensetsailno(h alongrheSevern? Or did they
marchalongthe riverbanksfollowingthe river; or, as seems ENCAMPED
easier,did they take WatlingStreet,which connectsLondon Whateverthereasonwasthatheldup theDanestheydecidedto
andShrewsbury andhencethe two riverstogether? Whichever builda fortifiedcamp,ratherthanattemptto moveon, or back.
methodwas usedit eventuallyleft the Danesat Buttington, This allowedthe Eltglishto besiegethe Danishencampment
alongsidethe dver Sevem,with low food supplies,and the frombothsidesof theriver.After manvweeks.the Daneswere
problemofddvancingWelshand Englishlorces. shortof food (theyhadalreadyeatenall their horses)andthey
decidedto try andbreakout.

TIIE WEATHERINTERVEI{ES
It is thevery situationthatthe Danesendedupin that leadsme TIIE DANISHCAMP
to concludethattheya[ived at Buttingtonbyiiver, onlytofind The positionof the Danishcampcanstill be seen.The current
themselves unableto move by boat in either direction.It is churchat Buttingtonandthe schoolroomare still in everyday
1l
use,andthe churchsitson a regularoblongrnound.Although
the Sevemhas movedits coursesomedistanceto the west,
approxirnaiely 500yards,it is significan.that runningpastthe
high-groundis a streamthat beconesthe first channelto fill
whentheiver rises,probablyindicatingitsoriginalcouEe.The
othervital factrelatingto the siteis that noneof the buildings
built uponthe knoll, or campasit mustsurelybe, is subjectto
floodingwhenthe riverrises.Thepositionchosenby the Danes
was sale.Unfortunatelywhen the Danesattemptedto leave
they wer€ unableto do so. This is the next problemto be
considered. On theeastbank,wheretheDaneswere,therewas
a largeEnglisharmy. On the westbankwasa largecombined
armyofEnglishandWelsh.Ifthey hadboatswhydid theynot 6 3 0 M t U C Yes Javelins(GeneralFyrd)
usethem to escape? lf rhe boatshad not beenlost then rhey l t 2 L r U C No Longbow (w€lsh)
would havebeenableto take them from the camponto the 8 42 LMM (welsh)
Yes LongThrustiigSpear
river. But then they would have to run the risk of going 9 1 4 H I V C Cuttingweapon(Huscarlt
Yes 2-Handed
down riverwhilsthaniedfrom bothbankswith anyweaponthe
nativescaredto throw at them. The local troopswould also Thespecialrulesfor thisplayerwereto containtheenemy,and
know placeswhere the river could be blockedwith trees, preventas manyas possiblefiom es€aping. Their moralewas
perhapsat a shallowpoint. A river escapewould leavethe goodb€cause theybadthe ene:nyat a disadvantage.However,
Daneserposedto ambushfor many milesfron two armies normalWRG ruleswould apply and a unit pushedback the
combined,but if theycouldfight one army anddefeatit, then requirednumberoftimeswouldbreak.Oncea Danishunil had
perhapstheycouldescape beforethe othercouldgetacrossthe crossedthetableedgeit wasconsideredtohave es€aped,
aslong
asit wasnot beingpursuedand it hadleft eithernorth'eastor

BATTLE IS JOINED
The Chroniclesayslitde on the battle, savethat the Danes DANES
broke out againstthe men who were encampedon the east
bankoftheriver,andthe Christians hadthevictory.Ordheh,a lJnil No. TtF Ch$ SbiddWeap$ Srniwd
King'sthane,wasslain,andoftheDanishmenwasa verygreat I LII Cen. Yes Genenl2 HnndedAe plNRaye0nandard
slaughtermade.The part whichgot awaythencewassavedby B ]l] LMI IC Yes JaYelin(8ondi)
flight'. Clearlythe skullsindicatea significantnumberofdead c 12 LI I/C No Sling(Stjmi$er)
giventhe smallsizeofthe forcesthat musthavebeeninvolved. D 8 L I l C Yts J eliir(Skirmilher) Sone
It is clearhoweverthat theinvaderscertainlyhadtheworstofit; E $ LHI rc Yes hvelm(Bondi) Some
thoughtheChroniclecon€ludes thatsomemadeit backtoEssex F l0 LHt I,c lrs 2-Hnndrdcuimgverpon(Hu$?*) Sone
to reinvadethe areaasfar asChester.only forty milesnorthof c l0 tl{l tc Y€s Jawlin (Bondi)
Burtington,beforenextwinter. H T LI{I 1rA Yes I'HmdedcuniDgveap0s(Ber*rk)

As wellasthegeographical stipulationslistedabovetheDanish
WARGAMINGTHEBATTLE player was also informed that his initial moves would be
Thetablewasplacedasshownin Map B, the Daneswithintheir increasedby two inchesto reflectthe attemptedmassbreakout
encampmenl. It wasagreedthat the south-easl andsouth-wesl ftom lhe encampment.Morale would be average.to reflect
routeswere not availableas an optionalescaperoute, as this th€irhungrystate.
wouldinvolvecrossingthe river and./orfacingthe onslaughtof Thereweretwoothercriticalfactors:Firstly,anyof histroops
the secondarmy. They could not escapeeast becausethe pushedbacklowardstheencampment fromwheretheyhadjust
heightsto that directionwould mean an uphill strugglefor sprungwould not tum and break no matterhow manytimes
nearlya mile.Thislefi ihe Daneswith havingto breakthrough
the Englishline soasro leavethe tableedgebeyondthe points
marked' on the map.
The sizeofthe armiesinvolvedis alwayshard to gauge,but
giventhe sizeof the initial areathat bothsidesrecruitedfrom,
we settled for the refight on 3300 Danes and a iotal
English/Welsh force of 7800,split equallybetweenthe two
armies,oneon eachsideofthe river. As we wereusinSWRG
61hEditionrulesthisgaveeachsidea thousandpoints,andwe
decidedto fight it historically,leavingthe army on the west
(welsh),sideout ofthe baute.

DNGLISIVWELSH

Udt No. Tlpe CIas! ShieldWeapo$


l 2 HI Gen. Yes Ceneralplusstandard
2 t 5 LI IC No Javelins(Welsh)
3 3 0 MI UC Y€s Jav€lins(Gen€ralFyrd)
4 2 4 HI (Select
I,/C Y€s Jav€lins Fyrd)
HI IiC Yes Jalelins(SelctF!rd)
l5nn 1 wr Draqon\ P, aductnn\ Dat k ABp5ltqn e"lrcn rh' , ollp, aon oJda'8Fc' hn Hallon.

thcy were pushed track. This $.rs ro rcfl.cr both the lirck of r h e l i g h rj a l e l i o r r e n I b r t h a d b e e nh r n l i n g t h c f l a n k r g r e r t
a n y $ h e r e e l s e l b r t h c D a n c s t o r u n . r n d t o c a p r u r ct h c c h a n c co f g l o r \ . . \ s c o r eo t o ! e r 7 o n t h e i rr h r e ed 6 N o u l dn l l o $
dcspcrate l e n g t h sl h a t r h e D a n e s$ o u l d h l r c g o n et o n o t l o g i v c t h e m r o c h a r g ea n o r h e re n e m ! r e r r t h r r h r d p r e s e n t e d itself.
i n . S e c o n d l yi .f a u n i t w a sI o s e ea g i p i n t h c l i n er v h i c ht t l l o \ \ e di r b u t a m i s e r a b l e .m l e a n tt h t t ti t s a ! a l l t h c ] c o u l dd o n ) h u d d l ei n
an escaperuutc. thcn rs long asthe unil could mo\c thrcugh rhe ihe wood: rnd lh.n x\o mo\c\ later thc\ hrd to facc an
g a pi t c o u l da t t c m p tt o s q u e e z e r h r o r g h t h e l i n c i r n d\ o e s c r p e . o r s l a u g h tl f o m t h . D r n i s h s k i . m i s h . r s .T h i s g a p c \ c n t u a l l !
. u h i r . r r . , n ! r e l e \ . , frr. . r . _ i J , r r . r-' - J " . , n . . , . r J , r ' . r l l o $ e dr r h i r d . r n d i o u r r h D r n ' s h u n i t t o c l c a p c H a l i n g
c o u l dm c l e ew i l h i t . a o d h e n c ed i s r r a cirt t r o m i t s f l i e h r . p u s h e db r c k l o r s i r ic o n s c c u t i ! .m o \ c s t b c B c r s . r k sr n d t h c
W i t h a l l t h e s ep o i n t sn o r e dr h c p l a \ c r sd . p l o v e d .t h e D a n c s B o n d i .r h eL i t l l $ i r h l o o gr h r u s t i n -sep c a r \b c g a nr c i n f l i c th e . r l y
i n t h e c a m pf i r s r . l o s s c so n t h o s ct r n i r s .u n t i l l h e t $ e r e l o s i r - qt h r e e f i g u r e sp e r
u n r rp e r n o ! e . l l 0 m e n l
E \ e n t u a l l ) t h e r e n a i n i n gE . g l i s h , u c l s hn r r c c sc l o s e di n l u l l
THEREFICHT c i r c l eo n t h e c d g c o f t h c i ) r m c r D a n i s hb r s c a n d t h c l a s tf . \
T h e D a n c sm a s s e d o n r h ee a s la n d n o r t hs i d c s o f t h ec a m p .T h e I ) a n . \ t c l l n ) ! m a n . O f t h . l l 0 0 i n r r i a lD a n i s h [ o r c . . 1 5 1 7
(16?. ). \'crc lo\t. rnd thc othcrs cscrped.The allicd forccs bsl
E n g l i s h l W c l sdhe p l o t e di n a s o l i ds h i c l d$ a l l t h a t l i n k e dt h e r $ o
woods in a crescent.Thc speedof thc Dancs seemedlo calch 8 1l . l o m c : l ' . o f l h c i . f o r c c . O f r h e l o s s e sr o b o t h s i d c sh l l f
thcir cnemyoff guird and therc was liltl. time ior them ro N e r e c r u s e db y t h c D r n i \ h i n s i \ t . n c ct o t i g h l t o t h c l a \ t m d n .
advancc or shoot before the two lincs hit cdch other. The H o $ c ! c r . b o t h c o m n r a n d c As r r c h a p p \ \ i r h t h c o u t c o m c .
Danish tactic of advancingNith the skirnishcrs kr utset the t h o u g ht h c o b j c c t i ! e sf o r b o t h s i d e s$ e r es t r r i g h r f o N a r d .
e n e m va n d t h c n l c t t i n gt h e h e a v i e rt s o n d i t h r o u g h d i d n o rs e e J n
to $ork well. and rhc intcrpcnctration led to a confuscdmclec
i n t h e c e n t r eo f t h e l i n e . B \ m o \ c f o u r t h e N h o l e l i n e s a s i n CONCI,USION
h a n d t o ' h a n dc o m b a lw i l h o n l ] r c s c r v cu n i t sn o r x r \ o h e d . a n d T o t h c b c s t o f m \ k o o $ l e d g el i t l l e h r s l o r i c , rl h
l o u g h lh a se \ e r
all but one melee had becn "on h! thc combinedEnglish arm) been given ro dre importance of this Dark Age baitle. lt is
This initial successtor both commrndcrs. On the bank of rhc interestingrhat Dalid SrnurlhNaite in his book Bankfields ol
river thc unit of General Flrd broke and found themselles Brirdnr 91\esmuch pr.rjserc the dcfcnsivc racticr undcftnken
routed iDto thc Nater. allolving rhe Danish r.scrle unjt ro slip b\ Allred in \essex in the 380:.$hich borc fruit whcn No
through thc gap that had been crearedb! thc Wclsh LNII wrrh V i k i n e . r n n i e si n l a d c d i n 8 9 2 .B y 8 9 6h c ( a t c s t h a l t h . \ ' \ ' c r .
long thrusiing spear pushing back borh rhc Bcscrks and .r Bondi ' r e a d yt o n c c e p D l d n c h $ ( r r c l u r n t o F r a n c c. S u r c h i f S 9 6$ a s
t h e k e f ! e a r f o r t h c V i k i n g sn r h a \c h r d c n o u g h .l h c n t h c b a l t l e
Fu.lher cast a uDit ofSelect FJ"rdwcrc broken. and although a t B u t t i n g t o n i n 8 9 1 m u s l h r v c p l ! \ c d a \ i g n i f i c a n tp a r t i n
flank and rear was exposcd to thc unit of F\rd rhat bad bccn i n t l e n c i n gt h e V i k i n g st o r e a l i s et h r r t h e ) c o u l dn o t s u s t r i na
heid back. the running Fyrd and pursuing Huscarlsmrdc such war if thc! $cre going to sLrllernrch he.r!\ deteals.I hope lhar
impressive lh.ows that thev virtually charged off th€ bodrd m o r co n t h i sc ! e n l l v r l l c o m et o l i g h r .
togcther. Thjs large gap in rhe casrflank otthe EngUshallo\lcd
+5

Enlte AAinnatuft"es
26 Bowleas€
Gardens.Bessacarr.
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When replying to adverts please mention Wargarnes lllustrated.


READERSLETTERS the sinking of flMS york. As he saysin the article, various
sources give credit to German bombing, Bdtish scuttling
FLAGGINGINTER"EST attemptsand (a few) to the Italian light forces.I thought I would
I read with gleat interest StephenEde-Borrett\ two articles write to 6ll someoI th€ backgroundto the lossof the yor&.
"Baitalions, Eaglesand Flags" in issues72 and 74, they were volc washit by two MTM'S on 26th March 1941. Both hit the
well written and enjoyableto read. starboard side amidships.A hole was blown open in the side
plating extending 25feet by 11feet upwardsftom the bilge keel.
Therc is one point misedin issue74 I must disagreewith, and
that is ilustration F (p.41) in which the 10this given the motto A second hole 25 feet by 8 feet was also opened. 'A' and 'B'
"UN CONTRE DIX". According to StephenEde-Boneu's boiler rcoms were immediately flooded, as were the forward
text he hasbasedthis on an ex1.racafiom"Memoirs ol a Polish enginerooms. The aft enginercom and nearby compartments
Lancef'- In this book Chaplowski is describing Napoleon's beganto flood slowly. The immediate lossof buoyancycaused
inspectionof Macdonald'sCorpsafter Wagram,andChaplows- the ship to list to starboardand settle by the stem. All steam,
ki himselJsaysthat the regiment in question lvas the 10th (I lighting and electricalpower in:he ship was lost. The ship was
thint). immobilised, unseaworthy and was therefore beached to
Chaplowskiq/asmistaken,the rcgiment was,in fact, the 84th Preventsinking.
Line which wasa*,arded"UN CONTRE Dfx" for its action at During a dive bombing attack on 22nd April damagewas
Grcz 25n6 l\ne, 18,09.The 8'4th werc part of Macdonald's caused by two near misseswhich again flooded the aft engine
(this having been pumped out as a result of salvage
Corpsat Wagam while the 10thweren't. In fact, the 10thnever room
servedin a battle under Napoleon's commandand so had no operationt. Anoth€r raid two days later causedunderwater
batde honouls. damageleadingto the flooding of'B' rnagazine,the naval store
Sourc€susedto cometo this conclusionare: and two fuel tanks. Four da)s later salvageoperations were
halted and arrangenentsmade to destroy the ship with depth
l. " TheWar Dmma of the Eagles", E. Fnset (1997). cnarges.
2. "Su'orhArcund a Throae",J.R. Elting(1989). Fu(her air raidson the 16th, 18th,19th,20th and 22ndof
3. "Fkgs annStunda s of Napoleonkwa6", K. Over (1976). May (ausedmore damage,\rTecking'A', 'B' and 'Y' turets,
4. " Flagsof NapoleonicWats" 0), T. wise (1978). causingmoreflooding. Most of the damagewascausedby shock
5. FrenchNapoleonicLine Infantry", E. B\khan Q973\. . from nearmisses,but tkee direct hits were scored.By this stage
6. "Napoleon'sLine Infarrry", P. Hatthomthwaite (1983). the ship had aheady been given up for Iost as cennan trcops
7. "Armies of the Danube1U9", S. Bawden& c. Tarbol had landed on Crete, the ship was beyond all hope of salvage
(1989). and there was nothing remaining on the wreck of value to the
8. "A yeat atwar 1809",G.A. Sapherson.
9. "Atfa Ma4azine",May 1973,C. Reavley. Wheth€r voft would havesunl if damagedin the open oc€an
10. "Memoirs of a Polish Ldncer", T. Simmons(1992). as a rcsult of the damagecausedin the MTM attack is not
Alen Mccoubrcy, Tmwbridgc, Wilts. ktrown; the extent of flooding was quite severe,but may well
havebeensurvivable.Damage(ausedby the air raids c€(ainly
finished off the ship as a fighting unit, preventirg salvage
SIIELLSHOCK operations to continueandincreasing the spreadofflooding.If
yort had been towed to a friendly port immediately folowing
I have recently acquired a brass 75mm shell caservhilst on the MTM attackit is probablethat shewould have beensaved;
holiday in Morocco. I wond€r whether any of your readership in reality this wasnot an option, giventhe ongoingoperationsat
couldidentify it from the markson the baseplate: thetime.
David ManleJ, Trowbridge, Wilts.

NOSTALGIAADDENDA
'OperationNo6talgiaPrn Orc' (W74)

1. Under 'BEACHES': for 'STRATEGIC MAP' read


'THEATRE MAP' (the
colouredonel).
2. Under 'DEPLOYMENT', an Axis spy has removed the
'. . .limits of range. . .'
for Allied aircraft from the
TIIEATRE MAP (that's /n] story!). Assume SHORT
RANGE Allied aircraft €an only operate over Rhodesand
Karpathosif they intend to retum to rheir basesin Cyprusor
Egypt.(Canier-based planescanreachanyhland,but only
if the carrier bobs around somewhereon the THEATRE
MAP unrealistic, but more tun) LONG RANGE planes
can reach all tfie islands. (Alternatively, calculate range
using the rules in Pan Two, the STRATEGIC MAP and a
Quite a chalenge I think, but I would dearly like to discover magnifyingglass!)
more of the history of this shell. RichardMa$h, Plymouth,Ihvon.
C. Forshaw,Newporr,Sbmpshire.

WARGAMES FIGURES PAINTED


YORKTAIK SendSAEor nxoIRG for pncelist
io collectoisstandards.
to: D. Seagrove,
Robert Morgan's anicle in Issue 70 on the activities of the THE I.AST DETAIL
Italian 10thFlotila mentionedthe confusionover the credit fot 196 PadaunlRoad,Langley,Slough,BerkhrreSL38AZ
47

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Crroup1 includedlast yeals winner Colin Brewer and the third aFFonc€$lMTuFtscaibcoiidldarrlifoficEl||r
iEq2{GirsEE
Sl|L DCiSY
ClCSCSar. De'l$6,t lr&3}7tl116,
placed player, Robert Wyle. Bolh playerswon their opening ANCMFIIIOOBIIN9
$TLTSCAll UNDENTTGNTOOADEN.
gameson Saturdaywhich meanta head-lo-headconftontationon
the Sundaymoming.The batdewasexFemelycloseandthe action
centredarcundthe us€of a'Fungi' spel by Robertwhichleft Colin
to schemeanassaulton th€ now 'mushroomed'wizard. Tlrc rnoves
racedby, but eventuallythe wizardfeI. Although almoctihe 6nal
actionof the game,it wasnot the decidingfactor. Colin's careftrl
deplolnent won him the game,managingto keepthe majoity of
Rob€rt'sarmy ftom closingto melee.A pointscountconfirmedit
wasColin'sgame.
tr.W It@ IImd lh
EodAc$lwa
n ft@o. Lltcay
M.idj!rFME
6i @tta ..6nid..a
CoqDd{Etra

St*.o
dd.&dDoE
tlbtorEatry
Grcup 2 was a nuch tighter affair. It was nip and tuck .ac Nd i!drb!&. t!. Ih
tbrcuehoutthe weekend.On the Su ay moming any of three Ad.6eUt *ysra@
couldstill makeit to the final, andit wasclearthat pointsinficled €24 !'b p&p
wouldwin the group.Both gameswereextremelyclo6e,andit is a P€r6.f BooL llbialt
creditto all four playenthat they statedafterwardsthat thesewere St&.n
the bestgamestheyhadeverplayed.Not urtil the endwasit clear Cattrlrr rh.i driard kEit
who had got through. Finally it was John with his Undeadwho Fa l/IDa Fd. rtlhlIddld. c.@sEtaiEErd..trD.o!..,
P.a i uE ,or oE- E{rdE i!.tui$!{ titr., dtbc,
clinchedlhe place.Grcat credit mustbe givento Robbie,who in scedr*!e@DE DiitildE, @t., E[la E6-ae
his first ever wargamesof any kind in which he was the sole ID) ed r- 65 as5, er4 dq. pd4
commander,succeeded in reachingthe third placeplay-off, and
thenonly loston pointsto Robert.Johnmustalsob€congmnrlated
for the excellentpresentationof his army,
The Finalwasamther gipping aftair. With somesuperbmoves
aDdcountermoves,spelsanddircct assaulBthe re$lt \r"s always
in rhe balanc€,but in the end it went to Colin on points.
Importantlybolh playeGenjoyedwhatwasa crucialgame. VIDEOREVIEIIT
By Mark Allen
RE.SIJLTS GETTYSBURGTheCivil War, Classiclnrages
l25th AnniversaryS€riesNo.s.hicc 9t9.95
GroopI F I W D L P I alnv
T Using the wondeful resouces of the American Civil War
ColinBrewer 3 3 0 0 1 2Evil re€nactrnent societiesihe filrn begins with lre's victory at
RobenWyle 3 7 0 1 8Evil Chancellonville and continues with the death of Jackson.
AlexHawley 3 1 0 2 4Evil Thmughout, the scenesof batde are well complimentedby
JohnBaner 3 0 0 3 0Evil,Monster aninated mapsshowingfirsdy the stmtegicsitualionpdor to the
Gmup2 Pl W D Pts Army Poids famousengagement andlatertaclicalrnapsof the battleits€f. The
JohBradley 3 2 0 8 U ead +568 re€nactmentsareg€nerallyimpressivewiih a goodmixtureof long
RobbieAustin 3 2 0 8 Good +191 distanceand close-upshotsand the costumesare, as you might
warrencleeson 3 2 0 8 Liard + 8 expect,sup€rb.My only caiticismwouldb€rhatwhen.on occasion,
Janeswebster 3 0 0 0 Good -14 actingis requnedtho6eplayingthe partsof the major protagonists
do ratherlet the showdown.Two paniculaiexamplesarewherean
TlirdPlrce RobertWyleb€-atRobbieAustin angryI-ee prepars to 'cul| J.E.B. Stuart and later the meeting
betweenMe-adeandhisgenemlson the eveningof the secondday.
Final ColinBrewerbeatJamesBradley During the latter $€ne Meade's €ngineeringof6cer rcmains
asleep;he certair y doesn'tmissanything.Howeverthe setpieces,
Wirh the popularityof Fanary Wtgamjrg - Ganaswitu Magb the C-onjedenteinitial attackson day one, the defenceof'Little
and Motstets s€emingto grow daily, it nay be that you arc RoundTop' andPickett'schargearehandledve.y well.Thelinear,
interestedin enteringone of the growjnglist of competitionsthat fuepowerbas€dwarfareofthe AmericanCivil War iswel suitedto
us€ the slstem. There wil be a FantasyChampionshipat next thistypeof portrayalandeventhe $enesof'hand to hand'combat
year'sNationalsandanewvenuethat hasadoptedthe s'stemisthe are handledcompetendy.Theselook particularlyag:essivewhen
largeshowat Mlton Keynes:the U.K. FantasyandScienceFiction onesidecapturesthe otherscolous, somethingI rcmemberwell
Championships,7 and 8 May 1994.ff you are interestedrhen from my re-enactmentda's. Although I do have a few qualrns
pleaselook out for entry detailsor *rite to me, Martin Hackettat, about the pdce I can generallyR€{onrnendthis to a[ A.C.W.
'Gronwyn',Middletown,Welshpool,Pow's SY218ES.
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19
2oE BATEEPACKS fl2 6ch
bduflllt Cl(s(lt rdddto-r &! r{oo^d..)
tn.HBAmFA.ICOYIAI SzdnddaM n]dty ornir dnliFryqierd.y,biha
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r=l___ t ^t____
It_lLlllguLB.UEJ
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1A|trtrtrtrtrtrtrtr
Aswe retireto safequartersfor the winter,we wouldliketo wishall customers,
readersandyour families
A VERY MERRYCHNISTMASAND A HAPPY NEW YEAR
andto leaveyou with oneitemof interest.Wewillbe at theMarcher93 show(SHREWSBURy SthDec),and
thereyou willbe ableto seethe ffrstof TheNEWTED's(LateWarGermanIn{anhy)pack 1-8.
If you can'tgetthere,thena fteelistmaybe obtainedby sendingan SSAEor 2 lRCsto our address,belowor
by goingto anyof theseshopsand havea look!
GREATBRITAIN UNITED STATES& CANADA
. KeepWargaming SenkgBox WestHobbies,Vancouver
Dmgon& George BrookhurstHobbies,GardenGrove,Ca
D. HewinsModels& Hobbies also
NavwarShop Emperor'sHeadquarters, Chicago
If you don't live nearanyof thesethenwhy not askyourlocalshopto orderour figues.
tast post for Chrtstmas is 4th Dec for ANZAC'S& North Amertca; l3th Dec for EC and lgth Dec
for GB/Ireland. No post will be sent after the 2lst Dec and u,ewill shut doum ftom zvl?nll2/1.
Look forward to seeing you in 1994, good gamlng & have a terrlftc holiday,
17 Oakfield Drive Upton-By-ChesterChesterCH2 lLG
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50

WARGAMESHOLIDAY CENTRE
1994PROGRAMME

Wearedelightedto presentour schedule


for thecomingyear,includingtheretumofour Campaign
WeeksandGeneralWeeksduriflgthesummermonths.

Followingthe unprecedented
demandfor our fiIst Amhem, we will bere-stagingthe battle threetimesin
1994,andhaveincludedseveralotherWWII actions.

Accommodationcontinuesto be at The Bam whichhasprovedextremelypopular(is il the food or the


Theakstons?)with lunchesandpastriesprovidedby MargaretandAnne at the Centre.

Eachsessionis limited to 12participantsandsinceseveralplaceshavealreadybeenrcservedwe utge you


to book earlyto avoiddisappointmeflt.

February25th-27th BORODINO
Marchllth-l3th ABENSBERG.ECKMIII{L
March2sth.27tb ARI{IIEM
AprilEth-l0th DRESDf,N
May 6th-tth PENINSIJLARBATTLES
May 2fth.22nd CAEN-ACTIONIN NORMAI\DY*

Junesth-llth 1809CAMPAIGNWEEK
June19th-25th GENERALWEEK inc. CAEN
July 3rd-9th PENINSULARCAMPAIGNWEEK
July lTth-23rd GENERALWEEK inc. LEIPZIG
July 3lst-August6th 1813CAMPAIGNWEEK
Augustl4th-2fth GENERALWEEK itrc. ARNHEM
August28th-September 3d 1815CAMPAIGNWEEK

Septemb€r9th-llth KATZBACH
September2Srd-2sth WATERLOO
OctoberTth-gth ACTIONAT KIIRSK*
October2lst.23rd UNKNOWNBATTLES(NAPOLEONIC)*
November4th-6th LIGNY*
Novemberl8th-2fth AXNHEM
December2nd-4th WAGRAM
Decemberl6th.lEth VITORIA
* NewThisYear!!

COST:Weekends: 199perpersonto includebed,breakfast andeveningmealat localhotelplusmidday


mealsat TheCentre.ParticipantsarriveFridayeveningandwargaming endsat approximately
15.30on
Sunday.
Weeks:!265 ro include6 nightsaccommodation asabove.ParticipantsarriveSundayeveniqgand
wargaming endsat approximately21.00on F iday.

TERMS:f20 deposit(f50 for a week)securesyoul place;the balanceto be rcmitted prior to arrival.


Reductionsare availablefor paties of 4 or more.Write or call for details:

The \largamesHoliday Centre,TheEDchantedCottage


Fokton, Scarboro{rgh,North yotksdre YOLI 3AH
0723-891062 or 0723-89lEBl)

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51

ESSEX
unltl,shannon
MINIATURES
centrc,
shannon
squarc,ThanesEstuaryEstate,
canvey
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ESTABLISHED
1979

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PM C.mm'd6.d Ob Gd.d Otr€E:Srd PN4a Oldcua'd FdC6n nd, sp.lgnd6s. as$ M.drumarnyb@n&
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52

34COPELANDCLOSE,
a a
rnratures
20mm
BASINGSTOKE,
IIANTS RG224JX
(Aner6pr)
TEL: 0256-E17746
VIETNAM RANGE
Designedby Michael Percy

GULFWAR
MODERN BRITISH INI'ANTRY IRAQI "RG' INIANTRY
UKI RifleGroupAdvancinS l x LSW,2 x SA80 lQl 3 x AKMAdva.cing
UK2 RifleGroupWalkingl x LSW,2 x SA80 lO2 3 x AKMFi.ing
UK3 RifleGroupFiringI x LSW,2 x SA80 IQ3 RPK Gunner& No. 2 + RPGGrenadier
UK4 Nco/Riflenen 3 x SA80 lO4 Officer.RTO, Sniper
UK5 GPMG Group Us & ftencb ldutri dneour 5/u/93 -seDd SAEfor list.
UK6 AT GrouD. LAw80 & CLAW

* NEW WWII * NORMANDY1944 * NEW WWT *


GERMAN INTANTRY
(M 1943Unifom)
GRI MG42, Gunner, riader, Spotter,Fi.ing Prone GR4 3 x Riflemen KAR98 Firing
GR2 Mc42,Gunner,rnader, Spotter,Moving GR5 3 x RiaemenKAR98 Moving
GR3 3 x NCO with MP4o cR6 3 x Riflemen cwR43
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a1 IRREQUL/TRMINIATLIRES LTD tilr


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54

nial. Otherperiodsconsidered. Easingwold,North Yorkshire.


IFIED ADS PaulJohnston034?-810503.
Ads sho ld be accompaniedby a chequ€mad€payable NEW WARGAMER Looking for someonein the Oxfordshire
to Stratagem Publicatiotrs Ltd,, 18 lrvers Lane, areato wargamewith! Also Iooking for any 25rnmNapoleonic
Newa*, Notts. NG24 lHZ. Rat! l5p per word. Ple{se figures(decertquality),paintedorunpainted,sendIiststo cary
add lTVz% V.A.T. Minimum charee: l2.g). Marshall,38 Gibbs Road, Banbury, OxfordshireOx16 7HJ.
SWORDAND FLAME COLONIAL RULES. Any condition,
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MILITARY BOOKS. Over 1200for sale; New, Imports and Crawley,W. SussexRHl06DD.
Bargainbooks.Sendstampfor Catalogue:SignpostBooks,4 HELP! DESPERATtrLY RtrQTIIRE A COPY OF WAR
KirksroneClose.Camberley. SuneyGUl5 lBl MONTHLY VIII no. 75 (1980) or copy of article inside on
'Battle of Tolentino' for wargamespurposes.Pleasephone
ls||rm SAMURAI: 290Foot, 20 Cav., 2 Cannons.58 Metal, 125
Plastic,CitadelMiniatures. wlite Dwarfnos.39,48,51,53to Grahamon 0708-453794 or write to: 104No(hwood Avenue.
r39. AD&D Oiental Rules plus 4 Modules,otrels. Cal Eln ParkRM124PX.
0313-82223'7. CASH PAID FOR PAINTED WARGAMESARMIES. AII
rsnm FRENCH NAPOLEOMCS painted and basedto superb scalesand periodsrequired.Can visit if required.PhoneRob
professional standard.60Cavalry,152Foot,6 Guns,Lnnbers, Myerson 081-503 7064(evenings).
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(Evenings) askfor Chris. discontinuedAFV kits, forts, buildings,boxed or loos€.
COLOIJR PARTY'S DBA BASETEX GROITNDWORK,box Wantedrwaterloofarmhouse set.Tel: 0602404744.
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JOHN TAIT: For that perfectfigure.Colourbrochuref1.50,
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PATNTED 25mm MINIFIGS NAPOLEOMCS. BTitish: I44 defence/civilmarkets.Details: SAE to Derek Stone,7 Hewetts
lnfantry, 14 Cavalry,2 Cannonand Crews,I94. French:103 Rise,Warsash, Southampton, HantsSO39JT.
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25mm AMERICAN CML WAR FIGURES. lst Coms/ reserves. Do yourfigures appearlost in the fogolwar?Weoffer
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WARGAMDRSStrLLINGUP. Second-hand bargains:figures, and list to: 30 Glasgow Street. Northamplon NN5 5BL. Tel:
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books, games,rules, Atlantic plastics.Send SAE to: Old
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AMERTCAN CII'IL WAR AND FRONTIER BOOKS FOR PLAY.BY.MAIL
SALE.Mail orderonly.List fromrMichaelHaynes,46Famaby
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payabbto Rob
Humb€rsfdeHU'fg2HP.Tel:0964413766.& LvnnBaket, Acxessti Wsataken.

tums, involving the bestbalanc€of economicr,diplomacy and everyFriday frorn 7.30pmand new memberswill be madevery
warfare. The cost is low and contact with other play€rssuperb.
Write IRON MILL,26lron Mill Close,Fareham,HaDtsPO15 THE SOCIETY OF ANCmNTS. Interested in Ancient &
6JZ, or phone(0329)846{32day or evening. Medieval wargarning? Special offers for new and existing
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'15fl!nMPotrol,llc RUSSAI{S I}IGREAT COAT
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RFDTFullDre6s D€tundin6 - CarnpaignHat S€nd S"A.E.
lorCalalogu€ + 50p.

oldGlory I Wylam
Corporation, Slreet,
Craghead,
Stanley,
Co.Dufiam
DHg (Tel.
6ER &Fax:
0207-283332)
IVhen replying to adverts please neution Wargames Illustrated,
OLD GLC}RY Box20. Calumet.Pa 15621.USA

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oldGlory 23Wylam
Corporation, Street,
Craghead,
Stanley,
Co,Durham
DHg (Tel.
6ER &Fax:
0207.283332)
ConnoissgH,T#gures

25mmNapoleonic
French& Allies

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FRONT NAPOLEONICFRENCHINFANTRY25mm
RANK Fisurines

(1812-1815)
FUStLtERS
FN1 M..hing,lulldEs Mr.tuni sre:rco;r,serherorcotshdro
FN2 Marchi.q.amoar€ndrcs
FNr Mrrch nE oniprinndres $erherproor5hrto Advancinc.canDais!dres
FNI M:d,ne.c!mpiigndr!.dnn|'in!fromcanreen AdvancinE,sredico-ar,
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FN7 Marchr.e-.leatoar FN59 Ma(hinc. ful dres
FN3 Mrrch,ni ired.or FN60 Mrchi.t can i.ndres
FNo MiEhing lrc.tod pulJ.m$ rhcJfilrp\do$n FN6l Md(hnE.s'eri.o;r wearhelpr@r.h:ko

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FNl5 Ad\anqirs.rrnoaiandrcs\.hc.drurnrd \houins oFFTcEBS(1812-1815)
FNlb Ad\a.cni.cami,riindres.Dokalem
FNlT Ad\a.cmi.camodiindress.hrndaeedhead Otficernarchinc.shouldereds*ord.reculationdresddbi6ne
FN_'l3 Ad\ Jncni,sediro;' orD.e' -r.hins .houloereo\"oro rciul.rond'es.\h"\ord'*poTpoml
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r\20 Ad\: cini.irtukor Lerhflb'^ I h"^oc.rhe rrp.ooq Officer narchinE wirh srord, sunout. wearherprdfshako (rufted round pom
FN:l Advdtuin!.gred(od,pulalem
FNll Ad\an.in. sreatoar bJiehead Officcrma^hre. *drme5*ord- in srear@atandbr@me
FN2l !rand'nesihle\elledmuskd-camDar!ndrcs Olrrr"r. n,ne.qdmg."o'd.Fir' or.wedrJrrp'mnhdlotaneo rcund
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FN26 B.voneiins,campaiqndres O $ F r m d m gi ' " T n g " , 1 $ o r d . ' e s u l " n o d ' e r d . h r \ o r d N p o a p o n '
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FNl9 Clubbin!wnhnuslcr !rmDai!n,lk$
FNllr Uuhhni*rft muskcr.bJrJcid ofnceisrandinisirh sabre.gre;roar.reathelprmrshako (tuneoruunopon
FNll clubb'nisihnrker-sr! or.*! hcmrool\hJlu
FN32 Fallin0\i!unded.crmD_aisndfts Mounted Ofner i! resularion drcs .nd bicome
FNll FaLlmi"ound(d.lrciro_ir."cdh!orool\hJLu Moumedol6.erinEolariondE$&shakosnhDlume
FNlr Lunsitead camDi'sndrers Mountedorficrii qn.trr & hi..me
FN15 ridLleaJ. Fear.o;r.uerrheDroolhako FN32 Mou ded Offiar In sunour,!ha*o ( rufredrcud pom pomt
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FN3a SrJndddBearernsunour&*earheD!@f shalrc
FN12 Fimc_.rnDrisrd($ FN89 sGtrdrrdBedruriorr!.i&hom;
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FN53 Marchiic;fulldros FN$ S.pFf.mJrchrncqrhde

.THEGRANARY"BANBURYROAD,LOWERBODDINGTON, DAVENTRY,
NORTHANTS
NNl16XY
TEL. $n 62720 FAX: 032760569
FIGURES VVH.ICH 'AI-tL7OS 7- ./L-'17 e L------'
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25mmCOUREURS-d6-BOIS INDIANS
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WOODLANDINDIANS
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Wl8 Alrickingwitbwar.Lub LouGxlvAmy,onomanTllts, Napoleonrc Pennsud), ndian
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PRICTS: T.CGAMES,34NONTHGATE,TNEEUTTNING,
toot- 50peach
25mm WAKEFIE
WTEOS,I Y O F K S H I R F .
Vignettes-11,25
2man each

KE @tE
adets ate usuallydespalchedwithi. 1014 days ltam FEcEIPI oF aRDER.
But pleaseallow 21 days belotepanic.

l''lORt25nrm
COfllN6SOON:- PLAINS
INDIANS,
l''JORt
25mm CIVILWAR(lnc.tarlyWrrf{iliriaUnits,
AMTRICAN €tc.J

SWEDEN "Srniry
SorWenNobbier'
2ndFloo'
0ymocls
Buid ng,
Iel:1422?5009 r30253
Ie 1461046 TNIEDEIPNIA,
Ie 160417341933
I e : 3 0 4s 4 7 0 0 0 0 let:1612)
2477421

A Merry Christniasanda Happyand PeacefulNewYearta allour customersand eventhosewhoaren't.

DIX0NIVINIATURES,
Spring lt ills.Linthwaite,
Grov€ Huddersfield,
WesiYorkshire, HD75OG.Tel:0484846162
England