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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1447-1455. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_146
Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed


Surya Hidayat, Tiswa Ramdani, Ibnu Fajar Alam, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto and Emil
Robert Kaburuan
Information Systems Management Department,
BINUS Graduate Program – Master of Information System Managements
Jakarta, Indonesia 11480

The use of the internet has become a very important need, and the development of
information technology continues to grow indefinitely. As an archipelagic country, the
connectivities of satellite infrastructure networks connect all corners of the country in
Indonesia, which cannot be reached through land networks. The existence of High
Throughput Satellite (HTS) technology that has been launched in Indonesia it is
expected to support government programs to be able to open access to the entire village.
It will be of great strategic value for economic acceleration and management of
development, as well as the internet and social media that can open up wider marketing
space for micro-entrepreneurs to develop their businesses in the region. This paper
presents that lately call the sky toll with High Throughput Satellite (HTS) technology
can be the best solution, especially in supporting government programs in accelerating
the internet into the village.
Key words: high throughput satellite, internet, connectivity, infrastructure.
Cite this Article Surya Hidayat, Tiswa Ramdani, Ibnu Fajar Alam, Sfenrianto
Sfenrianto and Emil Robert Kaburuan, the Role of High Throughput Satellite as Sky
Highway Infrastructure to Support the Acceleration of Internet Entry into Villages in
Indonesia, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3),
2019, pp. 1447-1455.

The development of information and communication technology that is stepping into high-tech
that continues to grow, which is predicted to provide many changes to people's lifestyles in 1447

The Role of High Throughput Satellite as Sky Highway Infrastructure to Support the Acceleration
of Internet Entry into Villages in Indonesia

implementing industry 4.0 is also predicted to further develop Internet of Things (IoT)
technology to a higher level that also enters the smart city concept. It will create new values
that will further develop the economy. like the internet and social media that can open a wider
marketing space for micro-entrepreneurs to develop their business in the region and also the
village budget reporting system that must now be done online. An increase in regional internet
data usage in Indonesia which continues to grow and requires a large capacity of traffic and
data rates.
As an archipelagic country, Indonesia, with its wide spread area, the need for internet can
reach remote villages because some of its inhabitants are in areas that are still not affected by
land network infrastructure via cable or fiber optics. Thus, some residents find it difficult to
access internet facilities, and disparities in the digital world so the need for using infrastructure
networks using satellites is very important for their use in remote areas. In developing countries,
basic communication using satellite needs to be provided for large populations that do not live
in cities [9]. It can help if this happens, and it will change the world [10].
The next generation satellite system uses throughput technology can also reduce costs per
Mbps, in meeting higher capacity Satellite High Throughput (HTS) in its coverage area [1].
Reporting from the official website of the Indonesian government through the ministry of
communication and informatics has had an integrated broadband village program that promises
the development of Internet access in several districts and opens opportunities for developers
to provide digital applications that are relevant to village potential. The government prioritizes
applications that have content related to agriculture, fishermen and inland. The application can
be based on a website, or a mobile device such as a smart phone and tablet. In addition to
Internet access and its digital applications, Integrated Broadband Village also promises the
availability of consumer devices that are in accordance with the characteristics of local residents
to empower village potential, and will continue to be developed in the coming years.
By launching HTS satellites, high-speed internet, this device has the advantage of providing
internet services to remote areas. HTS has a performance to channel information far better than
conventional satellites. HTS can accelerate the target of broadband connections in Indonesia to
remote areas so that it can accelerate the target of broadband connections in Indonesia to remote
areas which will certainly increase the opportunity for Indonesia to take advantage of the
benefits of digital economy with high-speed satellite internet use for schools, health centers,
villages, police stations, universities, which are not served by the internet in remote areas.

Satellite is an object that is placed and circulated in space and around the earth on its axis. Then
the signal is amplified, the frequency is changed and the signal is sent back through the
downlink frequency to the earth station area [3]. This is important and needed in networks in
wide area.
With the advancement of satellite communication technology in its development has led to
new technologies 'High Throughput Satellite' (HTS) systems. And there are already several
satellites (HTS) launched in recent years and also some will continue to orbit in the next few
years including in Indonesia (see figure 1) [6]. This satellite supports the diverse needs of users
and the use of connecting unconnected to provide safe and robust communication for industry,
SMEs and all end users.
HTS is different from ordinary satellite communications or conventional ones in some
ways, one of which is the use of higher capacity blocks / transponders around 100 MHz even
more by using gateway stations on earth that support multiple beams (average with 5 Gbps
capacity usage) throughput for all remote stations and a technique that is quite capable of 1448

Surya Hidayat, Tiswa Ramdani, Ibnu Fajar Alam, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto and Emil Robert

overcoming rain attenuation, especially in band frequency [5]. It also offers more spectrum set
on bandwidth (higher than 1.1 GHz) [5]. requirement); high per-station throughput for all
remote stations; and sophisticated techniques to overcome rain attenuation, Particulary for ka-
band systems [5]. It is offer more bandwidth-assigned spectrum (higher than 1.1 GHz) [5].

Figure 1. Major High Throughput Commercial Satellites Launches, 6

The Research methodology used in The Role Of High Throughput Satellites As Sky Highway
Infrastructure To Support The Acceleration Of Internet Entry Into Villages In Indonesia a tool
for the documentation process, and exploration of literature studies as a guide for obtaining a
process design covering several ways, descriptive qualitative method is used to interpret and
tell the data requested with what has happened, direct observations made to the location
(observation) and involved grounded theory in order to see first-hand the processes of work
design in satellite information systems that are related to the material needed in the preparation
of research such as studying documentation. Library search, namely research conducted by
exploring relevant libraries and related to the research topic under study.

4.1. The Indonesian Internet Connectivity
The rapid development of social media and e-commerce in Indonesia has also increased the use
of internet data and also spread out use of smartphones in recent years. The features of various
applications such as online shopping also make the need for communication and interaction
between buyers and sellers and sharing information easier. In addition, information technology
infrastructure is part of the production network, because some content is also operated through
cellular applications and websites and its geographical settings are also important for e-
commerce development [7]. 1449

The Role of High Throughput Satellite as Sky Highway Infrastructure to Support the Acceleration
of Internet Entry into Villages in Indonesia

Because the Internet continues to grow to become one of the needs, making it very important
to be able to ensure that infrastructure continues to function properly. The infrastructure is from
an internet connection and may experience physical disturbances or damage due to earthquakes,
hurricanes and natural disasters and other physical attacks [8]. To support government programs
in accelerating the internet to reach all corners of the village in Indonesia, of course, the
infrastructure network model is not only land-based, but satellite infrastructure networks are
now developing as technology advances with geographical networks originating from the
Internet backbone topology.

4.2. The Indonesian HTS Transponder Frequency Plan Analysis

Basically, Indonesia already has several communication satellites, each of which has been
regulated by its orbit slot and conventional satellites GSO (Geo Stationer Orbit) which are
above Indonesia using C-Band and Ku-Band frequency bands, both the Indonesian government
and private companies in Indonesia continues to procure HTS satellites, from the Indonesian
government is procuring Multifunctional satellites "Satria" (Greater Indonesia Satellite) which
are targeted for completion in 2020 and from the private sector to launch HTS technology
satellites in lieu of the Palapa D satellite named Nusantara 2 which is targeted to launch in May
2020, and what had already begun to be felt was PSN's HTS satellite, which was named satellite
Nusantara 1 launched on 22 February 2019.
Nusantara 1 satellite is one of the first broadband satellites in Indonesia equipped with High
Throughput Satellite (HTS) technology that can provide high speed internet services with a
much greater capacity, compared to conventional satellites in the country, from the PSN and
seconds sites. com. Nusantara 1 has a capacity of up to 15 Gbps or about 3 times the capacity
of conventional satellites total need for broadband satellite is currently 189 transponders.
However, only 57% of them, or 103 transponders, are capable of being served by national
operators. The remaining 86 transponders are served by foreign operators that have orbit slots
above the Indonesian territory or are close to Indonesia. The Nusantara1 satellite produced by
Space System Loral (SSL), a technology company from the United States, will be launched at
Cape Canaveral, the United States using Falcon-9 launch rockets from the Space-X company.
Nusantara Satu is also equipped with Next Generation Electric Propulsion technology that
makes satellites become cost effective and efficient because the weight of the satellite becomes
very light and of course makes investment costs more affordable. Around 25 million
Indonesians are targeted to get access to the internet by operating Nusantara1 Satellite. 1450

Surya Hidayat, Tiswa Ramdani, Ibnu Fajar Alam, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto and Emil Robert

Figure 2. Nusantara 1 Ku Band HTS Area Coverage [20]

The coverage of Nusantara1 Satellite covers all regions of Indonesia to Southeast Asia.
After sliding, this satellite will be placed in the orbit slot 146 degrees east longitude, just above
Papua. High Throughput Satellite (HTS) technology, dividing the coverage area into several
spot beams, with more efficient frequency use (frequency re-use), making bandwidth capacity
far greater than conventional satellites for the same spectrum allocation. With the operation of
Nusantara One, it is considered to be very beneficial for the people in various parts of the region
by gaining access to information technology. Nusantara 1 satellite will be used for the purposes
of the Government which will disseminate the internet to various villages in Indonesia. In
addition, the satellite is also used to strengthen PSN's retail services through my Ubiqu and
Sinyalku products. Currently around 3,000 villages have been connected to Ubiqu. Expected at
the end of 2019.
Ku-Band frequencies Analysis:
 Forward
Uplink: 13.750 to 14.800 GHz
Downlink: 12.250 to 12.678 GHz
 Return
Uplink: 14.070 to 14.430 GHz
Downlink: 10.970 to 12.700 GHz
18 transponders providing coverage over Indonesia via 8 spot beams (beams 1-8)
 Gateway 1 & 2 on the NW antenna
Gateway 1 in Jakarta supports all 8 beams (8 FWD& 2 RTN transponders)
Gateway 2 in Hong Kong supports beams 1-6 (6 FWD & 2 RTN transponders)
 Spot beams 2, 4, 6 & 7 on NW antenna
 Spot beams 1, 3, 5 & 8 on SW antenna
Ku-band Active Receive Equipment
 Two 1.5 m Single Offset Reflector (SOR) Antennas for Indonesia coverage
 8:8 NW LNAs for GW 1 & 2 and Beams 2, 4, 6 & 7
 5:4 SW LNAs for Beams 1, 3, 5 & 8
 Down converters:
FWD: 3:2 2.05 GHz, 3:2 1.3 GHz, 2:2 1.8 GHz, 2:2 2.025 GHz, 2:2 1.5 GHz
RTN: 3:2 3.30 GHz, 3:2 2.80 GHz, 2:2 1.70 GHz, 2:2 1.50 GHz
 60, 130, 140, 144 & 150 MHz Channel Filters
Ku-band Active Transmit Equipment
 FWD: 14:14 150-W Direct Radiation Cooled (DRC) LCTWTAs, 12 Dual and 2
Single EPC
 RTN: 4:4 45-W Single EPC Conduction Cooled LCTWTAs
 FWD: 4 x 1 channel, 4 x 2 channel & 1 x 3 channel OMUXs
 RTN: 3 x 1 channel, & 1 x 3 channel OMUXs

4.3. Internet Connection with Indonesian Satellite 1451

The Role of High Throughput Satellite as Sky Highway Infrastructure to Support the Acceleration
of Internet Entry into Villages in Indonesia

Currently HTS which operates on average has a transmission speed of 1Gbps, this is different
from conventional satellites or FSS which has a maximum speed of 155Mbps per transponder,
even today many FSS satellites operate using a speed of 75Mbps. From the bandwidth and
speed of HTS satellite transmission, the services provided by HTS satellites are different from
FSS satellites. Most FSS satellites or satellite satellites function as station relay television or
serve TV broadcasts and voice communications as international gateways. Whereas HTS has
several functions, among others, as providers of broadband access services, cellular
communication systems, VPN services for enterprises.

Figure 3. End to End Using Satellite HTS Service [14]

HTS as Backbone cellular communication is needed by outermost or remote areas in
Indonesia to be able to implement cellular communication systems, especially voice services
because in the outermost or remote areas BTS-BTS cannot connect to Core Network operators
because there is no network either fiber optic or terrestrial radio. HTS as a backbone is very
appropriate to support government programs consisting of thousands of BTS in rural areas,
especially in the outer regions of Indonesia, as has been launched from the PSN against the
HTS Nusantara 1 satellite, not only more efficient costs, the capacity provided by satellites
Nusantara Satu is also three times larger than satellites that already exist in Indonesia. If other
satellites have an average capacity of 5 gigabits per second, Nusantara 1 can reach 15 Gigabits
per second, Indonesia has also planned to re-launch an HTS satellite as a replacement for the
conventional Palapa D satellite located in 113 east stars in 2020 to increase the fulfillment of
transponder capacity needed by Indonesia. 1452

Surya Hidayat, Tiswa Ramdani, Ibnu Fajar Alam, Sfenrianto Sfenrianto and Emil Robert

Figure 4. Nusantara 2 HTS planning [16]

The satellite that will use the DFH-4E platform by China Great Wall Industry Corporation
with Expected Service Lifetime of approximately 15 Years internet via the satellite HTS
network infrastructure using a tool or Omni antenna that is useful for transmitting radio signals
that have a range that is quite far around 15 kilometers to other locations. By using the device
provided, so that we can connect the internet connection to the network in another place or
location that might not be affordable if you use a UTP cable. Since the UTP cable is only
capable of delivering signals between 90 and 100 meters, the network administrator will find it
helpful and more practical to connect between two or more networks between remote locations.
Besides that, there is also no need to see a transversely installed cable between the two locations
that you want to install the network, and work without using a cable, and enough just to use
radio wave signals as a signal delivery medium to other devices. HTS satellite usage is present
as a solution for internet connections at home, school, rural (village office), small and medium
enterprises (SMEs), companies, clinic, hospitals and others that have no terrestrial
communication networks such as cable, ADSL, fiber optic, radio or GSM. Can also be used for
various types of businesses, multi-sector businesses such as retail, hotel, banking, industrial,
plantation, distribution or multi-branch companies.

4.4. Hts as Sky Highway Infrastructure to Support the Internet Entry into
Villages in Indonesia
Until the end of 2019 it is expected that there will be 10,000 villages connected. Until now,
around three thousand and twenty-five thousand villages have been completed around 2020-
2021, as previously noted, High Throughput Satellite is different from conventional satellite or
Fixed Satellite Service where the data transmission speed can reach a maximum of 10GBps for
each transponder. With the operation of the first satellite technology in Indonesia, HTS
Technology has been said to have the advantage of supporting internet services, where the
connection will be faster than conventional Indonesian satellites. it can even support 15 Gbps
internet connections or 15 Gigabytes per second, using the KU-Band frequency with the way
Spot Beams works, and with the use of frequencies reused to the discrete signal reception area
on land and discrete transfer transmissions by supporting antenna structures. In this case it is
very beneficial for the geographical location with many islands that cannot be accessed via land
network so that the signal can go directly to the device which is placed in the desired places in
the desired area. HTS has recently been used by the government as a road infrastructure to
support internet access to villages in Indonesia, which at the time implies the use of antenna 1453

The Role of High Throughput Satellite as Sky Highway Infrastructure to Support the Acceleration
of Internet Entry into Villages in Indonesia

users using small openings. Nusantara One Satellite is used for the purposes of the Government
that will spread the internet to various villages in Indonesia. one example of the role of
infrastructure that has begun to operate is the use of HTS products used to improve the retail
services of PSN companies through the products they offer in about 3 thousand villages starting
to connect with devices connected to HTS, and can be used at internet service providers as a
profitable business provider using networks via satellite with HTS technology that can be used
by anyone who needs an internet connection, whether at home, school, rural (village office),
small and medium enterprises (SMEs), companies, clinics, hospitals and others.

Satellites that can provide different useful capabilities, including for broadcasters, as an
alternative connectivity service are very useful and resilient which cannot be reached through
landline connectivity. The potential to improve basic segment infrastructure, so that it can
accelerate the cost of the regions that are left behind or without the internet with the Future HTS
System Satellite communication industry. HTS technology has changed the satellite
communications industry in recent years to facilitate much higher capacity and reduce costs so
that it can be more affordable. This doens’t affect consumers and businesses about the capacity
and cost of using digital subscription lines. This HTS satellite program continues to be launched
in the next few years and the HTS system will significantly increase available and more
affordable available capacity to efficiently and effectively meet the demand for satellite data
Higher performance (bits / Hz) of HTS which can reduce the per-bit costs for operators,
highlight beams and useful wide beams can combine from broadcast and high throughput
connectivity, with Multiple frequency coverage and adjustments to high throughput areas, more
efficient, High availability allows smaller terminals, so it can support applications with
aeronautical and maritime mobility, and is also very beneficial for data service needs such as
cellular use in areas that are difficult to reach in areas not connected by cable or optical fiber
With the presence of HTS satellites in Indonesia, whose coverage extends throughout
Indonesia to Southeast Asia at present with KU-Band frequencies at uplink frequencies: 13,750
to 14,800 and 14,070 to 14,430 GHz, Downlink frequencies: 12,250 to 12,678 GHz and 10,970
to 12,700 GHz are expected to overcome gaps in internet access in various parts of Indonesia
with the increasing role of the internet for the economy, HTS satellites are one of the network
infrastructures which are now called sky highway infrastructure, but of course HTS satellites
still have weaknesses, for example by using Ku-band frequencies that are quite sensitive to rain
that can interfere with signals obtained from satellites so that this research can be a reference
material for future research.
This will be very strategic for the acceleration of the economy and management of
development, such as the internet and social media which can open up a wider marketing space
for micro-entrepreneurs to develop their business in the region, and not only in the regions but
also support the acceleration of Indonesia's technology industry 4.0, as well as smart city, all of
which are connected to the internet. Of course, High Throughput Satellite Technology can
provide Broadband Internet Access equalization solutions in Indonesia because it can cover all
islands in Indonesia. 1454

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