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Adversity Quotient and Leadership Practices among Student

Leaders in Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School S.Y 2018-2019


FERNANDO, Raven Andrei C.

Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School

Senior High School Department

Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS)

A.Y 2018-2019
Introduction and Review of Related Literature

The Department of Education Vision affirms the role of Filipino youth in nation-building.

This Vision strengthens support for creation of mechanisms and opportunity to realize

Organizational Student leader’s meaningful and active participation in governance. It has set the

stage for the youth to learn leadership skills and create programs and politics that will benefit the

Filipino people.

Having the vital role in the formulation and implementation of programs in their school,

it is vital for the Student Leaders to determine the kind of leadership they use and how these

leadership practices are affected by the adversities and difficulties the come along.

As stated in the article written by Darwin (2007), for many years, researchers have

devoted a great deal of their studies to Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence

(EQ) which are considered to be determinants of success and superior accomplishment. A

decade ago (1997), Paul Stoltz introduced a new yet interesting and intriguing concept, the

“Adversity Quotient”. Adversity Quotient® or AQ® is the most scientifically robust and

widely used method in the world for measuring strengthening human resilience. Adversity

Quotient ® is about how you respond in life, especially the tough times. It is a measure or

gauge of how a person deals with everything from everyday hassles to adversities in life. It is

also an established science, theory and approach for becoming measurably more resilient a

person is, the more effectively and constructively that person responds to life’s difficulties.

As potential leaders of our nation, Organizational Student leaders must become more

aware about the impact of their Adversity Quotient® to their leadership practices. Their

knowledge of this impact can also help and guide them in overcoming personal and

professional challenges.

Expected Contribution to the Growth of Knowledge in Leadership

The contribution of this study is to add on the study about Adversity Quotient and

leadership practices, it may also add new information or data to other questions in relation to

Adversity Quotient ® and leadership style.

The result of this study can provide valuable information not only to Organizational Student

Leaders but also to other leaders who face the challenges of administering innovation and changes

for their communities. It can provide clear insights in understanding their capacity to say strong and

be focused in spite of difficulties, challenging tasks, and responsibilities of being a leader. As they

are able to respond effectively to any difficulty, these young leaders will be able to develop an easier,

more relaxed and more productive approach in managing people and programs. It will further help

them to improve job functions to attain physical and mental well-being that could leader to the over-

all quality of governance

Background of the Study

Leaders set the direction, build an inspiring vision, and create something new. They

help themselves and others to do things that will help their organization/institution to grow.

They also play an important role in an organization. The success of an organization depends

on how leader signifies his/her roles. They also need to know their capabilities in handling

difficulties personally and on their organization it is also important that they need to know

their different leadership style to manage a certain organization or institute

Statement of the Problem

The general objective of this study was to find out the relationship of a student’s strand

choice and their level of Adversity Quotient® among student leaders in Marcelo H. del Pilar

National High School, it aimed to answer the following questions:

1) What leadership methods is mostly accomplished by student leaders of Marcelo H. del

Pilar National High School

2) What is the level of Adversity Quotient® among student leaders concerning:

a. Control

b. Origin & Ownership

c. Reach

d. Endurance

e. Overall Adversity Quotient®

3) Is there a significant relationship between Adversity Quotient® and the Leadership

Practices among student leaders of Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School?

Conceptual Framework

The four “CORE” dimension of Dr. Stoltz’s Adversity Quotient® are the following:

Control, Ownership, Reach, and Endurance. While, Leadership Practices are composed of

Autocratic, Democratic and Delegative.

Adversity Quotient® Leadership Practices

 Control • Democratic
 Origin & Ownership • Autocratic
 Reach • Delegative
 Endurance
Significance of the Study

The study focused on finding the relationship between the Level of Adversity

Quotient® and Leadership Practices among Student Leaders of Marcelo H. del Pilar National

High School for the S.Y 2018-2019. This study would benefit to the following:

Teachers/Advisers The study may help the teachers or advisers to become aware of

the most practiced leadership practices of the students. It will also help them to become

aware on students capability in handling obstacles.

Student Organization. The result of this study may help both the officers and

members of the organization. It will help them study their capabilities in handling different

obstacles, their adaptability and adjustments

National Leaders. The result of this study may help them to become more aware on

most practiced leadership style of organizational student leaders. It will also help national

leaders to further understand on how organizational student leaders manages their


Parents. The result of this study may help the parents to become aware of their

children capability in handling such kind of difficulties. It will also help them to guide their

children to overcome struggles faced by their children.

Future Researchers. This would help serve as reference materials and guide for future

researchers who want to conduct the same study about Dr. Paul Stoltz Adversity Quotient® or

any study related to the Level of Adversity Quotient and Leadership Practices

Scopes and Delimitations

The study is limited to Organizational Student leaders Presidents from Marcelo H. del

Pilar National High School - The researches provided a questionnaire to test the level of

Adversity Quotient® and the Leadership Practices of the respondents. The study aimed to find
out the relationship between the level of adversity quotient and strand choice (academic track).

The goal of the researchers was to finish the study by the end of S.Y 2018-2019.

Definition of Terms

Throughout the report terms such as “Adversity Quotient®,” and “Leadership

Practices,” would be used. In order to assure that all readers were interpreting these terms in the

same manner as the researcher intended the following definitions were offered.

Adversity Quotient®

An adversity quotient (AQ) is a score that measures the ability of a person to deal with

adversities in his or her life. Hence, it is commonly known as the science of resilience. The term

was coined by Paul Stoltz in 1997 in his book Adversity Quotient: Turning Obstacles into

Opportunities. To quantify adversity quotient, Stoltz developed an assessment method called the

Adversity Response Profile (ARP).

Student Organization

A student society, student association, university society or student organization is a society

or an organization, operated by students at a university or a college institution, whose
membership typically consists only of students or alumni.

Leadership Practices

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and

motivating people. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit

actions performed by their leader (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).


C (control) refers to the amount of perceived control one has over and adverse event or

situation. Intelligently the person perceives over adverse situation, he will have wider

perspectives over events that happened. People who respond to adversity positively will most

likely to have a greater performance over one who takes adverse situations a worse scenario to

encounter. The more control one has, the more likely one has to take positive actions. People

with higher AQs find some facet of the situation they can influence. Those with lower AQs
respond as if they have little or no control and often give up. (Stoltz, 2010)

Origin & Ownership

O (origin & ownership) Origin is something to do with blame Canivel (2010). Blame

has two benefits to people which help learn from and adapt to situations causing improvement.

Accountability is the backbone of action. While, Stoltz (2000) defined Ownership as the extent

to which the person owns, or takes responsibility for the outcomes of adversity or the extent to

which the person holds himself accountable for improving the situation. It asks the question:

“To what degree do I own the outcome of the adversity?” According to Canivel (2010) people

with higher AQs hold themselves accountable for dealing with situations regardless of their

cause. Those with lower AQs deflect accountability and most often feel victimized and



R (reach) Stotlz (2000), defined “reach” as the extent to which someone perceives

an adversity will “reach into” and affect other aspects of the situation or beyond

determines burden, stress, energy, and effort; it tends to have cumulative effect. It asks the

question: “How far will the adversity reach into other areas of my life? People with higher AQs

keep setbacks and challenges in their place, not letting them infest the healthy areas of their

work and lives. Those with lower AQs tend to catastrophize, allowing a setback in one area to

bleed into other, unrelated areas and become destructive. (Stoltz, 2000)


E (endurance). According to Stoltz (2011), “endurance” is the length of time the as the

individual perceives the situation/ adversity will last, or endure. It determines hope, optimism,

and willingness to persevere. It asks two related questions: “How long wills the adversity last?”

and, “How long will the cause of adversity last?”. People with higher AQs have the uncanny

ability to see past the most interminable difficulties and maintain hope and optimism. Those

with lower AQs see adversity as dragging on indefinitely, if not permanently. (Stoltz, 2000).
Democratic Leadership

Democratic leadership, also known as participative leadership, is a type of

leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role decision-

making process. Researchers have found that this learning style is usually one of the most

effective and lead to higher productivity, better contributions from group members, and

increased group morale.

Autocratic Leadership

Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a leadership style

characterized individual control over all decisions and little input from group members.

Autocratic leaders typically make choices based on their own ideas and judgments and

rarely accept advice from followers. Autocratic leadership involves absolute, authoritarian

control over a group.

Delegative Leadership

The Delegative style of Leadership, the leader allows the group members to make

the decisions; this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly

qualified in an area of expertise. Researchers found that groups led by delegative leads were

the least productive of all three groups. The members of this group made many demands on

the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently. (Fletcher,



Research Design

The researchers utilized cross-sectional design and descriptive-correlational method in

the conduct of the study. To determine the Leadership style and Adversity Quotient® of the

student leaders of Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School. Cross-sectional in which data
from the respondents was gathered in one point in time to make comparisons across different

types of respondents. Descriptive method was used in determining the leadership practices of the

student leaders, their adversity quotient® along the four dimensions namely: a) control, b) origin

& ownership, c) reach, and d) endurance. While the correlational method was used to determine

whether there significant relationship on Adversity Quotient® and Leadership style of student

leaders of Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School It was also use to determine if there are

also significant relationship between the Overall Adversity quotient® and Leadership Style of

Student Leaders.