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SAT MATH REFRESHER

©Art Martirosyan, PhD

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1. NUMBERS

 

Even and Odd Numbers

   

Positive and Negative Numbers

 

even+even=even

even-odd=odd

positive+positive=positive

negative∙negative=positive

odd+odd=even

odd-even=odd

negative+negative=negative

positive∙negative=negative

even+odd=odd

even∙even=even

positive−negative=positive

positive÷positive=positive

even-even=even

odd∙odd=odd

negative−positive=negative

negative÷negative=positive

odd-odd=even

even∙odd=even

positive∙positive=positive

negative÷positive=negative

 

Divisibility Rules

   

Squares

 

Exponents

2

the last digit of the number is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8

       

3

the sum of the digits is divisible by 3

4

the last two digits are divisible by 4

5

the last digit is 0 or 5

 

6

the number is divisible by 2 and 3

 

9

the sum of the digits is divisible by 9

10

the last digit is 0

 
 

Prime Numbers

 

v

- speed

   

t

- time

- A prime number is divisible by 1 and itself only

d

- distance

- The first 10 prime numbers are:

 

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29

   

- 1 is not a prime number

   

Average

- 2 is the smallest and the only even prime number

Speed

%

Decimal

Fraction

 

%

Decimal

Fraction

 

Arithmetic

1%

0.01

1/100

40%

0.40

2/5

Sequence

   

1/50

 

0.50

1/2

 

2%

0.02

50%

 

5%

0.05

1/20

60%

0.60

3/5

 
             

Geometric

10%

0.10

1/10

75%

0.75

3/4

 

Sequence

20%

0.20

1/5

80%

0.80

4/5

25%

0.25

1/4

100%

1.00

1

Percent

 

Percent

   

Percent

Proportion

Change

2. ALGEBRA

Algebraic Properties
Algebraic Properties

FOIL

FOIL

Square of Sum/Difference

Square of Sum/Difference

Difference of Two Squares

Difference of Two Squares

2. ALGEBRA (continued)

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Properties of Equality

Transitive

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Cross Multiplication

Zero Product

Properties of Inequality

Transitive

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

Quadratic Equation

two real solutions

one real solution

no real solution

Quadratic Formula

Quadratic Formula

Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Quadratic Formula
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions

Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rational Expressions
Rules of Exponents Rational Exponent Radicals Absolute Value Direct Variation Inverse Variation
Rules of Exponents
Rational Exponent
Radicals
Absolute Value
Direct Variation
Inverse Variation

3. GEOMETRY

Convex Polygons

- The sum of the interior angles is

- The sum of the exterior angles is 360°

Similar Polygons

- Corresponding angles are equal

- Corresponding sides are proportional

Quadrilaterals

The sum of the interior angles is 360°

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3. GEOMETRY (continued)

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3

Inequalities in Triangles

Any side of a triangle is shorter than the sum of the two other sides

In a triangle, the longest side is opposite the largest angle

Angles of Triangles 2 1 3 4
Angles of Triangles
2
1
3
4
Pythagorean Theorem c b a
Pythagorean Theorem
c
b
a

Pythagorean

Triples

3, 4, 5 6, 8, 10 5, 12, 13

7, 24, 25

8, 15, 17 9, 12, 15

30°-60°-90° Triangles 30° 2 3 90° 60°
30°-60°-90° Triangles
30°
2
3
90°
60°
45°-45°-90° Triangles 45° 2 90° 45°
45°-45°-90° Triangles
45°
2
90°
45°
Equilateral Triangles 60° 60° 60°
Equilateral Triangles
60°
60°
60°
Parallelogram B C O A D
Parallelogram
B C
O
A
D

Rectangle

B C O A D
B C
O
A D
Square B C 45° 45° O A D = = 2
Square
B
C
45°
45°
O
A
D
= =
2

Area

Triangle

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Square

Trapezoid

Perimeter triangle rectangle square Circle Radius=r Diameter= Circumference= Area=
Perimeter
triangle
rectangle
square
Circle
Radius=r
Diameter=
Circumference=
Area=
Circle θ θ/2 Central Angle=
Circle
θ
θ/2
Central Angle=

Solids

Solid

Volume

Surface Area

Rectangular Solid

Cube

Right Cylinder

4. COORDINATE GEOMETRY

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The Coordinate Plane y Quadrant 2 Quadrant 1 ( , +) (+, +) x Quadrant
The Coordinate Plane
y
Quadrant 2
Quadrant 1
( , +)
(+, +)
x
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 4
(
,
)
(+,
)
Slope y 2 rise 1 run x 1 2
Slope
y
2 rise
1 run
x
1
2
Midpoint Formula Distance Formula Slope-Intercept Form Point-Slope Form
Midpoint
Formula
Distance
Formula
Slope-Intercept Form
Point-Slope Form

Quadratic Functions

y x - parabola opens upwards

y

x

- parabola opens upwards

- parabola opens downwards

Linear Functions y intercept intercept x x-intercept: y-intercept:
Linear Functions
y
intercept
intercept
x
x-intercept:
y-intercept:

Parallel lines

Parallel lines have the same slope

Perpendicular Lines

The product of the slopes of

perpendicular lines is -1

Vertical Shift

Horizontal Shift

5. PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event

Probability of an Event

Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event
Probability of an Event
Odds
Odds
Odds

Odds

Odds
Odds
Odds
Odds
Odds

Independent Events

Dependent Events

Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability

Geometric Probability

Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability
Geometric Probability

Fundamental Counting Principle

If one event can occur in M ways and another event can occur in N ways, then the total number of ways both events can occur is MN.

Mean The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values

Mean

Mean The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in
The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in
The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in

The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in the set.

Mean The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in
Mean The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in
Mean The mean is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values in
Factorial Permutations Combinations
Factorial
Permutations
Combinations

Median

The median is the middle value in an ordered set of numbers.

Mode

The mode is the value that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers.