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Prepared by: Alethea Patricia L. Del Castillo, MA, RPm o A useful theory will stimulate both
Reference: Feist, Feist & Roberts (2013). Theories of descriptive research and hypothesis
Personality (Eight Edition) New York: McGraw-Hill. testing.
o Descriptive research provides a
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY THEORY framework for an evolving theory
whereas hypothesis testing expands
I. What Is Personality? our knowledge of a scientific discipline.
- Latin word: persona = the mask people wear - Is Falsifiable:
or the role they play in life. (But its more than o It must generate research that can
just a façade) either confirm or disconfirm its major
- a pattern of relatively permanent traits and tenets.
unique characteristics that give both o A negative result will contradict the
consistency and individuality to human theory and force the theorist to either
behavior discard it or modify it
- Traits: it may be unique, common to some o A theory that can explain everything
group, or shared by the entire species BUT the explains nothing
pattern is different for each individual - Organizes Data:
(consistency & stability of behavior over time) o It should be able to fit current research
- Characteristics: unique qualities of an data into an intelligible framework and
individual that include such attributes as to integrate new information into its
temperament, physique and intelligence structure.
- Guides Action:
II. What is a Theory? o practical tools that guide a road map
A. Theory Defined for making day-to-day decisions.
- Set of related assumptions that allows scientists o Example: what kind of psychotherapy
to use logical deductive reasoning to technique is going to be used to the
formulate testable hypotheses client?
- Set: A single assumption can never fill all the - Is Internally consistent:
requirements of a good theory o includes operational definitions that
- Related: Isolated assumptions can neither define concepts in terms of specific
generate meaningful hypotheses nor possess operations to be carried out by the
internal consistency observer. (logically compatible)
- Assumptions: not proven facts but accepted - Is Parsimonious:
as if they were true o When two theories are equal on the
- Logical Deductive Reasoning: to deduce a first five criteria, the simpler one is
clearly stated hypothesis preferred. (straightforward theories)
- Testable: must suggest the possibility that
scientists III. Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity
- Determinism versus Free choice
B. Why Different Theories? o Are people’s behaviors determined by
- Theories are built not on proven facts but on forces over which they have no control
assumptions (assumed to be true) that are or can people choose to be what they
subject to individual interpretations wish to be?
- Reflection of their personal background, their - Pessimism versus Optimism
philosophical orientation, and the data they o Are people doomed to live miserable
chose to observe or can they change and grow into
- Its usefulness depends on its ability to psychologically healthy and fully
generate research and to explain research functioning individual?
data and other observations - Causality versus Teleology
o Causality holds that behavior is a
C. What Makes a Theory Useful? function of the past experiences
- It generates a number of hypotheses that can o Teleology is the explanation of
be investigated through research, thus behavior in terms of future goals or
yielding research data purposes
- Organizes research data into a meaningful - Conscious versus Unconscious determinants of
structure and provides explanation for the behavior
o Are they aware of what and why they - He was mentored by Jean-Martin Charcot
are doing it? Or do unconscious forces (hypnotic technique for treating hysteria) and
impinge on them? Josef Breuer (catharsis)
- Biological versus Social Influences on - He then gradually discovered free association
personality technique
o Are people creatures of biology? Or - Studies of Hysteria: after its publication, Freud
are they shaped largely by their social and Breuer had a professional disagreement
relationships? and became estranged
- Uniqueness versus similarities among people - Interpretation of Dreams: contains many of
o Is the salient feature of people their Freud’s own dreams. Soon after his publication
individuality or is it their common his friendship with Fliess began to cool
characteristics? - Freud and Jung interpreted each other’s
dreams that eventually led to the end of their

CHAPTER 2: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY II. Levels of Mental Life (Topographic Model)

- The unconscious consists of drives and instincts
I. Biography of Sigmund Freud that are beyond awareness, yet they motivate
- Sisigmund (Sigmund) Freud many of our behaviors.
- Born in the Czech Republic in 1856 and died - Unconscious drives can become conscious
(of cancer) in London in 1939, Freud spent only in disguised or distorted form, such as
nearly 80 years of his life in Vienna. dream images, slips of the tongue, or neurotic
- Freud was the first born of his father and symptoms.
mother, although his father already had 2 - Unconscious processes originate from two
grown sons sources: (1) repression, or the blocking out of
- He was the favorite of his mother over the 7 anxiety-filled experiences and (2)
other siblings (he was not close to any of phylogenetic endowment, or inherited
them) experiences that lie beyond an individual's
- His relationship with his father appears to be personal experience. (only as last resort in
cold if not occasionally hostile explaining behavior)
- When he was 1 ½ year old, his mother gave - The unconscious mind of one person can
birth to Julius (who died at 6 months) Freud communicate with the unconscious of
developed hostility to his brother and another without either person being aware of
unconsciously wished him dead. He had the process
carried into adulthood the guilt, he thought he - Unconscious forces constantly strive to
was the cause of his death become conscious
- A physician who never intended to practice B. Preconscious
general medicine, Freud was intensely curious - Contains images that are not in awareness but
about human nature. that can become conscious either quite easily
- Early in his professional career, Freud believed or with some level of difficulty.
that hysteria was a result of being seduced - Experiences that are forgotten are in the
during childhood by a sexually mature person, preconscious.
often a parent or other relative. But in 1897, - 2 sources:
he abandoned his seduction theory and o Conscious perception: when the focus
replaced it with his notion of the Oedipus of attention shifts to another idea
complex. (usually free from anxiety)
- Some scholars have contended that Freud's o Unconscious: ideas can slip past the
decision to abandon the seduction theory in vigilant censor and enter into the
favor of the Oedipus complex was a major preconscious in a disguised form
error and influenced a generation of
psychotherapists to interpret patients' reports C. Conscious
of early sexual abuse as merely childhood - Only level of mental life directly available to
fantasies. us, but it plays a relatively minor role in
- He fell in love with Martha Bernays and marry Freudian theory.
her in 1886. They had 6 children. The youngest - Conscious ideas stem from either the
is Anna Freud who held a special place in his perception of external stimuli; that is, our
heart perceptual conscious system, or from
unconscious and preconscious images after - 2 primary instincts—sex (Eros) and aggression
they have evaded censorship. (Thanatos, or the destructive instinct).
- Sex (libido)
III. Provinces of the Mind (Structural Model) o Aim: to seek pleasure, through the
A. The Id (das Es) erogenous zones = mouth, anus, and
- completely unconscious genitals.
- serves the pleasure principle and seeks o Object: any person or thing that brings
constant and immediate satisfaction of sexual pleasure.
instinctual needs o For example, narcissism, love, sadism,
- not altered by the passage of time or by and masochism all possess large
experiences of the person. components of the sexual drive even
- It is illogical and entertain incompatible ideas though they may appear to be
- Primary process (basic drives) nonsexual.
B. The Ego (das Ich) o All infants possess primary narcissism, or
- secondary process, is governed by the reality self-centeredness, but the secondary
principle; narcissism (moderate degree of self-
- partly conscious, preconscious and love) of adolescence and adulthood is
unconscious not universal.
- responsible for reconciling the unrealistic o Sadism, which is the reception of
demands of both the id and the superego sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on
with the demands of the real world. (decision- another, and
making branch) o Masochism, which is the reception of
- It becomes anxious and would use defense sexual pleasure from painful
mechanisms as protect itself experiences, satisfies both sexual and
- It has no energy of its own but borrows from id aggressive drives.
- Psychologically healthy people have a well- o If carried to an extreme, sadism and
developed ego. masochism is considered a sexual
C. The Superego (Uber Ich) perversion but in moderation is a
- serves the idealistic principle, has two common need
subsystems—the conscience and the ego- - Aggression
ideal o The destructive instinct aims to return
- The conscience results from punishment for the person to an inorganic state, but it
improper behavior (guilt), is ordinarily directed against other
- whereas the ego-ideal stems from rewards for people and is called aggression.
socially acceptable behavior (inferiority o It can take a number of form like
feelings – when the ego fails to meet the teasing, gossip, sarcasm, humiliation,
standards of perfection) humor & enjoyment of other people’s
- Neither the id nor the superego is in contact suffering
with reality o Commandments such as “Love thy
- Development: Age 5 to 6 neighbor as thyself” is a way of
inhibiting the strong drive to inflict pain
to others. These are reaction
IV. Dynamics of Personality formations
The term dynamics of personality refers to B. Anxiety
those forces that motivate people. The concept - Only the ego feels anxiety, but the id,
includes both instincts and anxiety. superego, and outside world can each be a
A. Drives (instinct or impulse) – a stimulus within source of anxiety.
an individual - Neurotic anxiety is apprehension about an
- They cannot be avoided through flight unknown danger and stems from the ego's
response relation with the id;
- Every basic drive is characterized by: - Moral anxiety is similar to guilt and results from
o Impetus – amt. of force it exerts the ego's relation with the superego; and
o Source – region of the body in tension - Realistic anxiety is similar to fear and is
o Aim – seek pleasure by removing produced by the ego's relation with the real
tension world.
o Object – person or thing where the aim
is satisfied V. Defense Mechanisms
A. Repression
- Forcing unwanted, anxiety-loaded o oral phase: pleasure through sucking
experiences into the unconscious. Weaning is the principal source of
- It is the most basic of all defense mechanisms frustration during this stage.
because it is an active process in each of the o Emergence of teeth as a defense
others. against environment is called oral
- Many repressed experiences remain sadistic
unconscious for a lifetime but others become o anal phase: satisfaction gained
conscious in a disguised form or in an through aggressive behavior and
unaltered form excretory function (sadistic-anal)
B. Reaction Formation o occurs at about the second year of
- Repression of one impulse and the pretentious life, when toilet training is the child's
expression of its exact opposite. chief source of frustration.
C. Displacement o If parents use disciplinary training
- Redirecting of unacceptable urges and methods, a child may develop the
feelings onto people and objects in order to anal triad of orderliness, stinginess, and
disguise or conceal their true nature. obstinacy, all of which mark the anal
- Unlike, reaction formation, it does not character.
exaggerate or overdo the disguised behavior o Phallic phase: boys and girls begin to
D. Fixation have differing psychosexual
- When psychic energy is blocked at one stage development, which occurs around
of development, making psychological ages 3 or 4 years.
change difficult. o For both genders, suppression of
- Permanent attachment of the libido to an masturbation is the principle source of
earlier stage of development frustration.
- They are universal o young children experience the
E. Regression Oedipus complex = having sexual
- When a person reverts to earlier, more infantile feelings for one parent and hostile
modes of behavior feelings for the other.
- Usually, temporary o The male castration complex breaks
F. Projection up the male Oedipus complex and
- Seeing in others those unacceptable feelings results in a well-formed male superego.
or behaviors that actually reside in one's own o For girls, the castration complex, in the
unconscious. form of penis envy, precedes the
- When carried to extreme, projection can female Oedipus complex, a situation
become paranoia, which is characterized by that leads to only a gradual and
delusions of persecution. incomplete shattering of the female
G. Introjection Oedipus complex and a weaker, more
- Incorporation of positive qualities of another flexible female superego.
person in order to reduce feelings of
inadequacy. B. Latency Period
- Hero worship might be a good example. - From about age 5 years until puberty—in
H. Sublimation which the sexual instinct is partially
- Contribute to the welfare of society suppressed.
- They involve elevating the aim of the sexual - It is believed that this may have roots in our
instinct to a higher level and are manifested in phylogenetic endowment
cultural accomplishments, such as art, music, C. Genital Period
and other socially beneficial activities. - Begins with puberty when adolescents
experience a reawakening of the genital aim
VI. Stages of Development of Eros, and it continues throughout
Freud saw psychosexual development as adulthood.
proceeding from birth to maturity through four D. Maturity
overlapping stages—the infantile stage, the latency - Freud hinted at a stage of psychological
stage, the genital stage and the psychologically maturity in which the ego would be in control
mature stage. of the id and superego and in which
consciousness would play a more important
A. Infantile period role in behavior.
- Encompasses the first 4 to 5 years of life and is
divided into three subphases: VII. Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory
A. Freud's Early Therapeutic Technique Freud's view of humanity was deterministic
- Freud used a very aggressive technique and pessimistic. He also emphasized causality over
whereby he strongly suggested to patients teleology, unconscious determinants over conscious
that they had been sexually seduced as processes, and biology over culture, but he took a
children. middle position on the dimension of uniqueness versus
- He later abandoned this technique, with a similarities of people.
belief that he may have elicited memories of
seduction from his patients and that he lacked
clear evidence that these memories were real
B. Freud's Later Therapeutic Technique
- Goal: uncover repressed memories through
the free association and dream analysis = to
strengthen the ego
- Transference: strong sexual or aggressive
feelings, positive or negative, that patients CHAPTER 3: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY
develop towards the analyst during the course
of treatment I. Biography of Alfred Adler
- Negative transference: form of hostility must - Born in 1870 in a Viennese suburb, a second
be explained to the client to overcome son of middle-class Jewish parents.
resistance to treatment - As a young child he was weak and sickly (he
C. Dream Analysis nearly died of pneumonia at the age of 5), a
- manifest content (conscious description) from condition that contrasted sharply with his
the strong, healthy older brother, Sigmund.
- latent content (unconscious meaning of the - The death of his younger brother (infant)
dream that lies hidden from the dreamer). motivated him to become a physician
- Nearly all dreams are wish-fulfillments, - He was interested in social relationships –
although the wish is usually unconscious and siblings and peers
can be known only through dream - Adler developed a strong rivalry with
interpretation. Sigmund—a rivalry that was similar to his later
- Dreams that are not wish-fulfillments follow the relationship with Freud.
principle of repetition compulsion and often - Like Freud, Adler was a physician, and in 1902,
occur after people have had a traumatic he became a charter member of the
experience, now called a post-traumatic Wednesday Psychological Society
stress disorder. - However, personal and professional
- To interpret dreams Freud used both dream differences between Freud and Adler led to
symbols and the dreamer's associations to the Adler's departure from the Vienna
dream content. Psychoanalytic Society in 1911.
D. Freudian Slips - Adler soon founded his own group, the
- slips of the tongue or pen, misreadings, Society for Individual Psychology.
incorrect hearings, misplacing of objects, and - His strengths were his energetic oral
temporary forgetting of names or intentions presentations and his insightful ability to
are not chance accidents but reveal a understand family dynamics.
person's unconscious intentions. - Adler married Raissa Epstein who was a
feminist. They had 4 children
- During the last few years of his life, Adler lived
VIII. Critique of Freud in the United States and earned a reputation
Freud regarded himself as a scientist, but as a gifted public speaker. He died in 1937 in
many critics consider his methods to be outdated, Scotland while on a lecture tour.
unscientific, and permeated with gender bias. On
the six criteria of a useful theory, psychoanalysis, we II. Introduction to Adlerian Theory
rate its ability to generate research as high, its - People are born with weak and inferior bodies
openness to falsification as very low, and its ability to  feelings of inferiority and dependence to
organize data as average. We also rate other people feelings of unity with others
psychoanalysis as average on its ability to guide (social interest)
action and to be parsimonious. Because it lacks A. Striving for Success or Superiority: The sole
operational definitions, we rate it low on internal dynamic force behind all our actions
consistency. - Transformation of drive: aggression 
IX. Concept of Humanity masculine protest  Striving for Superiority 
Striving for success (personal o People's beliefs and expectations of
superiority/success) the future.
- The Final Goal o Adler held that fictions guide behavior,
o The final goal of success or superiority because people act as if these fictions
toward which all people strive unifies are true.
personality and makes all behavior o Example: a belief in an omnipotent
meaningful. God who rewards good and punishes
o Its fictional and has no objective evil
existence - Physical Inferiorities
o Product of creative power (age 4 or 5): o All humans are "blessed" with organ
people’s ability to free shape their inferiorities that stimulate subjective
behavior and create their own feelings of inferiority and move people
personality toward perfection or completion
o Reduces the pain of inferiority feelings o Deficiencies do not cause a particular
and leads the person to either style of life; they are motivation for
superiority or success reaching goals
o If children felt neglected or pampered C. Unity of Personality: all behaviors are directed
their goals will remain unconscious toward a single purpose and that the entire
o If children experience love and personality functions in a self-consistent
security, they set goals that are largely manner.
conscious and clearly understood - Organ Dialect
o People are not always conscious of o People sometimes use a physical
their final goal, even though they may disorder to express style of life
be aware of their immediate subgoals. o A boy wetting his bed sends a
o When an individual’s final goal is message that he does not wish to
known, all actions make sense and obey his parents
subgoals takes on new significance - Conscious and Unconscious
- The Striving Force as Compensation o Conscious and unconscious processes
o the striving force is innate = feelings of are unified and operate to achieve a
inferiority  goal of superiority single goal.
o The goal is to overcome these feelings o The part of our goal that is not clearly
through their natural tendency to understood is unconscious (thoughts
move toward completion. that are not helpful)
o The goal may take many forms. It is not o to the extent that we comprehend our
necessarily a mirror image of the goal it is conscious (helpful in striving
deficiency even if it is a compensation for success)
for it D. Social Interest: Gemeinschaftsgefϋhl = a
o The striving force can take one of two feeling of oneness with all of humanity
courses—personal gain or community - Origins of Social Interest
benefit. o both mothers and fathers have crucial
- Striving for Personal Superiority roles in furthering the social interest of
o Goals are personal ones (sometimes their children and that the parent/child
with little or no concern for others) relationship is so strong that it negates
o Largely motivated by exaggerated the effects of heredity. (until age 5)
feelings of inferiority (inferiority - Importance of Social Interest
complex) o Without social interest, societies could
o Others, although they may appear to not exist, because individuals could
be interested in others, their basic not protect themselves from danger.
motivation is personal benefit. o Thus, an infant's helplessness
- Striving for Success predisposes it toward a nurturing
o Psychologically healthy people strive person.
for the success of all humanity, but o social interest is "the sole criterion of
they do so without losing their personal human values," and the "barometer of
identity. normality." The worthiness of all one's
B. Subjective Perceptions: People's subjective actions must be viewed by these
view of the world—not reality—shapes their standards.
- Fictionalism
E. Style of Life: product of interaction of neurotic status quo and protect a person from
heredity, environment and person’s creative public disgrace.
power - Excuses
o healthy individuals are marked by o Frequently take the form of "Yes, but"
flexible behavior and that they have or "If only." By making excuses for their
some limited ability to change their shortcomings, people can preserve
style of life. their inflated sense of personal worth.
F. Creative Power: freedom of choice - Aggression
- Ultimately style of life is shaped by our creative o Behaving aggressively toward
power; that is, by our ability to freely choose themselves or others.
which building materials to use and how to o May take the form of depreciating
use them. others' accomplishments, accusing
- People have considerable ability to freely others of being responsible for one's
choose their actions and their personality. own failures, and accusing self as a
means of inflicting suffering on others.

- Withdrawal
o Try to escape from life's problems by
running away from them; maintaining
III. Abnormal Development o People can withdraw psychologically
- Creative power is not limited to healthy by moving backward, standing still,
people; unhealthy individuals also create their hesitating, or constructing obstacles.
own personalities. C. Masculine Protest
- The most important factor in abnormal - Both men and women sometimes
development is underdeveloped social overemphasize the desirability of being manly
interest. IV. Applications of Individual Psychology
- In addition, people with a useless style of life A. Family Constellation
tend to (1) set their goals too high, (2) live in - First borns are likely to have strong feelings of
their own private world, and (3) have a rigid power and superiority, to be overprotective,
and inflexible style of life. and to have more than their share of anxiety.
A. External Factors in Maladjustment - Second borns (like Adler himself) are likely to
- Exaggerated Physical Deficiencies have strong social interest, provided they do
o Severe physical defects do not by not get trapped trying to overcome their older
themselves cause abnormal sibling.
development, but they may contribute - Youngest children are likely to be pampered
to it by generating subjective and and to lack independence, whereas only
exaggerated feelings of inferiority. children may have even less social interest
- Pampered Style of Life and tend to expect others to take care of
o develop low levels of social interest them.
o continue to have an overriding drive to B. Early Recollections
establish a permanent parasitic - Adler believed that ERs are not chance
relationship with their mother or a memories but templates on which people
mother substitute. project their current style of life.
o They believe they are entitled to be - ERs need not be accurate accounts of early
first in everything events; they have psychological importance
o They have not received too much love because they reflect our current view of the
rather they feel unloved (parents world.
doing too much for them) C. Dreams
- Neglected Style of Life - provide clues to solving future problems.
o Children who feel neglected often use - dreams are disguised to deceive the dreamer
these feelings as building material for a and usually require interpretation by another
useless style of life—one characterized person.
by distrust of other people. D. Psychotherapy
B. Safeguarding Tendencies - create a relationship between therapist and
- means of protecting their fragile self-esteem. patient that fosters social interest. The therapist
These safeguarding tendencies maintain a adopts both a maternal and a paternal role.
V. Critique of Adler
- High in: generate research, organize data, II. Levels of the Psyche
and guide the practitioner. A. Conscious
- Moderate in: parsimony, - Ego as the center of consciousness but not
- Low in: internal consistency & falsification the core of personality
VI. Concept of Humanity - In the psychologically mature individual, the
Adler saw people as forward moving, social ego is secondary to the self.
animals who are motivated by goals they set (both B. Personal Unconscious
consciously and unconsciously) for the future. People - psychic images not sensed by the ego.
are ultimately responsible for their own unique style of - Some unconscious processes flow from our
life. Thus, Adler's theory rates high on free-choice, personal experiences
social influences, and uniqueness; very high on - contains the complexes (emotionally toned
optimism and teleology; and average on groups of related ideas) and the collective
unconscious influences. unconscious, which includes various
- beyond our personal experiences and that
I. Biography of Carl Jung originate from the repeated experiences of
- born in Switzerland in 1875, our ancestors.
- the oldest by about 9 years of two surviving - not inherited ideas, but rather they refer to our
children. innate tendency to react in a particular way
- A son before Carl only lived for 3 days whenever our personal experiences stimulate
- Jung's father was an idealistic Protestant an inherited predisposition toward action.
minister and his mother was a strict believer in - Love at first sight?
mysticism and the occult. D. Archetypes - Contents of the collective
- Jung's early experience with parents—who unconscious
were quite opposite of each other—probably - originate through the repeated experiences of
influenced his own theory of personality, our ancestors and that they are expressed in
including his fanciful No. 1 and Number 2 certain types of dreams, fantasies, delusions,
personalities. and hallucinations.
- He saw his mother as having 2 separate - Persona—the side of our personality that we
dispositions show to others.
- His no.2 personality = an old man long since - Shadow—the dark side of personality. In order
dead for people to reach full psychological
- He married Emma Rauschenbach and had 5 maturity, they must first realize or accept their
children shadow.
- Soon after receiving his medical degree Jung - Anima - A second hurdle in achieving maturity
became acquainted with Freud's writings and is for men to accept their anima—their
eventually with Freud himself. feminine side—irrational moods & feelings
- During their first meeting, they talked for 13 - Animus - and for women to embrace their
straight hours animus—their masculine side. – irrational
- Not long after he traveled with Freud to the thinking & opinions
United States, Jung became disenchanted - the great mother - the archetype of
with Freud's pansexual theories, broke with nourishment and destruction
Freud, and began his own approach to theory - the wise old man - the archetype of wisdom
and therapy, which he called analytical and meaning
psychology. (when they began interpreting - the hero - image we have of a conqueror who
each other’s dreams) vanquishes evil but who has a single fatal flaw
- He had affairs with Sabina (former patient) - Self - The most comprehensive archetype is
and Antonia (another former patient – but the self; that is, the image we have of
had longer relationship with her) fulfillment, completion, or perfection.
- He said he was sexually abused when he was - The ultimate in psychological maturity is self-
18 yo by an older man whom he saw as a realization, which is symbolized by the
fatherly friend mandala, or perfect geometric figure.
- From a critical midlife crisis during which he III. Development of Personality
nearly lost contact with reality, Jung emerged - Jung's emphasis on the second half of life.
to become one of the leading thinkers of the Jung saw middle and old age as times when
20th century. people may acquire the ability to attain self-
- He died in 1961 at age 85. realization.
A. Stages of Development are also motivated by inherited remnants that spring
- childhood, which lasts from birth until from the collective experiences of their early
adolescence ancestors. Because Jungian theory is a psychology of
- youth, the period from puberty until middle opposites, it receives a moderate rating on the issues
life: a time for extraverted development & for of free will versus determinism, optimism versus
being grounded to the real world of schooling, pessimism, and causality versus teleology. It rates
occupation, courtship, marriage, and family; very high on unconscious influences, low on
- middle life, from about 35 or 40 until old age uniqueness, and low on social influences.
and a time when people should be adopting
an introverted, or subjective attitude; and
- old age, which is a time for psychological
rebirth, self-realization, and preparation for CHAPTER 5: OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY
B. Self-Realization/Individuation I. Biography of Melanie Klein
- a psychological rebirth and an integration of - born in Vienna in 1892, the youngest of four
various parts of the psyche into a unified or children.
whole individual. Self-realization represents - She felt rejected by her parents, especially her
the highest level of human development. father
- She developed fondness to her older siblings,
IV. Jung's Methods of Investigation Sidonie and Emmanuel who both died
A. Word Association Test - She married Arthur Klein, Emmanuel’s close
- to uncover complexes embedded in the friend, at age 21
personal unconscious. The technique requires - They had 3 children; she has an estranged
a patient to utter the first word that comes to relationship with her eldest child, Melitta
mind after the examiner reads a stimulus word. - Klein separated from her husband
B. Dream Analysis - She had neither a PhD nor an MD degree but
- dreams may have both a cause and a became an analyst
purpose and thus can be useful in explaining - As an analyst, she specialized in working with
past events and in making decisions about the young children.
future. "Big dreams" and "typical dreams," - She believed that children develop superego
both of which come from the collective much earlier than Freud believed (4-6 months
unconscious after birth)
C. Active Imagination - She died in 1960.
- used active imagination to arrive at collective
images. II. Introduction to Object Relations Theory
- This technique requires the patient to - differs from Freudian theory in three important
concentrate on a single image until that ways:
image begins to appear in a different form. o it places more emphasis on
(archetypes) interpersonal relationships,
D. Psychotherapy o it stresses the infant's relationship with
- help neurotic patients become healthy and to the mother rather than the father, and
move healthy people in the direction of self- o it suggests that people are motivated
realization. Jung was eclectic in his choice of primarily for human contact rather than
therapeutic techniques and treated old for sexual pleasure.
people differently than the young. - The term “object” refers to any person or part
V. Critique of Jung of a person that infants introject, or take into
- many of his writings have more of a their psychic structure and then later project
philosophical than a psychological flavor. onto other people
- As a scientific theory, it rates below average
on its ability to generate research, but very III. Psychic Life of the Infant
low on its ability to withstand falsification. It is - infants begin life with an inherited
about average on its ability to organize predisposition to reduce the anxiety that they
knowledge but low on each of the other experience as a consequence of the clash
criteria of a useful theory. between the life instinct and the death instinct
VI. Concept of Humanity A. Phantasies
Jung saw people as extremely complex - very young infants possess an active,
beings who are a product of both conscious and unconscious phantasy life.
unconscious personal experiences. However, people
- Their most basic fantasies are images of the - Children project both good and bad images
"good" breast and the "bad" breast. so that they ease the unbearable anxiety of
B. Objects being destroyed by the dangerous internal
- drives have an object (hunger: good breast; forces
sex: sexual organ)
- child's relationship with these objects (parents' C. Splitting
face, hands, breast, penis, etc.), which she - mentally keeping apart, incompatible images
saw as having a life of their own within the to tolerate good and bad aspects of
child's phantasy world. themselves and of external objects.
- Splitting can be beneficial to both children
IV. Positions and adults, because it allows them to like
- In their attempts to reduce the conflict themselves while still recognizing some
produced by good and bad images, infants unlikable qualities.
organize their experience into positions D. Projective Identification
A. Paranoid-Schizoid Position: the first 3-4 - split off unacceptable parts of themselves,
months of life project them onto another object, and finally
- The struggles that infants experience with the introject them in an altered form.
good breast and the bad breast lead to two
separate and opposing feelings—a desire to VI. Internalizations
harbor the breast and a desire to bite or - After introjecting external objects, infants
destroy it. organize them into a psychologically
- To tolerate these two feelings, the ego splits meaningful framework
itself by retaining parts of its life and death A. Ego
instincts while projecting other parts onto the - Internalizations are supported by the early
breast. ego's ability to feel anxiety, to use defense
- It then has a relationship with the ideal breast mechanisms, and to form object relations in
and the persecutory breast. both phantasy and reality.
- To control this situation, infants adopt the - a unified ego emerges only after first splitting
paranoid-schizoid position, which is a itself into the two parts—the life instinct and
tendency to see the world as having both the death instinct.
destructive and omnipotent qualities. B. Superego
B. Depressive Position: the first 5-6 months of - the superego preceded rather than followed
life the Oedipus complex. Klein also saw the
- the anxiety that infants experience around 6 superego as being quite harsh and cruel.
months of age over losing their mother and C. Oedipus Complex
yet, at the same time, wanting to destroy her. - begins during the first few months of life, then
- resolved when infants phantasize that they reaches its peak during the genital stage, at
have made up for their previous offenses about 3 or 4 years of age
against their mother and also realize that their - based on children's fear that their parents will
mother will not abandon them. seek revenge against them for their phantasy
of emptying the parent's body.
V. Psychic Defense Mechanisms - For healthy development, children should
- children adopt various psychic defense retain positive feelings for each parent.
mechanisms to protect their ego against - the little boy adopts a "feminine" position very
anxiety aroused by their own destructive early in life and has no fear of being castrated
fantasies. as punishment for his sexual feelings toward his
A. Introjection mother. Later, he projects his destructive drive
- phantasy of taking into one's own body the onto his father, whom he fears will bite or
images that one has of an external object, castrate him. It is resolved when the boy
especially the mother's breast. establishes good relations with both parents.
- Infants usually introject good objects as a - The little girl also adopts a "feminine" position
protection against anxiety, but they also toward both parents quite early in life. She
introject bad objects in order to gain control of has a positive feeling for both her mother's
them. breast and her father's penis, which she
B. Projection believes will feed her with babies. Sometimes
- phantasy that one's own feelings and impulses the girl develops hostility toward her mother,
reside within another person whom she fears will retaliate against her and
rob her of her babies, but in most cases, the
female Oedipus complex is resolved without
any jealousy toward the mother.
VII. Later Views of Object Relations
A. Margaret Mahler's View IX. Critique of Object Relations Theory
- From careful observations of infants as they Object relations theory shares with Freudian
bonded with their mothers during their first 3 theory an inability to be either falsified or verified
years of life. through empirical research. Nevertheless, some
- three major developmental stages. clinicians regard the theory as being a useful guide to
o normal autism (first 3 to 4 weeks of life) action and as possessing substantial internal
a time when infants satisfy their needs consistency. However, the theory must be rated low
within the all-powerful protective orbit on parsimony and also low on its ability to organize
of their mother's care. knowledge and to generate research.
o normal symbiosis, when infants
behave as if they and their mother X. Concept of Humanity
were an all-powerful, interdependent Object relations theorists see personality as
unit. being a product of the early mother-child
o separation-individuation (4 months relationship, and thus they stress determinism over
until about 3 years) a time when free choice. The powerful influence of early
children are becoming psychologically childhood also gives these theories a low rating on
separated from their mothers and uniqueness, a very high rating on social influences,
achieving individuation, or a sense of and high ratings on causality and unconscious forces.
personal identity. Klein and other object relations theorists rate average
on optimism versus pessimism.
B. Heinz Kohut's View
- emphasized the development of the self.
- In caring for their physical and psychological CHAPTER 6: PSYCHOANALYTIC SOCIAL THEORY
needs, adults treat infants as if they had a
sense of self. I. Biography of Karen Horney
- The parents' behaviors and attitudes - born in Germany in 1885, only daughter of her
eventually help children form a sense of self parents and she has an older brother
that gives unity and consistency to their - Her mother is 18 years younger than her father
experiences. (he had other children from his previous
C. John Bowlby's Attachment Theory - She is mad at her father and idolized her
- three stages of separation anxiety: mother
o protest - She was not a happy child = superficially
o apathy and despair independent but dependent to men inside
o emotional detachment from people, - She married Oskar Horney and had 3
including the primary caregiver. daughters
Children who reach the third stage - She had several love affairs (Erich Fromm)
lack warmth and emotion in their later - Horney was one of the first women in
relationships. Germany admitted to medical school, where
she specialized in psychiatry.
D. Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation - Horney died in 1952 at age 65.
- developed a technique called the Strange
Situation for measuring one of three the types II. Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social
of attachment styles—secure attachment, Theory
anxious-resistant attachment, and anxious- Her theories are also appropriate to normal
avoidant attachment. development. She agreed with Freud that early
childhood traumas are important, but she placed far
VIII. Psychotherapy more emphasis on social factors.
The goal of Klein's therapy was to reduce A. Horney and Freud Compared
depressive anxieties and persecutory fears and to - Neuroses are not instincts but a person’s
lessen the harshness of internalized objects. To do this, attempt to find its paths in the society
Klein encouraged patients to reexperience early - Criticisms to Freudian theory:
fantasies and pointed out the differences between o its rigidity toward new ideas
conscious and unconscious wishes. o its skewed view of feminine psychology
o its overemphasis on biology and the o they see themselves as loving,
pleasure principle. generous, humble, unselfish and
B. The Impact of Culture sensitive to feelings
- Feelings of isolation  needs for affection  - Moving Against People
overvalue love  neuroses o assume that everyone is hostile, and,
- See love and affection as the solution to therefore, should be aggressive
problems people who exploits other for their own
- Both normal and neurotic personalities benefit
experience intrapsychic conflicts through their o they seldom admit their mistakes and
desperate attempts to find love need to appear perfect, powerful and
C. The Importance of Childhood Experiences superior
- Lack of genuine love  neurotic needs(rigid o They play to win than to enjoy
behavioral patterns  gain feeling of - Moving Away From People
safety/love o People who feel isolated from others
insist on privacy, independence, and
III. Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety self-sufficiency.
o Their greatest need is to need other
- Protection from basic anxiety (does not people
necessarily indicate neurosis):
o Affection: not real love
o Submissiveness: in order to gain
affection V. Intrapsychic Conflicts
o Power/prestige/possesion: dominate, - people experience inner tensions
humiliate, deprive others - become part of people's belief system and
o Withdrawal: emotionally detached take on a life of their own, separate from the
from people interpersonal conflicts that created them.
- Normal people have the flexibility to use any A. The Idealized Self-Image
or all of these approaches, but neurotics are - No love and affection during childhood 
compelled to rely rigidly on only one. blocked self-realization and stable sense of
IV. Compulsive Drives - extravagantly positive picture of themselves
Neurotics frequently are trapped in a vicious circle in that exists only in their mind. Horney
which their compulsive need to reduce basic anxiety recognized three aspects of the idealized self-
leads to a variety of self-defeating behaviors; these image.
behaviors then produce more basic anxiety, and the - 1. The Neurotic Search for Glory
circle continues. o Comprehensive drive to actualize the
A. Neurotic Needs: a single person may use idealized self-image
more than one o tyranny of the should, neurotic
- for affection and approval ambition, and the drive toward a
- for a powerful partner vindictive triumph
- to restrict one's life within narrow borders - 2. Neurotic Claims
- for power o They believe that they are entitled to
- to exploit others special privileges and make neurotic
- for social recognition or prestige claims on other people that are
- for personal admiration consistent with their idealized view of
- for ambition and personal achievement themselves.
- for self-sufficiency and independence - 3. Neurotic Pride
- for perfection and unassailability. o a false pride based not on reality but
B. Neurotic Trends: applies to normal on a distorted and idealized view of
individual; neurotics are limited to a single self.
trend B. Self-Hatred: because reality always falls
- Moving Toward People short of their idealized view of self.
o undue compliance to others' wishes to - relentless demands on self
protect against the feeling of - merciless self-accusation
helplessness - self-contempt
o strives for affection, seek a powerful - self-frustration
partner - self-torment or self-torture
- self-destructive actions and impulses
VI. Critique of Horney Our human dilemma cannot be solved by
Although Horney's theory has not generated satisfying our animal needs, but it can only be
much research, it has provided an interesting way of addressed by fulfilling our human needs, which would
looking at humanity. The strength of her theory was move us toward a reunification with the natural world.
her vivid portrayal of the neurotic personality. As A. Relatedness: desire for union with another
scientific theory, however, it rates very low in person/s
generating research, low on its ability to be falsified, - Submission: transcends separateness of his
to organize knowledge, and to serve as a guide to existence by becoming part of something
action. The theory receives a moderate rating on bigger than oneself
internal consistency and parsimony. - Power: welcome submissive partners:
VII. Concept of Humanity symbiotic relationship
Horney's concept of humanity was based - Love: solve our basic human dilemma. It is the
mostly on her clinical experiences with neurotic ability to unite with another while retaining
patients, but it can easily be extended to normal one's own individuality and integrity.
people. In summary, Horney's view of humanity is
rated high on free choice, optimism, unconscious
influences, and social factors; average on causality
vs. teleology; and low on uniqueness. B. Transcendence: urge to rise above a passive
and accidental existence
CHAPTER 7: HUMANISTIC PSYCHOANALYSIS - to transcend their nature by destroying or
creating people or things.
I. Biography of Erich Fromm - Humans can destroy through malignant
- born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1900, the only aggression (killing for reasons other than
child of orthodox Jewish parents. survival; not common to all humans) but they
- His humanistic philosophy grew out of an early can also create and care about their
reading of the biblical prophets and an creations
association with several Talmudic scholars. C. Rootedness: establish roots and to feel at
- Fromm's first wife was Frieda Fromm- home again in the world
Reichmann but divorced - Like the other existential needs, rootedness
- Fromm moved to the United States and can take either a productive or a
began a psychoanalytic practice in New York, nonproductive mode.
where he resumed his friendship with Karen - With the productive strategy, we grow
Horney and became lovers and then beyond the security of our mother and
separated establish ties with the outside world.
- He then married Henny Gurland, two years - With the nonproductive strategy, we become
younger than him but died fixated and afraid to move beyond the
- He met Annis Freeman and got married again security and safety of our mother or a mother
- He died in Switzerland in 1980. substitute.
D. Sense of Identity: awareness of ourselves as a
II. Fromm's Basic Assumptions separate person.
- human personality can only be understood in - The drive for a sense of identity is expressed
the light of history. nonproductively as conformity to a group and
- humans have been torn away from their productively as individuality.
prehistoric union with nature and left with no E. Frame of Orientation: a road map which we
powerful instincts to adapt to a changing find our way through the world
world. - Expressed nonproductively as a striving for
- they have acquired the ability to reason, irrational goals
which means they can think about their - Express productively as movement toward
isolated condition. rational goals.
- Fromm called this situation the human F. Summary of Human Needs
dilemma People are highly motivated to satisfy the five
- Existential Dichotomies existential, or human, needs because if they are
o Life & Death unsatisfied in these needs, they are driven to insanity.
o Goal of complete self-realization & Each of the needs has both a positive and a negative
shortness of life to reach the goal component, but only the satisfaction of positive
o Alone & cannot tolerate isolation needs leads to psychological health.

III. Human Needs (existential needs) IV. The Burden of Freedom

- humans are the freaks of the universe o try to save what they have already
- High freedom = High isolation from others obtained, including their opinions,
- Freedom  basic anxiety (a burden of being feelings, and material possessions.
alone) o Positive qualities include loyalty,
A. Mechanisms of Escape: To reduce the o negative ones are obsessiveness and
frightening sense of isolation and possessiveness.
aloneness - Marketing
- Authoritarianism o see themselves as commodities and
o The tendency to give up one's value themselves against the criterion
independence and to unite with a of their ability to sell themselves.
powerful partner o They have fewer positive qualities than
o Take the form of either masochism or the other orientations, because they
sadism. are essentially empty.
o Masochism stems from feelings of o They can be open-minded and
powerlessness and can be disguised as adaptable, as well as opportunistic
love or loyalty. and wasteful.
o Sadism involves attempts to achieve
unity through dominating, exploiting, or B. The Productive Orientation:
hurting others. - work toward positive freedom through
- Destructiveness productive work, love, and thoughts.
o Feelings of isolation; an escape - Productive love necessitates a passionate
mechanism that is aimed at doing love of all life and is called biophilia.
away with other people or things.
o To restore feeling of power VI. Personality Disorders: failures to work, think,
- Conformity and especially to love productively.
o surrendering of one's individuality in A. Necrophilia
order to meet the wishes of others. - the love of death and the hatred of all
B. Positive Freedom humanity.
- It is the successful solution to the human - their destructiveness is a reflection of a basic
dilemma of being part of the natural world character.
and yet separate from it. B. Malignant Narcissism
- Convinced that everything belonging to them
V. Character Orientations is of great value and anything belonging to
People relate to the world by acquiring and using others is worthless.
things (assimilation) and by relating to self and others - Narcissistic people often suffer from moral
(socialization), and they can do so either hypochondrias, or preoccupation with
nonproductively or productively. excessive guilt.
A. Nonproductive Orientations: those that fail to C. Incestuous Symbiosis
move people closer to positive freedom and - Extreme dependence on one's mother or
self-realization. mother surrogate to the extent that one's
- Receptive personality is blended with that of the host
o only way they can relate to the world person
is to receive things, including love, - Hitler, possessed all three of these disorders, a
knowledge, and material objects. condition he termed the syndrome of decay.
o Positive qualities include loyalty and **Syndrome of growth: love, biophilia and positive
trust; freedom
o negative ones are passivity and
submissiveness. VII. Critique of Fromm
- Exploitative Fromm evolved a theory that provide insightful
o aggressively take what they want ways of looking at humanity. The strength of his
rather than passively receiving it. theory is his lucid writings on a broad range of human
o Positive qualities of exploitative people issues. As a scientific theory, however, Fromm's
include pride and self-confidence; assumptions rate very low on their ability to generate
o negative ones are arrogance and research and to lend themselves to falsification;
conceit. Fromm rates low on usefulness to the practitioner,
- Hoarding internal consistency, and parsimony. Because it is
quite broad in scope, Fromm's theory rates high on
organizing existing knowledge.
VIII. Concept of Humanity - it grows according to a genetically
Fromm's concept of humanity came from a established rate and in a fixed sequence.
rich variety of sources—history, anthropology, - A step-by-step growth
economics, and clinical work. Because humans have - It does not replace the earlier stage
the ability to reason but few strong instincts, they are
the freaks of nature. To achieve self-actualization, III. Stages of Psychosocial Development
they must satisfy their human, or existential, needs - marked by an interaction of opposites -- a
through productive love and work. In summary, we syntonic (harmonious) element and a
rated Fromm's theory as average on free choice, dystonic (disruptive) element, which produces
optimism, unconscious influences, and uniqueness; a basic strength or ego quality (must have
low on causality; and very high on social influences. both experiences)
- Also, from adolescence on, each stage is
characterized by an identity crisis or turning
CHAPTER 8: POST-FREUDIAN THEORY point, which may produce either adaptive or
maladaptive adjustment
I. Biography of Erik Erikson - Too little basic strength will result to a core
- born in Germany in 1902: Erik Salomonsen. pathology for that stage
- After his mother married Theodor Homberger, A. Infancy: Trust versus Mistrust
Erik eventually took his stepfather's name. - (the 1st year) was similar to Freud's concept of
- At age 18 he left home to pursue the life of a the oral stage
wandering artist and to search for self-identity. - include sense organs such as the eyes and
- Married Joan Serson and they had 4 children; ears.
one had a down syndrome whom they sent to - psychosexual mode: oral-sensory, which is
a facility characterized by both receiving and
- In mid-life, Erik Homberger moved to the accepting.
United States, changed his name to Erikson, - Trust: the mother provides food (or relates)
and took a position at the Harvard Medical regularly
School. - Mistrust: if no correspondence between their
- Later, he taught at Yale, the University of needs and their environment
California at Berkeley, and several other - basic strength: hope
universities. He died in 1994, a month short of - core pathology: withdrawal
his 92nd birthday. B. Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame
& Doubt
II. The Ego in Post-Freudian Psychology - (2nd to 3rd year) a period that compares to
- emphasis on ego rather than id functions Freud's anal stage
- ego is the center of personality and is - includes mastery of other body functions such
responsible for a unified sense of self. as walking, urinating, and holding.
- Ego is the person’s ability to unify experiences - psychosexual mode: anal-urethral-muscular,
and actions in an adoptive manner children behave both impulsively and
- Childhood: weak and fragile compulsively
- Adult: formation and strengthening - Autonomy: faith in themselves
- It consists of three interrelated facets: - Shame & Doubt: self-consciousness,
o body ego – seeing our physical self as uncertainty
different from other people - basic strength: will
o ego ideal – image of ourselves vs an - core pathology: compulsion.
established ideal C. Play Age: Initiative versus Guilt
o ego identity – image of ourselves in the - (3rd to the 5th year) a period that parallels
social roles we play Freud's phallic phase.
- Oedipus complex as an early model of lifelong
A. Society's Influence playfulness and a drama played out in
- Society (cultural environment) shapes the ego children's minds as they attempt to
- influenced by child-rearing practices and understand the basic facts of life
other cultural customs. - psychosexual mode: genital-locomotor,
- Pseudospecies = fictional notion that they are children have both an interest in genital
superior to other cultures. activity and an increasing ability to move
- around.
B. Epigenetic Principle - Initiative: to act with purpose and set goals
- Guilt: too little purpose
- Basic strength: Purpose an appreciation of the traditional life style of
- Core pathology: inhibition people of the other gender.
- Integrity: the maintenance of ego-identity
(social roles)
D. School Age: Industry versus Inferiority - Despair: the surrender of hope (originated
- (6 to about 13 years) a time of psychosexual from infancy)
latency, but it is also a time of psychosocial - Basic strength: wisdom
growth beyond the family. - Core pathology: Disdain = feelings of being
- learn the customs of their culture, including finished or helpless
both formal and informal education. As Erikson himself aged, he and his wife began to
- Industry: work hard & finish the job describe a ninth stage—a period of very old age
- Inferiority: work is not sufficient to achieve when physical and mental infirmities rob people of
goals their generative abilities and reduce them to waiting
- Basic strength: competence for death.
- Core pathology: inertia
E. Adolescence: Identity versus identity IV. Critique of Erikson
confusion Although Erikson's work is a logical extension of
- (puberty) a time of psychosexual growth & Freud's psychoanalysis, it offers a new way of looking
psychosocial latency. at human development. As a useful theory, it rates
- psychosexual mode: genital maturation high on its ability to generate research, about
- Identity emerges from a) childhood average on its ability to be falsified, to organize
identifications and b) historical and social knowledge, and to guide the practitioner. It rates
context high on internal consistency and about average on
- Identity: having a sense of who they are parsimony.
- Identity confusion: divided self-image
- Basic strength: fidelity V. Concept of Humanity
- Core pathology: role denial Erikson saw humans as basically social animals who
F. Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus have limited free choice and who are motivated by
Isolation past experiences, which may be either conscious or
- (18 - 30 years) unconscious. In addition, Erikson is rated high on both
- psychosexual mode: genitality, expressed as optimism and uniqueness of individuals.
mutual trust between partners in a stable
sexual relationship.
- Intimacy: ability to fuse one's identity with that CHAPTER 9: HOLISTIC-DYNAMIC THEORY
of another person without fear of losing it
- Isolation: fear of losing one's identity in an H. Biography of Abraham H. Maslow
intimate relationship. - born in New York City in 1908, the oldest of
- Basic strength: capacity to love seven children of Russian Jewish immigrants.
- Core pathology: exclusivity - Had the most lonely and miserable childhood
G. Adulthood: Generativity versus Stagnation (shy, inferior, depressed)
- (31 to 60 years) a time when people make - Oldest of the seven children
significant contributions to society - He never overcame the intense hatred he
- psychosexual mode: procreativity, or the had towards his mother. He refused to attend
caring for one's children, the children of her funeral.
others, and the material products of one's - After 2 or 3 mediocre years as a college
society. student, Maslow's academic work improved
- Generativity: guiding the next generation at about the time he was married.
- Stagnation: too self-indulgent, too much self- - He married his first cousin, Bertha Goodman
absorption - He received both a bachelor's degree and a
- Basic Strength: Care PhD from the University of Wisconsin, where he
- Core pathology: rejectivity (of certain worked with Harry Harlow conducting animal
individuals) studies (monkeys).
- Poor health forced him to move to California,
Old Age: Integrity versus Despair where he died in 1970 at age 62.
- (age 60 until death)
- psychosexual mode: generalized sensuality; II. Maslow's View of Motivation
taking pleasure in a variety of sensations and 1. the whole organism is motivated at any one
2. motivation is complex, and unconscious B. Aesthetic Needs
motives often underlie behavior; - desire for beauty and order, and some people
3. people are continually motivated by one have much stronger aesthetic needs than do
need or another; others.
4. people in different cultures are motivated by - Will get sick if not met
the same basic needs; and - people with strong aesthetic needs do not
5. needs can be arranged on a hierarchy automatically reach self-actualization
- Not universal
A. Hierarchy of Needs C. Cognitive Needs
- lower level needs have prepotency over - desire to know, to understand, and to be
higher level needs; that is, lower needs must curious.
be satisfied before higher needs become - Knowledge is a prerequisite for each of the
motivators. five conative needs. (only for those who have
- Called CONATIVE needs: have a striving or this need)
motivational character - people who are denied knowledge and kept
- As long as the need is not yet satisfied, the in ignorance become sick, paranoid, and
person will continue to strive to satisfy it depressed.
(almost doing anything to obtain it) - people who have satisfied cognitive needs do
- physiological needs not necessarily become self-actualized.
o oxygen, food, water D. Neurotic Needs
- safety needs - desire to dominate, to inflict pain, or to subject
o physical security, stability, oneself to the will of another person.
dependency, protection, and - lead to pathology whether or not they are
freedom from danger satisfied
o Children: threats, animals, strangers, E. General Discussion of Needs
punishments - Reversed Order Needs
o Maslow insisted that much of our
surface behaviors are actually
motivated by more basic and often
- love and belongingness needs unconscious needs.
o desire for friendship, the wish for a o For example, a starving mother may
mate and children, and the need to be motivated by love needs to give up
belong food in order to feed her starving
o 1st group: need fully satisfied; feels children. However, if we understand
accepted and will not feel devastated the unconscious motivation behind
if rejected many apparent reversals, we might
o 2nd group: never experienced love; see that they are not genuine reversals
thus, incapable of giving love at all.
o 3rd group: received the need in small - Unmotivated Behavior
doses; strongest motivation to seek o Some behaviors are not motivated
love even though all behaviors have a
o Children: straightforward and direct cause
o Adults: disguise; self-defeating o Conditioned reflexes, maturation, or
behaviors drugs
- esteem needs - Expressive and Coping Behavior
o satisfaction of love needs and which o have no aim or goal but are merely a
include self-esteem and the person's mode of expression
recognition that we have a positive o deal with a person's attempt to cope
reputation with the environment
- self-actualization needs - Deprivation of Needs
o self-fulfillment, realization of one’s own o leads to pathology of some sort
potential - Instinctoid Nature of Needs
o they become independent of the o Innately determined needs that can
lower needs be modified by learning
o should embrace the B-values as truth, o Thwarting of instinctoid needs
beauty, oneness, justice, etc produces pathology whereas the
*Other categories of needs include aesthetic needs, frustration of noninstinctoid needs does
cognitive needs, and neurotic needs. not
o Specie-specific - (11) the democratic character structure; or
- Comparison of Higher and Lower Needs the ability to disregard superficial differences
o higher level needs (love, esteem, and between people;
self-actualization) are later on the - (12) discrimination between means and ends,
evolutionary scale than lower level meaning that self-actualizing people have a
needs and that they produce more clear sense of right and wrong, and they
genuine happiness and more peak experience little conflict about basic values;
experiences. - (13) a philosophical sense of humor; or humor
o Seems like these needs follow a that is spontaneous, unplanned, and intrinsic
development course to the situation;
- (14) creativeness; they possess a keen
III. Self-Actualization perception of truth, beauty, and reality;
- an ultimate level of psychological health - (15) resistance to enculturation; they have the
called self-actualization. ability to set personal standards and to resist
- (1) absence of psychopathology, the mold set by the dominate culture.
- (2) satisfaction of each of the four lower level C. Love, Sex, and Self-Actualization
needs, - Maslow compared D-love (deficiency love) to
- (3) full realization of one's potentials for B-love (love for the being or essence of
growth, and (4) acceptance of the B-values. another person).
A. Values of Self-Actualizers - Self-actualizing people are capable of B-love;
- Self-actualizing people are metamotivated by that is, they have the ability to love without
such B-values as truth, goodness, beauty, expecting something in return.
justice, and simplicity. - B-love is mutually felt and shared and not
- If people’s metaneeds are not met they based on deficiencies within the lovers.
experience existential illness IV. Measuring Self-Actualization
B. Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People - The most widely used of these is Everett
- not all self-actualizers possess each of these Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory
characteristics to the same extent. (POI), a 150-forced-choice inventory that
- (1) more efficient perception of reality; they assesses a variety of self-actualization facets.
often have an almost uncanny ability to
detect phoniness in others, and they are not
fooled by sham;
- (2) acceptance of self, others, and nature; V. The Jonah Complex
- (3) spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness; - fear of being or doing one's best, a condition
they have no need to appear complex or that all of us have to some extent.
sophisticated; - False humility that stifle creativity and that fall
- (4) problem-centered; they view age-old short of self-actualization
problems from a solid philosophical position;
- (5) the need for privacy, or a detachment VI. Critique of Maslow
that allows them to be alone without being Maslow's theory has been popular in
lonely; psychology and other disciplines, such as marketing,
- (6) autonomy; they have grown beyond management, nursing, and education. The hierarchy
dependency on other people for their self- of needs concept seems both elementary and
esteem; logical, which gives Maslow's theory the illusion of
- (7) continued freshness of appreciation and simplicity. However, the theory is somewhat complex,
the ability to view everyday things with a fresh with four dimensions of needs and the possibility of
vision and appreciation; unconsciously motivated behavior. As a scientific
- (8) frequent reports of peak experiences, or theory, Maslow's model rates high in generating
those mystical experiences that give a person research but low in falsifiability. On its ability to
a sense of transcendence and feelings of organize knowledge and guide action, the theory
awe, wonder, ecstasy, reverence, and rates quite high; on its simplicity and internal
humility; consistency, it rates only average.
- (9) Gemeinschaftsgefühl, that is, social interest
or a deep feeling of oneness with all humanity; VII. Concept of Humanity
- (10) profound interpersonal relations but with Maslow believed that people are structured in
no desperate need to have a multitude of such a way that their activated needs are exactly
friends; what they want most. Hungry people desire food,
frightened people look for safety, and so forth.
Although he was generally optimistic and hopeful, - A sense of self during infancy, once
Maslow saw that people are capable of great evil established, allows a person to strive toward
and destruction. He believed that, as a species, self-actualization
humans are becoming more and more fully human - The self has two subsystems:
and motivated by higher level needs. In summary, o self-concept: aspects of one's identity
Maslow's view of humanity rates high on free choice, that are perceived in awareness, and
optimism, teleology, and uniqueness and about o ideal self: view of our self as we would
average on social influences. like it to be or what we would aspire to
CHAPTER 10: PERSON-CENTERED THEORY Once formed, the self-concept tends to resist
change, and gaps between it and the ideal self result
l. Biography of Carl Rogers in incongruence and various levels of
- born into a devoutly religious family in a psychopathology.
Chicago suburb in 1902. C. Awareness
- Carl became interested in scientific farming - People are aware of both their self-concept
and learned to appreciate the scientific and their ideal self, although awareness need
method. not be accurate.
- When he graduated from the University of - Any experience not consistent with the self-
Wisconsin, Rogers intended to become a concept—even positive experiences—will be
minister, but he gave up that notion and distorted or denied.
completed a PhD in psychology from o Person distrusts the giver
Columbia University in 1931. o Recipient does not feel deserving of
- In 1940, after nearly a dozen years working as them
a clinician, he took a position at Ohio State o Compliment carries an implied threat
University. Later, he held positions at the - three levels of awareness:
University of Chicago and the University of o (1) those that are symbolized below
Wisconsin. the threshold of awareness and are
- In 1964, he moved to California where he ignored, denied, or not allowed into
helped found the Center for Studies of the the self-concept;
Person. o (2) those that are distorted or
- His personal life was marked by change and reshaped to fit it into an existing self-
openness to experience concept; and
- He was shy and social inept but he got o (3) those that are consistent with the
married to Helen Elliott and had 2 children self-concept and thus are accurately
- He died in 1987 at age 85. symbolized and freely admitted to the
II. Person-Centered Theory D. Needs
A. Basic Assumptions - As awareness of self emerges, an infant begins
- the formative tendency that states that all to receive positive regard from another
matter, both organic and inorganic, tends to person, that is, to be loved or accepted.
evolve from simpler to more complex forms - Incongruence: experienced when basic
and organismic needs are denied or distorted in
- an actualizing tendency, which suggests that favor of needs to be loved or accepted.
all living things, including humans, tend to - Self-regard: people acquire only after they
move toward completion, or fulfillment of perceive that someone else cares for them
potentials. and values them
o Maintenance = of needs - Once established, however, self-regard
o Enhancement = willingness to face becomes autonomous and no longer
pain because of the biological dependent on another person's continuous
tendency to fulfill basic nature wc is positive evaluation.
actualization - Contact (with another person)  Positive
- relationship with another person who is regard (from others)  positive self-regard
genuine, or congruent, and who E. Barriers to Psychological Health
demonstrates complete acceptance and - Conditions of Worth
empathy for that person. Lead people to o not unconditionally accepted
become actualized o they feel that they are loved and
B. The Self and Self-Actualization accepted only when and if they meet
the conditions set by others.
o External evaluations: our perceptions into his or her world of feelings without
of other people’s view of us that do prejudice, projection, or evaluation.
not foster psychological health
- Incongruence
o Organismic experience versus self-
o The greater the incongruence
between self-concept and the
organismic experience, the more B. Process
vulnerable that person becomes. - Rogers saw the process of therapeutic
o Anxiety exists whenever the person change as taking place in seven stages:
becomes dimly aware of the - (1) clients are unwilling to communicate
discrepancy anything about themselves;
o threat is experienced whenever the - (2) they discuss only external events and other
person becomes more clearly aware people;
of this incongruence - (3) they begin to talk about themselves, but
- Defensiveness still as an object;
o To prevent incongruence - (4) they discuss strong emotions that they
o With distortion, people misinterpret an have felt in the past;
experience so that it fits into their self- - (5) they begin to express present feelings;
concept - (6) they freely allow into awareness those
o with denial, people refuse to allow the experiences that were previously denied or
experience into awareness distorted; and
o When people's defenses fail to operate - (7) they experience irreversible change and
properly, their behavior becomes growth.
disorganized or psychotic C. Outcomes
- Disorganization - (1) become more congruent, less defensive,
o people sometimes behave consistently more open to experience, and more realistic;
with their organismic experience and - (2) experience a narrowing of the gap
sometimes in accordance with their between ideal self and true self;
shattered self-concept. - (3) experience less physiological and
psychological tension;
III. Psychotherapy - (4) improve their interpersonal relationships:
For client-centered psychotherapy to be and
effective, six conditions are necessary: - (5) become more accepting of self and
(1) A vulnerable or anxious client must others.
(2) have contact of some duration
(3) with a congruent counselor IV. The Person of Tomorrow
(4) who demonstrates unconditional positive regard - these people would be more adaptable and
(5) and who listens with empathy to a client more flexible in their thinking.
(6) who perceives the congruence, unconditional - they would be open to their experiences,
positive regard, and empathy. accurately symbolizing them in awareness
If these conditions are present, then the process of rather than denying or distorting them. would
therapy will take place and certain predictable listen to themselves and hear their joy, anger,
outcomes will result. discouragement, fear, and tenderness.
A. Conditions - a tendency to live fully in the moment,
- counselor congruence, or a therapist whose experiencing a constant state of fluidity and
organismic experiences are matched by change. They would see each experience
awareness and by the ability and willingness with a new freshness and appreciate it fully in
to openly express these feelings. the present moment; tendency to live in the
- Unconditional positive regard exists when the moment as existential living.
therapist accepts and prizes the client without - remain confident of their own ability to
conditions or qualifications. experience harmonious relations with others.
- Empathic listening is the ability of the therapist They would feel no need to be liked or loved
to sense the feeling of a client and also to by everyone, because they would know that
communicate these perceptions so that the they are unconditionally prized and accepted
client knows that another person has entered by someone.
- they would be more integrated, more whole,
with no artificial boundary between conscious II. Background of Existentialism
processes and unconscious ones. Because - Søren Kierkegaard, the Danish philosopher
they would be able to accurately symbolize and theologian, is usually considered to be
all their experiences in awareness, they would the founder of modern existentialism.
see clearly the difference between what is - he emphasized a balance between freedom
and what should be. and responsibility.
- have a basic trust of human nature. They - People acquire freedom of action by
would experience anger, frustration, expanding their self-awareness and by
depression, and other negative emotions, but assuming responsibility for their actions.
they would be able to express rather than - However, this acquisition of freedom and
repress these feelings. responsibility is achieved at the expense of
- open to all their experiences, they would anxiety and dread.
enjoy a greater richness in life than do other A. What Is Existentialism?
people. They would live in the present and - existence takes precedence over essence,
thus participate more richly in the ongoing meaning that process and growth are more
moment. important than product and stagnation.
- existentialists oppose the artificial split
V. Critique of Rogers between subject and object.
Rogers' person-centered theory is one of the - stress people's search for meaning in their lives.
most carefully constructed of all personality theories, - insist that each of us is responsible for who we
and it meets quite well each of the six criteria of a are and what we will become.
useful theory. It rates very high on internal - take an antitheoretical position, believing that
consistency and parsimony, high on its ability to be theories tend to objectify people.
falsified and to generate research, and high average
on its ability to organize knowledge and to serve as a
guide to the practitioner. B. Basic Concepts
- Being-in-the-world (Dasein)
VI. Concept of Humanity o a basic unity exists between people
Rogers believed that humans have the and their environments
capacity to change and grow—provided that certain o a phenomenological approach that
necessary and sufficient conditions are present. intends to understand people from
Therefore, his theory rates very high on optimism. In their own perspective
addition, it rates high on free choice, teleology, o Three simultaneous modes of the world
conscious motivation, social influences, and the characterize us in our Dasein:
uniqueness of the individual.  Umwelt, or the environment
around us;
 Mitwelt, or our world with other
 Eigenwelt, or our relationship
l. Biography of Rollo May with our self.
- born in Ohio in 1909, but grew up in Michigan - Nonbeing
- he spent 3 years as an itinerant artist roaming o People are both aware of themselves
throughout eastern and southern Europe. as living beings and also aware of the
- he entered the Union Theological Seminary, possibility of nonbeing or nothingness.
from which he received a Master of Divinity o Death is the most obvious form of
degree. nonbeing, which can also be
- He then served for 2 years as a pastor, but quit experienced as retreat from life's
in order to pursue a career in psychology. experiences.
- He received a PhD in clinical psychology from o Other forms: addictions, promiscuous
Columbia in 1949 at the relatively advanced sexual activity, other compulsive
age of 40. behaviors, blind conformity to society’s
- During his professional career, he served as expectations
lecturer or visiting professor at a number of III. Anxiety
universities, conducted a private practice as a People experience anxiety when they
psychotherapist, and wrote a number of become aware that their existence or something
popular books on the human condition. identified with it might be destroyed. The acquisition
- May died in 1994 at age 85. of freedom inevitably leads to anxiety, which can be
either pleasurable and constructive or painful and - Agape is an altruistic or spiritual love that
destructive. carries with it the risk of playing God. Agape is
A. Normal Anxiety undeserved and unconditional.
- proportionate to the threat, does not involve VII. Freedom and Destiny
repression, and can be handled on a Psychologically healthy individuals are
conscious level. comfortable with freedom, able to assume
B. Neurotic Anxiety responsibility for their choices, and willing to face their
- a reaction that is disproportionate to the threat destiny.
and that leads to repression and defensive A. Freedom Defined
behaviors. Freedom comes from an understanding of our
- It is felt whenever one's values are transformed destiny. We are free when we recognize that death is
into dogma. Neurotic anxiety blocks growth a possibility at any moment and when we are willing
and productive action. to experience changes even in the face of not
IV. Guilt knowing what those changes will bring.
Guilt arises whenever people deny their B. Forms of Freedom
potentialities, fail to accurately perceive the needs of May recognized two forms of freedom: (1)
others, or remain blind to their dependence on the freedom of doing, or freedom of action, which he
natural world. Both anxiety and guilt are ontological; called existential freedom, and (2) freedom of being,
that is, they refer to the nature of being and not to or an inner freedom, which he called essential
feelings arising from specific situations. freedom.
V. Intentionality C. Destiny Defined
- The structure that gives meaning to May defined destiny as "the design of the
experience and allows people to make universe speaking through the design of each one of
decisions about the future us." In other words, our destiny includes the limitations
- permits people to overcome the dichotomy of our environment and our personal qualities,
between subject and object because it including our mortality, gender, and genetic
enables them to see that their intentions are a predispositions. Freedom and destiny constitute a
function of both themselves and their paradox because freedom gains vitality from destiny,
environment. and destiny gains significance from freedom.
VI. Care, Love, and Will
- Care is an active process that suggests that
things matter. VIII. Psychopathology
- Love means to care, to delight in the May saw apathy and emptiness—not anxiety
presence of another person, and to affirm that or depression—as the chief existential disorders of our
person's value as much as one's own. time. People have become alienated from the
- Care is also an important ingredient in will, natural world (Umwelt), from other people (Mitwelt)
defined as a conscious commitment to and from themselves (Eigenwelt). Psychopathology is
action. a lack of connectedness and an inability to fulfill one's
A. Union of Love and Will destiny.
May believed that our modern society has lost IX. Psychotherapy
sight of the true nature of love and will, equating love The goal of May's psychotherapy was not to
with sex and will with will power. He further held that cure patients of any specific disorder, but rather to
psychologically healthy people are able to combine make them more fully human. May said that the
love and will because both imply care, choice, purpose of psychotherapy is to set people free, that is
action, and responsibility. to allow them to make choices and to assume
B. Forms of Love responsibility for those choices.
- Sex: A biological function through sexual
intercourse X. Critique of May
- Eros is a psychological desire that seeks an May's psychology has been legitimately
enduring union with a loved one. It may criticized as being antitheoretical and unjustly
include sex, but it is built on care and criticized as being anti-intellectual. May's
tenderness. antitheoretical approach calls for a new kind of
- Philia, an intimate nonsexual friendship science—one that considers uniqueness and personal
between two people, takes time to develop freedom as crucial concepts. However, according to
and does not depend on the actions of the the criteria of present science, May's theory rates low
other person. on most standards. More specifically, we give it a
very low rating on its ability to generate research, to
be falsified, and to guide action; low on internal
consistency (because it lacks operationally defined - He was inclined to accept self-reports at face
terms), average on parsimony, and high on its value
organizational powers, due to its consideration of a C. What Are the Characteristics of a Healthy
broad scope of the human condition. Person?
- Proactive behavior: not only reacting to
XI. Concept of Humanity external stimuli but causing their environment
May viewed people as complex beings, to react to them
capable of both tremendous good and immense evil. - Motivated by conscious process: flexible and
People have become alienated from the world, from autonomous
other people, and, most of all, from themselves. On - Relatively trauma-free childhood
the dimensions of a concept of humanity, May rates - Extension of the sense of self: not self-
high on free choice, teleology, social influences, and centered; social interest are important to
uniqueness. On the issue of conscious or unconscious them
forces, his theory takes a middle position. - Warm relating of self to others: intimate and
compassionate; love other unselfishy
CHAPTER 12: PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INDIVIDUAL - Emotional security or self-acceptance: not
overly upset when things do not go as
1. Biography of Gordon Allport planned
- born in Indiana in 1897, the son of a physician - Realistic perception: problem oriented
and former school teacher. - Insight & humor: no need to attribute their own
- He received an undergraduate degree in mistakes and weakness to others; can laugh
philosophy and economics and a PhD from at themselves; see themselves objectively
Harvard, - Unifying philosophy of life: have a clear view
- spent 2 years studying under some of the of the purpose of life (not necessarily religious)
great German psychologists, but he returned
from Europe to teach at Harvard. 3. Structure of Personality
- Two years later he took a position at - most important structures of personality are
Dartmouth, but after 4 years at Dartmouth, he those that permit description of the individual
returned to Harvard, where he remained until in terms of individual characteristics, and he
his death in 1967. called these individual structures personal
A. Personal Dispositions
- “common traits” which permit inter-individual
2. Allport's Approach to Personality Theory comparisons
A. What Is Personality? - “personal dispositions” which are unusual to
- "the dynamic organization within the the individual.
individual of those psychophysical systems - Interpersonal comparisons are inappropriate
that determine [the person's] behavior and to personal dispositions and any attempt of
thought. comparison transforms it to a common trait
- Dynamic organization: patterned yet subject - Levels (continuum) of personal dispositions:
to change o Cardinal dispositions: characteristics
- Psychophysical: importance of both that are so obvious and dominating
psychological and physical aspects of that they cannot be hidden from other
personality people. Not everyone have this
- Determine: not merely the mask we wear but o Central dispositions: all people have 5
the person behind that to 10 central dispositions, or
- Characteristics: uniqueness of the individual characteristics around which their lives
- Behavior and thinking: anything the person revolve
does (external or internal) o Secondary dispositions: are less reliable
B. What is the Role of Conscious Motivation? and less conspicuous than central
- began with his short-lived discussion with traits. Occur with some regularity
Freud, when Allport had not yet selected a B. Motivational and Stylistic Dispositions
career in psychology. - Allport further divided personal dispositions
- Whereas Freud would attribute an into
unconscious desire in the story of the young o motivational dispositions - strong
boy on the tram car, Allport saw the story as enough to initiate action
an expression of a conscious motive. o stylistic dispositions - the manner in
which an individual behaves and
which guide action (does not really studies. His theory rates low on its ability to organize
have an exact drive or instinct that psychological data and to be falsified. It rates high
causes the behavior) on parsimony and internal consistency and about
C. Proprium average on its ability to generate research and to
- all those behaviors and characteristics that help the practitioner.
people regard as warm and central in their 6. Concept of Humanity
lives. Allport saw people as thinking, proactive,
- self/ego could imply an object or thing within purposeful beings who are generally aware of what
a person that controls behavior, they are doing and why. On the six dimensions for a
- whereas proprium suggests the core of one's concept of humanity, Allport rates higher than any
personhood (values/conscience) other theorist on conscious influences and on the
uniqueness of the individual. He rates high on free
4. Motivation choice, optimism, and teleology and about average
- motives change as people mature and also on social influences.
that people are motivated by present drives
and wants.
A. Theory of Motivation
- people not only react to their environment, 1. The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell
but they also shape their environment and - Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to
cause it to react to them. identify a large number of traits, including
- His proactive approach emphasized the idea personality traits.
that people often seek additional tension and - Included in personality traits were
that they purposefully act on their temperament traits, which are concerned
environment in a way that fosters growth with how a person behaves.
toward psychological health. - Temperament traits include both normal and
B. Functional Autonomy abnormal traits. Of the 23 normal traits, 16 are
- some (but not all) human motives are measured by Cattell's famous 16 PF scale.
functionally independent from the original - Whereas, McRae and Costa’s work yielded
motive responsible for a particular behavior. scores on only 5 personality traits (NEO-PI
- two levels of functional autonomy: Inventory)
o perseverative functional autonomy:
tendency of certain basic behaviors 2. Basics of Factor Analysis
(such as addictive behaviors) to - a mathematical procedure for reducing a
perseverate or continue in the large number of scores to a few general
absence of reinforcement variables or factors.
o propriate functional autonomy: self- - Correlations of the original, specific scores with
sustaining motives (such as interests) the factors are called factor loadings.
that are related to the proprium. - Traits generated through factor analysis may
- a behavior is functionally autonomous to the be either unipolar (scaled from zero to some
extent that it seeks new goals, as when a large amount) or bipolar (having two
need (eating) turns into an interest (cooking). opposing poles, such as introversion and
- Not all behaviors are functionally autonomous: extraversion).
o biological drives = eating, breathing, - For factors to have psychological meaning,
and sleeping the analyst must rotate the axes on which the
o reflex actions such as an eye blink scores are plotted.
o physique, intelligence, and - Eysenck used an orthogonal rotation whereas
temperament Cattell favored an obiique rotation. The
o habits in the process of being formed; oblique rotation procedure ordinarily results in
o patterns of behavior that require more traits than the orthogonal method.
primary reinforcement
o sublimations that can be tied to 3. The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory?
childhood sexual desires A large number of researchers, including
o some neurotic or pathological Robert McCrae and Paul Costa, Jr., have insisted that
symptoms. all personality structure can be narrowed down to
5. Critique of Allport five, and only five, and no fewer than five dominant
His views are based more on philosophical traits to emerge from factor analytic techniques.
speculation and common sense than on scientific
4. In Search of the Big Five o self-concept – an important
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Costa and characteristic adaptation which are
McCrae quickly discovered the traits of extraversion the knowledge and attitudes about
(E), neuroticism (N), and openness to experience (O). oneself
A. Five Factors Found - Peripheral components include:
- the five factors have been found across a o biological bases - which are the sole
variety of cultures and languages. In addition, cause of basic tendencies (genes,
the five factors show some permanence with hormones, brain structures)
age; that is, adults tend to maintain a o objective biography - everything a
consistent personality structure as they grow person does or thinks over a lifetime
older. (objectively = not how they view
o external influence - or knowledge,
views, and evaluations of the self;
B. Description of the Five Factors “how we respond” to the opportunities
- McCrae and Costa agreed with Eysenck that and demands
personality traits are basically bipolar, with B. Basic Postulates
some people scoring high on one factor and - Basic tendencies: four postulate:
low on its counterpart. o individuality - every adult has a unique
- Neuroticism: people who score high on N tend pattern of traits
to be anxious, temperamental, self-pitying, o origin - all personality traits originate
self-conscious, emotional, and vulnerable to solely from biological factors, such as
stress-related disorders, whereas people with genetics, hormones, and brain
low scores on N tend to have opposite structures
characteristics. o development - traits develop and
- Extraversion: People who score high on E tend change through childhood,
to be affectionate, jovial, talkative, a joiner, adolescence, and mid-adulthood
and fun-loving, whereas low E scorers tend to o structure - traits are organized
have opposing traits. hierarchically from narrow and specific
- Openness (to experience): High O scorers to broad and general.
prefer variety in their life and are contrasted to
low O scorers who have a need for closure 6. Critique of Trait and Factor Theories
and who gain comfort in their association with The factor theories of Eysenck and of McCrae
familiar people and things. and Costa rate high on parsimony, on their ability to
- Agreeableness: People who score high on A generate research, and on their usefulness in
tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, organizing data; they are about average on
acceptant, and good natured. Low A scorers falsifiability, usefulness to the practitioner, and internal
are generally suspicious, stingy, unfriendly, consistency.
irritable, and critical of other people.
- Conscientiousness: people high on the C 7. Concept of Humanity
scale tend to be ordered, controlled, Factor theories generally assume that human
organized, ambitious, achievement-focused, personality is largely the product of genetics and not
and self-disciplined. the environment. Thus, we rate these two theories
very high on biological influences and very low on
5. Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory social factors. In addition, we rate both about
- their Five-Factor taxonomy was being average on conscious versus unconscious influences
transformed into a Five-Factor Theory (FFT) and high on the uniqueness of individuals. The
A. Units of the Five-Factor Theory concepts of free choice, optimism versus pessimism,
- The three core components include: and causality versus teleology are not clearly
o basic tendencies - the universal raw addressed by these theories.
material of personality; define the CHAPTER 14: COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
individual’s potential & direction; basis
in biology and their stability over time 1. Overview of Cognitive Social Learning Theory
and situation Both Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel believe
o characteristic adaptations - are that cognitive factors, more than immediate
acquired personality structures that reinforcements, determine how people will react to
develop as people adapt to their environmental forces. Both theorists suggest that our
environment (flexibility); what we learn
expectations of future events are major determinants interaction of people with their meaningful
of performance. environment.
E. Basic Prediction Formula - Hypothetically, in
2. Biography of Julian Rotter any specific situation, behavior can be
Julian Rotter was born in Brooklyn, New York n predicted by the basic prediction formula,
in 1916. As a high school student, he became familiar which states that the potential for a behavior
with some of the writings of Freud and Adler, but he to occur in a particular situation in relation to
majored in chemistry rather than psychology while at a given reinforcement is a function of people's
Brooklyn College. In 1941, he received a PhD in expectancy that their behavior will be
clinical psychology from Indiana University. After followed by that reinforcement in that
World War II, he took a position at Ohio State, where situation.
one of his students was Walter Mischel. In 1963, he
moved to the University of Connecticut and has 5. Predicting General Behaviors
remained there since retirement. The basic prediction is too specific to give
clues about how a person will generally behave.
3. Introduction to Rotter's Social Learning Theory A. Generalized Expectancies
- it assumes that humans interact with their To make more general predictions of
meaningful environments: that is, human behavior, one must know people's generalized
behavior stems from the interaction of expectancies, or their expectations based on similar
environmental and personal factors. past experiences that a given behavior will be
- human personality is learned, which suggests reinforced. Generalized expectancies include
that it can be changed or modified as long as people's needs, that is, behaviors that move them
people are capable of learning. toward a goal.
- personality has a basic unity, suggesting that B. Needs
personality has some basic stability. Needs refer to functionally related categories
- motivation is goal directed. of behaviors. Rotter listed six broad categories of
- people are capable of anticipating events, needs, with each need being related to behaviors
and thus they are capable of changing their that lead to the same or similar reinforcements: (1)
environment and their personality. recognition-status refers to the need to excel, to
achieve, and to have others recognize one's worth;
4. Predicting Specific Behaviors - must be (2) dominance is the need to control the behavior of
analyzed in order to make accurate others, to be in charge, or to gain power over others;
predictions in any specific situation. (3) independence is the need to be free from the
A. Behavior Potential - possibility that a particular domination of others; (4) protection-dependence is
response will occur at a given time and place the need to have others take care of us and to
in relation to its likely reinforcement. protect us from harm; (5) love and affection are
B. Expectancy - their confidence that a needs to be warmly accepted by others and to be
particular reinforcement will follow a specific held in friendly regard; and (6) physical comfort
behavior in a specific situation or situations. includes those behaviors aimed at securing food,
Expectancies can be either general or good health, and physical security. Three need
specific, and the overall likelihood of success is components are: (1) need potential, or the possible
a function of both generalized and specific occurrences of a set of functionally related behaviors
expectancies. directed toward the satisfaction of similar goals; (2)
C. Reinforcement Value - person's preference for freedom of movement, or a person's overall
any particular reinforcement over other expectation of being reinforced for performing those
reinforcements if all are equally likely to occur. behaviors that are directed toward satisfying some
Internal reinforcement is the individual's general need; and (3) need value, or the extent to
perception of an event, whereas external which people prefer one set of reinforcements to
reinforcement refers to society's evaluation of another. Need components are analogous to the
an event. Reinforcement-reinforcement more specific concepts of behavior potential,
sequences suggest that the value of an event expectancy, and reinforcement value.
is a function of one's expectation that a C. General Prediction Formula
particular reinforcement will lead to future The general prediction formula states that
reinforcements. need potential is a function of freedom of movement
D. Psychological Situation - part of the external and need value. Rotter's two most famous scales for
and internal world to which a person is measuring generalized expectancies are the Internal-
responding. Behavior is a function of the External Control Scale and the Interpersonal Trust
D. Internal and External Control of 9. Cognitive-Affective Personality System
Reinforcement However, Mischel does not believe that
The Internal-External Control Scale (popularly inconsistencies in behavior are due solely to the
called "locus of control scale") attempts to measure situation; he recognizes that inconsistent behaviors
the degree to which people perceive a causal reflect stable patterns of variation within a person. He
relationship between their own efforts and and Shoda see these stable variations in behavior in
environmental consequences. the following framework: If A, then X; but if B, then Y.
E. Interpersonal Trust Scale People's pattern of variability is their behavioral
The Interpersonal Trust Scale measures the signature, or their unique and stable pattern of
extent to which a person expects the word or promise behaving differently in different situations.
of another person to be true. A. Behavior Prediction
Mischel's basic theoretical position for
6. Introduction to Mischel's Personality System predicting and explaining behavior is as follows: If
Like Bandura and Rotter, Mischel believes that personality is a stable system that processes
cognitive factors, such as expectancies, subjective information about the situation, then as people
perceptions, values, goals, and personal standards encounter different situations, they should behave
are important in shaping personality. In his early differently as those situations vary. Therefore, Mischel
theory, Mischel seriously questioned the consistency believes that, even though people's behavior may
of personality, but more recently, he and Yuichi reflect some stability over time, it tends to vary as
Shoda have advanced the notion that behavior is situations vary.
also a function of relatively stable cognitive-affective B. Situation Variables
units. Situation variables include all those stimuli that
people attend to in a given situation.
7. Biography of Walter Mischel C. Cognitive-Affective Units
Walter Mischel was born in Vienna in 1930, the Cognitive-affective units include all those
second son of upper-middle-class parents. When the psychological, social, and physiological aspects of
Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, his family moved to the people that permit them to interact with their
United States and eventually settled in Brooklyn. environment with some stability in their behavior.
Mischel received an MA from City College of New Mischel identified five such units. First are encoding
York and a PhD from Ohio State, where he was strategies, or people's individualized manner of
influenced by Julian Rotter. He is currently a professor categorizing information they receive from external
at Columbia University. stimuli. Second are the competencies and self-
regulatory strategies. One of the most important of
8. Background of the Cognitive-Affective these competencies is intelligence, which Mischel
Personality System argues is responsible for the apparent consistency of
Mischel originally believed that human other traits. In addition, people use self-regulatory
behavior was mostly a function of the situation, but strategies to control their own behavior through self-
more lately he has recognized the importance of formulated goals and self-produced consequences.
relatively permanent cognitive-affective units. The third cognitive-affective units are expectancies
Nevertheless, Mischel's theory continues to recognize and beliefs, or people's guesses about the
the apparent inconsistency of some behaviors. consequences of each of the different behavioral
A. The Consistency Paradox possibilities. The fourth cognitive-affective unit
The consistency paradox refers to the includes people's subjective goals and values, which
observation that, although both lay people and tend to render behavior fairly consistent. Mischel's fifth
professionals tend to believe that behavior is quite cognitive-affective unit includes affective responses,
consistent, research suggests that it is not. Mischel including emotions, feelings, and the affect that
recognizes that, indeed, some traits are consistent accompanies physiological reactions.
over time, but he contends that there is little evidence
to suggest that they are consistent from one situation 10. Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory
to another. Cognitive social learning theory combines the
B. Person-Situation Interaction rigors of learning theory with the speculative
Mischel believes that behavior is best assumption that people are forward-looking beings. It
predicted from an understanding of the person, the rates high on generating research and on being
situation, and the interaction between person and internally consistent; it rates about average on its
situation. Thus, behavior is not the result of some ability to be falsified, to organize data, and to guide
global personality trait, but rather of people's action.
perceptions of themselves in a particular situation.
11. Concept of Humanity
Rotter and Mischel see people as goal-
directed, cognitive animals whose perceptions of 4. Personal Constructs
events are more crucial than the events themselves. Kelly believed that people look at their world
Cognitive social learning theory rates very high on through templates that they create and then attempt
social influences, and high on uniqueness of the to fit over the realities of the world. He called these
individual, free choice, teleology, and conscious templates personal constructs, which he believed
processes. On the dimension of optimism versus shape behavior.
pessimism, Rotter's view is slightly more optimistic, A. Basic Postulate
whereas Mischel's is about in the middle. Kelly expressed his theory in one basic
postulate and 11 supporting corollaries. The basic
CHAPTER 15: PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONAL postulate assumes that human behavior is shaped by
CONSTRUCTS the way people anticipate the future.
B. Supporting Corollaries
1. Overview of Kelly's Personal Construct Theory The 11 supporting corollaries can all be
Kelly's theory of personal constructs can be inferred from this basic postulate. (1) Although no two
seen as a metatheory, or a theory about theories. It events are exactly alike, we construe similar events as
holds that people anticipate events by the meanings if they were the same, and this is Kelly's construction
or interpretations that they place on those events. corollary. (2) The individuality corollary states that
Kelly called these interpretations personal constructs. because people have different experiences, they
His philosophical position, called constructive can interpret the same event in different ways. (3) The
alternativism, assumes that alternative interpretations organizational corollary assumes that people
are always available to people. organize their personal constructs in a hierarchical
system, with some constructs in a superordinate
2. Biography of George Kelly position and other subordinate to them. (4) The
George Kelly was born on a farm in Kansas in dichotomy corollary assumes that people construe
1905. During his school years and his early events in an either/or manner, e.g., good or bad. (5)
professional career, he dabbled in a wide variety of Kelly's choice corollary assumes that people tend to
jobs, but he eventually received a PhD in psychology choose the alternative in a dichotomized construct
from the University of Iowa. He began his academic that they see as extending the range of their future
career at Fort Hays State College in Kansas, then after choices. (6) The range corollary states that constructs
World War II, he took a position at Ohio State. He are limited to a particular range of convenience; that
remained there until 1965 when he joined the faculty is, they are not relevant to all situations. (7) Kelly's
at Brandeis. He died 2 years later at age 61. experience corollary suggests that people continually
revise their personal constructs as the result of their
3. Kelly's Philosophical Position experiences. (8) The modulation corollary assumes
Kelly believed that people construe events that only permeable constructs lead to change;
according to their personal constructs, rather than concrete constructs resist modification through
reality. experience. (9) The fragmentation corollary states
A. Person as Scientist that people's behavior can be inconsistent because
People generally attempt to solve everyday their construct systems can readily admit
problems in much the same fashion as do scientists; incompatible elements. (10) the commonality
that is, they observe, ask questions, formulate corollary suggests that our personal constructs tend
hypotheses, infer conclusions, and predict future to be similar to the construction systems of other
events. people to the extent that we share experiences with
B. Scientist as Person them. (11) The sociality corollary states that people
Because scientists are people, their are able to communicate with other people because
pronouncements should be regarded with the same they can construe those people's constructions. With
skepticism as any other data. Every scientific theory the sociality corollary, Kelly introduced the concept of
can be viewed from an alternate angle, and every role, which refers to a pattern of behavior that stems
competent scientist should be open to changing his from people's understanding of the constructs of
or her theory. others. Each of us has a core role and numerous
C. Constructive Alternativism peripheral roles. A core role gives us a sense of
Kelly believed that our interpretations of the identity whereas peripheral roles are less central to
world are subject to revision or replacement, an our self-concept.
assumption he called constructive alternativism. He
further stressed that, because people can construe
their world from different angles, observations that are
valid at one time may be false at a later time 5. Critique of Kelly
Kelly's theory probably is most applicable to
relatively normal, intelligent people. Unfortunately, it
pays scant attention to problems of motivation,
development, and cultural influences. On the six
criteria of a useful theory, it rates very high on
parsimony and internal consistency and about
average on its ability to generate research. However
it rates low on its ability to be falsified, to guide the
practitioner, and to organize knowledge.

6. Concept of Humanity
Kelly saw people as anticipating the future
and living their lives in accordance with those
anticipations. His concept of elaborative choice
suggests that people increase their range of future
choices by the present choices they freely make.
Thus, Kelly's theory rates very high in teleology and
high in choice and optimism. In addition, it receives
high ratings for conscious influences and for its
emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual. Finally,
personal construct theory is about average on social